WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the latitudinal and longitudinal extent and topographic characteristics of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the Murray-Darling basin:

The latitudinal and longitudinal location of the Murray-Darling basin are as follows-

1. Latitudinal extent: The Murray-Darling basin extends from 24°S to 39° latitude.

2. Longitudinal extent: It extends from almost 138°E to 149°E longitude.

The Murray-Darling basin covers almost 20 per-cent of the total area of Australia. It is situated in the southeastern part of Australia.

This basin is bounded by the Great Dividing Range in the north, east and southeast, the Grey Range in the west and the Gulf of St. Vincent and the Encounter Bay in the southwest.

Topographic characteristics of the Murray- Darling basin:

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This basin is a low plainland. Over a long period Murray-Darling deposited sediments and formed this plainland. The average elevation of the basin varies from 100-200 metres.

The basin gradually rises to the east and the west from the middle. The basin is surrounded on three sides by the Eastern Highlands and the Central Lowlands and on one side by the sea.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Location of the Murray Darling basin

Question 2. Give an account of the drainage of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Drainage Of The Murray-Darling Basin:-

The Murray is the longest river (2589 km) in Australia and the Darling (1163 km) is its tributary. The region through which these two rivers flow is called the Murray-Darling basin.

The Murray originates from the Australian Alps while the Darling originates from the New England Range. These two rivers converge near the city of Wentworth and flow southwest into Encounter Bay.

The Murray is a snow-fed river and hence carries large volumes of water throughout the year. The Murrumbidgee is also an important tributary of the Murray.

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The Lachlan, an intermittent river, part of the Murrumbidgee catchment also flows through this basin. Some notable tributaries of the Darling are Paroo, Warrego and Barron. The Murray-Darling Basin is one of the largest basins in the world.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Draingage of the Murray Darling basin

Question 3. Describe the climate and natural vegetation of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

The climate of the Murray-Darling Basin:

Most of the regions in the Murray- Darling basin experience the temperate type of climate. However, the coastal areas in the south experience a Mediterranean type of climate.

The average summer temperature is around 25°C and the average winter temperature is around 20°C. Since the basin is located in the rainshadow region of the Great Dividing Range, it receives rainfall of around 50 to cm-75 cm annually.

The natural vegetation of the Murray-Darling Basin:

Extensive grasslands have grown here due to the temperate climate and low rainfall. These grasslands are known as the Downs. Deciduous trees like oak, poplar, birch, etc. are seen in a few places.

Mediterranean vegetation can be seen in the Adelaide area. Coniferous forests are also common in the higher regions of the Great Dividing Range.

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Question 4. Discuss the agriculture and cattle rearing in the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Agriculture of the Murray-Darling Basin:

The Murray-Darling basin is the richest agricultural region in Australia. This region supplies food crops to the entire continent. The notable crops of this region are wheat, barley, maize, oat, rye, etc.

Modern machinery are used in agricultural practice. Fruits like apples, grapes, peaches, lemons, oranges, pears, etc., are grown in the Mediterranean region in the south.

Cattle rearing in the Murray-Darling Basin:

The Downs grassland is well known for cattle rearing due to the growth of tall grasses. Good breeds of sheep like Merino, Lincoln, Marsh, etc. is reared here. Merino breed is known for its excellent wool quality.

Cattle rearing is prevalent in Queensland in the north and New South Wales in the southeast. The cattle-rearing farms are very large in area and the farmers are known as Jackaos. Meat and dairy products in huge quantities are procured from cattle.

This region also produces large quantities of wool. Australia occupies the first position in wool production and fifth position in beef production in the world.

Australia’s economic development and foreign exchange earnings are highly dependent on its cattle rearing and wool export.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Agriculture and cattle rearing of the Murray Darling basin

Question 5. Discuss the mineral resources and industries of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Mineral resources of the Murray-Darling Basin:

The Murray-Darling basin, being a plainland, is not rich in mineral resources. However, certain mineral resources like silver, zinc, lead, gold, copper, tin, etc. are obtained from the border regions of the basin.

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The city of Broken Hill is famous for silver mining and is called the ‘Silver City’. The town of Cobber is famous for copper mining. Coal in small quantities is found in Adelaide. Apart from this, coal is also found in some regions of the Blue Mountains.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Mineral resources of the Murray Darling basin

Industries of the Murray-Darling Basin:

The Murray-Darling basin lacks in mineral deposits and thus the metal-based industries have not flourished. The industries that have developed in this region based on agricultural and animal resources include-food processing, meat, dairy, wool, textile, flour, bakery, etc.

Besides this, engineering and chemical industries have been set up in this region. Adelaide is the main trade and industrial centre of the Murray-Darling basin. The other major centres include Broken Hill and Mildura.

Question 6. Give an account of the population and the cities of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Population And The Cities Of The Murray-Darling Basin:-

The Murray-Darling. the basin has a moderate population density in comparison to the overall low population density of Australia. The basin is rich in mineral resources like silver, zinc, lead, gold, tin, etc.

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Many industries namely engineering, food processing, chemical, wool, fruit-based liquor, dairy, etc. have developed in this river basin. All these results in the moderate population density of the region.

The major cities of this region are-

1. Canberra: Canberra is the capital territory of Australia. It is also an important administrative and commercial hub of Australia.

2. Mildura: It is an important industrial hub.

3. Adelaide: It is an important trade and industrial hub of the basin area.

4. Broken Hill: It is an important centre for silver mining and is thus known as the ‘Silver City. Other notable cities of the region are Cobber, Swan Hill, Griffith, Berry, etc.

The development of industries and agriculture have led to maximum population growth in this region.

Question 7. Give reasons for the development of sheep rearing in Australia. Or, Which factors contribute to the development of animal rearing in Australia?
Answer:

Reasons For The Development Of Sheep Rearing In Australia:-

Australia ranks first in wool production. Breeds such as Merino, Lincoln, Marsh, etc. are reared here. Merino breed yields the best quality wool.

Australia’s economic development and foreign exchange earnings are highly dependent on its sheep rearing and export of wool. The factors leading to such well-developed sheep rearing and livestock herding in Australia are as follows-

1. Extensive grasslands:

The Downs cover the southeastern part of the country and is highly suitable for cattle rearing.

2. Large area of land:

Not much land is used for agricultural purposes due to low population density. Hence, the grasslands are utilised for cattle rearing.

3. Adequate water supply:

Rivers and numerous artesian wells provide an adequate supply of water for the cattle.

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4. Substantial rainfall:

The region receives substantial rainfall which facilitates the growth of grasses suitable for cattle rearing.

5. High-quality fleece:

Merino sheep are mainly reared in order to get the best quality fleece from them. Arrangements of high-quality animal food and veterinary facilities are done for the cattle.

6. High demand:

Wool made from the fleece obtained from the sheep of this region has high demand in the international market.

7. Other animal products:

Apart from wool the industries of dairy, meat processing and canning are quite developed in these regions. These factors also help the sheep-rearing industry to develop.

Question 8. Most agricultural practices in Oceania are carried out only in the Murray- Darling river basin. Why do you think agriculture has developed the most in this region?
Answer: The continent of Oceania is made up of about 10,000 islands. Agriculture has developed the most in the Murray-Darling basin due to the following reasons-

1. Topography:

The Murray-Darling basin is a fertile plainland. Thus it is easier to carry out agricultural practices using modern machinery over here.

2. Fertile soil:

Since this basin is made up of the silt deposited by the rivers Murray, and Darling and their numerous tributaries, the soil is very fertile here.

3. Irrigation:

About 85% of the total irrigated land of Australia lies in the Murray-Darling basin. Hence, in spite of scanty rainfall, agriculture has developed well in this region due to the existence of reservoirs, artesian wells, canals and wells.

4. Developed farming processes:

Modern technology is used for farming in the Murray-Darling basin and hence agricultural productivity is very high. Besides this, the temperate climate, the use of high-quality seeds and fertilisers have made this basin one of the most agriculturally developed regions of the world.

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Briefly write about the Downs.
Answer:

Downs:-

The temperate grassland in Australia is called the Downs. It is the most famous cattle-rearing region of the southern hemisphere.

Tall grasses grow in the southeastern region of Australia because it receives sufficient rainfall for the grasses to grow. In a few places oak, poplar, birch, etc. deciduous trees are seen.

Hence, livestock is reared in large numbers in Queensland, parts of Victoria, New South Wales, etc. These regions are famous for the rearing of Merino sheep which yield high-quality fur.

Question 2. Describe the irrigation system of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Irrigation System Of The Murray-Darling Basin:-

The Murray-Darling basin is a favourable region for agriculture. However, due to insufficient rainfall for agriculture, the region needs irrigation. Most of Australia’s irrigated land is in the Murray-Darling basin.

In this region, irrigation can be done in the two following ways-

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  1. Irrigation through the canal, and
  2. Irrigation through an artesian well. The Murray-Darling River carries water throughout the year, which is used for irrigation purposes. Water for irrigation is obtained from the reservoir of the Hume Dam on the Murray and the reservoir of the Burrinjuck Dam on the Murrumbidgee.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Thehume dam

Question 3. Why is the Murray-Darling Basin rich in agriculture?
Answer:

Murray-Darling Basin Rich In Agriculture:-

The factors that resulted in the development of agriculture in the Murray- Darling basin are as follows-

  1. Presence of extensive plains;
  2. A fertile and deep layers of silt deposited by the rivers;
  3. The temperate climate and adequate rainfall;
  4. Well-developed irrigation system;
  5. A sufficient supply of water;
  6. Use of modern machinery and technologylogically developed methods of agriculture;
  7. Use of large amounts of organic fertilisers and pesticides;
  8. Well-developed crop exporting facilities;
  9. Less population pressure, etc.

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Why is Broken Hill called the ‘Silver City’?
Answer:

Broken Hill called the ‘Silver City’:-

The Murray-Darling basin is not rich in. mineral resources. However, Broken Hill in the west margin of the basin is famous for silver mining. Hence, the city is called the ‘Silver City’.

Broken Hill was listed on the National Heritage List in 2015 and remains Australia’s longest-running mining town.

Question 2. Why is Adelaide an important city?
Answer:

Adelaide Is An Important City:-

Adelaide is the capital of the state of South Australia. It is situated along the Gulf of St. Vincent. Adelaide is an important port, trade and industrial centre of South Australia.

The city was established in the year 1836. It is the fifth largest city in Australia and also the fifth most populous city of Australia.

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Question 3. What is Riverina?
Answer:

Riverina:-

The agricultural land in New South Wales that lies between the rivers Murray and the Murrumbidgee is called the Riverina. This region is famous for wheat cultivation. Sheep rearing is also done extensively in the Riverina region.

Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The Murray-Darling Basin is situated in-

  1. South-eastern Australia
  2. North-western Australia
  3. South-western Australia
  4. North-eastern Australia

Answer: 1. South-eastern Australia

Question 2. The main tributary of the Murray River is-

  1. Paroo
  2. Barwon
  3. Darling
  4. Namoi

Answer: 3. Darling

Question 3. A major part of the land area in Murray- the Darling Basin is mainly used for-

  1. Grazing
  2. Mining
  3. Fishery
  4. Forestry

Answer: 1. Grazing

Question 4. Murray-Darling Basin is basically a-

  1. Mountain Range
  2. Plateau Region
  3. Coastal Area
  4. Low Plainland

Answer: 4. Low Plainland

Question 5. The combined flow of Murray and Darling empties into the-

  1. Arafura Sea
  2. Gulf of St. Vincent
  3. Encounter Bay
  4. Spencer gulf

Answer: 3. Encounter Bay

Question 6. The length of the Darling River is (in km)-

  1. 1143
  2. 1153
  3. 1163
  4. 1173

Answer: 3. 1163

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Question 7. The climate of the Murray-Darling Basin is-

  1. Tropical
  2. Equatorial
  3. Temperate
  4. Tundra

Answer: 3. Temperate

Question 8. The primary economic activity of the Murray-Darling Basin is-

  1. Mining
  2. Agriculture
  3. Engineering
  4. Tourism

Answer: 2. Agriculture

Question 9. Merino, Lincoln and Marsh of Murray- Darling basin are examples of –

  1. Tree species
  2. Obreeds of cow
  3. Mining centres
  4. Breeds of sheep

Answer: 4. Breeds of sheep

Question 10. Cobber is primarily known for-

  1. Forests
  2. Copper
  3. Cotton
  4. Gold

Answer: 2. Copper

Question 11. The waterfall on the Murray River is called the-

  1. Murray falls
  2. Gibraltar falls
  3. Jim Jim falls
  4. Apsley falls

Answer: 1. Murray falls

Question 12. The reservoir on the Murray River is-

  1. Balloki
  2. Maithon
  3. Burrinjuck
  4. Hume

Answer: 4. Hume

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. The Murray-Darling occupies about __________ per cent of the total area of Australia.
Answer: 20

Question 2. The Darling River originates from the __________ mountain range.
Answer: New England

Question 3. __________ in the Murray-Darling River basin experiences a Mediterranean climate.
Answer: Adelaide

Question 4. __________ is a rolling grassland found in the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer: Downs

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Question 5. __________ is known as the ‘Silver City’.
Answer: Broken Hill

Question 6. The city of Adelaide in Australia is situated on the banks of the river __________.
Answer: Torrens

Question 7. Australia’s __________ dam has been built on the Murrumbidgee River.
Answer: Burrinjuck

Question 8. The capital of South Australia is __________.
Answer: Adelaide

Question 9. The capital of Victoria is __________.
Answer: Melbourne

Write True Or False

Question 1. The Murray River originates in the Great Dividing Range.
Answer: True

Question 2. The Burrinjuck Dam has been built on the Murray River.
Answer: False

Question 3. The Murray-Darling basin is the most fertile region of Australia.
Answer: True

Question 4. The Murray-Darling Basin drains major parts of Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland.
Answer: True

Question 5. Merino breed of sheep provides the worst quality wool in the world.
Answer: False

Question 6. The Murray-Darling Basin is Australia’s most important agricultural region.
Answer: True

Question 7. The food products industry has not well flourished in the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer: False

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Match The Columns

1.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Match the columns

Answer: 1. D, 2. E, 3. B, 4. C, 5. A

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Name the mountain range lying to the north and east of the Murray-Darling Basin.
Answer: Great Dividing Range.

Question 2. What is the average elevation of the Murray-Darling basin?
Answer: 100 metre-200 metres.

Question 3. Where does the Murray River originate?
Answer: The Australian Alps.

Question 4. Find out the natural slope of the Murray-Darling basin. (Clue- Follow the river course.)
Answer: The basin slopes from the northeast to the southwest.

Question 5. Where does the Darling River originate?
Answer: The New England mountain range.

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Question 6. Where do the Murray-Darling River flow into?
Answer: Encounter Bay.

Question 7. Near which city do the Murray and the Darling Rivers converge?
Answer: Wentworth City.

Question 8. What is the vast Australian grassland in the Murray-Darling basin called?
Answer: Downs.

Question 9. In which city of the Murray-Darling basin is Mediterranean-type vegetation found?
Answer: Adelaide.

Question 10. What are the farmers of the cattle rearing farms in Australia called?
Answer: Jackaos.

Question 11. Name some food crops of the Murray- Darling basin.
Answer: Wheat, maize, barley, oat, rye, etc.

Question 12. Which is the best wool-producing breed of sheep?
Answer: Merino.

Question 13. Follow the course of the river Murray and arrange these accordingly. Wentworth City, Australian Alps, Encounter Bay, Murrumbidgee.
Answer: Australian Alps – Murrumbidgee – Went- worth city Encounter Bay.

Question 14. Name the bay situated in the southern part of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer: The Great Australian Bight.

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Conceptual Questions And Answers

Who am I?

Question 1. I am a unique rock structure made up of red sandstone in the Western Plateau in Australia. I exhibit different colours during different times of the day.’-Who am I?
Answer: Ayers Rock

Question 2. ‘I am a type of well, discovered in France and situated in the folded rock layers.’- Who am I?
Answer: Artesian well

Question 3. ‘I am the highest dormant volcano in the world and I am located in Hawaii island.’- Who am I?
Answer: Mauna Loa

Question 4. ‘I am the deepest trench in the Pacific Ocean. I exceed Mt. Everest in terms of height (11034 metres).’-Who am I?
Answer: Mariana Trench

Scrambled Words

1. LYUSCAPTEU
2. NESMEIALA
3. NECROMISIA
4. TEANARSI LLWE
5. ENOKBRLLHI
6. EERRMUBIUMDG
7. RMIA ANARETCNH

Answers:

1. EUCALYPTUS
2. MELANESIA
3. MICRONESIA
4. ARTESIAN WELL
5. BROKEN HILL
6. MURRUMBIDGEE
7. MARIANA TRENCH

Fill Up The Blanks In The Knowledge Hive

Question 1. Fill in the knowledge hive with information on the Great Barrier Reef.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Great Barrier Reef

 

Answers:

1. It lies almost parallel to the east coast of Australia.
2. It is the longest coral reef in the world (almost 2000 km in length).
3. Corals are deposited at a distance of 80km-205km from Australia’s coast.
4. It creates an obstruction for ships.
5. It is a major attraction of the east Australian coast.

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Question 2. Fill in the blanks with the identifying characteristics of the given regions:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Characteristics

Answers:

1. Origin of the Darling River.
2. An important tributary of the Murray River.
3. Temperate grasslands of Australia, famous for agriculture and cattle rearing.
4. Capital and industrial city of South Australia.

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Answer With Reference To The Illustration

Question 1. As Oceania is an island continent so it is bordered by seas or oceans on all sides. See the map and write down in which direction which sea or ocean is located.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Oceania

 

Answers:

1. Pacific Ocean
2. Pacific Ocean
3. Southern Ocean
4. Indian Ocean

Question 2. Find out the natural slope of the Murray- Darling basin.

Clue: Follow the river course.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Location of the Murray Darling basin.

Answers:

1. Great Dividing Range,
2. Great Dividing Range
3. Gulf of St. Vincent and Encounter Bay
4. Grey Range

Question 3. Fill up the blanks in the concept map:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Went Worth City

Answers:

1. New England Range
2. Australian Alps
3. Encounter Bay

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Question 4. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Fill the blanks

Answers:

1. Equatorial
2. Oak
3. Tropical Arid and Semi-Arid
4. Birch

Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Solomon, Guam, New Guinea, Fiji
Answer: Guam (not a part of the Melanesia region)

Question 2. Bay of Bengal, Encounter Bay, Kimbe Bay, Carpentaria Bay
Answer: Bay of Bengal (not a bay in Oceania)

Question 3. Jarrah, Palm, Maple, Elm
Answer: Jarrah (a type of tree that grows in the Mediterranean mean climate)

Correct The Following

Question 1. In 1664, Abel Tasman landed on the east coast of Australia.
Answer: In 1770, James Cook

Question 2. The highest mountain peak in Oceania is Mount Kosciuszko.
Answer: Mount Wilhelm

Question 3. The largest coral reef in the world is Caroline.
Answer: Great Barrier Reef

Question 4. Eyre is the largest lake in New Zealand.
Answer: Taupo

Question 5. Copper is readily found in Broken Hill.
Answer: Cobber

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Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Crossword

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Crossword

Clues

Down:

1. The Rock is a famous red sandstone structure.
2. Barrier reef is the world’s longest coral reef.
4. Isolated island state to the south of Australia.

Across:

3. This tree originated in Oceania.
5. Longest river in Australia.

Answers:

Down: 1. AYERS, 2. GREAT, 3. TASMANIA

Across: 3. EUCALYPTUS, 5. MURRAY

Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1. Discuss the geographical importance of Oceania.
Answer: The geographical importance of Oceania is as follows-

1. Locational advantage:

Oceania is flanked by Asia on one side and the Americas on the other. So, its location is of great international importance because trade can be conducted easily among these continents.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Geographical location of oceania

2. Well-developed communication system:

Many ships anchor at the ports in Oceania during their journey from the south and south-eastern regions of Asia to America. Also, many flights travelling across the Pacific Ocean have transit halts in the airports of Oceania.

3. Ideal for military outposts:

Many powerful nations have developed naval outposts in many of the islands of the continent.

For example, Hawaii is the naval outpost of the USA and Fiji is the naval outpost of Great Britain.

4. Famous centre of tourism:

Oceania consists of numerous beautiful islands that attract tourists from every part of the world.

For example, Waikiki Beach in Honolulu (Hawaii) is a very famous tourist destination. World’s largest coral reef, the Great Barrier Reef, is also situated in Oceania.

5. Rich in mineral resources:

Oceania is rich in gold, silver, lead, copper, tin, coal, etc. The city of Broken Hill is famous for silver mining and Cobber is famous for copper.

6. Rich in flora and fauna:

The types of natural vegetation and animals found in Oceania are quite diverse. It is the birthplace of Eucalyptus. Jarah, Karri, Palm, Ebony, Birch, Oak, Poplar, Blue gum, etc., are also found in Oceania.

Animals like a kangaroo, wallaby, platypus, koala and birds like emu and kiwi are found only on this continent.

7. Climatic characteristics:

The climate of Oceania varies according to region.

  1. The regions of Micronesia and Polynesia experience tropical climates, which is favourable for agriculture.
  2. Forest areas have developed in Melanesia due to its equatorial climate.
  3. The temperate climate in southern parts of Polynesia and in Australasia have led to the development of cattle rearing in these regions.
  4. The southern regions of New Zealand experience a cool temperate climate, which is favourable for agriculture and cattle rearing.

Question 2. Write about the important urban centres of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer: The important urban centres of the Murray Darling Basin are as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Important Urban Centers of the Murray darling basin

 

Question 3. Give an account of the lakes in Oceania.
Answer: The lakes in Oceania are described as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin lakes in Oceania

 

Question 4. Discuss the transportation system of the Murray-Darling Basin.
Answer:

Transportation System Of The Murray-Darling Basin:-

The Murray-Darling Basin is developed in terms of roadways and railways. The Trans- Australian Railway serves a major source of connectivity between the eastern and western states of Australia.

Besides these, the rivers in the Murray-Darling Basin are harnessed as inland waterways.

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Formative

Participation

This segment will indicate how much the students have actively participated and taken initiative during the class.

Question 1. Study the map properly with your friends and ask each other to find out about different cities and countries of Oceania.
Answer:

Countries of Oceania:

Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall, Nauru, Soloman, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, etc.

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Cities of Oceania:

Melbourne, Perth, Adelaide, Hamilton, Wellington, Sydney, Canberra, Christchurch, Napier, Auckland, Port Moresby, etc.

Question 2. Find out the islands of the four regions of Oceania and label them on the map with a pencil.
Answer:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Oceania Regional Division

Question 3. Collect pictures and information on the Great Barrier Reef.
Answer:

Information On The Great Barrier Reef:-

The Great Barrier Reef is a major attraction of the northeast Australian Coast. Corals are deposited at a distance of 80km-205 km from the coast.

The deposition of dead bodies of corals forms a wall beneath the sea which creates an obstruction for the ships and thus the name ‘Great Barrier Reef.’ The reef extends parallel to the coast for about 2000km.

Importance:

A wide diversity of organisms can be found in the Great Barrier Reef region. This Reef region protects the eastern coast of Australia from the effects of cyclones and tsunamis.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Great Barrier Reef.

Interpretation And Application

This segment will test whether the students have understood the topics, or whether they are just mugging up.

Question 1. Do you find some similarities between the climate and vegetation maps of Oceania? Write down the similarities.
Answer:

The similarities between the climate and vegetation maps of Oceania are-

  1. Evergreen forests grow in the Equatorial climatic region of Oceania due to high temperatures and heavy rainfall. This region includes the islands of Melanesia, Polynesia, Micronesia, etc.
  2. Deciduous trees grow in the Tropical monsoon region in the north and north-east part of Australia.
  3. A temperate type of climate influences the growth of temperate grasslands. This region includes the Murray-Darling Basin and Brisbane.
  4. In the low rainfall areas in northern Australia tropical tall grasses grow. This region is known as the Parkland Savanna.
  5. Cactus is common in the desert and semi-arid regions.
  6. The cities of Perth and Adelaide experience Mediterranean climate and thus similar vegetation is common.
  7. British type of climate found in south-east Australia, Tasmania And New Zealand. Here the common trees are Oak, poplar and elm.

Question 2. Oceania is characterised by climatic variations in different parts. Mention the reasons for this.
Answer:

Reasons for Oceania is characterised by climatic variations in different parts:-

The island countries of Oceania, such as Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, etc., are all located in the southern hemisphere. Hence these places experience summer from December to February and winter from June to August.

However, since the Tropic of Capricorn passes midway through Australia, the northern part of the country experiences a warm climate while the southern part experiences a temperate type of climate.

Being surrounded by seas and oceans, the coastal areas of the countries of Oceania have the moderate types of climate, while the interiors experience the extreme types of climate.

The southeast monsoon winds are obstructed by the Great Dividing Range and thus cause torrential rain in the eastern coast of Australia.

However, due to decreasing water vapour content, these winds do not cause rainfall in the interior or the western parts of Australia.

Thus arid and semi-arid climate prevails in these locations leading to the formation of deserts. Hence we can conclude, climatic variations are common in Oceania.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 3. You have noticed that climate and natural vegetation pattern has been reflected in a single map in the case of North America as well as South America in your textbook. But in the case of Oceania climate and natural vegetation have been reflected in different maps. Do you find any similarities between the two maps? Find and point out in different columns which weather pattern is suitable for which vegetation type. Where do you find similar climates and vegetation types in your country?
Answer: The climate and natural vegetation of a region are always interdependent. The type of climate hugely influences the type of vegetation of an area.

The following table emphasises on the relationship between the climate and natural vegetation of Oceania-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Climatic and natural vegetation of oceania

The vegetation types seen in the particular climatic types in Oceania have similar examples in India as well. The following table shows the vegetation that grows in particular climatic regions in our country-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Climatic regions in our country

Besides these, mangrove forest grows in humid sub-tropical monsoon climatic regions. Factors required for the growth of mangrove forests include coastal saline soil, tides and extremely humid conditions.

Aesthetics And Creativity

This segment will check the aesthetic sense and creativity of the students.

Question 1. You have read about the International Date Line while learning about longitudes in class VII. Now make a list of the islands of Oceania where the International Date Line has moved in a zigzag way.
Answer: The continent of Oceania is made of numerous small islands. These islands are situated on the Pacific Ocean in such a way that, in spite of being part of the same country, some of these lie on either side of the International Date Line.

As a result, the determination of local time is difficult in these countries. So, in order to maintain the same time in all the islands of a country, the International Date Line is drawn in a manner so that it lies on the sea and not on the land.

Thus, the line appears a zigzag. The names of some of such islands are-

  1. Gilbert Islands,
  2. Fiji Islands,
  3. Islands,
  4. Kermadac Islands,
  5. Chatham Islands, etc.

In The Given Map Point Out The Following Places

Question 1.

  1. The Great Dividing Range,
  2. Great Victoria Desert,
  3. Gulf of Carpentaria,
  4. Mount Kosciuszko,
  5. Mediterranean region,
  6. Murray river,
  7. Sydney,
  8. Broken Hill,
  9. Encounter Bay,
  10. Brisbane.
  11. Kimberley Plateau,
  12. Great Australian Bight

Answer:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Australia map

Question 2.

  1. Papua New Guinea,
  2. New Zealand,
  3. Canberra,
  4. New Caledonia Islands,
  5. Tasmania,
  6. Tonga Islands,
  7. Fiji Islands,
  8. Chatham Islands,
  9. Wellington,
  10. Great Sandy Desert,
  11. Mt. Cook.

Answer:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Oceania map

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania

Chapter 11 Oceania Synopsis

  • Oceania is the smallest continent. It is made up of numerous islands. The total population of the continent is less than half of the total population of West Bengal.
  • The animals found only in this continent are-Kangaroo, Wallaby, Platypus, Koala, Emu, and Kiwi. Evergreen trees like Jarrah and Karri are also found here. The continent is also the birthplace of Eucalyptus.
  • The area of the continent is about 8525989 sq. km.
  • The latitudinal extent of Oceania is from 15°N in the north (the northern boundary of Hawaiian Islands) to 47°S in the south (New Zealand’s southern limit) and the longitudinal extent is from 114°E in the west (western border of Australia) to 134°W (Gambier Islands) in the east.
  • Mt. Wilhelm (4509 metres) of Papua New Guinea is the highest peak of Oceania. The Murray-Darling River (3572 km) of Australia is the longest river of the continent.
  • There are 14 sovereign nations in the. continent and 21 dependent territories. Australia is the largest country and Nauru is the smallest.

