NEET Foundation Physics Chapter 4 Why Do We Fall Ill Short Answer Questions

Chapter 4 Why Do We Fall Ill Short Answer Type Question And Answers

Question 1. What are the different means by which infectious diseases are spread?
Answer.

The different means by which infectious diseases spread are as follows.

  • Through air: They are also called airborne diseases. The air carries bacteria, virus and the diseases that can be caused are common cold, influenza, tuberculosis, etc.
  • Through food and water: When one eats drinks contaminated food/water, that contains bacteria, virus, worm, etc., then it can cause diseases like cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, etc.
  • Through contact: Many diseases spread through contact of infected person with the healthy person.
    Example: fungal infections, skin diseases, scabies, etc.
  • By sexual contact: Many diseases can be transmitted, for example, syphilis, AIDS.
  • By body fluids: Fluids like blood, semen, mother’s milk when infected can also cause diseases. Example: AIDS.
  • Vectors: The organism that spreads a disease by carrying pathogens from one place to another is called vector. Example, mosquitoes are vectors that carry pathogens like protozoa.

Why Do We Fall Ill

Question 2. What is extrinsic factor in disease and also discuss the various factors?
Answer.

Extrinsic factor in disease:

These are the disease causing external agents, which enter in our body from outside. The various external factors involved are as follows.

  • Insufficient diet or unbalanced diet: It makes a person unhealthy and prone to nutritional deficiency diseases.
  • Various pathogenic agents like bacteria, fungi, virus and worms, etc.
  • Environmental pollutants like oxides of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen, heavy metals like mercury, lead and arsenic, pesticides may also affect our health.
  • Tobacco, alcohol and narcotic drugs may also contribute to ailments.

Question 3. What precautions can you take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases?
Answer.

The precautions that one takes in school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases are as follows.

  • By using handkerchief while coughing sneezing.
  • Washing hands before eating breakfast or lunch.
  • Staying at home if anyone suffers from infectious diseases.
  • Getting vaccinated before the infection affects.
  • Keeping the school surroundings clean, checking for stagnant water.

Question 4. How are the congenital and acquired diseases are different from each other?
Answer.

Difference between congenital and acquired diseases

NEET Foundation Biology Why Do We Fall Ill Short Answer Question 4

Question 5. What are waterborne diseases?
Answer.

Waterborne diseases:

Diseases can also spread through contaminated water. Cholera and typhoid are the prominent instances of waterborne diseases. This occurs when the excreta from someone suffering from an infectious disease, gets mixed with the drinking water used by people living nearby. The cholera causing microbes enter new hosts through water medium.

Question 6. Discuss how vectors transmit diseases.
Answer.

Vectors transmit diseases:

Most of the diseases are transmitted by other animals. These agents carry the infecting agents from a sick person to another potential healthy host. These agents act as mediators in spreading infection and hence, they are called vectors. Vectors are also known as carrier of a disease.

The most common vectors we all know are mosquitoes. In many species of mosquitoes, the female anopheles needs highly nutritious food in the form of blood to lay mature eggs. Mosquitoes feed on many warm-blooded animals including humans transmitting diseases from person to person.

Question 7. Discuss the aims of ‘Pulse Polio Immunization Programme’.
Answer.

The aims of ‘Pulse Polio Immunization Programme’

  • To immunize all the children below 5 years of age.
  • To immunize those children who are not immunized earlier or partially immunized.
  • To replace the disease causing wild virus by harmless vaccine virus in the environment.

Question 8. What are the symptoms and prevention of typhoid?
Answer.

Symptoms and prevention of typhoid:

Symptoms of the typhoid fever include continuous fever, headache with delirium (disorder of the mind), slow pulse, distended abdomen, watery stool and appearance of rashes on the body. Headache and fever reaches to its peak in the afternoon. The temperature rises each day in the first week and declines during the third or fourth day.

Prevention:

  • Proper hygiene and sanitation.
  • Disposal of faecal matter should not be avoided.
  • TAB vaccination should be given as it provides immunity up to 3 years.

Question 9. What are the symptoms of malaria?
Answer.

Symptoms of malaria:

Symptoms include extreme cold, shivering, nausea, vomiting, headache, high fever, tachycardia, high respiration, muscular pain, and at the end extreme sweating occurs and body temperature comes to normal. In few cases, enlargement of spleen and liver is reported.

Question 10. What are the causative agent, control and prevention of AIDS?
Answer.