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  • In the 16th century, Ferdinand Magellan discovered some islands of the continent including the Marinus. In 1644, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman reached Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga Islands.
  • In 1770, James Cook first anchored on the different islands of the Pacific Ocean and on the eastern coast of Australia. In 1789, rebels of the British Royal Navy settled permanently in Pitcairn Island and eventually, colonies were established in the continent.
  • There are four regional divisions of Oceania, namely Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.
  • The Eastern Highlands, Western Plateau, Central Lowlands, and Coastal Plains are the four important physiographic divisions of the continent.
  • The Great Dividing Range is an old fold mountain that stretches all over the eastern part of Australia running north-south direction. Mt. Kosciuszko of the New England Range is the highest peak of Australia.
  • Ayers Rock of Austrália in the Western Plateau region is a spectacular feature. It exhibits different colours at different times of the day.
  • World’s largest coral reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, is a major attraction of the east Australian coast.
  • New Zealand comprises of two main landmasses-the North Island and the South Island. There are many volcanoes in this country. Mount Cook (3164 metres) of the Southern Alps is the highest peak of New Zealand.
  • The Canterbury Plains have developed | 20. along the east coast of the South Island of New Zealand.
  • Mauna Loa rises 9170 metres from its base to its summit, which is greater than the elevation of Mount Everest, 8848 metres from sea level to its summit. However, 5000 metres of this volcano lies below sea level and the remaining 4170 meters is above sea level.

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  • There are many lakes in Oceania. Among them, Eyer, Torrens, Mackay, Wills of Australia and Taupo of New Zealand are worth mentioning.
  • The different climatic types in Oceania are-Equatorial, Tropical monsoon, Temperate, Mediterranean, Tropical arid Semi-arid and British climate.
  • The different vegetation types, prevailing in this continent are- Temperate forest, Tropical grassland, Temperate grassland, Desert vegetation and Mediterranean vegetation.
  • The Tropical grasslands are also known as the ‘Parkland Savanna’ and the Temperate grasslands are known as the ‘Downs’.
  • In between the Great Dividing Range in the east and Western Plateau in the west lies a plain land. To the south of this plain lies the Murray-Darling basin. It is famous for agriculture and cattle rearing.
  • The latitudinal extent of the basin is 24°S-39°S and the longitudinal extent of the basin is 138°E-149°E. It occupies almost 20% of the total area of Australia.
  • The Murray River (2589 km) rises from the Australian Alps and the Darling River (1163 km) rises from the New England Range. Together they converge near the city of Wentworth and flow southwest to drain into Encounter Bay.
  • The farmers who work in the cattle-rearing farms of the basin are known as Jackaos.
  • Australia occupies fifth position in the world for beef production and first position in the world for wool production.
  • The city of Cobber is known for copper mining. The city of Broken Hill is known. as the ‘Silver City’.

Chapter 11 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. What do you know about the discovery of Oceania?
Answer:

Discovery Of Oceania:-

Oceania was discovered by the Europeans. Before that, the islands were inhabited by tribes like the Maoris, Aborigins etc. After the European expedition, many such campaigns were undertaken to know more about Oceania.

In the 16th century, Ferdinand Magellan discovered Marinus and some other islands during his voyage. In 1644 the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman discovered the islands of Australia, New Zealand, Tonga and Fiji.

In the year 1770, James Cook first anchored in different islands of the Pacific Ocean and the eastern coast of Australia (Sydney). In 1789, the rebels of the British Royal Navy settled permanently in the island of Pitcairn.

Later these people established British colonies in New Zealand, Australia and Fiji. 19th century onwards, after the discovery of gold mines and other resources here, a large number of people started migrating from Europe to Australia. Besides the British, the French too colonised a few islands of Oceania.

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Question 2. Describe the regional classifications of Oceania.
Answer:

Regional Classifications Of Oceania:-

The islands in Oceania have been classified into the following four regions-

  1. Australasia,
  2. Melanesia,
  3. Micronesia and
  4. Polynesia, which are discussed below.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Regional Division of Oceania

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Regional Division of Oceania.

1. Australasia:

Australasia, a region of Oceania, mainly comprises of Australia and New Zealand. The region covers 90% area of Oceania.

2. Melanesia:

Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania. The term ‘Melanesia’ literally means ‘black islands’, owing to the dark-skinned inhabitants of the region.

The major islands of the region include New Guinea, Solomon, Fiji, Norfolk, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, etc.

3. Micronesia:

Micronesia is a subregion of Oceania, comprising of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean. The maximum islands of this region are coral islands. Guam, Marshall, Nauru, and Kiribati are the major islands of the region.

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4. Polynesia:

Polynesia is also a sub-region of Oceania, located at the easternmost part of Oceania. Hawaii, Samoa, Tonga, Cook, Easter, Pitcairn, etc., are the major islands of this region. Some of the islands of this region are volcanic by origin.

Question 3. Describe the topography of Australia.
Answer:

Topography Of Australia:-

Australia can be divided into the following four categories according to its topography-

  1. The Eastern Highlands,
  2. The Western Plateau,
  3. The Central Lowlands and
  4. The Coastal Plains.

1. The Eastern Highlands:

The Eastern Highlands or the Great Dividing Range is a chain of old fold mountains that runs in a north-south direction and stretches all over the eastern part of Australia.

This range extends from the Cape York Peninsula in the north to the Bass Strait in the south. It is known by different names in different regions- Darling Downs, Australian Alps, Blue Range, Liverpool Range, etc.

Mount Kosciuszko of the New England Range is the highest peak of Australia.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Topography of Australia

2. The Western Plateau:

The vast stretch of undulating land in the western part of Australia is called the Western Plateau (average height 200-500 metres). This plateau region occupies most of Australia.

The rocks of the plateau region are as old as those of the Deccan Plateau region. Some small hills are also located in the eastern and western parts.

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Quite a few deserts-the Great Sandy Desert, the Gibson desert, the Great Victoria desert-have developed in the middle of these hills due to their dry climatic conditions. Playas and oases are often found in the midst of these deserts.

The Ayer Rock of Australia is a spectacular feature in this plateau region. It is made up of red sandstone and its colour changes at different times of the day from dawn to dusk.

3. The Central Lowlands:

The plains lying between the Great Dividing Range in the east and the Western Plateau in the west are called the Central Lowlands (average height 180 metres). The highlands Grey and Selwyn divide this plain into three parts.

In the south lies the Murray-Darling Basin or the Riverine plains, in the middle lies the Lake Eyre Basin and in the north lies the Carpenteria Lowland.

In the Carpenteria Lowland, water comes out naturally from the dug wells without the help of any pumps. These wells are known as Artesian wells.

4. The Coastal Plains:

Narrow Coastal Plains run along all margins of the continent. However, the adjoining coastal plains of the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north and the Great Australian Bight in the south are broad.

The world’s largest coral reef, the Great Barrier Reef, lies parallel to the northeast coast of Australia.

Question 4. Describe the physiography of New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.
Answer:

Physiography of New Zealand:

Two main islands, namely, the North Island and the South Island and many small islands like the Stewart, Chatham, etc., have formed New Zealand. Both the North Island and the South Island have hilly topography.

However, the South Island has higher mountains. The highest mountain peak of New Zealand is Mount Cook (3164 metres), which is located in the Southern Alps range of the South Island. The Canterbury Plain extends along the east coast of the island.

The main rivers here are Waikato, Clutha, Whanganui and Taieri. These rivers are short and turbulent. The South Island has a number of glaciers, out of which the Tasman Glacier is the longest.

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Many glacial lakes are found in this mountain region. The highest mountain peak in the North Island is Mount Ruapehu (2797 metres).

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Physiography of new Zealand

Physiography of Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia:

These regions consist of numerous igneous islands formed by igneous material deposits at the sea bottom. Hawaii, Soloman, Tahiti, Fiji, etc are examples of igneous islands found here.

Mount Wilhelm (4509 metres) of Papua New Guinea is the highest peak of Oceania. Mouna Loa, Kilauea, etc. are the important volcanoes of the Hawaiian islands. Marshall, Gilbert, Caroline, Nauru, Wake, etc., are the names of a few coral islands.

Question 5. Describe the rivers flowing through the continent of Oceania.
Answer:

Rivers Flowing Through The Continent Of Oceania:-

Most parts of the countries in the continent of Oceania are arid and dry. So lakes, rivers and water bodies are quite less in number here. The notable rivers of the continent are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Rivers flowing

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Rivers of Australia

Question 6. Classify Oceania into different climatic regions according to climatic variations.
Answer:

Classification Of Oceania Into Different Climatic Regions According To Climatic Variations:-

Oceania, due to its vast extent is dominated by various climatic types in various regions. The islands experience a maritime climate while extreme climatic conditions prevail in the interior landmass.

The six different climatic regions of the continent according to its climatic variations are

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Different climatic regions

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Climatic regions of Oceania

Question 7. Discuss the natural vegetation of Oceania.
Answer:

Natural Vegetation Of Oceania:-

Depending on the climatic variations and diverse landforms, the natural vegetation of Oceania is classified as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Natural vegetation of oceania

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Natural vegetation of Oceania

Other than this, several other types of trees are also found here. Coniferous forests are found along the higher parts of the Great Dividing Range and the mountainous regions of New Zealand where snowfall occurs.

Evergreen forests are seen in some of the islands of Oceania. Coconut trees are also common in these islands. Thus, Oceania is rich in forest-based natural resources.

Question 8. How do the locational factors lead to climatic variations in Oceania?
Answer:

Locational Factors Lead To Climatic Variations In Oceania:-

The reasons causing climatic variations in Oceania are discussed below-

1. Location of the islands:

The island countries of Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, etc., are located in the southern hemisphere and experience summer from December to February and winter from June to August.

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2. Position of the Tropic of Capricorn:

The Tropic of Capricorn (23% 5) passes through the central part of Australia. Hence, the northern regions of the country mostly experience tropical climates while the southern regions experience a temperate climates.

On the other hand, New Zealand is located further south of the Tropic of Capricorn and experiences a cool temperate climate.

3. Influence of the sea:

The countries in Oceania are surrounded by the sea. Hence, due to proximity to the sea, the coastal regions of the countries do not experience extreme climatic variations like the central regions.

4. Existence of mountain range:

The Great Dividing Range covers the entire eastern part of Australia. The south-eastern trade winds blowing from the Pacific Ocean get obstructed by the eastern slope of the mountain range stretching from north to south.

Hence, the east coast receives heavy rainfall. However, the central and western regions of Australia are more or less rain deprived and many deserts have developed here.

5. Presence of monsoon and trade winds:

In summer, low pressure develops over the northwest region of Australia. Hence, the moist north-west monsoon winds blow over the northern parts of Australia. Generally, it is observed that the south-east trade winds blow over most of the regions in Australia.

Question 9. New Zealand is known as ‘Britain of the southern hemisphere. On the basis of which features would you compare New Zealand to Britain?
Answer: New Zealand can be compared to Britain as these two countries are remarkably similar to each other. Some of the common features are-

1. Island country: Both Britain and New Zealand are island countries.

2. Multiple islands: New Zealand is comprised of several islands, just as Britain.

3. Antipodal position: It is interesting to note that New Zealand lies in the antipodal position of Britain.

4. Similar climatic features: As New Zealand lies in the antipodal position of Britain, the climate of both of these countries is remarkably similar. They both have a temperate climate.

5. Population: Most of the people of New Zealand are of British origin. Thus a similarity can be noticed between these countries in terms of the people living here.

6. Lifestyle: Due to the presence of people of British origin in New Zealand, similarities in food habits, dress and culture can be noticed between the people of these two nations.

Chapter 11 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Write the characteristics of Ayers Rock.
Answer:

Characteristics Of Ayers Rock:-

Ayers rock is a large rock structure found in the Western Plateau of Australia. It is also known as ‘Uluru’ in Australia and is made up of red sandstone. The rock exhibits different colours from dawn to dusk.

For example, during dusk, the rock shows a typical sunset-red hue. Sometimes it is also yellow or violet. This sandstone formation, rising 863 m above the mean sea level, has a total circumference of 9.4 km. It is the most recognisable natural landmark in Australia.

Question 2. Give an account of the Great Artesian Basin in Australia.
Answer:

Great Artesian Basin In Australia:-

A notable characteristic of Australia’s environment is that there are many artesian wells covering vast stretches of the land. The largest and deepest artesian basin in the world, the Great Artesian Basin, is located in Australia.

This basin encompasses an area of over 1.7 million sq. km over the states of mainly Queensland, Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales. It is known for its groundwater reserves. This basin is extensively tapped for irrigation purposes.

Question 3. What do you know about the Great Barrier Reef?
Answer:

Great Barrier Reef:-

The Great Barrier Reef is the largest as well as the longest (almost 2300 km long) coral reef in the world. It lies parallel to the northeast coast of Australia in the Coral Sea.

The distance between the coral reef and the coastline varies from 80 km to 205 km on average. It extends parallel to the coast for 2000 km. The Great Barrier Reef is a cluster of more than 2,900 reefs.

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Formation process:

Remains of the dead bodies of marine animals (corals) along with sedimentary particles get deposited on the sea- bed. Gradually the bed elevates and transforms into an island or reef.

Benefits to the ecosystem:

  1. The formation of the coral reef has led to the development and preservation of the ecosystem of the sea.
  2. This reef protects the ports of the east coast and the coastal areas from turbulence in the sea.

However, it creates a great hazards to navigate. It acts as a wall and creates an obstruction for ships and thus gets it name as the ‘Great Barrier Reef.

Question 4. Write a short note on the Canterbury Plains.
Answer:

Canterbury Plains:-

The narrow stretch of plain land that has developed along the east coast of the South Island of New Zealand is called the Canterbury Plains.

This region has a temperate climate and receives scanty rainfall. Hence, grasses have grown extensively over the plain instead of trees. This plain region is famous for cattle rearing.

As a result, dairy, leather and meat processing industries have developed in this region.

Question 5. In spite of being shorter than Mauna Loa, Mt. Everest is the highest mountain peak in the world. Why?
Answer:

In spite of being shorter than Mauna Loa, Mt. Everest is the highest mountain peak in the world.

The elevation of the mountain is measured from the sea level. The Mauna Loa (9,170 metres) is a volcanic mountain which is sub-aqueous in nature, i.e., most of it lies below the sea (5000 metres).

Only 4,170 metres of Mauna Loa is above sea level. On the other hand, Mt. Everest has an elevation of 8,848 metres above sea level. Thus, Mt. Everest is considered as the world’s highest mountain peak.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Mauna Loa

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Mt. Everest

Question 6. Give a brief description of the coral islands in Oceania.
Answer:

Coral Islands In Oceania:-

The continent of Oceania is made up of numerous islands and archipelagos. Some of these islands have been formed as a result of the accumulation of the remains of dead marine animals (corals) and polyps.

These islands are called coral islands. Some examples of coral islands are Marshall, Gilbert, Caroline, Kiribati, Nauru, etc. Numerous coral polyps reside in tropical oceans.

The dead bodies of these polyps and the calcium carbonate secreted by the corals are deposited at the base of the oceans. These are gradually accumulated and grow upwards above sea level to form coral islands.

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Question 7. Why is Australia called the ‘Island Continent’?
Answer:

Australia called the ‘Island Continent’

Australia occupies the largest territory in Oceania. It extends from 10°S latitude in the north to 43°S latitude in the south and from 155°E longitude in the east to 113°E longitude in the west.

On average, Australia covers almost 3,500 km from north to south and almost 3,800 km from east to west. It occupies 7.69 million sq. km of the total area in Oceania.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Australia The Island Continent

It is also situated on its own tectonic plate, unlike other islands which develop on the tectonic plates of other continents. This makes it a Continental Island.

Moreover, it is the largest country that is completely surrounded by water without any land boundaries with any other continent. Hence, it is called the ‘Island Continent’.

Question 8. Oceania is a unique continent-Justify
Answer:

Oceania Is A Unique Continent:-

Oceania is a unique continent due to the following reasons-

  1. The continent consists of more than ten thousand islands and archipelagos.
  2. The largest coral reef in the world, the Great Barrier Reef, is parallel to the east coast of Australia in Oceania.
  3. Diverse species of animals like kangaroo, platypus, and birds like emu, kiwi, etc., are exclusively found in this continent of Oceania.

Chapter 11 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the location of Oceania.
Answer:

Location Of Oceania:-

The continent of Oceania consists of several groups of islands that are situated in the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast of Asia. The locational extension of Oceania consists of latitudinal and longitudinal extent.

1. Latitudinal extent:

Almost 15°N latitude in the north (the northern boundary of Hawaiian Islands) to almost 47°S latitude in the south (New Zealand’s southern limit).

2. Longitudinal extent:

Almost 114°E longitude in the west (western border of Australia) to 139°W longitude in the east (Gambier Islands).

Question 2. The Ayers Rock is a spectacular structure in the Western Plateau in Australia. Why is it spectacular?
Answer:

The Ayers Rock is a spectacular structure in the Western Plateau in Australia:-

The Ayers Rock is made up of red sandstone. From sunrise to sunset, the rock structure exhibits different shades of colours such as reddish brown, yellow and even violet. This unique formation attracts tourists from all over the world.

Question 3. What is an artesian well?
Answer:

Artesian Well:- 

Artesian well is a type of well in which water gushes out naturally from underground when deeply drilled. An aquifer, usually made up of sandstone, is present in the artesian well which can retain several gallons of water.

The well is named after the region Artois in France where it was first discovered.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Artesian well

Question 4. What is Parkland Savanna?
Answer:

Parkland Savanna:-

Parkland Savanna is an extensive tropical grassland in Northern Australia. It develops in regions receiving less rainfall. Very tall grasses grow here.

The grassland consists of scattered trees like the Eucalyptus, Jura, etc. and grasses, which makes it look like a park. Thus, it is known as ‘Parkland’.

Question 5. Discuss the wildlife of Australia.
Answer:

Wildlife Of Australia:-

The animals and birds found in Australia are unique. Kangaroos, herbivorous animals, are the most common animal of Australia.

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Besides kangaroos, wallabies, platypi, dingos, sugar gliders, koalas, wombats, etc. are other animals common in Australia. Sheep rearing is very famous in the Murray-Darling Basin. Emu, Kiwi, lyrebird, etc. are common birds in Australia.

Question 6. Why does Australia have a low population density?
Answer:

Australia Have A Low Population Density:-

Most of the central and western part of Australia experiences an arid climate. Moreover, the intermittent lakes have saline water, which leads to the problem of a severe shortage of usable water in Australia.

Hence, population density in Australia is low in most of the regions other than the east and southeast. In the south-east the Murray-Darling basin is quite prosperous and densely populated and is a developed region of the country.

Question 7. Why is Tasmania called ‘the Garden state of the Southern Hemisphere’?
Answer:

Tasmania Called ‘The Garden State Of The Southern Hemisphere’:-

Tasmania is called the ‘Garden State of the Southern Hemisphere’ because it is the only island state in Australia that consists of a number of National Parks and World Heritage Sites (E.g., Walls of Jerusalem National Park, Franklin-Gordon Wild Rivers National Park, etc.) which attract tourists from all over the world.

The national parks take up about half of the land area of this state.

Question 8. Why is Australia often regarded as the ‘Continent of Australia’?
Answer:

Australia Often Regarded As The ‘Continent Of Australia’:-

Oceania is a continent consisting of Australia and other Pacific islands. There are 14 sovereign states in Oceania among which Australia is the largest.

About 87 per cent of Oceania is occupied by Australia. Hence, Australia is often regarded as the ‘Continent of Australia’.

Question 9. Briefly write about the Great Australian Bight.
Answer:

Great Australian Bight:-

The Great Australian Bight is a large bay. It is surrounded by the Nullarbor Plain in the north, the Darling Range in the west and the Australian Alps in the east. It is a bow-like bay located in the south of Australia.

Chapter 11 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. A type of flightless bird, found in New Zealand is –

  1. Eagle
  2. Kiwi
  3. Robin
  4. Crane

Answer: 2. Kiwi

Question 2. Number of sovereign states in Oceania is/are-

  1. 14
  2. 21
  3. 15
  4. 1

Answer: 1. 14

Question 3. The number of languages spoken in Oceania are-

  1. 28
  2. 38
  3. 18
  4. 15

Answer: 1. 28

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Question 4. The person who first anchored on the eastern coastline of Australia in Oceania was-

  1. James Cook
  2. Ferdinand Magellan
  3. Vasco Da Gama
  4. Abel Tasman

Answer: 1. James Cook

Question 5. The sub-region of Oceania where the Fiji group of islands is situated is-

  1. Australasia
  2. Melanesia
  3. Micronesia
  4. Polynesia

Answer: 3. Micronesia

Question 6. A volcanic island in Oceania is-

  1. Nauru
  2. Marshall
  3. Solomon
  4. Caroline

Answer: 3. Solomon

Question 7. A coral island in the continent of Oceania is-

  1. Gilbert
  2. Society
  3. Hawaii
  4. Fiji

Answer: 1. Gilbert

Question 8. The Great Dividing Range is a-

  1. Block mountain
  2. Young fold mountain
  3. Old fold mountain
  4. Volcanic mountain

Answer: 3. Old fold mountain

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Question 9. The famous desert amidst the Western Plateau is-

  1. Kalahari
  2. Thar
  3. Atacama
  4. Great Victoria

Answer: 4. Great Victoria

Question 10. The Great Barrier Reef is in-

  1. Australia
  2. Tasmania
  3. New Zealand
  4. Papua New Guinea

Answer: 1. Australia

Question 11. An active volcano in New Zealand is-

  1. Mauna Loa
  2. Ruapehu
  3. James
  4. Mount Vesuvius

Answer: 2. Ruapehu

Question 12. The Canterbury Plains are in-

  1. New Zealand
  2. Australia
  3. Kiribati
  4. Papua

Answer: 1. New Zealand

Question 13. Mt. Mauna Loa is a/an-

  1. Dormant volcano
  2. Extinct volcano
  3. Active volcano
  4. Desert

Answer: 3. Active volcano

Question 14. An inland river that flows through Oceania is the-

  1. Fly
  2. Murray
  3. Darling
  4. Eyre

Answer: 4. Eyre

Question 15. The climate of New Zealand is-

  1. Tropical type
  2. Mediterranean type
  3. British type
  4. Equatorial type

Answer: 3. British type

Question 16. The temperate grassland in Tasmania is called the-

  1. Savanna
  2. Steppe
  3. Downs
  4. Prairie

Answer: 3. Downs

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 17. Acacia is a/an-

  1. Thorny shrub
  2. Evergreen tree
  3. Mediterranean tree
  4. Deciduous tree

Answer: 1. Thorny shrub

Question 18. A scrubland vegetation found in southern Australia is known as-

  1. Mallee
  2. Tussock
  3. Downs
  4. Macchia

Answer: 1. Mallee

Question 19. The Vanuatu group of islands in Oceania is in the sub-region of-

  1. Micronesia
  2. Polynesia
  3. Melanesia
  4. Australasia

Answer: 3. Melanesia

Question 20. The region of Oceania which derived its name from the Latin phrase meaning ‘South of Asia’ is-

  1. Polynesia
  2. Melanesia
  3. Australasia
  4. Micronesia

Answer: 3. Australasia

Question 21. The geographical feature situated between Australia and New Zealand is the-

  1. Gulf of Carpentaria
  2. Tasman Sea
  3. Caribbean Sea
  4. Cook Islands

Answer: 3. Caribbean Sea

Question 22. The ‘Apple Isle’ of Australia is-

  1. Queensland
  2. Tasmania
  3. Victoria
  4. Adelaide

Answer: 2. Tasmania

Question 23. ‘Britain of the southern hemisphere is-

  1. Tasmania
  2. New Zealand
  3. Australia
  4. New Guinea

Answer: 2. New Zealand

Question 24. In terms of area, Australia occupies about-

  1. 67 per cent of Oceania
  2. 87 per cent of Oceania
  3. 77 per cent of Oceania
  4. 76 per cent of Oceania

Answer: 2. 87 per cent of Oceania

Question 25. Gilbert is a-

  1. Volcanic Mountain
  2. Coral Island
  3. Clagoon
  4. Gulf

Answer: 2. Coral Island

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 26. The capital of New Zealand is-

  1. Perth
  2. Wellington
  3. Auckland
  4. Canberra

Answer: 2. Wellington

Question 27. The capital of Australia is-

  1. Perth
  2. Auckland
  3. Wellington
  4. Canberra

Answer: 4. Canberra

Chapter 11 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. The ________ Ocean lies to the west of Oceania.
Answer: Indian

Question 2. The Tropic of ________ divides Australia into north and south.
Answer: Capricorn.

Question 3. Oceania is the world’s ________ continent and Australia is the ________ largest island.
Answer: smallest, second

Question 4. The smallest country of Oceania is ________.
Answer: Nauru

Question 5. Oceania is mainly located in the ________ hemisphere.
Answer: southern

Question 6. ________ first landed on the east coast of Australia on April 29, 1770.
Answer: James Cook

Question 7. Australia, New Zealand and some neighbouring islands are together known as ________.
Answer: Australasia

Question 8. The north-eastern part of the Great Dividing Range in Australia is called ________.
Answer: McPherson Range

Question 9. The Great Dividing Range is called ________ in Victoria.
Answer: Australian Alps

Question 10. Three middle parts of the Great Dividing Range are known as New England Range, Liverpool Range and ________.
Answer: Blue Range

Question 11. Victoria, Gibson and Sandy in Australia are examples of ________.
Answer: Hot deserts

Question 12. The Great Barrier Reef lies parallel to the ________ coast of Australia.
Answer: North-east

Question 13. The North Island and the South Island of New Zealand are divided by the ________.
Answer: Cook Strait

Question 14. Mount ________ in Papua New Guinea is the highest peak in Oceania.
Answer: Wilhelm

Question 15. Mauna Loa and Kilauea are ________ in Hawaii.
Answer: Active volcanoes

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 16. The Eyre River is a river of ________ Australia.
Answer: Western

Question 17. The main river of the South Island of New Zealand is ________.
Answer: Clutha

Question 18. The ________ is the longest river of New Zealand.
Answer: Waikato

Question 19. The main river in Papua New Guinea is ________.
Answer: Fly

Question 20. The Fly River originates in the ________ mountain range.
Answer: Victor Emanuel

Question 21. The largest lake in Australia is ________.
Answer: Eyre

Question 22. The largest lake of New Zealand is ________.
Answer: Taupo

Question 23. The deepest freshwater lake in Tasmania as well as in Australia is ________.
Answer: St. Clair

Question 24. The grasslands in Australia are called ________.
Answer: Downs

Question 25. ________ climate prevails in Tasmania.
Answer: British

Question 26. ________ is called the ‘Garden of the southern hemisphere’.
Answer: Tasmania

Question 27. The highest mountain peak in the Tasmanian islands is ________.
Answer: Mount Ossa

Question 28. ________ is the largest producer of bauxite in the world.
Answer: Australia

Question 29. ________ is called the largest ‘Island Country’.
Answer: Australia

Question 30. The farming region on the western slope of the Great Dividing Range is known as ________.
Answer: Darling Downs

Question 31. The Australian state, famous for sugarcane cultivation, is ________.
Answer: Queensland

Write True Or False

Question 1. Wheat cultivation occupies 50 per cent of Oceania’s agricultural land.
Answer: True

Question 2. The population of Australia is mainly concentrated in the coastal areas in the west and the north.
Answer: False

Question 3. Australia ranks second in the world in terms of sheep rearing.
Answer: False

Question 4. The largest lake in Australia is the Eyre.
Answer: True

Question 5. Captain James Cook first anchored on the eastern coast of Australia in 1770.
Answer: True

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 6. The Desert region occupies vast stretches of Australia’s western parts.
Answer: True

Question 7. The famous Opera House is located in Sydney.
Answer: True

Question 8. The temperate grassland of Australia is known as the ‘Parkland Savanna.
Answer: False

Question 9. The Solomon Island of Oceania is a remarkable example of a coral island.
Answer: False

Question 10. Oceania is the smallest continent of the world in terms of area.
Answer: True

Question 11. The Great Dividing Range is a plateau.
Answer: False

Question 12. The highest peak of Oceania is Mt. Cook.
Answer: False

Question 13. The Canterbury Plains are situated in Australia.
Answer: False

Question 14. Hawaii islands are incorporated in Polynesia.
Answer: True

Question 15. The term ‘mela’ in Melanesia means tiny or small.
Answer: False

Question 16. The Diamantina river empties into Lake Eyre.
Answer: True

Chapter 11 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Match The Columns

1.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of Oceania Match the columns

Answer: 1. C, 2. D, 3. A, 4. B

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Which tree is native to Oceania?
Answer: Eucalyptus.

Question 2. Name a flightless bird found in Oceania.
Answer: Kiwi.

Question 3. When do the people of Oceania celebrate Christmas?
Answer: Summer.

Question 4. Which islands did Ferdinand Magellan come across in the 16th century?
Answer: Marinus.

Question 5. In which year did James Cook land on the east coast of Australia?
Answer: 1770.

Question 6. Name an island of the Melanesia region.
Answer: Fiji.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 7. Name a group of islands situated to the north in Oceania.
Answer: Hawaii.

Question 8. What type of islands are Hawaii, Fiji and Tahiti?
Answer: Volcanic islands.

Question 9. Name the rock structure made of red sandstone that is found in the Western Plateau region in Australia.
Answer: Ayers rock.

Question 10. Which is the largest and longest coral reef in the world?
Answer: Great Barrier Reef.

Question 11. Name one coral reef if Australia that poses a hindrance to movement of ships.
Answer: Great Barrier Reef.

Question 12. Where do you find coral islands in our country?
Answer: Lakshwadeep Islands.

Question 13. What is ‘Mount Ruapehu’ in New Zealand?
Answer: A volcano.

Question 14. What is the name of the famous plains in the eastern coast of New Zealand?
Answer: Canterbury Plains.

Question 15. Name the highest peak in Oceania.
Answer: Mount Wilhelm.

Question 16. What is the total height of Mt. Mauna Loa when measured from base to summit?
Answer: 9170 metres.

Question 17. In which island of Oceania, is Mt. Mauna Loa situated?
Answer: Hawaii islands.

Question 18. Where is the mouth of the river Fly?
Answer: Gulf of Papua.

Question 19. Name the largest lake of the hilly region of New Zealand.
Answer: Taupo.

Question 20. What type of climate prevails in Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia?
Answer: Equatorial.

Question 21. Name some trees of the Mediterranean vegetation of Australia.
Answer: Jarrah, Kari, Blue Gum.

Question 22. Where is the Harbour Bridge?
Answer: Sydney.

Question 23. How far does Oceania extend in the south?
Answer: Up to Stewart Island.

Question 24. What is the capital of Papua New Guinea?
Answer: Port Moresby.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America

Chapter 10 South America Synopsis

  • The longest mountain range of the world, the Andes, is situated in South America. It is the second-highest mountain range after the Himalayas.
  • The Amazon, the longest river of South America is the largest river of the world in terms of the volume of water discharged. It is the second-longest river of the world.
  • Angel Falls (979 m) of Venezuela is the highest waterfall of the world.
  • The highest navigable lake of the world, the Titicaca, is located in the Andes mountains of South America. the Andes
  • South America ranks fourth among the continents in terms of area and this continent is 5.5 times larger than India in terms of area.
  • South America extends from 12°28′ N to 55°59′ S latitudes and from 34°50′ W to 81°20′ W longitudes.
  • South America is separated from North America by the Panama Canal.
  • Central America, South America, Mexico and Caribbean Islands are collectively known as Latin America. This is because the languages of these regions are derived from the ancient Latin language.
  • Numerous volcanoes, mostly active, e.g. the Chimborazo and the Cotopaxi are located in this continent. These are the first and second highest active volcanoes on the earth respectively.

Read and Learn More WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography

  • The Atacama Desert (about 1100km) lies in the northern part of Chile. It is one of the driest deserts in the world.
  • Guiana Highlands (average height 800m) and Brazilian Highlands (average height 1000m) to the east of South America are basically old shield regions.
  • The Mato Grosso Plateau is situated in between the Brazilian Highlands and the Andes.
  • The Amazon flows into the Atlantic Ocean with a huge volume of water and decreases the salinity of the water in this region. No delta has formed at the mouth of the Amazon.
  • 70% area of South America is situated in the torrid zone, 20% in the warm temperate zone and the remaining 10% in the cold temperate zone.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

  • The humid north-west westerlies get obstructed by the Andes between 40°S and 60°S latitudes. As a result, very little rainfall is experienced on the leeward side of the mountain and thus the Patagonia desert has formed there.
  • South-east trade winds are interrupted by the Andes mountain resulting in a rain shadow area in the western part of the mountain. As a result, the Atacama desert is formed in the western part of the continent.
  • The major tree species of the equatorial region are mahogany, rosewood, ironwood, brazil nut, etc. The trees grow so densely that sunlight does not penetrate till the ground of the forests. That is why this region is known as the Land of Eternal Twilight.
  • World’s largest tropical evergreen rainforest, the Selva, has developed in the Amazon River basin. The average temperature and average annual rainfall of this forest are 25°C-27°C & 250cm-300 cm respectively.
  • The trees are found in the tropical evergreen. Forests are tall with strong and thick trunks and have very hard wood. The trees have big leaves with numerous stomata.
  • Branches of tall trees entangle with each other and form canopies in the upper layer of the forest. This prevents sunlight from reaching the lower layers of the forest. Hence, the lower layers remain dark and damp.
  • The Selva provides 20% of the world’s total oxygen and hence, this forest is referred to as the ‘Lungs of the World’.
  • The Amazon rainforest is the habitat of 10 per cent of living organisms in the world. This region is home to about 2.5 lakh insect species and 4 lakh species of plants.
  • The Pampas grassland extends over the La Plata basin of Argentina and Uruguay. The shape of this grassland is like a half-moon. This region extends from 30°S to 38°S latitudes and from 54°W to 65°W longitudes.
  • The main rivers of the Pampas region are the Parana and Paraguay. Both rivers merge with the Uruguay River near Buenos Aires the capital of Argentina. The combined flow of these rivers is known as the La Plata.
  • The Pampas region is highly developed in agriculture. Wheat is the principal crop produced here. The other crops that are grown here include corn, barley, cotton, maize, sugarcane, etc. This is why the Pampas region is known as the Granary of South America.
  • The grazing areas of the Pampas region are locally called ‘Estancia’.

Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the geographical location and size of South America.
Answer: The geographical location and size of South America are discussed below-

Geographical location:

South America lies to the south of the North. America is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the east, the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Antarctic Ocean in the south.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

The continent has a triangular shape. The location of South America can be discussed under the following heads-

1. Latitudinal:

South America extends from 12°28′ N to 55°59′ S. This implies that the Equator (0°) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23°30’S) pass through the continent.

2. Longitudinal:

South America extends from 34°50′ W in the east to 81°20′ W in the west.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Geographical location of south america

3. Hemisphere:

About 85 per cent of the continent lies in the southern hemisphere. South America is often referred to as a continent of the southern hemisphere.

4. Boundaries:

This continent is flanked by seas And oceans-Panama Canal and the Caribbean Sea in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west, the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Antarctic Ocean in the south.

Size:

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

In terms of size, South America is the fourth largest continent in the world (17,840,000 sq. km area). South America is about twice the size of Europe and five times that of India.

Question 2. Give a brief description of the topography of South America.
Answer:

Topography Of South America:-

The topography of South America is classified into four categories based on the features of the landforms-

  1. The Western Mountain Region,
  2. Narrow Coastal Plains of the west,
  3. Eastern Highland Region,
  4. The extensive Central Plain.

1. The Western Mountain Region:

The mountain region in the west of South America covers the Andes Mountain ranges. The Andes Range is the longest Coastal Plain of a continuous chain of mountains in the world. It extends from Panama in the north to Cape Horn in the south.

It is the second-highest mountain range in the world. The Andes is a chain of young fold mountains and hence is geologically active. This leads to frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Topographic division of south America

The entire region of the Andes is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire: Mt. Chimborazo (6272 m) and Cotopaxi (5896 m) are the first and second highest active volcanoes on Earth respectively.

The highest mountain peak in the Andes is the Aconcagua (6960m). World’s highest lake, Titicaca (3810m) is located in this area.

2. Narrow Coastal Plains of the West:

Besides the Central Plains, there are narrow stretches of plain lands lying along the western, eastern and northern coasts of South America. In the western part, the Andes descend abruptly into the ocean.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Thus, it can be said that the coastlines barely exist here. Atacama desert, about 1100 km long lies in the middle of this region. This is one of the most driest and drought-prone areas of the world.

On the other hand, the coastal plains are quite extensive in the eastern as well as the northern parts, near the Amazon and the La Plata river basins.

3. Eastern Highland Region:

The Eastern Highlands consist of the Guiana Highlands (average height 800 m) in the north, the Brazilian Highlands (average height 1000m) in the east and the Patagonian Plateau region in the south.

The Amazon separates the Guiana Highlands from the Brazilian Highlands. The Mato Grosso plateau exists between Brazilian Highlands and the Andes.

This area acts as a watershed between Amazon and La Plata rivers. The Angel Falls in Venezuela is in the Guiana Highlands. It is the world’s highest waterfall (979 m) and is situated on a tributary of the river Orinoco.

Roraima (2769 m) is the highest peak of the Guiana Highlands. The Brazilian Highlands extend over a larger area and are higher than the Guiana Highlands. The Brazilian Highlands cover the eastern part of South America.

The central parts of the Brazilian Highlands are occupied by the Campos grasslands. Pico-da-Banderia is the highest peak of this region located along the coastal zone of the Atlantic Ocean in the south-eastern margin of this highland.

The rivers San Francisco and the Parana flow through these highlands. The Patagonian Plateau is situated close to the southern part of the Andes and the western part of Argentina. This region gradually slopes down to the Atlantic Ocean.

The climatic condition in the plateau region is arid. Patagonia is a large cold desert and experiences an average temperature of 3°C.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Physiographic division of south america

4. The extensive Central Plain:

These plains consist of three large river basins-the Orinoco river basin, the Amazon river basin and the La Plata river basin. The Central Plains refer to the vast stretch of plainland that lies between the Andes and the Eastern Highlands.

The Orinoco river originates in the Guiana Highlands and after travelling through Venezuela and Colombia, meets the Atlantic Ocean. The Orinoco River basin covers the northern region of South America.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10

Question Answer

The World’s largest river in terms of water discharge, is the Amazon. The rainforest formed along the Amazon River basin is the largest in the world.

The Amazon originates in the Andes and after travelling through Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Brazil, it drains into the Atlantic Ocean. The La Plata basin consists of three major rivers-the Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay.

These rivers originate in the Brazilian Highlands and join the Atlantic Ocean. The river basin is in the southern part of the continent.

Question 3. What are the major rivers in South America? Give a brief account of these rivers.
Answer:

Rivers of South America:

The major rivers in South America are the Amazon, the Orinoco, the La Plata and the Sao Francisco. Most of the rivers in South America originate either in the Mato Grosso Plateau region or in the western parts of the Andes and then flow into the Atlantic Ocean in the east.

Overview of the rivers of South America:

An overview of the rivers is given below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Overview of the river of south America

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Rivers Of South America

 

Question 4. Describe the topography of the northern and eastern highlands or plateaus.
Answer:

Topography of the Highland:

The plateaus that extend over a considerable area in the north of South America are of residual type. Various forms of erosion over the years have led to a reduction in the height of these plateaus.

The plateau region that stretches across Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and Brazil are called the Guiana Highlands.

However, since these highlands rise to considerable heights in Venezuela, some mountain ranges have also developed here. Roraima (2769 m) is the highest peak in this upland.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

Topography of the Eastern Highland:

The eastern highlands of South America are called the Brazilian Highlands, while the central highlands are called the Mato Grosso Plateau region. This plateau actually connects the Brazilian Highlands in the east with the Andes in the west.

The sharp edges of the Brazilian Highlands abruptly descend to the Atlantic Ocean in the east. On the other hand, in the west, these highlands gradually become sloping and blend with the central plain lands.

A major area of the Brazilian Highlands is occupied by the Campos grassland. The average elevation of the highlands is 1000 metres and the highest mountain peak in this region is this Pico-da-Bandeira.

Question 5. What are the determinants of the climatic diversity prevailing in South America? Or, Discuss the factors affecting the climatic characteristics of South America.
Answer: The main determinants of the climatic characteristics of South America are-

1. Shape of the continent:

The continent has a wide and extensive northern part and a southern part that gradually tapers. So, South America appears triangular in shape. That is why no maritime effects are seen in the interior of the northern parts of this continent.

Most of South America lies to the south of the equator, while a considerably small part in the north of the continent lies to the north of the equator.

As a result, the northern and the southern parts of South America experience opposite seasons during the same time.

2. Latitudinal extent:

The maximum portion of South America is in the tropical zone because it extends from 55°59′ S to 12°28′ N latitudes. The areas in the equatorial zone experience is extremely hot climates.

However, places located at high latitudes in the southern hemisphere experience comparatively cooler climates.

3. Distance from the sea:

The southern part of the continent is narrow. Some regions in this part are only 250 km away from the sea. Hence, these regions experience a maritime climate (moderate).

On the other hand, the regions in the north experience a continental type of climate (extreme) because of their huge distance from the sea.

4. Effect of the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn:

The equator passes through the Amazon river basin in the north, which causes an equatorial type of climates to prevail in these regions. On the other hand, the Tropic of Capricorn passes through the central part of the southern region.

This leads to hot tropical climate in the north and cool temperate climate in the south. Actually, 70% area of this continent lies in the torrid zone, 20% in the warm temperate zone and 10% in the cold temperate zone.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

5. Location of the Andes:

The Andes mountain range occupies the western part of South America and it extends from the north to south in a long, continuous chain.

The Andes acts as a barrier to the moist winds, as a result of which very little rainfall is experienced on the leeward side of the mountain. This leads to the formation of a rainshadow region here.

6. Ocean currents:

The cold Humboldt Current or the Peru Current that moves across the southwestern coast leads to a cold and dry climate in these regions.

Similarly, the warm Brazil Current that moves along the eastern coast leads to the development of hot and humid climate in these regions.

7. Constant flow of trade winds:

The northeast trade winds blowing from the north and the southeast trade winds blowing from the south lead to heavy rainfall in these regions throughout the year. The northwest westerlies also cause heavy rainfall in the southern parts of Chile.

8. Elevation of land:

The higher regions of the Andes experience a pleasant and cool climate due to their high altitude. The Brazilian and the Guiana Highlands also experience cool climates due to their comparatively high altitudes, in spite of being located in the torrid zone.

Question 6. Write about the various climatic regions of South America.
Answer:

Various Climatic Regions Of South America:-

The climatic regions of South America can be classified into the following nine categories based on temperature, rainfall, air pressure, etc. These are discussed in the following table-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Various Climatic regions of South America

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Climatic regions of south America

Question 7. Write about the characteristic features of the topography and rivers of the Amazon river basin.
Answer:

Characteristic features topography of the Amazon River basin:

The topographic characteristics of the Amazon River basin are as follows-

  1. The central region of the Amazon River basin is almost plain.
  2. From this central region, the land has gradually elevated in three sides-the Guiana Highlands in the north, the Brazilian Highlands in the south and the Andes mountain range in the west.
  3. The river does not form any delta at its mouth and flows uninterruptedly towards the east into the Atlantic Ocean. Hence, the shape of the river basin is like a funnel.
  4. This region naturally slopes from west to east.
  5. The river basin has developed as a result of silt deposition by the Amazon and its tributaries.
  6. The Amazon has a wide mouth and some islands have developed there. Among these, Marajo is the largest fluvial island in the world.
  7. The Amazon River basin consists of flood plains, ox-bow lakes, swamps and islands.

Characteristic features of the rivers of the Amazon basin:

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

The characteristic features of the rivers of the Amazon River basin are as follows-

1. Amazon:

The Amazon is the largest river in the world, in terms of the volume of water it carries and the area of the river basin. It is the longest river in South America.

It originates in the Mismi mountain peak in the Andes. Then it travels first across the north and then across the east to join the Atlantic Ocean. The Amazon River basin is located in the equatorial region that receives heavy rainfall.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America location of Amazon Basin

So, a large volume of rainwater, collected by several tributaries, gets accumulated in the Amazon river. From the origin to the mouth, the length of the river is 6437 km.

The left bank tributaries of the river are-Napo, Negro, Japure, etc., and the right bank tributaries are Jurua, Purus, Madeira, Tapajos, Xingu, etc.

2. Other rivers:

Most of the other rivers that flow through the Amazon River basin are its tributaries. Among these, the main rivers are Madeira, Tapajos, Xingu, Jurua, Negro, Japura, etc.

The Madeira (3250 km) carries a large volume of water and discharges into the Amazon. It is the largest tributary of the Amazon River.

Question 8. Briefly discuss about the natural vegetation of South America.
Answer:

Natural Vegetation Of South America:-

The natural vegetation of South America can be classified into nine categories based on the nine climatic regions. The relationship between climate and vegetation is very close.

The vegetation zones of South America are discussed in the following table-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America VegetationWBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Vegetation.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Vegetation..

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Natural Vegetation of south America

Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. What is the Strait of Magellan?
Answer:

Strait Of Magellan:-

The narrow waterbody or passage of water that joins two waterbodies and separates two land masses is called a strait.

The waterbody that exists between the Tierra del Fuego islands and the main landmass of South America is called the Strait of Magellan.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

The Portuguese explorer Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean through this strait, after crossing the Atlantic Ocean. Hence, the strait has been named after the explorer.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Strait o Magellan

Question 2. Why is South America also called ‘Latin America’?
Answer:

South America Also Called ‘Latin America’:-

Latin America actually refers to South America as well as Mexico, the Caribbean Islands and the countries of Central America. This region is dominated by Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italians.

Thus the language of the first colonial settlers is widely spoken in this region. These languages have been originated from Latin, the ancient classical language.

Still, now these are practised in Middle and South America. So the region is called Latin America.

Question 3. Mention the main physiographic divisions of South America. Explain briefly about any one of them. Or, Divide South America into physiographic regions. Give a brief. account of any one of them.
Answer: Based on topography, South America has been classified into four physiographic divisions.

These are

  1. The western mountain region,
  2. Narrow coastal plains of the west,
  3. The eastern highland region,
  4. The extensive central plains and

1. The Western Mountain Region:

The mountain region in the west of South America covers the Andes Mountain ranges. The Andes Range is the longest Coastal Plain of a continuous chain of mountains in the world. It extends from Panama in the north to Cape Horn in the south.

It is the second-highest mountain range in the world. The Andes is a chain of young fold mountains and hence is geologically active. This leads to frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

The entire region of the Andes is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire: Mt. Chimborazo (6272 m) and Cotopaxi (5896 m) are the first and second highest active volcanoes on Earth respectively.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

The highest mountain peak in the Andes is the Aconcagua (6960m). World’s highest lake, Titicaca (3810m) is located in this area.

2. Narrow Coastal Plains of the west:

Besides the Central Plains, there are a narrow stretches of plain lands lying along the western, eastern and northern coasts of South America. In western part, the Andes descend abruptly into the ocean.

Thus, it can be said that the coastlines barely exist here. Atacama desert, about 1100 km long lies in the middle of this region. This is one of the most driest and drought-prone areas of the world.

On the other hand, the coastal plains are quite extensive in the eastern as well as the northern parts, near the Amazon and the La Plata river basins.

3. Eastern Highland Region:

The Eastern Highlands consist of the Guiana Highlands (average height 800 m) in the north, the Brazilian Highlands (average height 1000m) in the east and the Patagonian Plateau region in the south.

The Amazon separates the Guiana Highlands from the Brazilian Highlands. The Mato Grosso plateau exists between Brazilian Highlands and Andes.

This area acts as a watershed between Amazon and La Plata river. The Angel Falls in Venezuela is in the Guiana Highlands. It is the world’s highest waterfall (979 m) and is situated on a tributary of the river Orinoco.

Roraima (2769 m) is the highest peak of the Guiana Highlands. The Brazilian Highlands extend over a larger area and are higher than the Guiana Highlands. The Brazilian Highlands cover the eastern part of South America.

The central parts of the Brazilian Highlands are occupied by the Campos grasslands. Pico-da-Banderia is the highest peak of this region located along the coastal zone of the Atlantic Ocean in the south-eastern margin of this highland.

The rivers San Francisco and the Parana flow through these highlands. The Patagonian Plateau is situated close to the southern part of the Andes and the western part of Argentina. This region gradually slopes down to the Atlantic Ocean.

The climatic condition in the plateau region is arid. Patagonia is a large cold desert and experiences an average temperature of 3°C.

4. The extensive Central Plain:

These plains consist of three large river basins-the Orinoco river basin, the Amazon river basin and the La Plata river basin. The Central Plains refer to the vast stretch of plainland that lies between the Andes and the Eastern Highlands.

The Orinoco River originates in the Guiana Highlands and after travelling through Venezuela and Colombia, meets the Atlantic Ocean. The Orinoco River basin covers the northern region of South America.

The World’s largest river in terms of water discharge, is the Amazon. The rainforest formed along the Amazon river basin is the largest in the world.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

The Amazon originates in the Andes and after travelling through Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Brazil, it drains into the Atlantic Ocean. The La Plata basin consists of three major rivers-the Parana, the Paraguay and Uruguay.

These rivers originate in the Brazilian Highlands and join the Atlantic Ocean. The river basin is in the southern part of the continent.

Question 4. Write a brief note on the Andes mountain range.
Answer:

Andes Mountain Range:-

The Andes is the world’s longest range of mountains. It extends from the Caribbean Sea in the north to Cape Horn in the south. This range consists very high mountain peaks and it is the longest mountain chain of the world.

It becomes narrower in the east-western parts. The Andes is a range of young fold mountains and so, the process of its formation is still continuing. As a result of this, the Andes region is highly prone to earthquakes.

The highest peak of the Andes is the Aconcagua (6960 metre). In many places of Andes region, intermontane plateaus are located, such as- Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Titicaca, etc. Titicaca Lake (3810m) is the highest lake of the world.

Question 5. Why are the hilly regions of the Andes prone to earthquakes?
Answer:

Hilly Regions Of The Andes Prone To Earthquakes:-

The Andes hilly regions are earthquake-prone, because-

  1. The Andes has developed on the convergence point of the Nazca oceanic plate and the South American continental plate. Since these two plates are dynamic and are moving towards each other, it makes that particular region earthquake-prone.
  2. As a result of the convergence of these two plates, many volcanoes have developed in the Andes region. Due to volcanic eruptions, this region is prone to earthquakes as well.
  3. Since the region is made up of soft sedimentary rocks, landslides are common and the process of land formation is still continuing. Hence, the Andes region is earthquake-prone.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America The Andes mountains and its plate region

Question 6. Describe the important volcanoes in South America.
Answer:

Important Volcanoes In South America:-

Aconcagua, the highest mountain peak in South America is an extinct volcano. It is in the west-central Argentine province of Mendoza. and has an altitude of 6960 metres.

Mount Chimborazo (6267 metres) and Cotopaxi (5896 metres) are two notable active volcanoes in Ecuador. These are the first and second highest active volcanoes on the earth respectively.

Both of these are located on the volcanic belt of the Pacific Ocean. [Ojos del Salado, situated on the Chile-Argentina border, is now considered to the highest active volcano in the world.]

Question 7. Briefly discuss the northern plateau region of South America.
Answer:

Northern Plateau Region Of South America:-

Location:

The northern plateau region of South America extends from the Andes in the west to the Atlantic coast in the east. It is as old as the Deccan plateau of India and the Canadian shield of North America.

Characteristics:

The following characteristic features are found in this region-

  1. It is a type of ancient dissected plateau made of hard rock.
  2. Although it is made of hard rock, erosion by natural forces such as wind, rain and river has reduced the height of the plateau to some extent. At present, the average height of the plateau is 800 metres.
  3. Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and Brazil are the five countries across which the plateau region extends. The region is also known as the Guiana Highlands. Its length is 1600 km, its average height is 300m- 1500m and its maximum height is 3000 m.
  4. The plateau region is quite high in Venezuela because some mountain ranges have also developed there. The region slopes towards the north and east coasts.
  5. Angel, the world’s highest waterfall is located in this upland.
  6. Roraima (2769 m) is the highest peak of this region.

Question 8. Describe the important plains of South river basin and America.
Answer:

Important Plains Of South River Basin And America:-

There is a vast stretch of plainland which extends from north to south of the continent of South America. This region has the Andes mountains to the west, the Guiana Highlands to the north and the Brazilian Highlands to the east.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Plains Of South America

Some important rivers, namely, the Amazon, the Orinoco and the La Plata, pass through this region. According to physical features, this region can be classified into the following four sub-divisions-

  1. Plains of the amazon river basin,
  2. Plains of the Orinoco river basin,
  3. Plains of the la plata river basin and
  4. The parana-paraguay among these, the plains of the amazon river basin are the largest but, they are not flat throughout and have some uneven highlands and hillocks.

The plains of the Amazon are called the Selva, those of the Orinoco are called the Llanos, and the Parana-Paraguay plains are known as the Gran Chaco. The La Plata plains of Argentina are called the Pampas.

Question 9. Describe the central and eastern plateau regions of South America.
Answer:

Central And Eastern Plateau Regions Of South America:-

There is a vast highland region in the eastern and central parts of South America. The eastern part is known as the Brazilian Highland (it occupies almost rd of Brazil’s total area) and the central part is known as the Mato Grosso Plateau.

The following characteristic features are found in this region-

  1. The Mato Grosso Plateau region has actually connected the Andes mountain range in the west with the Brazilian Highlands in the east.
  2. The famous Iguazu waterfall is situated here.
  3. The eastern side of the Brazilian Highlands, i.e., the side towards the Atlantic. Ocean is very steep. However, the western side gradually slopes towards the central plainland. This implies that the highland slopes from east to northwest.
  4. A vast stretch of this highland is occupied by the Campos grassland.
  5. The highlands have an average elevation of 1000 metres. Pico-da-Bandeira is the highest peak of this region.

Question 10. Differentiate between the Brazilian Highlands and the Guiana Highlands.
Answer: The differences between the Brazilian and the Guiana Highlands are as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South AmericDifferentiate Brazilian and Guiana highlands

 

Question 11. Classify the central plains of South America according to regional variations.
Answer: The central plains of South America are classified as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Central plains of south America

 

Question 12. Give a physiographic description of the Amazon River basin.
Answer:

Amazon River Basin:-

In terms of physical features, they can be classified into three main sub-divisions, Amazon river basin is a plainland.

Origin:

The Amazon, passes through the adjacent highlands of the western part of the Andes, the northern part of Guiana Highlands and the southeastern part of the Brazilian Highlands.

Along its course, the river has transported and accumulated sand and silt to form the vast Amazon River basin.

Features:

  1. The size of the Amazon River basin is 7050000 sq. km and it slopes from west to east.
  2. The region is wide in the west and quite narrow in the east.
  3. Due to the winding course of the Amazon river in the central region, several oxbow lakes, canals and swamps are found there.
  4. Many riverine islands are there in the mouth of the river, among which Marajo is the largest.

Physical classification:

The Amazon river basin is according to its physical features. These are-

  1. The western highlands,
  2. The central and eastern plains and,
  3. The northern and southeastern highlands (Guinea and brazil).

Question 13. Which is the main river of South America? Write a brief note on it.
Answer: Amazon is the main river of South America. The length of this river is 6437 km.

Amazon River: It is the largest river of the world in terms of the volume of water discharge.

Origin: Mismi peak in the Andes. Length: 6437km

Tributaries:

  1. Left bank tributaries-Putu- mayo, Japure, Negro, Napo, etc.,
  2. Right bank tributaries-Madeira, Jurua, Purus, Xingu, etc.