The causative agent, control and prevention of AIDS:

The causative agent is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). No cure yet; a combination of drugs slows down the progress of the disease. Screening of blood donors, use of disposal needles and syringes, not sharing shaving blades and razors, safe sex practices.

Question 11. List any three reasons why you would think that you are sick and ought to see a doctor. If only one of these symptoms were present, would you still go to the doctor. Why or why not?
Answer:

The three reasons why one would think that he is sick are (1) headache, (2) cold and cough, (3) dysentery. This indicates that there may be a disease but it does not indicate what the disease is. So, one would still visit the doctor for treatment to know the cause of above symptom. Even in case of single symptom one needs to visit the doctor to get proper treatment.

Question 12. Discuss how acute disease are different from chronic disease.
Answer:

Diseases such as common cold whose symptoms are rapidly visible is termed as acute disease. Chronic disease such as tuberculosis that are long-term and whose symptoms last for months or years are termed as chronic disease.

Question 13. Discuss the differences between infectious and non-infectious diseases.
Answer:

Differences between infectious and non-infectious diseases:

NEET Foundation Biology Why Do We Fall Ill Difference between infectious and non-infectious diseases

Question 14. Discuss the comparison of symptoms and signs of a disease.
Answer:

The comparison of symptoms and signs of a disease:

NEET Foundation Biology Why Do We Fall Ill Comparision of symptoms and signs

Question 15. What are congenital or inborn disease?
Answer:

Congenital or inborn disease:

Inborn diseases are present since birth. Acquired diseases are developed after birth. The main cause is due to genetic disorders. Hence, it is easily passed from one generation to the other.

Question 16. What is immunization?
Answer:

Immunization:

When the body attains immunity against any disease, due to vaccination. This process is called immunization.

Question 17. What are the various preventative measures adopted by your family when you fall sick? 
Answer:

Basically, there are two ways to treat an infectious disease. One would be to reduce the effect of the disease and the other to kill the causative agent.

Question 18. What is vaccination?
Answer:

Vaccination:

Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material to stimulate an individual’s immune system to generate adaptive immune response against the pathogen.

Question 19. What are the immunization programs available at the nearest health centre in your locality? Which of these diseases are the major health problem in your area?
Answer:

The immunization programmes available at the nearest health care centres axe:

  • Child immunization programme starts from 0 to 12 years.
  • Polio eradication programme
  • H1 N1 screening programme

Question 20. A doctor/nurse/health worker is exposed to more people than others in the community. Find out how she/he avoids getting sick herself/himself.
Answer:

A doctor/nurse/health worker when exposed to sick people they keep their nose and mouth covered, take care of hygiene, wash hands with soap before drinking water or eating food. They use mask, gloves, etc to avoid the direct contact with the person suffering from infectious diseases.

Question 21. Why are normally advised to take bland and nourishing when we are sick?
Answer:

We are advised to take bland and nourishing food when we are sick because our body needs energy to release cells to overcome the infection, the wear and tear of body organ. The nourishing food provides nutrients to our body that will further provide energy and make new cells. No spices in the food makes its digestion process faster, does not release acids in the body that can interfere in the treatment and cure.

Question 22. Which precaution can you take in your school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases?
Answer:

The precautions that one can take care in school to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases are as follows.

  • By using handkerchief while coughing and sneezing.
  • Washing hands before eating lunch or breakfast.
  • Staying at home if anyone suffers from infectious diseases.
  • Getting vaccinated before the infection affects.
  • Keeping the school surroundings clean, checking for stagnant water.

Question 23. What are infectious diseases?
Answer:

Infectious Diseases:

Infectious diseases are the diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi.

Question 24. Why is it important to consider different kinds of infectious agents? 
Answer:

The answer lies within the mode of treatment to be chosen for the disease.

Question 25. How do infectious diseases spread?
Answer:

Most of the microbes are transmitted from an affected person to an immunized person in a variety of ways. They can be ‘communicated’ from one person to other and so are called communicable diseases.

Question 26. Name the sexually transmitted diseases.
Answer:

Sexually transmitted diseases:

Syphilis, gonorrhoea and AIDS are some examples of sexually-transmitted diseases.

Question 27. Name the waterborne disease.
Answer:

Waterborne disease:

Cholera and typhoid are prominent instances of waterborne diseases.

Question 28. What are vectors?
Answer:

Vectors:

Vectors are also known as carrier of a disease. These agents act as mediators in spreading infection and hence, they are called vectors.

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