Special features:

  1. It is the largest river in the world in terms of the discharge of water.
  2. It is the second longest river in the world after the river Nile of Egypt.
  3. Though it has no delta near its mouth, the largest riverine island of the world, the Marajo, has developed on this river.
  4. The discharge of water per second is 209000 cubic metres.
  5. There are about more than 1000 tributaries of Amazon and they are quite long.

Mouth: North Atlantic Ocean.

Navigable course: 3600km from the mouth.

Question 14. On which river is the world’s highest waterfall located? Describe that river. 
Answer: The world’s highest waterfall is the Angel Falls which falls from a height of 979 metres. It is situated on the course of the river Orinoco. [Actually, Angel waterfall is situated on the river Caroni which is a tributary of the river Orinoco.]

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Angel Falls

Orinoco river: It is the third largest river of the world in terms of the volume of water discharge.

Origin: The Orinoco originates from the Parima mountain in the Guiana Highlands to the south of Venezuela.

Length of its course: 2150 km

Tributaries: Meta, Caroni, Inirida and Guaviare.

Special Features: World’s highest waterfall, the Angel Falls has formed on the river Orinoco. The only delta in South America has developed at the mouth of the Orinoco River.

Mouth: The Atlantic Ocean.

Question 15. Write a short note on the La Plata River.
Answer:

La Plata River:-

The major river that flows through the southern part of South America is the La Plata. The Paraguay River originates from the Mato Grosso Plateau region and the Parana River originates from the Brazilian highlands.

These two rivers flow separately for about 2400km and converge with each other. The combined channel flow further south in the form of the Parana River.

Then, the Salado river from the west and the Uruguay River from the east joins the Parana and flow as the La Plata through Argentina, to meet the Atlantic Ocean. The deltaic area of La Plata is known as Rio-de-la- Plata.

At the mouth, the river is 224 km wide. The La Plata River has the Campos grassland to its north and the Pampas grassland to its south. This estuary has developed in port and water transportation facilities.

Question 16. No delta has formed in the mouth of the Amazon River. Why?
Answer:

No delta has formed in the mouth of the Amazon River:-

The mouth of the Amazon has no delta because of the following reasons-

  1. The Amazon River basin slopes towards the sea. Hence, a large volume of water gets discharged into the Atlantic Ocean with great force.
  2. The mouth of the river is very wide. Due to this, the tidal waves can enter the river without any barrier and thus, silt deposition is prevented.
  3. Since the ocean current is very high near the mouth, the silt carried along by the river gets removed by it. Hence, no delta has developed on the mouth of the Amazon River.

Question 17. Which are the important lakes in South America? Describe any one of them.
Answer: There are quite a few big lakes in South America-Titicaca, Poopo, Junin, Sarococha, Maracaibo, etc.

Titicaca lake:

Titicaca is situated at Peru- Bolivia border in the Andes region. It is the highest navigable lake of the world. Actually, the lake is situated in the Bolivia plateau region, which is surrounded by the Andes mountain range.

It is quite big in terms of size as well. The average depth of the lake is about 107 m. Hence, small ships and other means of water transport are able to travel across the lake. This lake is at an altitude of 3810 metres.

The river Desaguadero has originated from it.

Question 18. Briefly describe the major climatic regions that are prevalent in the continent of South America.
Answer:

Major Climatic Regions That Are Prevalent In The Continent Of South America:-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Various Climatic regions of South America

Question 19. Describe the climatic features of the is Orinoco River basin in Venezuela to the Amazon River basin.
Answer: The climatic features of the Amazon River basin are as follows-

Climate type:

The Amazon River basin experiences hot and humid climate because of its location in the equatorial climatic region.

Temperature:

Season change does not occur here. Humid summers prevail throughout the year and the average annual temperature is 27°C.

Rainfall:

Heavy convectional rainfall, along with thunder and lightning, occurs in the evenings in this region. The average annual rainfall is 250 cm-300 cm or more.

Humidity:

The humidity of this region is almost 90%. Hence, the climate is wet, uncomfortable and unhealthy. There is no climatic variation because of the high water vapour content in the air.

Heavy rainfall causes the rivers to collect large volumes of water which sometimes overflow and cause floods.

Question 20. Write about the Savanna grassland.
Answer:

Savanna grassland:-

About 20 per cent of total land of South America is covered with tropical grassland called the Savanna. Both trees and grasses grow here, neither of which is very tall in size.

The grassland has tree cover of 10-15 per cent and grass cover of 85-90 per cent. These trees and grasses are generally found in the transitional regions between deserts and forests.

These grow during specific seasons. The Savanna grassland is found in Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina and the northern parts of Uruguay.

Question 21. Discuss the tropical grasslands in South America.
Answer:

Tropical Grasslands In South America:-

The tropical grasslands are found mainly in the intermediate regions of 5°N-20°S latitudes of South America. This stretch of land is known as the Savanna grasslands. These grasslands are seen in two regions.

One of them north of the Equator, while the other is the Brazilian Highlands to the south of the Equator. These two grasslands are locally known as the Llanos (in the Orinoco river basin) and the Campos (in the Brazilian Highlands).

Although the grasses that grow here have varying lengths (approximately 4 metres), they are all quite thick and sturdy by nature.

Question 22. Write a short note on the Campos.
Answer:

Campos:-

The tropical grassland in the Brazilian Highlands to the south of the equator, is called the Campos. The characteristics of the grassland are-

  1. Instead of trees, different types of grasses grow here because the hot climatic conditions cause rapid evaporation of rainwater.
  2. Tall, thick grasses grow near the equator as this region receives more rainfall.
  3. The scattered growth of deciduous trees is also seen in this region.

Question 23. Elucidate on the Gran Chaco.
Answer:

Gran Chaco:-

Gran Chaco is the region where mixed vegetation of dense deciduous forests and grasses have grown. It has developed along the Parana-Paraguay river valley in the southern part of the Brazilian Highlands.

This region remains warm all the year round. There is moderate to heavy rainfall during summer, but the winter months are very dry. Trees in these forests shed their leaves in the winter, have very strong trunks and yield hardwood.

For example, the hardwood Quebracho or the’ axe-breaker’ is a deciduous tree.

Question 24. What are the factors that led to the formation of the Atacama desert?
Answer:

Factors That Led To The Formation Of The Atacama Desert:-

During the summer months, the trade winds collect a large amounts of water vapour from the Atlantic Ocean.

Then, in accordance with Ferrel’s Law, these trade winds deflect to the right and become the Northeastern trade winds in the northern hemisphere and divert to the left in the form of the Southeastern trade winds in the southern hemisphere.

These winds enter South America from the east. On hitting the Andes in the western part of South America, these winds cause heavy rainfall on the eastern slope of the Andes.

However, when these winds reach the western slope of the mountain range, their water vapour content decreases. Henceforth, they cannot cause rainfall.

Therefore, the Atacama desert has developed in the northern part of Chile, which is situated on the western slope of the Andes.

Question 25. Write a short note on the Atacama Desert.
Answer:

Atacama Desert:-

The Atacama Desert lying in the Pacific coast extends in Peru and Chile (up to 30°S latitudes). Being situated in the leeward side of the Andes, it is the driest, hot tropical desert.

It covers a 105000 sq. km area. Lack of precipitation and the existence of cold Humboldt currents along the southwest coast of South America have resulted in this desert.

Annual average rainfall in this desert ranges between 1mm-15mm. Some parts of this desert have never met rain at all. The Atacama Desert is also the driest non-polar region in the world.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Atacama Desert

Question 26. Give an account of the arid and semi-arid climatic regions in South America.
Answer:

Arid And Semi-Arid Climatic Regions In South:-

The northern part of Chile (to the west of the Andes) remains rain-deprived because it is located in the rain-shadow region of the Andes Mountains, in the path of the southeast trade winds.

On the other hand, the area is also considerably hotter since it is in the tropical region. As a result, the climate is hot and dry, which has led to the development of the hot desert of Atacama.

Again, the southern part of Argentina (to the east of the Andes) also remains rain-deprived because it is located in the rain-shadow area in the path of the westerlies.

Even though the region is in the temperate zone and is less hot, lack of rainfall has led to the development of the Patagonian semi-arid region.

Question 27. Write a brief note on the Patagonian desert.
Answer:

Patagonian Desert:-

The Patagonian Desert lies in the southern part of Argentina in South America. It is a temperate desert and hence, a cool climate prevails there throughout the year.

Being located in the rain-shadow area of the Andes, it receives the very little amount of rain from the westerlies. It extends for 673000 sq. km. This region experiences about seven months of winter and five months of summer.

The average temperature in this desert generally ranges from 3°C-12°C. The Patagonian Desert is the largest desert of Argentina.

Question 28. Why is Quito, the capital of Ecuador, called the ‘Land of Eternal Spring’?
Answer:

Quito, The Capital Of Ecuador, Called The ‘Land Of Eternal Spring’:-

Equatorial regions generally have hot and humid climates throughout the year. The capital of Ecuador, Quito, is in the northwestern part of South America.

Although the city is situated on the equator (0°), the land on which the city has developed is quite high (at the height of 2891 m, on the Andes).

Due to this, as per the normal lapse rate of temperature (6.5°C decrease per every 1000 m of ascent), the climatic condition of the city is pleasant and relatively cool all through the year. Hence, Quito is called the ‘Land of Eternal Spring’.

Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What is cordillera? Give an example from South America.
Answer:

Cordillera:-

The word ‘cordillera’ refers to a vast chain or range of mountains. When a number of mostly parallel mountain ranges create a chain-like pattern, then such a formation is called a cordillera. An example of cordillera from South America is the Andes.

Question 2. Which are the important inter-montane plateaus in South America?
Answer:

Important Inter-Montane Plateaus In South America

There are a few inter-montane plateaus in the Andes region of South America. Among these, the Altiplano plateau is the world’s second-largest plateau. The other such plateaus are Ecuador plateau, Bolivia plateau, Titicaca plateau etc.

Question 3. Which area is the riverine plain of the Orinoco River?
Answer:

The Orinoco river passes through Colombia and Venezuela in the northern part of South America. A plainland of considerable size stretches along the river basin of the Orinoco.

Although the plainland extends from the southwest to the northeast as per the course of the river, it is quite narrow. In this region, the tropical grasslands called Llanos is located.

Question 4. Write a brief note on the highest waterfall of the world.
Answer:

Highest Waterfall Of The World:-

Salto Angel in Venezuela is the world’s highest waterfall. It is located on a the Orinoco River. The waterfall plunges from a height of 979 metres. This waterfall is located in the Guiana highland on the north of South America.

Salto Angel flows over a vertical drop from the Auyantepui Mountain. This waterfall serves as the main attraction for tourists in Venezuela.

Question 5. Briefly describe the riverine plains of the La Plata River.
Answer:

Riverine Plains Of The La Plata River:-

The most important river of the southeast and southern part of South America is the La Plata. There is extensive plain land along the north-south portions (narrow in the east-west portions) of the La Plata river basin.

This region, consisting of some parts of Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina, is the riverine plain of the La Plata River.

Question 6. Why are deserts formed in the western part of the tropical region of South America?
Answer:

Deserts Formed In The Western Part Of The Tropical Region Of South America:-

During summer, the moist northeast trade winds are blocked by the Andes and this causes heavy relief rainfall on the eastern slope of the mountain range. However, when these winds reach the western slope, they do not contain water vapour.

So, they cannot cause any more rainfall. Therefore, the Atacama desert has developed in Chile along the western slope of the Andes.

Question 7. Which climatic region covers the major parts of South America?
Answer:

Climatic Region Covers The Major Parts Of South America:-

The Equatorial climatic region covers the major part of South America. One-third of the total area of this continent comes under this type of climatic zone.

Question 8. Which part of the continent of South America gets more influenced by oceans? Where does moderate climate exist? 
Answer: The southern part of South America gets more influenced by oceans. The coastal region experiences moderate type of climate.

Question 9. What is the effect of altitude upon the climate in South America?
Answer:

Effect Of Altitude Upon The Climate In South America:-

The climate of South America is greatly influenced by the altitude of the continent. Though the entire continent lies in the Torrid Zone, but due the presence of high mountains like Andes Mountain, Guiana Highland, the Brazilian Highland temperature does not reach extremely high throughout the year.

Question 10. How does ocean current affect South Africa’s climate?
Answer:

Ocean Current Affect South Africa’s Climate:-

Ocean currents flow along the both coasts of South America. Hence being situated on the same latitude, due to warm Brazil current the coastal region in the east experiences hot climate.

On the other hand, the cold Peru or Humboldt current flowing along the west coast of the continent makes the climate cooler in that region.

Question 11. How many grassland regions are there in South America?
Answer:

Number Of Grassland Regions Are There In South America:-

There are four grassland regions in South America. These can be classified as-

  1. Llanos, the tropical grasslands along the Orinoco river basin to the north of the continent;
  2. Campos, the tropical grasslands in the south-central parts of the Brazilian Highlands;
  3. Gran Chaco, the tropical grasslands in the south-central part of the Parana-Paraguay river basin; and
  4. Pampas, the temperate grasslands along the La Plata river basin to the south-west of the continent.

Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The shape of South America resembles a-

  1. Quadrilateral
  2. Circle
  3. Triangle
  4. Dot

Answer: 3. Triangle

Question 2. In terms of area, South America is the world-

  1. Third largest continent
  2. Second largest continent
  3. Fourth largest continent
  4. Fifth largest continent

Answer: 3. Fourth largest continent

Question 3. One of the important imaginary lines that pass through South America is-

  1. Tropic of Cancer
  2. Equator
  3. Prime Meridian
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Equator

Question 4. In terms of area, the largest country in South America is-

  1. Chile
  2. Brazil
  3. Ecuador
  4. Peru

Answer: 2. Brazil

Question 5. Aconcagua is the-

  1. Highest mountain peak in the Andes
  2. Highest mountain peak in the Alps
  3. Highest mountain peak in the Himalayas
  4. Highest mountain peak in the Rockies

Answer: 1. Highest mountain peak in the Andes

Question 6. In terms of population, South America ranks-

  1. First
  2. Third
  3. Fourth
  4. Fifth

Answer: 4. Fifth

Question 7. Longitudinally, South America is located in the-

  1. Eastern Hemisphere
  2. Southern Hemisphere
  3. Western Hemisphere
  4. Northern Hemisphere

Answer: 3. Western Hemisphere

Question 8. Andes is an-

  1. Young Fold Mountain Range
  2. Old Fold Mountain Range
  3. Volcanic Mountain
  4. Block Mountain

Answer: 1. Young Fold Mountain Range

Question 9. ‘Land of Eternal Spring’ is a term used for-

  1. Lima
  2. Bogota
  3. Quito
  4. Brasilia

Answer: 3. Quito

Question 10. The world’s highest navigable lake is-

  1. Lake Ladoga
  2. Pangong Lake
  3. Lake Baikal
  4. Lake Titicaca

Answer: 4. Lake Titicaca

Question 11. The Spanish language originates from-

  1. Sanskrit
  2. English
  3. Latin
  4. Hebrew

Answer: 3. Latin

Question 12. To the south of South America lies the-

  1. Palk Strait
  2. Drake Passage
  3. Magellan Strait
  4. Strait of Otranto

Answer: 3. Magellan Strait

Question 13. Which of the following places in South America has the highest atmospheric humidity?

  1. Patagonia
  2. Pampas grassland
  3. Amazon rainforest
  4. Atacama

Answer: 3. Amazon rainforest

Question 14. The current that flows across the south-west coast of South America is the-

  1. Warm brazil current
  2. Cold humboldt current
  3. Warm gulf stream current
  4. Cold california current

Answer: 2. Cold humboldt current

Question 15. The Equator passes through-

  1. Chile
  2. Argentina
  3. Ecuador
  4. Venezuela

Answer: 3. Ecuador

Question 16. An important tributary of the Amazon that comes from the eastern and central parts of the plateau area is the-

  1. Japura
  2. Jurua
  3. Xingu
  4. Branco

Answer: 3. Xingu

Question 17. Pico da Bandeira, the highest mountain peak along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, is in-

  1. Brazil
  2. Argentina
  3. Guiana
  4. Patagonian highlands

Answer: 1. Brazil

Question 18. The Orinoco River originates from-

  1. Mishawum Lake
  2. Parima Mountain in Guiana Highlands
  3. Pico da Bandeira
  4. Plateau of Mato Grasso

Answer: 2. Parima Mountain in Guiana Highlands

Question 19. River La Plata has formed as a result of the convergence of the rivers-

  1. Parana and Paraguay
  2. Paraguay and Uruguay
  3. Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay
  4. Parana and the Rio Grande

Answer: 3. Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay

Question 20. The longest tributary of the Amazon is-

  1. Purus
  2. Madeira
  3. Jurua
  4. Negro

Answer: 2. Madeira

Question 21. The Peru Current flows through South America from the-

  1. East
  2. West
  3. North
  4. South

Answer: 2. West

Question 22. The desert located in Chile is the-

  1. Atacama
  2. Patagonia
  3. Sonoran
  4. Sahara

Answer: 3. Atacama

Question 23. The Amazon river flows from-

  1. East To West
  2. North To South
  3. West To East
  4. South To North

Answer: 3. West To East

Question 24. The combined flow of the Parana and Paraguay rivers is known as-

  1. La Plata
  2. Uruguay
  3. Parana
  4. Rio de La Plata

Answer: 3. Parana

Class 8 Geography Solution WBBSE

Question 25. A north-flowing river in South America is-

  1. Amazon
  2. Paraguay
  3. Parana
  4. Sao Francisco

Answer: 4. Sao Francisco

Question 26. The capital of Peru is-

  1. Lima
  2. Santiago
  3. Lapaz
  4. Quito

Answer: 1. Lima

Question 27. The world’s largest coffee-producing country is-

  1. Columbia
  2. Argentina
  3. Brazil
  4. Peru

Answer: 3. Brazil

Question 28. The Mediterranean type of climate is seen in-

  1. Central brazil
  2. Southern chile
  3. Central chile
  4. Peru

Answer: 3. Central Chile

Question 29. The temperate grasslands in South America is known as-

  1. Pampas
  2. Llanos
  3. Campos
  4. Gran Chaco

Answer: 1. Pampas

Question 30. The tropical grasslands in the Orinoco River basin is known as-

  1. Pampas
  2. Llanos
  3. Campos
  4. Gran Chaco

Answer: 2. Llanos

Question 31. Most of South America is in the-

  1. Torrid Zone
  2. Grigid Zone
  3. Dub-Tropical Zone
  4. Dub-Polar Zone

Answer: 1. Torrid Zone

Question 32. The capital of Uruguay is-

  1. Quito
  2. Buenos Aires
  3. Montevideo
  4. Caracas

Answer: 3. Montevideo

Question 33. The Savanna grasslands in Brazil are called-

  1. Llanos
  2. Pampas
  3. Campos
  4. Gran Chaco

Answer: 3. Campos

Question 34. A hot desert in South America is the-

  1. Atacama
  2. Patagonia
  3. Sahara
  4. Thar

Answer: 1. Atacama

Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. Tierra del Fuego, at the southernmost tip of South America, is separated from the mainland by the strait of ____________.
Answer: Magellan

Question 2. Chimborazo is a/an ____________ volcano.
Answer: Active

Question 3. The ____________ desert is located in the leeward side of the Andes mountains.
Answer: Atacama

Question 4. ____________is the highest mountain peak in the Guiana Highlands.
Answer: Mount Roraima

Question 5. The highest mountain peak in the Brazilian Highlands is the ____________.
Answer: Pico-da Bandeira

Class 8 Geography Solution WBBSE

Question 6. The ____________ desert has developed in the rain-deprived western part of the Andes.
Answer: Atacama

Question 7.  ____________ is the world’s driest non-polar desert.
Answer: Atacama

Question 8. ____________ lake in Venezuela lies in the northern coast of South America.
Answer: Maracaibo

Question 9. ____________ is a tributary of the Negro river.
Answer: Branco

Question 10. The Negro river has converged with the Amazon near ____________.
Answer: Manaus

Question 11. The river Sao Francisco originates in the Brazilian Highlands and meets the Ocean.
Answer: Atlantic

Question 12.  ____________ is called the ‘Black Gold’ of the Amazon river basin.
Answer: Rubber

Question 13. ____________ Pass connects Argentina and central Chile.
Answer: Uspallata

Question 14. The ____________ river valley is located in the Central Cordillera and Occidental Cordillera mountains.
Answer: Magdalena

Question 15. Manganese is available in ____________ in the Amazon region.
Answer: Amapa

Question 16. The capital city of Brazil is ____________.
Answer: Brasilia

Question 17. The world’s highest capital city is ____________ of Bolivia.
Answer: La Paz

Question 18. The tropical grassland in Bolivia is called ____________.
Answer: Gran Chaco

Question 19. The ____________ current flows along the south-west coast of South America.
Answer: Humboldt/Peru

Question 20. The word ‘Quebracho’ means ____________.
Answer: ‘Axe-breaker’

Question 21. There is a mineral-oil refinery in ____________ the capital of Peru.
Answer: Lima

Question 22. The capital of Chile is ____________.
Answer: Santiago

Match The Columns

1.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Match the Cloumns

Answer: 1. E, 2. D, 3. B, 4. C, 5. A

2.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Match the Cloumns.

Answer: 1. E, 2. C, 3. D, 4. B, 5. A

Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Write True Or False

Question 1. The world’s longest river is the Amazon.
Answer: False

Question 2. The system of shifting cultivation is prevalent in many regions of the Amazon rainforest.
Answer: True

Class 8 Geography Solution WBBSE

Question 3. The Pacific Ocean lies to the west of South America.
Answer: True

Question 4. The highest mountain peak in South America is the Drakensberg.
Answer: False

Question 5. The tropical grassland in the western part of the Brazilian Highlands is called Mato Grosso.
Answer: False

Question 6. The Galapagos Islands are located near the west coast of South America.
Answer: True

Question 7. Cape Horn is in the southern margin of South America.
Answer: True

Question 8. Most of the region of South America experiences when India’s summer experiences winter.
Answer: True

Question 9. The Atacama in Chile is a type of temperate desert.
Answer: False

Question 10. Aconcagua, the highest peak of the Andes mountain range.
Answer: True

Question 11. Angel Falls, on the Amazon River, is the world’s highest waterfall.
Answer: False

Question 12. The Amazon River transports 209000 cubic metre of water per second.
Answer: True

Question 13. Campos in Brazil is in the plateau region of Mato Grosso.
Answer: True

Question 14. The Bolivian Plateau is the highest plateau in South America.
Answer: True

Question 15. The estuary of the Paraguay river is known as the Rio de-la-Plata.
Answer: False

Question 16. At present, South America consists of 13 countries.
Answer: True

Question 17. Mount Chimborazo and Cotopaxi are the two active volcanoes of South America.
Answer: True

Question 18. The Inca civilisation flourished in ancient Peru.
Answer: True

Question 19. No delta has formed at the mouth of the Amazon River.
Answer: True

Question 20. The literal meaning of ‘Amazon’ is female warriors.
Answer: True

Question 21. Iguazu Falls are the waterfalls of the river Parana.
Answer: True

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. What is the other name for South America, based on the languages spoken there?
Answer: Latin America.

Question 2. Which river is considered as the headwater course of the Amazon River?
Answer: Apurimac.

Question 3. Which country is nicknamed as the ‘Coffee Pot of the World”?
Answer: Brazil.

Question 4. Which is the largest city on the Amazon River basin?
Answer: Manaus.

Class 8 Geography Solution WBBSE

Question 5. Which is the highest natural lake in South America?
Answer: Titicaca.

Question 6. What is the capital of Venezuela?
Answer: Caracas.

Question 7. Name two countries in South America where fishing is well-developed.
Answer: Peru, Chile.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Describe the natural vegetation as well as the wildlife of the Selva forest of the Amazon river basin.”
Answer:

Natural Vegetation As Well As The Wildlife Of The Selva Forest Of The Amazon River Basin:-

Selva, the evergreen forest lies on both sides of the equator covering mainly the major portion of the Amazon Basin.

Natural Vegetation:

The characteristics of the natural vegetation of the Selva forest of the Amazon River basin are discussed below-

  1. The trees of these dense forests have big and round leaves that remain green throughout the year. Hence, these forests are also called equatorial evergreen forests.
  2. Trees like ironwood, rosewood, Brazil nut, rubber, palm, bamboo, etc. grow here.
  3. Different species of trees are seen here and most of them are about 40m-50m tall.
  4. Due to the dense growth of trees, bushes and creepers, the forest is impenetrable and sunlight cannot reach the lower layers. Hence, the parts near the ground remain dark even during the day. Moreover, the branches and leaves entangle with each other in the upper layers and form a canopy. For that reason, the Selva is also called the ‘Land of Eternal Twilight’.
  5. The forest environment is unhealthy and is full of poisonous insects, which makes it impossible to collect forest resources.
  6. The trees of this forest yield hardwood.

Read and Learn More WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region The Selva foreset of Amazon

 

Wildlife:

The characteristics of the fauna of the Selva forest of the Amazon River basin are discussed below-

The dense forest of the Selva is home to different types of animals. However, the presence of shrubs and bushes, wet soil and a moist environment have led to the growth of impenetrable forests with dense undergrowth.

So, the animals in this forest have adapted accordingly and mainly inhabit the upper layer of the canopy in the forest. For example, different types of monkeys, chimpanzees, etc., are found in large numbers.

Apart from these, leeches, carnivorous ants, Anaconda snakes, poisonous flies, vampire bats, etc., are found in this forest. The famous, large Rhea bird, is also found here.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

The waters of this region is home to the alligators, Piranha and Pirarucu fish.

Question 2 Give an account of the characteristic features of the Selva forest in the Amazon River basin.
Answer:

Characteristic Features Of The Selva Forest In The Amazon River Basin:-

The world’s largest tropical evergreen rainforest, the Selva, has developed along the Amazon River basin. This forest occupies almost 60 per cent of Brazil, 13 per cent of Peru, 10 per cent of Colombia and extensive areas of Venezuela, Guiana, Bolivia etc.

Characteristics of the trees in the Selva forest:

1. Evergreen:

This forest is made up of tall. evergreen trees with big leaves and shrubs and bushes.

2. Fast growth:

Heavy rainfall and a warm climate lead to the fast growth of the trees.

3. Very tall:

According to height, trees of this forest can be divided into 4 layers-

  1. Emergent Layer,
  2. Canopy Layer,
  3. Intermediate Layer And
  4. Lower Layer Or Undergrowth.

4. Dense growth of creepers:

Orchids and creepers grow on the branches of trees due to the dark and humid environment of the forest.

5. Land of Eternal Twilight:

Branches of tall trees entangle with each other and form a canopy in the upper layer of the forest. This prevents sunlight from reaching the lower layers of the forest.

Hence, the lower layers remain dark even during the day and the region seems to have eternal twilight. So, it is known as the ‘Land of Eternal Twilight’.

6. Abundance of different species:

Trees of different species grow in this forest simultaneously. About 300 species of trees are found in every 2sq.km area.

7. Hardwood:

The trunks of the trees are very strong and thick and yield very hard wood.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Most important trees:

The main trees that grow in this region-

  1. Rubber,
  2. Rosewood,
  3. Ironwood,
  4. Brazil nut,
  5. Palm,
  6. Bamboo, etc.

Question 3. The Amazon River basin is industrially not developed. Why?
Answer:

The Amazon River basin is industrially not developed:-

The Amazon River basin is industrially not developed because of the following reasons-

1. Adverse climate:

The hot and humid climate that prevails in the Amazon River basin is very unhealthy and uncomfortable.

2. Poisonous insects:

The dense and impenetrable Selva forest in this region is not only unsuitable for habitation but is also home to a large number of poisonous insects.

3. Poor communication:

The communication system has not developed here due to the dense forest.

4. Lack of infrastructure:

Due to unfavourable conditions, there has been no infrastructural development.

5. Lack of skilled labour:

Skilled labour is un-available due to the scarce population in the region.

6. Lack of raw materials:

Industries have not developed here due to the lack of agricultural raw materials and mineral resources.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

7. Lack of education and capital:

The inhabitants of this region are extremely poor and illiterate and hence no economic development takes place here. This also results in lack of capital. There has been no development in the field of science and technology as well.

Question 4. Describe the topography and the rivers of the Pampas region.
Answer:

Topography of the Pampas region:

Topographic characteristics of the Pampas region are as follows-

  1. The word ‘Pampas’ originates from the Spanish word Pampa meaning ‘uninterrupted stretch of plainland’.
  2. The Pampas is basically a type of plain land that has formed as a result of the deposition of silt, sand and clay by rivers and loess soil deposits by aeolian action. The layer of silt in this region is fertile and very deep.
  3. The Pampas region is somewhat undulating due to the scattered presence of hillocks and ridges. For example, two hills called the Sierra de Tandil and the Sierra de La Ventana are located in Buenos Aires. These are made of granite, gneiss and quartzite rocks. These are extended parts of the Brazilian Highlands.
  4. The Pampa’s region slopes from west to east because its western part is comparatively higher than its eastern part since it has the Andes in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east.

Rivers of the Pampas region:

The main rivers of the Pampas region are the Parana and Paraguay. These rivers originate from the Brazilian Highlands and pass through the Pampas. Both rivers merge with Uruguay, near the capital of Argentina, Buenos Aires.

During their lower course, they flow as the La Plata and finally flow into the Atlantic Ocean. The estuary of La plata is known as Rio-de-la- Plata.

The other notable rivers of the Pampas are Cuarto, Tercero, Salado, Colorado and Saladillo. Most of these rivers are the tributaries of the Parana-Uruguay.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Question 5. Describe the climate and the natural vegetation of the Pampas region.
Answer:

Climatic characteristics of the Pampas region:

The climatic characteristics of the Pampas region are discussed below-

1. Seasons:

A warm temperate climate prevails in the Pampas region. The region. experiences summer from November to January and winter from March to June because of its location in the southern hemisphere. Winters are longer than summers in the Pampas region.

2. Temperature:

The average temperature in January (summer) ranges between 22°C- 24°C and the average temperature in July (winter) ranges between 8°C-10°C.

3. Rainfall:

The Pampas region receives very little rainfall throughout the year (about 50 cm-100 cm). The humid Pampas in the east receive more rainfall than the dry Pampas in the west. Though maximum rainfall occurs in the summer season.

4. Snowfall:

Snowfall is a rare phenomenon in this region. It does not occur each year and if it occurs, lasts for only a few days. Generally, frost arrives with the onset of autumn (April-May) and ends by spring (mid-September).

The natural vegetation of the Pampas:

Vast stretches of grasslands have developed in the Pampas region as a result of the temperate climate and scanty annual rainfall. The eastern part of the Pampas region receives more rainfall.

This results in the growth of tall grasses in this region (almost 1 metre in height). The hilly regions of the east-central part have some scattered growth of temperate mixed forests with trees like eucalyptus, poplar, hopper, etc.

To the north of the Pampas, along the Parana- Paraguay river basin, the grasslands of Gran Chaco have grown. These grasslands consist of shrubs and bushes as well as deciduous trees.

A type of tree called the Yerba Mate is found in the Parana River basin. It is used to make a beverage somewhat like tea. At present most of this grassland has been destroyed for transportation and agricultural purpose.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Question 6. Discuss the various characteristics of agriculture and livestock rearing of the Pampas region.
Answer:

Agriculture of the Pampas region:

Agriculture of the Pampas region is characterised by the following features-

1. Agricultural system:

The Pampas region is highly suitable for agriculture due to the cool climate, scanty rainfall, undulating plainland, fertile soil, etc. Hence, it is one of the most well-developed agricultural regions in the world.

In the Pampas, agriculture is practised using modern scientific methods.

2. Crops:

This region yields large amounts of wheat (wheat is grown on th of the total agricultural land). About 60% of the total wheat is grown for international trade. Hence, the Pampas region is called the ‘Granary of South America’.

The other crops that grow here include corn, barley, maize, oilseed, cotton, tobacco, soybean, sugarcane, and different types of fruits and vegetables.

Grapes are also grown in the western part of Argentina and the southern part of Uruguay. Moreover, alfalfa grass is grown here as fodder.

Livestock rearing of the Pampas region:

Livestock rearing of the Pampas region is characterised by the following features-

1. System of livestock rearing:

Commercial livestock rearing is practised in the Pampas region. The system used for livestock rearing here is the most developed in South America.

Cattle is reared in large numbers in the eastern and central parts because of the abundant growth of tall grasses. More sheep are reared in the western and southern parts. because of the cool climate and less rainfall.

Plenty of fodder grasses (example-alfalfa) are grown in the fertile pastures with the aim of rearing livestock. Hybrid animals of high quality are fed corn and other nutritious food.

The pasture farms are locally called ‘Estancia. The slaughterhouses of this region have well-developed cold storage facilities and are called ‘frigorific’.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Agriculture and Cattle rearing in the Pampas region

2. Centres of cattle rearing:

The regions which have more groundwater, have fertile pastures and so, animal husbandry farms develop there in larger numbers. The notable cattle-rearing centres are Rozario, Cordoba and Buenos Aires. About 40% of sheep is reared in Buenos Aires province.

3. Animal products:

A large amounts of meat, fur, leather, milk and dairy products (powdered milk, butter, clarified butter cheese, cream, etc.) from this region are exported to other parts of the world. Argentina ranks first in the world in terms of beef export.

Besides the meat, beef extract, beef fat, bone powder, etc., are also produced here. The city of Cordoba is famous for dairy products.

Question 7. Describe the population distribution, cities, mineral resources and industries of the Pampas region.
Answer:

Population distribution and the cities of the Pampas:

The vast stretch of the Pampas grasslands is suitable for animal grazing and cattle rearing. Hence, the region is very scarcely populated. This region is home to a tribe of nomadic horsemen and cowhands engaged in cattle rearing.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region The main cities of pampas region

 

They are called the Gauchos. However, at present, most of the inhabitants of this region are descendants of the Spanish. Although this region itself is not much populated, its adjoining cities are quite densely populated.

Such cities are-Buenos Aires, La Plata, Bahia Blanca, Rosario, Cordoba, Mar del Plata, Santa Fe and Montevideo.

Mineral resources of the Pampas:

The Pampas region, made up of alluvial soil, is not rich in minerals. However, small amounts of copper ore, manganese, etc., are present in the northern hilly regions of the Pampas.

A small amount of copper ore is obtained from the southern part of Uruguay. Besides these, coal, zinc, lead, limestone and natural gas are also found here.

Industries of the Pampas:

The Pampas region is famous for its well-developed cattle rearing. This has led to the development of various industries that depend on products acquired from animals, such as-

  1. Milk industry (butter, cheese, powdered milk, etc., Are made from milk),
  2. Meat industry,
  3. Leather industry and
  4. Fur industry.

The most important centres of these industries are Buenos Aires, La Plata, Cordoba, Montevideo, etc. Flour, sugar and bakery industries have also developed here, based on agricultural raw materials.

The other notable industries that have developed in these centres are-

Engineering,

  1. Chemical,
  2. Garment trading,
  3. Food processing and
  4. Mineral oil refining.
  5. At present, Argentina is the largest beef exporter in the world.

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Write a short note on the Pampas region or, Discuss the temperate grasslands of South America.
Answer:

Pampas Region:-

Pampas is a Spanish word meaning extensive plainlands. The South American temperate grasslands, situated in eastern Argentina, are known as Pampas. The total area of this region is about 7.5 lakh sq. km.

It extends from the foothills of the Andes in the west to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in the east. Being situated in the cool temperate climate (average summer temperature-22°C-24°C, average winter temperature-8°C-10°C And annual average rainfall-50 cm-100 cm), short grasses have grown in this region.

Alfalfa, Stipa, and pampas grass are the dominant grass species of this region. This region is a notable cattle-rearing field and wheat-producing area. Buenos Aires and many other cities are located in the Pampas region.

Question 2. Briefly discuss the location of the Pampas region and the area occupied by it.
Answer:

Location Of The Pampas Region And The Area Occupied By It:-

The Pampas is surrounded by the Gran Chaco plains and the Brazilian Highlands in the north and the temperate Patagonian Desert in the south. To its east lies, the Atlantic Ocean and to the west lies the Andes Mountain range.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Latitudinal location of the Pampas

 

Coordinates:

From 30°S to 38°S latitude and from 54°W to 65°W longitude, the Pampas has grown in the north-eastern parts of Argentina and along the banks of the river La Plata that passes through the south-west of Uruguay.

Area:

The Pampas covers 7.5 lakh sq. km of area. This grassland is 1/4th of Argentina in terms of area.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 3. Give an account of the humid Pampas and the dry Pampas.
Answer:

Humid Pampas And The Dry Pampas:-

The word ‘Pampas’ has originated from the Spanish word Pampa, meaning ‘uninterrupted extensive plainland’. The vast grassland that surrounds the capital of Argentina, Buenos Aires, in a half-moon shape, is called the Pampas.

The eastern part of the Pampas receives a comparatively higher amount of rainfall which helps in the growth of tall grasses. Therefore, this region is referred to as the humid Pampas.

The western part of the grassland is situated in the interior part of the continent, away from the sea. So, it receives less amount of rainfall, which leads to the growth of short grasses.

Hence, the western part is referred to as the dry Pampas. The Pampas grassland is famous for cattle rearing and the system of cattle-rearing followed in this region is the best in South America.

Question 4. Give a physiographic description of the Pampas grassland.
Answer:

Physiographic Description Of The Pampas Grassland:-

In terms of physical features, the Pampas is a plainland.

Origin:

For many years, loess and sediments have been carried from the western highlands and accumulated over the ancient rock strata to form this deep silt-layered region.

Characteristics:

  1. The region slopes from west to east.
  2. The layer of silt in this region is fertile and deep.
  3. Although the region is a plainland, it is undulating in many areas (Uruguay).
  4. There are some low hills in the southeastern parts of the region (Sierra del Tandil, Sierra de La Ventana).

Question 5. Differentiate between the tropical and temperate grasslands of South America.
Answer: The differences between the tropical and the temperate grasslands of South America are as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Differences between Tropical and Temperate grassland

 

Question 6. Differentiate between wild rubber and natural rubber.
Answer: The differences between wild rubber and natural rubber are discussed below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Differences between Wild and Natural rubber

 

Question 7. Write a short note on Buenos Aires.
Answer:

Buenos Aires:-

Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina. The characteristic features of the city are as follows-

  1. It is situated on the estuary of the river La Plata and ranks as the second-largest metropolitan area in South America.
  2. Buenos Aires is considered to be the most important city and port in the southern hemisphere. It is also the primary centre of educational and cultural development in Argentina.
  3. Some of the important industries of the region are cotton textile, flour, meat, leather products, food-processing, tobacco, etc.
  4. Goods imported include coal, cotton garments and industrial machinery while goods exported are wheat, corn, meat, leather and fur.
  5. Buenos Aires is called the Paris of South America because the city is culturally rich and has one of the world’s busiest live theatre industries.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Why is the Selva forest referred to as the ‘Lungs of the World’?
Answer:

Selva Forest Referred To As The ‘Lungs Of The World’

Selva is the largest tropical forest in the world. It occupies an area of almost 55 lac sq. km which accounts for 60 per cent of Brazil’s total land area.

The Selva provides 20 per cent of the world’s oxygen and hence, this vast tropical forest is referred to as the ‘Lungs of the World’.

Question 2. What is Estancia?
Answer:

Estancia:-

The Pampas grassland in South America is famous for livestock rearing. Since the eastern parts of the Pampas receive more rainfall than other regions, the grasses that grow here are taller in size.

This makes the region highly suitable for livestock rearing. These vast stretches of grazing lands in the Pampas are locally called Estancia.

Question 3. The Pampas region is called the ‘Granary of South America’. Why?
Answer:

The Pampas region is called the ‘Granary of South America’:-

The gentle and cool climate, sufficient rainfall, availability of chernozem soil, extensive plainland, etc., enhance the agriculture of the Pampas. In this region, highly developed farming methods are used to grow different types of crops.

A large amount of wheat is produced here and exported to different parts of the world. Hence, the Pampas region is called the ‘Granary of South America’.

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The dense equatorial forest in the Amazon River basin is known as-

  1. Savanna
  2. Selva
  3. Campos
  4. Mediterranean forest

Answer: 2. Selva

Question 2. The highest concentration of Selva forest is seen in-

  1. Peru
  2. Argentina
  3. Brazil
  4. Paraguay

Answer: 2. Brazil

Question 3. Piranha is a type of-

  1. Fly
  2. Spider
  3. Tree
  4. Fish

Answer: 4. Fish

Question 4. The literal meaning of ‘Pampas’ is-

  1. Extensive Desert
  2. Extensive Plainland
  3. Highlands
  4. Waterbody

Answer: 2. Extensive Plainland

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 5. Pampas region is basically a-

  1. Plateau
  2. Grassland
  3. Desert
  4. Drainforest area

Answer: 2. Grassland

Question 6. The general slope of the Pampas region is from-

  1. North to south
  2. East to west
  3. West to east
  4. South to north

Answer: 3. West to east

Question 7. The type of climate prevailing in the Pampas grasslands is-

  1. Temperate type
  2. Warm desert type
  3. Mediterranean type
  4. Polar type

Answer: 1. Temperate type

Question 8. Alfalfa grass is seen in-

  1. Selva region
  2. Patagonian desert
  3. Atacama desert
  4. Pampas region

Answer: 4. Pampas region

Question 9. Grasslands in the Pampas region has developed due to-

  1. Scanty rainfall
  2. Sea breeze
  3. Abundant rainfall
  4. Fertile soil

Answer: 1. scanty rainfall

Question 10. The main commercial crop of the Pampas region is-

  1. Wheat
  2. Tea
  3. Jute
  4. Cocoa

Answer: 1. Wheat

Question 11. The huge grazing areas in the Pampas grasslands are called-

  1. Frigorifico
  2. Estero
  3. Estancia
  4. Gran Chaco

Answer: 3. Estancia

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 12. Cordoba is famous for-

  1. Meat
  2. Automobiles
  3. Dairy products
  4. Petrochemicals

Answer: 3. Dairy products

Question 13. The capital of Argentina is-

  1. Quito
  2. Brasilia
  3. Buenos Aires
  4. Rio de Janeiro

Answer: 3. Buenos Aires

Question 14. The city of Buenos Aires is located on the estuary of the river-

  1. Amazon
  2. La Plata
  3. Colorado
  4. Orinoco

Answer: 2. La Plata

Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. The Selva region is also known as ________.
Answer: Region of Eternal Twilight

Question 2. ________ is Amazon’s famous rubber-accumulating centre.
Answer: Manaus

Question 3. The grasslands in Argentina are called the ________.
Answer: Pampas

Question 4. The wind that blows across the Pampas region is called ________.
Answer: Pampero

Question 5. The Pampas grasslands are dominated by ________ soil.
Answer: Chernozem

Question 6. ________ region is known as the ‘Granary of South America.
Answer: Pampas

Question 7. ________, located in the foothills of the Andes, is a notable centre for cattle rearing.
Answer: Cordoba

Question 8. ________ ranks first in the world in terms of meat exports.
Answer: Argentina

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 9. The city that is situated in the northern coast of the La Plata River bay is ________
Answer: Montevideo

Question 10. The port of ________ in Pampas is most significant in terms of fur exports.
Answer: Bahia Blanca

 

Write True Or False

Question 1. The Pampas is rich in mineral resources.
Answer: False

Question 2. In terms of area, the Pampas region occupies around 7 lakh 50 thousand sq. km.
Answer: True

Question 3. Pampas in Argentina is a type of tropical grassland.
Answer: False

Question 4. The massive animal husbandry farms in the Pampas are called ‘frigorific’.
Answer: False

Question 5. Argentina is referred to as the ‘Coffee Pot of the World’.
Answer: False

Question 6. The extensive grazing lands in the Pampas are called Estancia.
Answer: True

Question 7. Gauchos are the people who live in a coffee fazenda.
Answer: False

Question 8. The frigorific is a slaughterhouse.
Answer: True

Question 9. Selva is the densest forest of the world.
Answer: True

Question 10. The general slope of the Pampas region is from east to west.
Answer: False

 

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Match The Columns

1.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Match the columns

Answer: 1. D, 2. C, 3. A, 4. E, 5. B

 

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Which is the largest rainforest in the world?
Answer: The Amazon.

Question 2. Name a duty-free riverine port in the Amazon River basin.
Answer: Manaus.

Question 3. How much area does the Pampas region occupy?
Answer: 7.5 lakh sq. km.

Question 4. What is the average temperature in winter in the Pampas region?
Answer: 8°C-10°C.

Question 5. What are the large cattle farms known as in the Pampas region?
Answer: Estancia.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 6. Give an example of an animal-based industry in the Pampas region.
Answer: Dairy industry.

Question 7. Give an example of an agro-based industry in the Pampas region.
Answer: Flour industry.

Question 8. What are the slaughterhouses of Argentina locally called?
Answer: Frigorifricos.

Question 9. Name the native inhabitants of the Pampas region.
Answer: Gaucho.

 

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Conceptual Questions And Answers

 

Who am I?

Question 1. ‘I am the world’s largest and the second longest river and I originate in the Nevado Mismi mountain peak in Peru.’-Who am I?
Answer: Amazon

Question 2. ‘I am the world’s densest evergreen forest and I am called the ‘Region of Eternal Twilight.-Who am I?
Answer: Selva

Question 3. ‘I am the highest mountain peak in South America and I am an extinct volcano.’- Who am I?
Answer: Aconcagua

Question 4. ‘I am the narrow canal that separates South America from North America and I was established in the year 1914.- Who am I?
Answer: Panama Canal

Question 5. ‘I am the capital of Argentina, situated at the mouth of La Plata.’-Who am I?
Answer: Buenos Aires

Question 6. ‘My scientific name is Hevea Brasiliensis and I am referred to as South America’s ‘black gold’.-Who am I?
Answer: Natural rubber

Question 7. ‘I am the capital of Brazil and I am the third most populous city of Brazil-Who am I?
Answer: Brasilia

 

Scrambled Words

1. NCAACO GUA
2. RACH BOIMZO
3. GROTOSSOMA
4. COGRCHAAN

Answers:

1. ACONCAGUA
2. CHIMBORAZO
3. MATO GROSSO
4. GRAN CHACO

 

Fill Up The Blanks In The Knowledge Hive

Question 1. The Amazon is the world’s largest river. Fill up the blanks in the knowledge hive with important features of the Amazon.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Fill the blanks

Answers:

1. It is South America’s longest and the world’s second-longest river.
2. The river originates in the Nevado Mismi mountain peak of the Andes.
3. It is the largest river in the world in terms of water discharge.
4. The river has more than 1000 tributaries.”
5. Some notable tributaries of this river are Madeira, Negro, Japura and Purus.
6. It provides more than 3200km of the navigable route from its mouth.
7. The river is 240km wide near the mouth.
8. The Amazon discharges about 209000 cubic metres of water per second.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 2. Fill up the blanks in the knowledge hive with information on the Selva.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Fill in the blanks

Answers:

1. The trees in this forest are almost 50-60 metres tall.
2. Leaves of the trees remain green throughout the year. So, the forest is also called the equatorial evergreen forest.
3. The forest is called the ‘Region of Eternal Twilight”.
4. The Selva is dense and impenetrable.
5. Biological diversity is prevalent here.
6. About 10 per cent of the world’s living organisms are found in the Selva region..
7. It is home to almost 2.5lac insects and 4lac plant species.

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Answer With Reference To The Illustration

Question 1. Fill up the illustration with the different landforms of the Amazon Basin.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Amazon basin

Answers:

1. The Andes
2. Guiana Highland
3. Atlantic Ocean
4. Mato Grosso
5. Brazilian Highland

Question 2. Fill up the illustration with the course of the La Plata River.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Atlantic Ocean

Answers:

1. Mato Grosso
2. Brazilian Highland
3. Paraguay river
4. Parana River
5. La Plata River

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Aconcagua
Answer: Aconcagua (it is a mountain peak, not a country)

Question 2. Llanos, Peru, Gran Chaco, Pampas
Answer: Peru (it is a country, not a grassland)

Question 3. Orinoco, Purus, Xingu, Madeira
Answer: Orinoco (it is not a tributary of the Amazon)

 

Correct The Following

Question 1. The Himalayas is the longest mountain range in the world.
Answer: Andes

Question 2. The Paraguay River has formed by the convergence of the Parana and the Paraguay rivers.
Answer: Parana

Question 3. A delta has developed at the mouth of the river Amazon.
Answer: No delta

Question 4. Uruguay is the world’s largest meat-exporting country in South America.
Answer: Argentina

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Crossword

Solve the crossword with the clues given below:

Question 1.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Crossword

 

CLUES

Down:

1. Capital of Ecuador.
3. Largest river in South America.

Across:

2. Black gold’ of the Amazon River basin.
4. Highest peak in the Guiana Highlands.
5. The nomadic herdsmen of the Pampas.

Answers:

Down:

1. QUITO,
3. AMAZON

Across:

2. RUBBER,
4. RORAIMA,
5. GAUCHO

Question 2.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Crossword.

 

CLUES

Down:

1. The world’s highest lake
2. Highest peak of South America
3. highest waterfall of the world

Across:

1. Desert on the western coastal plain
2. Main river of South America
3. Parana, Paraguay, Uruguay combined channel
4. Capital of Brazil

Answers:

Down:

1. Titicaca
2. Aconcagua
3. Angel

Across:

1. Atacama
2. Amazon
3. La Plata
4. Brasilia

 

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1. Discuss the geographical significance of South America.
Answer:

Geographical Significance Of South America:-

The continent of South America has immense geographical significance. These are discussed below-

1. Topographic diversity:

The continent of South America has the world’s longest mountain range, the Andes, in the west and the Brazilian Highlands in the northeast. The world’s largest river basin has developed in South America, that is the Amazon.

The world’s highest navigable lake, the Titicaca (3810 metres) and the world’s largest fluvial island called Marajo are also situated in this continent.

2. Isolated continent:

South America is encircled by seas and oceans on all sides. Although it is joined to North America by the Isthmus of Panama, the continent of South America remains separated from other landmasses.

3. Fourth largest continent:

In terms of area, South America is the fourth largest and in terms of population, it is the fifth largest continent in the world. The continent of South America is where the ancient Inca and the Maya civilisations had flourished.

4. Continent of the southern hemisphere:

About 85 per cent of South America lies to the south of the Equator. So, it is referred to as the continent of the southern hemisphere.

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5. Location of the Selva:

The world’s densest evergreen forest, the Selva, has grown along the Amazon River basin in South America. The Selva is so dense that sunlight doesn’t reach the lower layers even during the day. Hence, Selva is also known as the ‘Land of Eternal Twilight’.

6. Population diversity:

South America is home not only to the indigenous people but also to foreigners.

7. Abundance of forest-based and agri- cultural raw materials:

The various agricultural crops of South America, namely, Argentina’s wheat; Brazil’s cocoa, sugarcane, coffee; Amazon region’s rubber, cotton, tobacco as well as different types of fruits grown in Chile, serve as raw materials for the industries of cotton, sugar, flour, coffee, etc.

The famous cattle-rearing regions in the grasslands of Pampas, Llanos and Campos, have influenced the growth of the meat, leather, fur and dairy industries. Argentina in South America is the world’s largest meat exporter.

8. Mineral resources contributing to industrial development:

Various types of mineral resources available in different parts of the continent have led to the development of industries like iron and steel, copper and oil refining.

Some of these resources include mineral oil from Venezuela and Ecuador, iron from Brazil and Chile, copper and silver from Peru, tin from Bolivia and bauxite from French Guiana.

9. Climatic diversity:

The continent of South America has different types of climates in different areas. These include hot and humid equatorial, tropical, temperate, maritime, arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean types.

The fact that both the Amazon basin and the Atacama Desert are parts of the same content is a proof of this diversity.

10. Scope for potential development:

The abundance of raw materials, fast-flowing rivers for generation of hydroelectricity, large population-all these advantages should be properly utilised for economic development so that South America emerges as a developed and affluent continent in time.

Question 2. Discuss the agricultural activities and forest resources of the Amazon River basin.
Answer:

Agricultural activities of the Amazon river basin:

Agriculture has not developed in this region because of the dense forest cover and excessively acidic soil. However, the coastal areas receive less rainfall than the other areas and so, these parts are less forested.

As a result, it is possible for the local inhabitants to reclaim patches of land from the forest and practise farming to some extent. The main crops that are grown here are-

  1. Beet,
  2. Sugarcane,
  3. Corn,
  4. Cotton,
  5. Rice,
  6. Tapioca,
  7. Manioc,
  8. Potato And
  9. Nut.

Wild rubber, called Hevea Brasiliensis which grows in forest regions has great economic value. However, nowadays, rubber, cocoa, and tobacco are being produced using modern techniques.

Some ancient tribes like Mura and Yanomami live within the forests of the Amazon river basin. They depend on gathering fruits and hunting for their livelihood.

The local method of shifting cultivation is used to produce corn, barley, millets, cassava, banana and few vegetables.

Forest resources of the Amazon river basin:

The Amazon River basin is rich in forest resources. However, it is not possible to utilise these resources due to lack of technological progress, poor transportation system, unhealthy environment and impenetrable forests.

The main yield of this forest is wild rubber, called Hevea Brasiliensis. At present, many rubber plantations have developed in this region under foreign proprietorship.

Rubber is referred to as the ‘black gold’ of the Amazon due to its economic importance. Brazil nut is also an important product of the Amazon region, as it acts as a raw material for the edible oil industry.

The shells of these nuts are used to make buttons and decorative items. Wood collected from the forest is used to make the decks of ships, railway sleepers and furniture.

Question 3. Describe the mineral resources, industry, population distribution and cities of the Amazon River basin.
Answer:

Mineral resources of the Amazon river basin:

The Amazon River basin is not rich in mineral resources. Some amounts of mineral oil, natural gas, manganese, tin, nickel, copper, bauxite and iron ore are found in this region. Silver and gold are also found in small amounts.

Industries of the Amazon river basin:

Industries have not developed in the Amazon River basin due to impenetrable forests, unhealthy environment, poor communication, insufficient raw materials, limited population, lack of capital and well-developed technology.

Very few nut and palm oil factories, rubber industries, small-scale wood industries and cement industries have developed here.

Population distribution of the Amazon river basin:

Very few people reside in the Amazon River basin-on an average, only 1 person lives per sq. km in this region. Some regions are completely uninhabited. Manaus, Belem and Iquitos are the most inhabited cities of the river basin.

The nomadic indigenous tribes like Jivaro, Ticuna, Yanomami, Tucano, etc. largely retain the ethnicity of the Amerindians (short for American Indians). Amerindians are the natives of this region.

Apart from them, the Seringueiros live on the banks of the Amazon.

Cities of the Amazon river basin:

The main port city of this region is Manaus. The city was once famous as a centre of rubber collection. The other two cities of the Amazon River basin where industry has developed are Belem and Iquitos.

Question 4. Discuss the reasons for the economic importance of the Rio-de- la-Plata estuary.
Answer:

Reasons For The Economic Importance Of The Rio-De- La-Plata Estuary:-

The funnel-shaped Rio-de-la-Plata estuary is situated on the Argentina-Uruguay border in the southeastern part of South America. The reasons for its economic importance are as follows-

  1. The mouth of this estuary is almost 220km wide which provides favourable natural environment for the development of a port. The ports of Montevideo, Buenos Aires, etc., have developed here, through which trade is conducted.
  2. This extensive bay protects South America from natural calamities caused by the sea. Hence, natural harbours and ship repairing centres have developed in this estuary.
  3. This estuary is used to export the large amounts of wheat grown in coastal climatic conditions, improvement in the Pampas region of Argentina.
  4. Pleasant agriculture and trade and better economic opportunities have led to high population growth along the banks of the estuary.

Question 5. Brazil is called the ‘Coffee Pot of the World-Explain.
Answer:

Brazil is called the ‘Coffee Pot of the World’:-

Brazil, situated in the eastern part of South America, is the world’s largest coffee producer. Huge coffee plantations have been developed on the vast stretches of land that extend from the north of Rio de Janeiro to Sao Paulo.

These plantations produce about 30 per cent of the world’s coffee. Hence, it is called the ‘Coffee pot of the world’. In the year 2016, Brazil produced 3.3 million tonnes of coffee.

The contributing factors are

  1. Brazil receives heavy rainfall (125 cm on. Average) which is favourable for coffee production,
  2. Sloping hilly areas favourable for water discharge are present,
  3. A favourable dry and bright sunny climate to dry coffee beans prevails here,
  4. Fertile, red, clayey soil, rich in iron, is found here, which is highly suitable for coffee production,
  5. The ports of sao paulo and Santos are in close proximity to the plantations, thereby facilitating trade.

 

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Formative

 

Participation

This segment will indicate how much the students have actively participated and taken initiative during the class.

South America is the world’s fourth-largest continent in terms of area. With reference to this answer the following questions-

Question 1. What is the shape of South America?
Answer: Like a triangle/the southern part of the continent is narrower than the northern part/…

Question 2. Name some of the countries situated in this continent.
Answer: Brazil/Argentina/Bolivia/Venezuela/…

Question 3. Name some characteristic features of this continent.
Answer: The world’s longest mountain range, the Andes, is in this continent./ The world’s largest river, the Amazon, flows through this continent. /….

Question 4. Which types of flora are found in South America?
Answer: The Pampas grasslands are found here./ Evergreen trees like rosewood and ironwood are also found here./…

Question 5. Name some primitive tribes of this continent.
Answer: Mura/Yanomami/Jivaro/…

 

Interpretation And Application

This segment will test whether the students have understood the topics, or whether they are just mugging up.

Question 1. Prepare a list of the hot and cold deserts from all over the world.
Answer: The list of hot and cold deserts from all over the world is tabulated below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region List of the cold and hot deserts from all over the world

 

Aesthetics And Creativity

This segment will check the aesthetic sense and creativity of the students.

Question 1. Selva, the largest tropical rainforest in the world, does not have a timber industry like one in the Canadian Shield region. Provide a comparative study between the features of the two regions, discussing the reasons for this.
Answer: Different species of trees are found in the Selva. Still, the wood yielded from the trees of this forest has not led to the formation of any big timber industry. The reasons for this may be sighted as-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Industry and regions

 

In The Given Map Point Out The Following Places

  1. Amazon river,
  2. Lake Titicaca,
  3. Ojos del Salado,
  4. The Patagonian Desert,
  5. Iguazu waterfall,
  6. Pampas grassland,
  7. Strait of Magellan,
  8. Guiana Highland,
  9. Bolivian plateau,
  10. Cotopaxi Mountain.
  11. Aconcagua
  12. Atacama Desert

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Map

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Some Neighbouring Countries Of India And Its Relationship With Them Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan

Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the agro-based and forest-based industries of Bangladesh.
Answer:

Agro-Based And Forest-Based Industries Of Bangladesh:-

Bangladesh is an agrarian country. Agriculture as well as forest-based industries are highly developed in this country. The various agro-based and forest-based industries of Bangladesh are discussed below-

1. Jute industry:

This is the major industry in Bangladesh. Almost 80 jute mills are located in Narayanganj, Khulna, Jessore, Chittagong and Dhaka.

2. Tea industry:

The second largest industry in Bangladesh is tea. Sylhet and Chittagong have highly developed tea industries.

3. Sugar industry:

Daulatpur of Khulna, Dhaka, Rajshahi, Dinajpur and Jessore are the important centres of the sugar industry.

4. Paper industry:

The paper industry has developed in Chittagong, Pabna and Khulna. Chandraghona has the largest paper mill in Bangladesh.

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5. Cotton textile industry:

Dhaka, Tangail and Khulna are famous for its cotton textile industries.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Question 2. Discuss the scope and prospect of industrial development in Bangladesh.
Answer:

Scope And Prospect Of Industrial Development In Bangladesh:-

The economy of Bangladesh is majorly dependent on agriculture. So, most of the industries in Bangladesh develop on the basis of agriculture or forest resources.

For instance, the jute industry, cotton textile industry, sugar industry, paper industry and tea industry as well as various cottage industries like clay industry, handloom, tant and muslin industries are all dependent on agriculture and forest resources.

Bangladesh has limited mining-based industries due to a lack of minerals, raw materials and power resources. There is a large coal mine in Jamalganj.

Bangladesh has sufficient natural gas but a low petroleum reserve. Recently, a hydel power project has been established in Bangladesh. So, it can be predicted that Bangladesh has a good prospect of industrial development in the future.

Question 3. Discuss the forest resources of Myanmar.
Answer:

Forest Resources Of Myanmar:-

Myanmar is rich in forest resources because different types of forests are found in this country. The different forests and its resources are discussed below-

1. Evergreen forest:

Valuable tree species like Pincode, ironwood, garden, chaplash, mahogany, etc. are found in evergreen forests. Bamboo is also an important forest resource of this country.

2. Deciduous forest:

Due to insufficient rainfall in the western plateau region, deciduous forests with trees such as sal, teak, Arjun, sisu and simul are found there. Myanmar is known as the ‘Land of the Teak Tree’ because a large amount of the world’s teak is sourced from this country. The best quality teak is known as ‘Burma teak’.

3. Grassland:

Long grasses and spruce are found in the dry regions of central Myanmar.

4. Others:

Apart from these, there are coniferous forests with trees such as pine in the hilly areas and mangrove forests in the coastal areas.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Question 4. Give an outline of the mineral and energy resources of Myanmar.
Answer:

Outline Of The Mineral And Energy Resources Of Myanmar:-

Myanmar is a country rich in minerals. It is famous for lead, tin, zinc, tungsten and the extraction of precious stones like ruby and sapphire.

Mineral oil is also found in this country. The mineral and energy resources of Myanmar are discussed in the following table-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Mineral And Energy Resources

 

Apart from these, manganese, nickel and gypsum are also found in Myanmar.

Question 5. Describe the irrigation system of Pakistan.
Answer:

Irrigation System Of Pakistan:-

The climate of Pakistan is very hot and dry. Most of the places in Pakistan experience less than 50 cm of rainfall annually and only 25% of the total land area is under cultivation due to insufficient water supply.

Naturally, over time, the inhabitants of this region have devised ingenious methods of irrigation. Thus, the irrigation system in Pakistan is regarded as one of the best in the world.

The two popular irrigation systems of Pakistan are discussed in the following points-

1. Canal irrigation:

The most remarkable dams or bunds in Pakistan are Sukkur Bund, Gulam Muhammad Bund, Jinna Bund on the river Indus, and Mongola Bund on the river Beas. Apart from these, there are Marala, Rasul and Balloki barrages.

Irrigation is carried out by constructing canals from the water reservoirs located behind the dams. One-third of this country is irrigated by the method of canal irrigation.

Important canals for irrigation in Pakistan are the Lower Bari Doab Canal, Upper Bari Doab Canal, Indus Canal, etc.

2. Karez system:

This is a method of irrigation which is used in the dry parts of Balochistan because of the high temperature of the region. This type of irrigation is carried out through sub-surface tunnels, which prevent the loss of water through evaporation.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Question 6. Why is agriculture in Pakistan dependent on irrigation?
Answer:

Agriculture In Pakistan Dependent On Irrigation:-

Agriculture in Pakistan is dependent on irrigation due to the following reasons-

1. Dry climatic conditions:

Most of the places in Pakistan experience less than 50 cm of rainfall per year and only 25% of the total land area is under cultivation as a result of insufficient water supply.

Hence, the irrigation system is well-developed in this area and agriculture is highly dependent on it.

2. Huge demand for food crops:

There is a huge demand for food crops so as to meet the requirements of the large population of this country.

3. Canal irrigation:

Agriculture has flourished in Pakistan in spite of less rainfall due to improved irrigation techniques. Canal irrigation is the most commonly used irrigation. technique in Pakistan.

Question 7. Give an outline of the agriculture of Pakistan.
Answer:

Outline Of The Agriculture Of Pakistan:-

Pakistan is an agro-based country. Though only one-fourth of the land in Pakistan is under cultivation because of the scarcity of water, a large number of the total population of Pakistan is engaged in farming.

Intensive cultivation is carried out primarily in the Indus Plain because of the availability of sufficient water.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Crop, Region, Facts

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Question 8. Prepare a table that shows the commodities of export and import between India and her neighbouring countries.
Answer:

A Table That Shows The Commodities Of Export And Import Between India And Her Neighbouring Countries

India exports and imports the following commodities from her neighbouring countries-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Export, Import India and other countries

Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Briefly write about the agricultural characteristics of Bangladesh.
Answer:

Gricultural Characteristics Of Bangladesh:-

Bangladesh is an agro-based country. About 70% of the total land area is utilised for cultivation and almost 90% of the population is involved in agriculture-related activities.

Bangladesh is one of the leading producers of agricultural products. The plain land and fertile soil of Bangladesh are suitable for cultivation. Abundant rainfall and the river network of Bangladesh provide sufficient water to carry out extensive agriculture in the country.

The main crops grown here are rice, jute, tea, tobacco, sugarcane, maize, jawar, cotton, oilseeds, wheat, potato, fruits, etc.

Question 2. Discuss the trade relationship between India and Bangladesh.
Answer:

Trade Relationship Between India And Bangladesh:-

Bangladesh imports coal, steel, automobiles, crop seed, sugar, remaining goods etc., from India and exports raw jute and jute products, natural gas, cotton garments, leather, paper, tobacco, hilsa fish, areca nut etc., to India.

Since most of the Indo- Bangladesh border is on land, trade is conducted through roadways. West Bengal uses Petrapole near the Bongaon border for trade activities.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Question 3. Discuss the trade relationship between India and Myanmar.
Answer:

Trade Relationship Between India And Myanmar:-

The trade relationship between Myanmar and India is extensive. Myanmar imports coal, cotton garments, steel, jute products, tinned goods, chemicals goods, transport equipment, etc., from India and exports teak and sandalwood, tin, lead, precious stones, tungsten, silver, etc., to India. India trades with Myanmar through waterways.

Question 4. Pakistan’s economy is primarily agrarian because of its well-developed irrigation system-Justify the statement.
Answer:

Pakistan’s economy is primarily agrarian because of its well-developed irrigation system:-

The climate of Pakistan is very hot and dry. Most places in Pakistan experience less than 50 cm of rainfall per year and only 25% of the total land area is under cultivation, because of the scarcity of water.

As a result, the irrigation system has developed remarkably in this country and Pakistan’s irrigation system is considered to be one of the best in the world.

For instance, the ‘Karez’ system of irrigation, a system that transports water through sub-surface tunnels so that water loss through evaporation can be prevented or minimised, is extensively used.

The most remarkable dams or bunds in Pakistan are Sukkur Bund, Ghulam Muhammad Bund, Jinnah Bund on the river Indus, and Mangla Bund on the river Jhelum. Apart from these, Marala, Rasul, and Balloki are also some notable barrages.

One-third of the irrigation of this country is carried out by canal irrigation. Some of the important canals of Pakistan are the Doab Canal of River Ravi, the Lower and Upper Chenab Canal of the river Chenab Indus Canal, etc.

Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Mention some important crops of Myanmar and which is the most important agricultural region of this country.
Answer:

Important Crops And Important Agricultural Region Of Myanmar:-

Some important crops of Myanmar are rice, millet, groundnut, maize, tobacco, cotton oilseeds and sugarcane. The Irrawaddy Delta region is the most important agricultural region of this country.

Question 2. Name a few cottage industries in Myanmar.
Answer:

Cottage Industries In Myanmar:-

There are quite a few cottage industries in Myanmar namely silk, handloom, wooden crafts, bamboo crafts and cane products.

Question 3. Which country is known as the ‘Land of the Teak Tree’?
Answer:

The prevalence of wet deciduous forests with a rich teak tree population has led to Myanmar being called ‘The land of the Teak Tree. A large percentage of the world’s teak wood is acquired from this country.

Question 4. Mention the important crops of Pakistan.
Answer:

Important Crops Of Pakistan:-

Wheat and high-quality cotton are the most important crops of Pakistan. Besides these, rice, millet, sugarcane, maize, oilseeds, pulses and different fruits like apples, pomegranates, grapes, peaches, etc. are also grown here.

Question 5. What is the ‘Karez’ system?
Answer:

‘Karez’ System:-

‘Karez’ system is an irrigation method prevalent in Pakistan. It is practised in the hot and dry parts of Balochistan (west of Pakistan).

This method involves the construction and use of sub-surface tunnels for irrigation, which prevents water loss through evaporation because of the extreme heat.

Question 6. Why is irrigation through underground passes and canals practised in Pakistan?
Answer:

Irrigation Through Underground Passes And Canals Practised In Pakistan:-

Pakistan has a well-developed irrigation system. The ‘karez’ system is an irrigation method that is prevalent in the hot and drier parts of Balochistan.

In this system, water is transported to the agricultural fields through sub-surface tunnels to prevent and minimise water loss through evaporation.

Question 7. Mention some of the important canals in Pakistan.
Answer:

Important Canals In Pakistan:-

Some of the important canals in Pakistan are the Upper and Lower Bari Doab Canal of the river Ravi, the Upper and Lower Chenab Canal of the river Chenab, the Upper and Lower Canal of the river Jhelum, the Indu’s Canal, etc.

Question 8. Mention the items of export and import between Pakistan and India.
Answer:

Items Of Export And Import Between Pakistan And India:-

Pakistan imports coal, tea, iron are steel, machinery and tools, medicines, etc., from India. Pakistan exports high-quality cotton, leather, dry fruits, carpets, etc. to India.

Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The highest peak of Bangladesh is-

  1. Kula Kangri
  2. Tirich Mir
  3. Keokradong
  4. Hkakabo Razi

Answer: 3. Keokradong

Question 2. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is located on the banks of the river-

  1. Padma
  2. Buriganga
  3. Jamuna
  4. Meghna

Answer: 2. Buriganga

Question 3. The Kaptai Hydel Power Project is located in-

  1. Afghanistan
  2. Nepal
  3. Bangladesh
  4. Bhutan

Answer: 3. Bangladesh

Question 4. The most flood-prone neighbouring country of India is-

  1. Myanmar
  2. Bangladesh
  3. Sri Lanka
  4. Pakistan

Answer: 2. Bangladesh

Question 5. The capital of Pakistan is-

  1. Islamabad
  2. Karachi
  3. Lahore
  4. Quetta

Answer: 1. Islamabad

Question 6. The longest tributary of the river Irrawaddy that flows through Myanmar is-

  1. Sittaung
  2. Chindwin
  3. Yangon
  4. Salween

Answer: 2. Chindwin

Question 7. The karez system of irrigation is prevalent in-

  1. Bhutan
  2. Myanmar
  3. Nepal
  4. Pakistan

Answer: 4. Pakistan

Question 8. The most important river of Pakistan is-

  1. Irrawaddy
  2. Meghna
  3. Manas
  4. Indus

Answer: 4. Indus

Question 9. Radcliffe Line separates India from-

  1. Afghanistan
  2. Pakistan
  3. Bangladesh
  4. Bhutan

Answer: 2. Pakistan

Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. India imports hilsa fish from ___________.
Answer: Bangladesh

Question 2. Honey is collected from the ___________ of Bangladesh.
Answer: Sundarban

Question 3.  ___________is the highest peak of Myanmar.
Answer: Hkakabo Razi

Question 4. Myanmar is world famous for the gemstone, ___________.
Answer: Ruby

Question 5.  ___________ is known as ‘Land of the Teak Tree’.
Answer: Myanmar

Question 6. Tirich Mir is the highest peak of ___________.
Answer: Pakistan

Question 7. The main language of Pakistan is ___________.
Answer: Urdu

Question 8. The main industry of Pakistan is ___________ industry.
Answer: Cotton textile

Write True Or False

Question 1. The main port of Bangladesh is Dhaka.
Answer: False

Question 2. The highest peak of Myanmar is Kula Kangri.
Answer: False

Question 3. Pakistan exports dry fruits to India.
Answer: True

Question 4. High-quality rubies are found in Myanmar.
Answer: True

Question 5. Mawlamyine is a famous city of Myanmar.
Answer: True

Question 6. The famous Shwedagon Pagoda is located in Yangon, Myanmar.
Answer: True

Question 7. The karez irrigation is practised in the eastern region of Pakistan.
Answer: False

Question 8. Precious stones such as ruby and sapphire are found in the Irrawaddy and Chindween river basins.
Answer: False

Match The Columns

1. WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Match the columns

Answers: 1. C, 2. F, 3. A, 4. E, 5. B, 6. D

2.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Match the columns.

Answers: 1. B, 2. C, 3. A, 4. E, 5. D

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. With which neighbouring countries does India conduct trade through water routes?
Answer: Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Maldives.

Question 2. Which neighbouring country shares the largest borderline with India?
Answer: Bangladesh.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8

Question 3. Apart from West Bengal, which other states share borders with Bangladesh?
Answer: Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.

Question 4. Which is the main river of Bangladesh?
Answer: Meghna.

Question 5. Name one snow-fed river and one rainfed river of Bangladesh.
Answer: Padma and Surma.

Question 6. Name two cash crops of Bangladesh.
Answer: Jute and tea.

Question 7. Name two industries of Bangladesh.
Answer: Jute textile and tea industry.

Question 8. Which is the main industry in Bangladesh?
Answer: Jute textile industry.

Question 9. Name the three major export commodities of Bangladesh.
Answer: Paper, raw jute and hilsa fish.

Question 10. Name two mountain ranges in Myanmar.
Answer: Arakan Yoma and Pegu Yoma.

Question 11. Name the main language spoken in Myanmar.
Answer: Burmese.

Question 12. Name some important cities of Myanmar.
Answer: Yangon, Mandalay, Naypyidaw, Mawlamyine.

Question 13. Which country produces the best quality rubies in the world?
Answer: Myanmar.

Question 14. Which country is known as the ‘Land of the Golden Pagodas’?
Answer: Myanmar.

Question 15. Mention a neighbouring country of India which touches the Arabian Sea.
Answer: Pakistan.

Question 16. Name two important passes in Pakistan.
Answer: Khyber and Bolan.

Question 17. Name one barrage in Pakistan.
Answer: Sukkur Barrage.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Conceptual Questions And Answers

Who am I?

Question 1. I am the capital of a country and the headquarters of SAARC is located here.’- Who am I?
Answer: Kathmandu

Question 2. ‘I am a neighbouring country of India where heavy rainfall with thunderstorms occur. Who am I?
Answer: Bhutan

Question 3. ‘I am an island country and I am famous for the production of various spices especially cinnamon.-Who am I?
Answer: Sri Lanka

Question 4. ‘I am the main cash crop of Sri Lanka and I grow well in the coastal areas.’-Who am I?
Answer: Coconut

Question 5. ‘I am a type of fine sari made in Dhaka and I am famous all over the world.’-Who am I?
Answer: Muslin

Question 6. I am the country where high-quality long fibre cotton is grown.’-Who am I?
Answer: Pakistan

Scrambled Words

1. RSCAA
2. THABNU
3. OMBOCOL
4. SIREPHAP
5. ZRKEA

Answers:

1. SAARC
2. BHUTAN
3. COLOMBO
4. SAPPHIRE
5. KAREZ

Fill Up The Blanks In The Knowledge Hive

Question 1. Fill up the knowledge hive with information on Bangladesh.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Fill the Blanks

Answers:

1. It is primarily a land of Bengali-speaking people.
2. Meghna is the main river of Bangladesh.
3. This country experiences a tropical monsoon type of climate.
4. The main occupation of the people of this country is agriculture.
5. Narayanganj of Bangladesh is known as ‘The Dundee of the East.
6. One of the biggest paper mills in Asia is in Chandraghona.

Answer With Reference To The Illustration

Question 1. In the given illustration the location of India and her neighbouring countries have been. provided. Fill in the blanks marked by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 with the names of the appropriate countries.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Illustration

Answers:

1. Bangladesh
2. Myanmar
3. Sri Lanka
4. Pakistan
5. Nepal
6. Bhutan

Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Nepali Sinhalese: Dzongkha: Manas
Answer: Manas (it is not a language)

Question 2. Kathmandu: Nagarkot: Pokhara: Khulna
Answer: Khulna (it is not in Nepal)

Question 3. Jaffna Karachi: Lahore: Peshawar
Answer: Jaffna (it is not in Pakistan)

Question 4. Seti Kali Gandak: Karnali : Ravi
Answer: Ravi (it is not a river in Nepal)

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8

Correct The Following

Question 1. Muslin of Tangail is world famous.
Answer: Dhaka

Question 2. Pakistan is famous for rubber production.
Answer: Sri Lanka

Question 3. Myanmar practices irrigation by the karez system.
Answer: Pakistan

Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Crossword

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Crossword

CLUES

Down:

1. Official language of Bhutan.
2. One of the important spices grown in Sri Lanka.

Across:

3. World’s highest peak, located in Nepal.
4. One of the main exports of Pakistan.
5. Highest mountain peak in Myanmar.

Answers:

Down: 1. DZONGKHA, 2. PEPPER
Across: 3. EVEREST, 4. CARPET 5. HKAKA-BORAZI

Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1. Where have the major industries of Nepal developed?
Answer:

The major industries of Nepal and their location are given in the following table-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Industry and location

Question 2. What do you know about Adam’s Bridge?
Answer:

Adam’s Bridge:-

Accumulation of coral around sand bars have led to the formation of a natural bridge between Dhanuskodi of Pamban island off the southern tip of the Indian subcontinent and Talaimannar of north-west Mannar island in Sri Lanka.

This bridge is known as Adam’s Bridge.

Question 3. Write down the names of the major ports of Bangladesh.
Answer:

Names Of The Major Ports Of Bangladesh:-

Chittagong, on the bank of river Karnaphuli, is the major port in Bangladesh. The second most important port in Bangladesh is Mongla (Chalna).

Other than these, Payra Port in Barishal and Sadarghat Port in Dhaka are the notable ports of Bangladesh.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8

Question 4. Why is Myanmar called the ‘Land of the Pagodas’?
Answer:

Myanmar Called The ‘Land of the Pagodas’:-

Myanmar is a country of Buddhists and there are many Buddhist temples or pagodas all over Myanmar. The local architecture has developed in such a way that the houses of people are also built like pagodas. Myanmar is thus known as the ‘Land of the Pagodas’.

Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Formative

Participation

This segment will indicate how much the students have actively participated and taken the initiative during the class.

Question 1. Make a table showing which neighbouring country shares its border with which state(s) and union territory(ies) of India. With which neighbouring country does India share her longest boundary? To check whether your concept is right or not, get it checked by your teacher.
Answer:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Neighbouring Countries

 

From the above table, it can be inferred that India shares her longest borderline with Bangladesh. Bangladesh shares a 4096.7 km long border with India on three sides.

Empathy And Cooperation

This segment will determine the ability of students to cooperate and help others within a group.

Question 1. The students should divide themselves into two groups, A and B. Group A will first ask questions and Group B will answer. Then group B will ask questions and Group A will answer.
Answer:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Group A Questions B Answers

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan Group B questions A Answers

Aesthetics And Creativity

This segment will check the aesthetic sense and creativity of the students.

Question 1. In the map of India given below, locate the neighbouring countries of India and write the names of their capitals.
Answer:

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic B Neighbouring Countries Of East And West Bangladesh Myanmar And Pakistan India Map

  1. Afghanistan,
  2. Kabul,
  3. Pakistan,
  4. Islamabad,
  5. Nepal,
  6. Kathmandu,
  7. Bhutan,
  8. Thimpu,
  9. Bangladesh,
  10. Dhaka,
  11. Myanmar,
  12. Naypyidaw,
  13. Sri Lanka,
  14. Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the location, topography and rivers of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Location of the Great Lakes region:

The Great Lakes region lies in the northeastern part of the USA. This region takes into account the major areas of the US states of

  1. Minnesota,
  2. Wisconsin,
  3. Illinois,
  4. Indiana,
  5. Michigan,
  6. Ohio,
  7. Pennsylvania and
  8. New York.

Latitudinally and longitudinally, this region extends from 41°N to 50°N and 75°W to 93°W.

Topography of the Great Lakes region:

Read and Learn More WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography

The main features of the topography of the region are as follows-

  1. This area is mainly plain land and this region is part of the Central lowlands.
  2. Though no part of this region has an elevation greater than 180m, the deposition of moraine over many years has caused the formation of a rolling, undulating landscape.
  3. Low hills are sometimes seen in this region.
  4. In the east, the land between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario is quite steep- a difference of almost 75m. This is known as the Niagara Escarpment or ‘fall line’ and it is along this fall line that the famous Niagara Falls has originated.

Rivers of the Great Lakes region:

The main river of this region is the St. Lawrence River. The river falls into and rises again from each of the five lakes before finally flowing into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. At different points in its course, it is known by different names.

For instance

It is known as the St. Marie River between Lake Superior and Lake Huron,

  1. As St. Clare between Lake Huron and Erie,
  2. As the Niagara River between the Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. It is at this point on its course that the 51m high and 426m long, horseshoe-shaped, world-famous falls-the Niagara has originated. Apart from this Mississippi, Illinois, and Ohio Rivers also flow through this region.

Question 2. Give an account of the mineral resources and the industries of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Mineral resources of the Great Lakes region:

The Great Lakes region is rich in mineral resources. The distribution of mineral resources in this region is tabulated below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Mineral resources ,and industries of the Great Lakes Region

Apart from this, limestone, gypsum, manganese, lead, etc. are also found here.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Industries in the Great Lakes region:

This is the most developed industrial zone in the USA. The iron and steel, engineering, chemical, paper, meat packaging, leather, flour, rubber, dairy, and petrochemical industries have flourished here.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Industrys In the Great Lakes region

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Industries in the Great Lakes Region in the USA

Question 3. Discuss the causes of industrialisation in the Lake region.
Answer:

Causes Of Industrialisation In The Lake Region:-

The causes of industrialisation in the Lake region are-

1. Support of sufficient capital:

The highly populated Lake region ensures sufficient support of capital for the development of the industries in this region.

2. Abundance of mineral resources:

Iron ore and coal mines of the Lake region provide an easy supply of raw materials which facilitate the development of the industries here.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

3. Hydroelectric power:

The generation of hydroelectricity from Niagara falls provides power supply to the industries in the vicinity.

4. Developed transportation network:

Developed roadways and waterways in the Lake region provide easy transportation facilities for the movement of both people and goods.

5. Dense population:

The dense population of this region creates a demand for goods which generates the need for the growth of industries here. This in turn, also creates a demand for labour supply which is also met by this region.

Question 4. How did the Lake region industrially develop?
Answer:

Lake Region Industrially Develop As Follows:-

The Great Lakes region is the most industrially developed region in the world. The causes of industrialisation are also the main factors behind this rapid and sustained development. These reasons are as follows-

1. Abundance of iron ore:

The Great Lakes region, especially Vermilion, Mesabi, Marquette, Menominee, etc. located in the southern and western regions of Lake Superior are rich in iron ore resources.

This has led to the remarkable development of the iron and steel industry in this region.

2. Proximity to coal mines:

Illinois and Indiana are famous coal mining regions. As the northern Appalachian coalfields are in close proximity to the Great Lakes region, power resources are easily available, which facilitates the growth of several industries.

3. Navigable waterway:

The five lakes and the St. Lawrence River have formed a navigable waterway through which trade can be carried out with the entire world.

4. Adequate hydroelectric power:

The fast-flowing rivers, along with Niagara Falls, help in the production of a large amount of hydroelectricity.

5. Developed roads and railways:

This region is well connected through highly developed roads and railways. Chicago is the largest rail junction in the USA.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

6. Adequate water supply:

The Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River can easily meet the huge demand for water. Hence, industries have managed to develop and sustain themselves.

7. Highly populated region:

As the Great Lakes region is highly populated, there is an easy availability of labour force-both skilled and unskilled. This large population also implies a huge demand for locally manufactured goods.

8. Availability of raw materials from agriculture:

The Great Lakes region and its surroundings, being rich in agricultural resources, industries such as flour milling and cotton weaving have flourished here.

9. Availability of raw materials from livestock:

Extensive grasslands in the Great Lakes region mean that this region grows a huge amount of animal fodder. Based on this, the meat packaging, dairy and poultry industries etc. have developed here.

Question 5. State the role of the transportation system in the economic prosperity of the Lake region.
Answer:

Role Of The Transportation System In The Economic Prosperity Of The Lake Region:-

The advanced transport system of the Great Lakes region plays an important role in the economic development of this region.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Navigable waterways:

The main mode of transport in the Great Lakes region is a network of rivers and streams that connect the five lakes. All five lakes are connected to the St. Lawrence River.

Canals and lock gates have been made to ensure navigable waterways in this region. In 1829, the Welland Canal was dug between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, in order to provide a navigable route that bypassed Niagara Falls.

This has enabled. easy access of ships to the ports of Chicago and Duluth. Similarly in 1895, the Sault Ste. Marie was dug between Lake Superior and Lake Huron to provide another route to ships to reach the Atlantic Ocean, besides the St. Lawrence River.

Large sea-going vessels can travel almost 1600km into the continent’s interior through the St. Lawrence waterway. It is through this canal that the region around the Appalachian Mountains and the Great Lakes region can exchange coal and iron respectively.

This has, in turn, resulted in the development of industries such as iron and steel, engineering, etc., in both these areas. Wheat from the Prairies is also transported through this waterway. T

his has resulted in the development of flour mills and bakeries in Buffalo, Duluth, Ontario, etc.

Developed roads and railways:

The Great Lakes region has a network of roads and railways that facilitate trade and hence contribute to its economic development. Chicago is the largest railway terminal in the USA.

Airways:

Airways make an important contribution to the transport sector, with airports situated in Chicago, Detroit and Indianapolis.

Question 6. Discuss the agricultural practices and animal rearing in the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Agriculture:

The salient points of agricultural practices in the Great Lake region are discussed below-

Reasons for highly developed agriculture:

Commercial agriculture carried out with highly developed technology,

  1. Vast expanses of undulating plainlands,
  2. Optimal rainfall and suitable temperature due to the temperate and humid climate,
  3. Fertile chernozem soil,
  4. Modern techniques and methods of farming,
  5. The practice of crop rotation,
  6. High population density implies a very high demand for agricultural products and high availability of labour,
  7. Easy availability of water for irrigation because of the lakes,
  8. Developed communication and transportation network.

Main agricultural products:

  1. Wheat,
  2. Maize,
  3. Oat,
  4. Barley,
  5. Rye,
  6. Beet,
  7. Com,
  8. Different fruits such as apples, peaches and grapes.

To the south of the Great Lakes region lies the famous corn belt of America. To the north of this belt, hay clover and alfalfa are grown for cattle feeding. Besides this, Central Highland is well known for maize production.

Animal rearing:

The salient points of animal rearing in the Great Lakes region are discussed below-

1. Domestic animals:

In the cities and industries of this region for dairy products, cattle and pigs are raised in very hygienic and scientific ways. Poultry farming is also carried out here. This is one of the most famous animal-rearing centres in the world.

Factors for highly developed animal husbandry in this region:

The factors are as follows-

  1. Large quantities of corn grown here along with the production of hay, alfalfa and clover ensure plentiful and high-quality fodder for cattle.
  2. A cool climate facilitates the preservation of highly perishable dairy products.
  3. Availability of vast expanse of land for cattle to graze on.
  4. A plentiful water supply ensures that animals get adequate water.

The state of Wisconsin (on the banks of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior) is especially famous for animal rearing and dairy products so much so that it is known as the ‘Dairy State.

Also, Chicago (on the bank of Lake Michigan) in Illinois is known for meat preservation and its meat packaging industry and is thus known as the ‘slaughterhouse of the world.

Question 7. Discuss the economic significance of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Economic Significance Of The Great Lakes Region:-

The economic significance of the Great Lakes region are as follows-

1. Abundance of farm products:

Though this is mainly an industrial belt, crops such as wheat, maize, barley, rye, oat, beet, etc. are grown in abundant quantities. These in turn, cater to the demand for agricultural products in the northeastern regions.

2. Livestock rearing:

Rearing of cattle is a major occupation here. This region holds the topmost place in beef production. Production of other dairy products such as cottage cheese and butter is also mention-worthy.

3. Largest reserve of iron ore:

A large percentage of the USA’s iron ore is extracted from the Great Lakes region. Vermilion, Mesabi, and Menominee (around Lake Superior and Lake Michigan) are famous for their iron ore resources.

4. Extraction of coal and various other minerals:

Coal is also extracted in large quantities from this area. Besides this, copper, mineral oil, mineral salt, limestone, gypsum, manganese, lead, etc., are also found here.

5. Most developed industrial belt in the USA:

Due to the emergence of different types of industries, the area around the Five Great Lakes has become one of the most developed industrial belts in the USA.

Example-

  1. Iron and steel industry (buffalo, Chicago, gary, Duluth, etc.),
  2. Engineering industry (Detroit, Chicago, etc.),
  3. Chemical industry (Chicago, Detroit, Michigan, etc.),
  4. Paper industry (green bay), meat industry (Chicago),
  5. Leather industry (Chicago),
  6. Dairy industry (Milwaukee),
  7. Flour industry (buffalo),
  8. The rubber industry (Akron) have developed in this region.

Also, the world’s largest automobile industry in Detroit, the world’s leading wheat-producing centre in Buffalo and the rubber capital in Akron are situated here.

6. Centre for financial exchange:

The third largest city in the USA-Chicago is situated in the Great Lakes region. Other important cities such as St Louis, Buffalo, Detroit, Duluth, etc., have also grown here. All these have made this region an important centre of financial exchange.

Question 8. Describe the location, size and topographic features of the Canadian Shield.
Answer:

Location of the Canadian Shield:

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

The ancient, eroded plateau made up of hard rock such as granite and gneiss is known as the Canadian Shield. The Shield encompasses Hudson Bay in the east, the west and the south. It is also called the Laurentian Plateau.

The longitudinal extent of the region is from 55°W (Labrador. Highlands) in the east to 120°W (Great Bear Lake) in the west and its latitudinal extent is from 45°N (Lake Ontario) in the south to 82°N (north coast of Ellesmere Islands) in the north.

Area of the Canadian Shield:

This ancient plateau of Canada extends for 8 million sq. km. Although most of the Canadian Shield region extends across Canada, some areas adjacent to Lake Superior are also part of this shield region.

Topographic features of the Canadian Shield:

Topographic features of the Canadian Shield region are as follows-

  1. The average elevation of the shield region is about 350m. This region remained buried under snow during the Ice Age and glacial erosion and decay over thousands of years has lowered its elevation. However, the average height of the eastern part of the Canadian Shield is almost 900m.
  2. As an effect of glacial erosion, many lakes of different sizes-Great Bear, Great Slave, Winnipeg, Athabasca, Reindeer, etc. have formed in this region. The slope of the land is form south to north.
  3. Although the Canadian Shield is made up of hard granite and gneiss rocks, limestone and slate stone can also be seen in some places. The slope of the land is from south to north
  4. This region consists of small dome-shaped hills (average height 300 m-600 m), several lakes and swamps. notable mountain in this region is the Torngat (1652m).

Question 9. Describe the rivers, climate and types of vegetation of the Canadian Shield region.
Answer:

Rivers of the Canadian Shield region:

The rivers of the Canadian Shield region are as follows-

  1. The main rivers flowing through the Canadian Shield region are Nelson, Churchill, McKenzie, Albany, Great Whale, etc. These rivers flow from south to north draining out at Hudson Bay and the river, McKenzie joins the Arctic Ocean. The river Saskatchewan, flows into Lake Winnipeg, while Athabasca flows into Lake Athabasca. The St. Lawrence River flows through the southeastern part of the Canadian Shield region and joins the Atlantic Ocean.
  2. Most rivers of this region carry large volumes of water at great speed and this tremendous force is harnessed to generate electricity.
  3. Most of the rivers in this region flow northward.
  4. Different lakes-Great Bear, Great Slave, Winnipeg, Athabasca, and Reindeer have formed in this region due to the deposition of moraines, boulder clay, etc., from melting glaciers and glacial erosion. These lakes are located side by side and connected by rivers.

The climate of the Canadian Shield region:

Climatic conditions of the Canadian Shield region are as follows-

  1. A cool temperate continental type of climate prevails in this region. The summers are short and the winters are long.
  2. The northern parts of the Canadian Shield area belong to the severely cold Tundra region because of which these places experience about 7 months of winter with temperatures reaching well below freezing point.
  3. The average summer temperature is around 10°C and the region receives rainfall during this period. The average rainfall is 40 cm and the south receives more rainfall than the north of the Canadian Shield region.
  4. Due to heavy snow cover, it is almost impossible to carry out regular activities and transportation.
  5. The south and south-eastern parts of the region experience a cool temperate east coast type of climate. The average annual temperature is 4°C.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

Types of vegetation of the Canadian Shield region:

The types of vegetation of the Canadian Shield region are as follows-

  1. In the northern parts of the Shield region, a tundra type of climate prevails, which is suitable for the growth of mosses, algae, small shrubs, bushes, and lichens.
  2. Coniferous trees such as pine, fir, maple, spruce, birch, balsam, etc., cover a vast area in the south and southeastern part of the Shield region.
  3. Deciduous trees such as oak, beech, maple etc., and coniferous trees such as pine, fir, etc., together form a mixed forest in the south-eastern of the Canadian Shield region.

Question 10. Give an account of the mineral resources and industries of the Canadian Shield region.
Answer:

Mineral resources of Canadian Shield region:

The Canadian Shield is rich in mineral resources. The most important mineral resources of the region are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Mineral resources of Candian Shield Region

 

Industries of the Canadian Shield region:

The different types of industries that have developed in the Canadian Shield region are as follows:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Industries of the Candian Shield Region

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Mineral resoures of the Canadian Shield region

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Give an account of the Great Lakes Region of North America. How did these lakes come into existence?
Answer:

Great Lakes System of North America:

In the north-eastern part of North America, near the Canada-USA border, there are five huge lakes-

  1. Superior,
  2. Michigan,
  3. Huron,
  4. Erie and
  5. Ontario.

Apart from these, there are numerous smaller lakes as well, such as Lake St. Clare. Among these, only Lake Michigan is completely within the territory of USA. The Canada-USA border passes through all the other four Great Lakes.

The Great Lakes region of the USA refers to the area off the southern shores of these four lakes. The Great Lakes region occupies a major part of eight states and is the most densely populated area in the country.

These states are Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

The accepted theory of the origin of the Great Lakes:

Centring Hudson Bay, the most ancient landmass and eroded plateau of the world, the Canadian Sheild is situated. In the ice age, this region was fully covered by ice.

These snow-covered regions extended from Hudson Bay to far to the south (at present the five lakes). Due to prolonged glacial erosion, some areas of these vast snow-covered regions have been transformed into basins.

Eventually, this region has transformed into lakes.

Question 2. Discuss the climate of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Climate Of The Great Lakes Region:-

The climatic features of the Great Lakes region are as follows-

  1. Generally, the Great Lakes region experiences a cool temperate type of climate with a greater influence of the winter season.
  2. The average temperature of this region is 16°C. In winter temperature lies below freezing point.
  3. In winter the entire Great Lakes region remains under snow cover.
  4. This region experiences an average annual rainfall of about 70 to cm-80 cm, mostly in summer.
  5. The range of temperature between summer and winter is quite high.

Question 3. Discuss the contribution of the St. Lawrence River to the economic development and prosperity of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Contribution Of The St. Lawrence River To The Economic Development And Prosperity Of The Great Lakes Region:-

The main river of the Great Lakes region is St. Lawrence. The contribution of this river to the economic development and prosperity of this region is great. This can be discussed as follows-

1. Facilitating trade:

Through the Lawrence Waterway, goods are transported to the Great Lakes region and minerals and industrial goods can also be sent to any place of the world. So, this waterway facilitates trade with Europe as well as other parts of the world.

2. Easy availability of water and hydroelectricity:

The St. Lawrence river is a valuable source of water and Niagara Falls is a valuable source of hydroelectricity of this region.

3. Helps in irrigation throughout the year:

Water of the St. Lawrence river great five lakes are used for irrigation throughout the year.

Question 4. What is the role of mineral resources in the economic prosperity of the Great Lakes region?
Answer:

Role Of Mineral Resources In The Economic Prosperity Of The Great Lakes Region:-

Mineral resources of the Great Lakes region play an important role in the economic prosperity of this region. This can be discussed as follows-

1. Largest reserve of iron ore:

A large percentage of iron is extracted from the Great Lakes region. Vermilion, Mesabi, Menominee, etc. are the major iron ore of this region. Availability of iron helps in the remarkable development of the iron and steel industry in this region.

2. Proximity of coal mines:

Illinois and Indiana are famous for coal mining. As the northern Appalachian coalfields are in close proximity to the Great Lakes region, power resources are easily available, which facilitates the growth of several industries.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

3. Extraction of various other minerals:

Copper, mineral oil, rock salt, limestone, gypsum, manganese,, etc., are also found here which help in industrialization. Especially large amounts of mineral salt are used in meat processing and chemical industries, while some amounts are used to melt the snow on the roads by civic authorities.

4. Availability of mineral oil:

Mineral oil is available in Michigan, Ohio and the Ontario Lake region which helps to develop oil refineries and petrochemical industries in Chicago, Buffalo and Cleveland.

Question 5. Why is the Great Lakes region the most industrially developed region in the USA?
Answer:

Great Lakes Region The Most Industrially Developed Region In The USA:-

In the north-eastern part of North America near the Canada-US border, there are five massive lakes-

  1. Superior,
  2. Michigan,
  3. Huron,
  4. Erie and
  5. Ontario.

Apart from these, there are numerous smaller lakes as well, such as Lake St. Clare. This region is known as the Great Lakes region. It is the most industrially developed region in the USA.

Locally available coal, iron ore, developed transport system, electricity generation, water from the five lakes, etc., have facilitated the growth of industries such as iron and steel, engineering, chemical, paper, meat processing, milk products, oil refining, petrochemical, etc.

About one-fourth of the USA’s industrial output comes from this region. Thus, the Great Lakes region is known as the most developed industrial area in the USA.

Question 6. Write about the animal products of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Animal Products Of The Great Lakes Region:-

Extensive grasslands in the Great Lakes region means that this region grows huge amounts of animal fodder. A great demand for milk, dairy products and meat in all the cities of this region has accelerated the rearing of livestock including cattle and pigs.

Poultry farming of chickens and ducks for their eggs and flesh is also common. Based on these factors, the meat packaging, dairy and poultry industries etc. have developed in this region.

High yields of prime quality animal and dairy products has led to Wisconsin becoming the world’s ‘dairy capital. Chicago is known as the ‘slaughterhouse of the world’ because of the high volume of meat and meat products it yields. So, we can say that the Great Lakes region is highly developed in the production of animal products.

Question 7. Write a short note on Chicago.
Answer:

Chicago:-

The city of Chicago, the largest city in the Great Lakes region, is on the southwest bank of Lake Michigan and in the state of Illinois. Chicago is also known as the ‘Windy City.

The Greater Chicago area is home to about 27 lakh people according to 2018 figures. Iron and steel, engineering, chemicals, leather and textiles are some of the industries that have developed in this region.

It has the world’s largest meat production and packing district, for this Chicago is called the ‘slaughterhouse of the world. Chicago is also a very important railway junction and O’Hare Airport is the world’s third busiest airport.

Question 8. Write down the major causes of the development of the paper industry in Canada.
Answer:

Major Causes Of The Development Of The Paper Industry In Canada:-

Canada holds a remarkable position in wood and paper production. About 25 per cent of the world’s paper and pulp is produced in Canada.

Several favourable geographical factors have led to this industry is highly developed in Canada.

These are as follows-

1. Abundance of raw materials:

The central part of Canada has vast coniferous forests. In terms of both nature and size, this is the world’s second-largest forest (the largest is the Taiga in Russia).

2. Ease of transportation:

In winter, when everything is blanketed under snow, the trees are cut down and the logs are piled on the frozen rivers. When the snow melts with the advent of summer, the logs float downstream and are collected by sawmills located on the shores of the rivers.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

3. Easily available hydro-electricity:

Fast-flowing rivers of the Canadian Shield region help to generate hydroelectricity. Canada’s hydel power plants provide electricity to various factories and mills.

4. Other causes:

Modern machinery, supply of efficient labour and support of sufficient capital are also the reasons for the development of the paper industry in Canada.

Question 9. Discuss the transport system of the Canadian Shield region.
Answer:

Transport System Of The Canadian Shield Region:-

The transport system or network of this region is not developed. But in the south-western parts of this region, communication is carried out through the Canadian National Railway, Hudson Bay Railway and the Ontario Northland Railway, as this region is mineral rich and industrially developed.

The Canadian-Pacific Railway extends to the south. The Alaska Highway and the McKenzie Highway are the two main roadways of this region.

Apart from this, the lakes and lake systems are also used as waterways. At present, places which are inaccessible by road, rail or water way receive and send necessary goods and communicate through helicopters and aeroplanes.

Question 10. Briefly write about Detroit and Montreal cities.
Answer:

Detroit:

Detroit, on the banks of the river Detroit, is the world’s largest automobile manufacturing centre. World’s biggest auto-mobile manufacturing companies such as Ford, Daimler, Chrysler and General Motors have their factories here.

Apart from cars, aeroplanes, tanks, artificial rubber, tyre, glass, and car batteries are also manufactured here. That is why Detroit is known as the ‘Motor City’, the automobile centre of the world.

Montreal:

Montreal, on the banks of the St. Lawrence River, is the second-largest city and the largest international port in Canada. The population of this city is about 1.75 million according to the 2016 census.

Aerospace, electronics, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, fur, rayon, engineering and tobacco are some of the main industries developed here.

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the transportation network of the Great Lakes region in the USA.
Answer:

Transportation Network Of The Great Lakes Region In The USA:-

The transportation system of the Great Lakes region is highly developed. The roadways and railways are well-developed. Almost every city is connected by air as well. Chicago’s O’Hare airport is the world’s third busiest airport.

The St. Lawrence Waterway has contributed greatly to the economic growth and prosperity of the Great Lakes region. Large sea-going vessels can travel almost 1600 km into the continent’s interior through the St. Lawrence waterway.

Question 2. Why is Chicago known as a ‘Windy City’? 
Answer:

Chicago Known As A ‘Windy City’:-

The largest city in the Great Lakes region is Chicago, which is also known as the ‘Windy City. Chicago is situated on the southwest of Lake Michigan.

Air flows over the city at a speed of almost 17 km/h. Hence, Chicago is also known as the ‘Windy City.

Question 3. Find out the places in India where such Livestock ranching and food processing industries mutually exist together.
Answer:

Gujarat, in our country, is well-known for its agricultural as well as industrial development. Due to the scanty of rainfall, agriculture is not developed in some of the regions of Gujarat.

So, various types of grasses are grown here. On the basis of these grasslands, cattle rearing is practised in northern and western Gujarat (Sanand, Bhuj). India occupies the second position in cattle rearing all over the world.

Based on the milk, derived from cattle rearing, huge amount of dairy products like-processed milk, powdered milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, icecream, chocolate etc. are produced here.

Question 4. Why are numerous lakes seen in the Canadian Shield region?
Answer:

Numerous Lakes Seen In The Canadian Shield Region:-

The Canadian Shield region is a remnant of the ancient landmass, Angaraland, which was composed of ancient igneous and metamorphic rocks. In Ice Age, this area was glacier-laden and the entire area was enveloped in snow and ice.

Later, huge blocks of ice started to move in the form of continental glaciers. The erosional action of these glaciers led to the formation of numerous big and small lakes.

Examples- Great Bear, Athabasca, Great Slave, Winnipeg, etc.

Question 5. Write about the fauna of the Canadian Shield region.
Answer:

Fauna Of The Canadian Shield Region:-

The coniferous forest of the Canadian Shield region are home to several creatures such as reindeer, beaver, wild cat, prairie dog, etc.

The areas that fall under the Tundra climate type have animals with long fur and hair, like deer, bears, wolves, furred dogs like huskies and numerous birds. The waters abound in beavers, seals, whales, etc.

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The average elevation of the Great Lakes region is about-

  1. 150m
  2. 180m
  3. 200m
  4. 250m

Answer: 2. 180m

Question 2. The main river of the Great Lakes region is the-

  1. Mississippi
  2. Colorado
  3. St. Lawrence
  4. McKenzie

Answer: 3. St. Lawrence

Question 3. The Churchill River empties into the-

  1. Atlantic Ocean
  2. Labrador Sea
  3. Hudson Bay
  4. Lake Winnipeg

Answer: 1. Atlantic Ocean

Question 4. In summer, the average temperature that prevails in the Great Lakes region is about-

  1. 10°C
  2. 23°C
  3. 16°C
  4. 32°C

Answer: 3. 16°C

Question 5. The largest steel factory in the Great Lakes region is in the city of-

  1. Buffalo
  2. Gary
  3. Chicago
  4. Milwaukee

Answer: 2. Gary

Question 6. The biggest centre of the iron and steel industry in North America is-

  1. Chicago-Gary
  2. Cleveland
  3. Duluth
  4. Toledo

Answer: 1. Chicago-Gary

Question 7. The main centre of the flour milling industry in the USA is the city of-

  1. Montreal
  2. Gary
  3. Buffalo
  4. Toronto

Answer: 3. Buffalo

Question 8. The ‘rubber capital of the world is-

  1. Buffalo
  2. Chicago
  3. Akron
  4. Detroit

Answer: 3. Akron

Question 9. Wisconsin is known as the-

  1. Breadbasket of the world
  2. Dairy capital
  3. Rubber Capital
  4. Granary of the world

Answer: 2. Dairy capital

Question 10. The city known as the ‘slaughter house of the world’ is-

  1. Buffalo
  2. Chicago
  3. Akron
  4. Thunder Bay

Answer: 2. Chicago

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 11. One of the significant ports in the Midwest USA handling large tonnage is

  1. Duluth
  2. Cleveland
  3. Gary
  4. Buffalo

Answer: 1. Duluth

Question 12. The city near Lake Erie is-

  1. Milwaukee
  2. Chicago
  3. Duluth
  4. Toledo

Answer: 4. Toledo

Question 13. The total number of shields on the earth’s surface is-

  1. 10
  2. 11
  3. 12
  4. 13

Answer: 2. 11

Question 14. The Canadian Shield region is a-

  1. Mountainous region
  2. Hill
  3. Plateau
  4. Plainland

Answer: 3. Plateau

Question 15. Canadian Shield was formed by the erosion of-

  1. River
  2. Wind
  3. Glacier
  4. Wave

Answer: 3. Glacier

Question 16. The largest lake in the Canadian Shield area is-

  1. Great Bear
  2. Winnipeg
  3. Great Slave
  4. Athabasca

Answer: 1. Great Bear

Question 17. Most of the rivers that flow through the Canadian Shield are-

  1. North flowing
  2. West flowing
  3. South flowing
  4. East flowing

Answer: 1. North flowing

Question 18. The largest mining city in Canada is-

  1. Sudbury
  2. Quebec
  3. Thunder Bay
  4. Thompson

Answer: 1. Sudbury

Question 19. The capital of Canada is-

  1. Vancouver
  2. Detroit
  3. Ottawa
  4. Montreal

Answer: 3. Ottawa

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. The river _________ in North America is an important waterway of the Great Lakes region.
Answer: St. Lawrence

Question 2. The _________ river connects the five Great Lakes.
Answer: St. Lawrence

Question 3. Niagara Falls is situated on the St. Lawrence River between Lake _________ and Lake _________.
Answer: Erie, Ontario

Question 4. The canal that joins Lakes Superior and Huron is _________.
Answer: St. Marie

Question 5. In the middle of Niagara Falls, there is an island named _________.
Answer: Goat Island

Question 6. The largest iron ore mine in the world is the _________ Range in the Great Lakes region.
Answer: Mesabi

Question 7. _________, a suburb of Chicago, is the world’s largest centre of the steel industry.
Answer: Gary

Question 8. _________ in the USA is the world’s largest meat exporting city.
Answer: Chicago

Question 9. _________ to the south of Lake Michigan is the world’s largest rail junction.
Answer: Chicago

Question 10. Chicago’s _________ airport is the world’s busiest airport.
Answer: O’Hare

Question 11. _________ is known as the Windy City.
Answer: Chicago

Question 12. The Canadian Shield is a remnant of the ancient _________ landmass.
Answer: Angaraland

Question 13. The parts of the shield region that are now glacier covered have _________ type of soil.
Answer: Moraine

Question 14. _________ is surrounded on three sides by the Canadian Shield region.
Answer: Hudson Bay

Question 15. The coniferous forests of the Canadian Shield have _________ type of acidic soil.
Answer: Podsol

Question 16. The world’s largest nickel mine is in the Canadian city of _________.
Answer: Sudbury

Question 17. The second largest gold mine in the world is in _________.
Answer: Timinis

Question 18. The two main tunnels of the Canadian Shield region are the Alaska Highway and the _________ Highway.
Answer: Mckenzie

Question 19. Eskimos and _________ are two of the tribes native to the Canadian Shield region.
Answer: Red Indians

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 20. The city of Montreal is situated on the banks of the river _________.
Answer: St. Lawrence

Question 21. Grand Bank is a notable _________..
Answer: Fishing centre

Question 22. _________ is the largest fjord-indented island in the Canadian Shield region and the fifth-largest in the world.
Answer: Baffin

Write True Or False

Question 1. Niagara Falls is on the Colorado River.
Answer: False

Question 2. The world’s largest iron mine is located in the city of Vermilion.
Answer: False

Question 3. The main crops grown in the Great Lakes region are animal fodder.
Answer: False

Question 4. The Saskatchewan River discharges into Lake Winnipeg.
Answer: True

Question 5. Eskimos are found in Greenland.
Answer: True

Question 6. The Candian Shield region extends over almost 4.5 million sq.Km.
Answer: True

Question 7. The Niagara Falls is about 51 m high.
Answer: True

Question 8. Niagara Falls in North America is the world’s highest waterfall.
Answer: False

Question 9. Canada ranks first in the world in newsprint production.
Answer: True

Question 10. Chicago, the slaughter house of the world is situated on the banks of Lake Michigan.
Answer: True

Question 11. The Canadian taiga is the world’s largest taiga forest.
Answer: False

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Match The Columns

1. WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Match the Columns

Answer: 1. D, 2. E, 3. B, 4. A, 5. C

2.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Match the Columns.

Answer: 1. B, 2. A, 3. C, 4. E, 5. D

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Which is the second-largest lake in the world in terms of surface area?
Answer: Lake Superior.

Question 2. From which river did the Niagara Falls originate?
Answer: St. Lawrence.

Question 3. Where in the USA is the largest amount of iron ore found?
Answer: Mesabi.

Question 4. Which is the largest inland port in the world?
Answer: Chicago.

Question 5. Which is the oldest part of the continent of North America?
Answer: Canadian Shield region.

Question 6. What is the other name for the Canadian Shield?
Answer: Laurentian plateau.

Question 7. Name two lakes in the Canadian Shield region.
Answer: Great Bear and Great Slave.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 8. Which is the longest river of Canada?
Answer: McKenzie.

Question 9. Name the world’s largest nickel mine.
Answer: Sudbury.

Question 10. Which is the second-largest gold mine in the world?
Answer: Timinis.

Question 11. Which waterway is called the lifeline of Canada?
Answer: St. Lawrence Waterway.

Question 12. Which is the largest city in Canada?
Answer: Toronto.

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Conceptual Questions And Answers

Who am I?

Question 1. ‘I am the largest freshwater lake in the world and I am one of the five Great Lakes’. -Who am I?
Answer: Lake Superior

Question 2. ‘I am the long cover of grassland of the central plains of the USA.- Who am I?
Answer: Prairie

Question 3. I am the world’s largest car manufacturing factory, situated in Michigan, USA.’- Who am I?
Answer: Detroit

Question 4. I am the most famous flour-producing centre in the world and I am situated on the banks of the Erie Lake.’- Who am I?
Answer: Buffalo

Question 5. I am the most famous city in the world and I am the capital of the USA.- Who am I?
Answer: Washington DC

Scrambled Words

1. LUCHRICOSPHEMBUSTOR
2. ESVERIAMGOCCIPU
3. ONYRKWE
4. RISUOPER
5. LACHIAPPANA

Answers:

1. CHRISTOPHER
2. AMERIGO VESPUCCI
3. NEW YORK
4. SUPERIOR COLUMBUS
5. APPALACHIAN

Fill Up The Blanks In The Knowledge Hive

Question 1. Write what you know about the Mississippi- Missouri.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Fill the blanks

Answers:

1. This is the major river system in North America.
2. Originates in Lake Itasca.
3. The combined length of the Mississippi and the Missouri makes the river world’s fourth longest river.
4. Delta formed by this river where it discharges into the Gulf of Mexico resembles the shape of a bird’s foot.
5. Cities such as St. Louis and Minneapolis have come up beside it.

Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Grand Canyon Niagara Falls: Superior: Mariana Trench
Answer: 1. Mariana Trench (not in North America)

Question 2. Coast Range: Canadian Shield Alaska Range Brooks Range
Answer: 2. Canadian Shield (not a mountain range)

Correct The Following

Question 1. Mt. McKinley in the Coast Range is the highest peak in North America.
Answer: Alaska

Question 2. World’s biggest river valley project is being planned on the river Mississippi.
Answer: Tennessee

Question 3. Superior is the world’s fourth-largest lake.
Answer: second

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Crossword

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Crossword

CLUES

Down:

1. The second most populous city in North America.
3. Famous waterfall on the St. Lawrence River.

Across:

2. The largest freshwater lake in the world.
4. America’s ‘Dairyland’.
6. Largest car manufacturing centre in the USA.

Answers:

Down: 1. Buffalo, 3. Niagara
Across: 2. Superior, 4. Wisconsin, 5. Detroit

Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1. Why is North America called the ‘most prosperous continent’? Or, In spite of being a ‘New World’ why is North America known as the ‘most developed continent’?
Answer:

The reasons for North America’s prosperity are discussed below-

1. Agriculture:

Temperate climate abundance of plain, cultivable land facilitates the growth of crops such as wheat, maize, cotton, tobacco, etc.

2. Livestock:

The presence of vast grasslands ensures the rearing of cattle, sheep and pig. This leads to abundant production of milk products, meat, wool, leather, etc.

3. Mineral resources:

North America is rich in mineral resources such as coal, iron ore, mineral oil, copper, lead, zinc etc.

4. Industrial development:

The iron and steel industry, engineering industry, aluminium industry, copper industry, etc. are highly developed here. The presence of coniferous forests has helped in the growth of timber and paper industries.

Moreover, North America’s progress in the economic field has made it the ‘most developed continent. The Prairie region is known as the Bread Basket of the World’, Chicago is called the ‘Slaughterhouse of the World’, Wisconsin is known as ‘America’s Dairyland’ and Detroit is called the ‘Automobile Capital of the World’.

Question 2. What do you know about Minneapolis- Saint Paul?
Answer:

Minneapolis- Saint Paul:-

Minneapolis-Saint Paul, situated on both banks of the Mississippi River, are together known as the twin cities. The combined population of these two cities is about 6 million.

Minneapolis situated on the west bank of the Mississippi River is a notable city and the centre of flour milling, food processing and engineering industries.

This is a younger, more modern city with skyscrapers. The city of Saint Paul is located right across the river.

Question 3. Find out whether any region of your country is as developed as the Great Lakes region in terms of both agriculture and industry. Prepare a chart on the geographical features of that place.
Answer:

Gujarat, in our country, is well-known for its agricultural as well as industrial development.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Formative

Interpretation And Application

This segment will test whether the students have understood the topics. Analyse the relationship between the following pictures.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Forest and wood

Canada holds a remarkable position in wood (lumbering) and paper production. Extensive coniferous forests (like the pictures) grow all over the Canadian Shield region.

The timber of this forest is the main raw material of the wood and paper industry. This wood is soft in nature, thus transportation of logs becomes easier. Besides this paper and paper pulp production can be produced easily by this softwood.

So, the availability of raw materials contributes to the development of these industries. Canada holds the first position in newsprint production. Hence, there is a strong and direct connection between the coniferous forest and the wood or paper industry of Canada.

Empathy And Cooperation

This segment will determine the ability of students to work as a team. The students are to be divided into two groups A and B. Group A is to prepare a list of the industries and their centres in the Great Lakes regions. Group B is to prepare a list of the industries and their centres in the Canadian Shield.

Group A: List of industries and important industrial centres in the Great Lakes region

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Industrial centres in the Great Lakes region

Group B: List of industries and important industrial centres in the Canadian Shield

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Industrys In the Canadian Shield region

In the given map point out the following places

  1. Appalachian mountain,
  2. Superior Lake (Sample Question, WBBSE Textbook),
  3. Hudson Bay,
  4. Caribbean Sea,
  5. Newfoundland,
  6. Niagara falls,
  7. Mount Waddington,
  8. Colorado Plateau,
  9. Bering Strait,
  10. Canadian Shield

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Map

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America

Chapter 9 North America Synopsis

To discover waterways between Europe and India, Italian sailor Christopher Columbus discovered the Eastern Island of North America and thought of those islands as the ‘West Indies’ in the year 1492.

In 1501 AD, Portuguese sailor Amerigo Vespucci discovered the mainland of North America. Thus the continent has been named after him.

World’s largest island Greenland lies in the continent of North America.

The continent of North America has a triangular shape and it is the third largest continent of the world in terms of area.

North America extends from 7° North latitude (the southernmost tip of Panama) to 84° North latitude (northern tip of Greenland) and 20° West longitude to 173° West longitude.

Read and Learn More WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography

To the south, North America is connected to South America by the Isthmus of Panama. The continent of North America is separated from Asia by Bering Strait in the North.

Mt. McKinley is the highest peak in the Alaska range of North America.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

North America is divided into four major physiographic divisions-Western Cordille- ras, Central Lowland or Central Plains of North America, Canadian or Laurentian Plateau and Eastern Highland.

The low-lying region in south-eastern California is known as the Death Valley. It is the hottest region (56°C) of the
continent and the lowest-lying area of the western hemisphere.

Based on the local characteristics of the Central Lowlands of North America, it is subdivided into the plains of the St. Lawrence River basin, the plains of lake region, the Prairie plain land and the plains of the Mississippi-Missouri basin.

To the southeastern part of the central plains, the five largest lakes have originated due to glacial erosion. These are- Superior, Huron, Michigan, and Erie, and Ontario. These five lakes form the ‘Great Lakes Region’ of North America.

The Prairie plainland extends over a vast area in the middle part of North America. It is mainly grassland. Thus, this plain is also called Prairie Grassland.

The eastern highland region consists primarily of three dissected plateaus. These are-Labrador Plateau in the north, New England Highland in the middle and the Appalachian mountains in the south.

Mount Mitchel of Blue Ridge Mountain is the highest peak in the Appalachian.

St. Lawrence is the most important river for transportation in North America.

Mississippi-Missouri is the longest river of North America. Bird’s foot-shaped delta has formed at the mouth of this river.

The world-famous Grand Canyon has formed along the course of the river Colorado which is in North America.

The Prairie produces huge quantities of wheat. In the northern part of this region, wheat is cultivated in the spring season and thus it is known as the spring wheat belt. On the other hand, in the southern part wheat cultivation is practised in winter.

As in various seasons wheat is cultivated. in huge quantities, and this region is known as ‘the Bread Basket of the World’.

The five lakes of the Lakes Region are- Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario.

Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world. St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Missouri, and Ohio are the main rivers of this region. St. Lawrence River joins these five lakes. Niagara Falls has originated on this river between Erie and Ontario.

The Canadian Shield is an eroded plateau made up of hard rocks such as granite and gneiss.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the geographical significance of North America.
Answer:

Geographical Significance Of North America:-

The geographical significance of North America has been discussed below- Location: The Pacific Ocean in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east protect North America from attacks of enemies.

This locational condition has also helped the continent to develop and retain its unique characteristics. In the south, North America is connected to South America by the Isthmus of Panama.

The Panama Canal also facilitates communication between these two continents and connects the Pacific to the Atlantic.

1. Topography:

The Central Lowland of this continent is highly suitable for agriculture.

The high Rocky Mountain range, the dissected old fold mountains of the Appalachian Range and the dissected plateau of the Canadian Shield Region as well as the vast plain lands of the Mississippi- Missouri watershed area, all have had a great impact on the agricultural pattern and the industrial development of North America.

2. Rivers:

The long, perennial rivers of the continent such as the Mississippi, Columbia, etc., facilitate irrigation as well as the generation of hydel power. Both of these have helped in the development of agriculture as well as industry.

3. Climate:

Climatic variations experienced in different parts of the continent have led to the development of agriculture, animal rearing as well as industry.

The bright and sunny weather of California which experiences the Mediterranean type of climate has contributed immensely to the growth and development of the film industry in Hollywood-a major money earner for the USA.

4. Vegetation:

The vast forests of softwood coniferous trees have helped North America to emerge as a world leader in terms of the production of newspaper pulp, artificial silk, chemical products, matchsticks, etc.

5. Animal rearing and fishing:

Commercial animal rearing is carried out in the vast grasslands of the Prairies. Based on this, a vast meat-packaging industry has developed in Chicago which is known as the ‘Slaughterhouse of the World.

6. Agriculture:

Agricultural practices for commercial production of wheat, corn, flour, soybean, tobacco, sugarcane, and sugar beet ensure that these are grown in vast quantities.

Also, this region is the world’s largest wheat grower, so it is also known as the ‘Granary of the World.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Relief Features of North America

7. Mineral resources:

The continent of North America is rich in resources like mineral oil, natural gas, iron ore, copper ore, lead, zinc, manganese, gypsum, limestone etc. Technologically advanced methods of mining and resource utilisation have led to great prosperity.

8. Industry:

Iron and steel, engineering, petrochemicals, paper, and cement industries have developed greatly and have a great contribution to the economic prosperity of the region.

Question 2. Write a note on the mountainous region of the west in North America.
Answer:

Mountainous Region Of The West In North America:-

The different aspects of the mountainous region of North America or the Western Cordilleras (as they are known) are as follows-

1. Location and extent:

A vast mountainous region extends over almost the entire western part of the Pacific coast of the continent from the northern part of the Bering Strait to the southern part of the Panama Canal in the south.

Since this region stretches to the coast of the Pacific Ocean, it is also known as the Pacific Ocean Mountainous Region.

2. Mountain ranges:

These mountains are young fold and had formed when the Pacific Ocean Plate and the North American Continental Plate had collided with one another. The middle part of this is wider than the sides.

This mountainous region consists of a chain of three almost parallel mountain ranges and the highland areas that lie between the ranges and are together known as the Western Cordilleras. Cordillera is a Spanish word which means rope or chain.

The details of the three parallel ranges are as follows-

  1. To the east is the Rockies whose northernmost section is the Brooks Range,
  2. The central range is known as the Alaska range in Alaska, as the Cascade Range in the border areas between Canada and the USA, as the Sierra Nevada in California and in Mexico as the Western Sierra Madre. Denali (Mt. McKinley, 6195 m) in the Alaska Range is the highest mountain peak in North America.
  3. The third range is known as St. Elias Range in Alaska and as the Coast Range in Canada and the USA.

The Rockies are the main as well as the longest mountains of North America, which stretches over 4800 km from Alaska in the North to southern Mexico in the south. Mt. Elbert (4339 m) is the highest peak in the range.

The Western Cordilleras extend in South America and are known as the Andes.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

3. Inter-montane plateaus:

The Yukon Plateau, Columbia Plateau and Alaska Plateau are some of the inter-montane plateaus in this region.

4. River valleys:

Various river valleys have formed in these plateaus. Notable among these are- the Yukon, Fraser, Columbia and Colorado. The rivers of this region drain into the Pacific Ocean.

Many submerged regions, gorges and other landforms have developed along the river courses.

5. Volcanoes:

There are many active volcanoes in the Western Cordilleras such as the Popocatepetl, Orizaba and Colima. They are a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire.

6. Canyons:

The rivers of this region have created several dramatic canyons-the Grand Canyon carved by the Colorado River is the longest and the deepest in the world.

7. Death Valley:

The southeastern part of California which lies in the Western Cordilleras is almost 90m below mean sea level. This is known as Death Valley.

Question 3. Discuss the Central Lowland of North America.
Answer:

Central Lowland Of North America:-

The Central Lowland exists between the Western Cordilleras and the Eastern Highlands, from the north polar region to the Gulf of Mexico in the south. So, this region is also known as Great Plains.

River basins of McKenzie, St. Lawrence, and Mississippi-Missouri are situated in these Lowlands. However, this region is not a plainland, but rather an undulating terrain consisting of mountains, knolls and low-lying plateaus.

The northern part of this plain is occupied by the Canadian Shield, which is the most ancient landmass of the world. Prolonged glacial erosion has transformed this region into a peneplain, whose height has further reduced at some places and have been transformed into lakes.

Winnipeg, Great Bear, Athabasca, etc. are few of the famous lakes. In the southeastern part of this, lies the five largest lakes which have formed due to glacial erosion.

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These are the Great Five Lakes.

Divisions:

Based on the local characteristics of the parts of this region, it is further subdivided into the following-

1. Plains of St. Lawrence:

The St. Lawrence river flows through the area between the Eastern Highlands and the Canadian Shield and the narrow plains formed by this river basin is known as the St. Lawrence river basin.

2. Plains of lake region:

Five great lakes named Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario flow through the northeast of North America. The regions along the southern banks of these lakes are collectively known as the Plains of the Lake region.

3. The Prairie Plainland:

The extensive grassland that stretches over a large part of North America is known as the Prairie. Located in the Central Lowlands, this is a temperate grassland with an undulating landform.

4. The plains of the Mississippi-Missouri River basin:

The Mississippi-Missouri River basin is located between the Eastern Highlands in the east and the Western Cordillera in the west. The plains are rich in silt deposition because of their location on the Mississippi River basin.

Towards the south of the plains, the Mississippi Delta has developed. It is also called the bird’s foot delta because of its shape.

Question 4. Write a note on the Eastern Highlands of North America.
Answer:

Eastern Highlands Of North America:-

The various aspects of the Eastern Highlands or the Appalachian mountain region are discussed in the given points-

1. Extent:

From Labrador in the north to Alabama in the south, the entire eastern part of the continent is considered to be part of the Eastern Highlands or the Appalachian mountain region.

The Highlands of Greenland, to the north of Labrador, are also part of this.

2. Nature:

This geologically ancient stretch of land is mostly made up of crystalline rocks. Rocks like gneiss, schist, slate, quartzite and granite are usually found here.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

3. Divisions:

This entire region consists primarily of three dissected plateaus. These are-

  1. Labrador plateau in the north,
  2. New England highland in the middle and
  3. The Appalachian mountains in the south.

The Appalachian Mountain system is the most notable of the Eastern Highlands. This is a range of old, fold mountains that extends from the north to the south.

Constant erosional action by various agents has greatly reduced the elevation of these mountains. They are now lower in height than the Rocky Mountains, around or more than 2000 m. St. Lawrence river basin separates the Appalachian Mountains from the Laurentian Plateau.

Some of the subdivisions of the Appalachian Mountains are-

  1. The steep Allegheny Mountains in the western part of the Appalachians.
  2. The Cumberland Plateau lies further to the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains are in the eastern part. Mt. Mitchell (2037 m) is the highest peak in the Appalachian Mountains.
  3. To the east of the Blue Ridge Mountains is a Piedmont plateau.
  4. The eastern slope of the Piedmont plateau is abrupt and this results in a ‘fall line’.
  5. To the west of the Piedmont region lies the rugged highlands known as the Great Smoky Mountains.

Question 5. Write a note on the rivers in the USA.
Answer:

Rivers In The USA:-

Based on the places of origin and confluence, the rivers of North America have been divided into five parts. These are-

East-flowing river(s) that flow(s) into the Atlantic Ocean

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America East following River flow in to the Atlantic Ocean

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America The rivers and lakes of North America

 

West-flowing river(s) that flow(s) into the Pacific Ocean

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America West following River flow in to the pacific Ocean

 

West-flowing river(s) that flow(s) into the Gulf of California

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America West following River flow in to the California

 

River(s) that flow(s) into the Arctic Ocean

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America River flow in to the Arctic Ocean

 

River(s) that flow into the Gulf of Mexico

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America River flow in to the Gulf of Mexico

 

Question 6. Mention the factors affecting the climate of North America.
Answer:

Factors Affecting The Climate Of North America:-

The factors influencing the climatic conditions of North America are as follows-

1. Latitudinal extent:

North America extends from 7°N of the equator to 84°N latitude. Apart from some regions in the north and south, North America mostly experiences temperate climates.

South Mexico and different countries in Central America and Caribbean islands experience sub-tropical climates because the Tropic of Cancer (232°N) passes through Mexico and its adjoining provinces.

As the northern part of the continent extends beyond the Arctic Circle (66%), it experiences tundra and polar climate.

2. Shape and size:

The northern part of North America is wider than the central part. So, the regions of the central part are located away from the sea and hence, experience the continental types of climate.

On the other hand, the regions of the south, being in close proximity to the sea, experience a moderate marine type of climate.

3. Location of mountain ranges:

The mountain ranges in North America stretch vertically from north to south. So, frigid winds from the North Pole blow freely towards the South and further, without facing any barrier.

Due to this, most of the regions in North America experience temperatures below freezing point. Moreover, the location of the Rocky Mountain range prevents sea winds from entering the central regions of North America.

The wet winds from the Gulf of Mexico also blow without resistance.

4. Warm and cold currents:

The warm Gulf Stream flow along the southeast coast of North America. So, the climate of this coastal region is warm and hot.

On the other hand, the cold Labrador Current flows along the northeast coast of North America, and influences the climate of this region, keeping them snow-covered throughout the year.

The cold California Current along the southwestern part of the continent also keeps the region cold.

5. Distance from the sea:

The central regions of North America are situated far from the sea and also receive very little rainfall. As a result, the atmospheric temperature range (difference between maximum and minimum temperature) is very high in these regions.

6. Effects of winds:

The southwest Westerlies blow eastward in the middle latitudes and the northeast Trade winds blow southward in the southern latitudes.

Hence, the coastal regions in the middle latitudes in North America tend to be wetter than those in the southern latitudes.

7. Others:

Some other factors also affect the climate of North America. The local moisture-laden Chinook winds blowing from the windward slope of the Rockies to its leeward slope, cause less rainfall and thus grasses and shrubs grow instead of trees.

Question 7. Describe the different climatic regions of North America.
Answer:

Different Climatic Regions Of North America:-

The various climatic regions of North America are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Different Climatic Regions of north AmericaWBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Different Climatic Regions of north America.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Different Climatic Regions of north America..

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America The Climatic regions of north America

 

Question 8. Describe the different types of vegetation that grow in North America.
Answer:

The different types of vegetation that grow in North America can be classified into the following seven categories. These are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Different types of vegetationWBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Different types of vegetation.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Relief Features of North America

 

Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Write a note on the boundaries of North America.
Answer:

Boundaries Of North America:-

The boundaries of North America can be described in the following ways-

Coordinates:

North America extends from 7° North latitude (the southernmost tip of Panama) 84°North latitude (northern tip of Greenland) and 20° West longitude to 173° West longitude.

Geographical boundaries:

The continent of North America is shaped somewhat like an inverted triangle. To the east of the continent lies the Atlantic Ocean, to the west lies the Pacific Ocean, to the north is the Arctic Ocean while to the south is the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Panama Canal.

The Bering Strait, which lies to the northwest, separates North America from Asia. The Panama Canal, which lies to the south, separates it from South America.

The seas around North America are dotted with a number of islands which are also part of this continent such as Greenland in the north (the world’s Newfoundland in the east, Cuba and Jamaica in the largest island), the south, and the Queen Charlotte Islands to the west.

Question 2. What is the Western Cordilleras?
Answer:

Western Cordilleras:-

A long, expansive stretch of mountainous land that stretches from Alaska in the north to the Isthmus of Panama in the south along the western part of North America is known as the Western Cordilleras.

This is made up of three almost parallel mountain ranges- the Rockies, the Alaska and the Coast Range, and the plateau areas in between. The word cordillera means chain or rope. This region is named so because of the chain of three continuous ranges.

Question 3. Describe the coastal plains of North America.
Answer:

Coastal Plains Of North America:-

The entire coastline of North America falls under the physical classification of plains. Apart from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and that of the Atlantic in the south and southwest, the remaining areas are quite narrow.

The coast of the Northern (Arctic) Ocean in the north of the continent is quite wide while that in the west is narrow because the Western Cordilleras rise almost from the shoreline of the Pacific Ocean.

The coastal plains of the Gulf of Mexico are quite wide as well. There are several saline water bodies, lagoons, and deltas along the Coastal Plains. The highest part of this area is less than 200m in altitude.

Question 4. Write a short note on the Colorado River.
Answer:

Colorado River:-

The Colorado River is the main river flowing through the western part of North America.

1. Length:

The Colorado River is about 2300km in length.

2. Source and mouth:

This river rises in the Rocky Mountains and then flows into Lake Mead before moving towards Death Valley and then the Mojave desert before finally discharging into the Gulf of California through Mexico.

This river has carved the world’s largest and deepest canyon, the Grand Canyon, in the state of Arizona in the USA. The rivers Gila, Virgin, Fraser, and Yukon Columbia are a few of the tributaries of the Colorado River.

3. Significance:

The main significance of the Colorado River is that it has enabled an arid, near-desert region to become an agriculturally dominant region.

Several dams and reservoirs have been constructed on this river to facilitate municipal water supply to a large population and also for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Among these, the Hoover Dam is notable.

Question 5. Write a brief note on Mississippi- Missouri.
Answer:

Mississippi- Missouri:-

Mississippi, the main river flowing through North America, has Missouri as its main tributary and they form a vast river system.

1. Source and mouth:

The Mississippi originates from Lake Itasca in the Shield area adjacent to Lake Superior and it empties into the Gulf of Mexico.

2. Length:

The Mississippi-Missouri flows over a distance of 6270 km. This means that if both rivers are considered, the Mississippi-Missouri is the fourth longest river in the world.

3. Tributaries:

The main tributary of the Mississippi is the Missouri which rises in the Rocky Mountains and joins the Mississippi near St. Louis port.

Two of the Mississippi’s right-bank tributaries are the Red and Arkansas and two left-bank tributaries are Ohio and Tennessee.

4. Significance:

This river is navigable. St. Louis, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Kansas City, etc., are important port cities that have developed along its course. The culturally rich city of New Orleans has developed at the estuary of the river.

Question 6. Briefly write about McKenzie River.
Answer:

McKenzie River:-

Canada’s longest and the second longest river in North America is McKenzie.

1. Length:

The river flows for 4200km before emptying into the sea.

2. Source and mouth:

The Peace river, the headstream of the McKenzie, originates in the Rockies and then flows northwards where it meets the Athabasca River to form the Slave river which rises from a delta in Alberta.

These two rivers then together flow into the Great Slave Lake from which they rise as one river, the McKenzie. The river then divides into various separate distributaries and discharges into the North Sea after creating the vast McKenzie Delta.

This river is navigable in summer but freezes in winter.

Question 7. Write briefly about the St. Lawrence River.
Answer:

St. Lawrence River:-

St. Lawrence is the primary driver of the Great Lakes region as it connects five lakes.

1. Source: Lake Ontario

2. Length: The river flows for about 1120 km.

3. Mouth: After flowing through the lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, this river empties itself in the Atlantic Ocean. It is known by different names at different parts of its course

  1. Between lakes superior and Huron, it is known as the St. Mary river,
  2. Between lakes Huron and Erie, it is known as the St. Clare river,
  3. Between Erie and Ontario, it is known as the Niagara river.

4. Importance:

The importance of the St. Lawrence Waterway is unparalleled. Seafaring vessels can reach up to 1600km into the interior of the continent through this waterway.

In its non-navigable course (for instance, Niagara Falls), canals such as the Welland Canal have been dug and lock gates have been constructed to facilitate ship transport.

Question 8. Describe the lakes of North America.
Answer:

Lakes Of North America:-

On the basis of their location, the lakes of North America are divided into two categories-

1. The lakes of the plains:

In the northern part of Central Lowland, is a chain of five famous freshwater lakes-Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. All of these are among the 14 largest freshwater lakes in the world.

Lake Superior is the largest lake (82103 sq. km) in North America and the largest freshwater lake in the world. These five lakes are collectively known as the Great Lakes. These five largest lakes originated due to glacial erosion.

These are interconnected by the St. Lawrence River. Except for Lake Michigan, the Great Lakes mark the natural boundary between Canada and the USA. Winnipeg, Great Bear, Athabasca, Great Slave, etc., are some other important lakes that have formed by the denudation of the peneplain region of the central lowland.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9

2. Lakes of the mountain regions:

Two notable lakes in this region are the Great Salt Lake and Lake Nicaragua.

Question 9. Why do ocean currents become warm in some places and cold in others?
Answer:

Ocean Currents Become Warm In Some Places And Cold In Others:-

Based on temperature, ocean currents are of two types-warm ocean currents and cold ocean currents. Due to the earth’s spheroidal shape and the difference of the angle of incidence of sun rays, the temperature between landmass and water bodies also differ.

As the Torrid Zone (232°N to 232°S) receives direct sun rays, ocean currents are warm here. In the Temperate Zone (232°-662° latitude in both the hemispheres) the ocean water has moderate temperature, as this zone receives slanting sun rays.

On the other hand, the region belonging to the Frigid Zone (662°-90° latitude in both the hemispheres) have cold ocean currents as the water remains frozen throughout the year and the landmass remains mostly snow-covered.

Thus, the differences in temperature give rise to warm ocean currents in the Equatorial region like warm North Equatorial Currents.

On the other hand, in the polar regions, the snow-melted water gives rise to cold ocean currents like cold Bering Current, cold Labrador Current, etc.

Question 10. Why dry weather occurs in the beginning of spring on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountain?
Answer:

Dry Weather Occurs In The Beginning Of Spring On The Eastern Slope Of The Rocky Mountain:-

A local wind named ‘Chinook’ blows along the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains which is mainly situated in the Western Cordilleras that lie to the western part of North America. This wind is mainly warm and dry in nature.

As the water vapor holding capacity of this air becomes higher, rainfall does not occur in this region. For this reason, the Prairies lying in the eastern slope of Rocky Mountain, the areas near the north and south Dakota region, experience dry weather in the beginning of spring.

Question 11. Describe North America’s rainfall pattern.
Answer:

North America’s Rainfall Pattern:-

The south-eastern, central (Florida peninsula and northern Mexico), and north-western coast of North America receive the highest rainfall-an annual average of 100 cm-200 cm or more.

The southern part of the western coast (California) and the Eastern Highlands receive a moderate rainfall-annual average of 50cm-100 cm. The Central Lowlands are at a great distance from the sea and receive less rainfall-annual average of 25 cm-50cm.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Annual rainfall of north america

 

The plateau regions bounded by mountains in the southwestern part of the continent receive scanty rainfall. Both the desert region and the rainshadow region on the eastern slope of the Rockies receive an annual average of less than 25 cm.

As a result, deserts like the Sonoran and the Mojave have formed here.

Question 12. Describe the location of the Prairies of North America.
Answer:

Location Of The Prairies Of North America:-

The extensive temperate grassland that stretches over a large part of North America is known as the Prairie.

To the west of the Prairies is the Rockies, to the east is the Great Lakes region, to the north is Canada’s northwest territories and to the south is the border between the USA and Mexico.

The natural vegetation of the Prairies consists of different varieties of grasses like hay, clover, and alfalfa.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9

Question 13. Why is the dairy industry so well-developed in the Prairie region?
Answer:

Dairy Industry So Well-Developed In The Prairie Region:-

Several factors that led to the well-developed dairy industry in the Prairie region are discussed below-

1. Extensive areas for cattle grazing:

The vast stretches of grasslands and cornfields are highly suitable for cattle grazing.

2. Availability of high-grade animal fodder:

Protein-rich fodder, and grasses like hay, alfalfa, and clover are grown here. As a result, this region is highly suitable for cattle rearing.

3. Cold storage facilities:

Several technologically advanced cold storage facilities have been built for the proper preservation and storage of milk and dairy products.

4. Well-developed transport system:

This factor helps in the quick dispatch and delivery of perishable dairy products.

Question 14. Why is the Prairie region known as the ‘Bread Basket of the World’?
Answer:

Prairie Region Known As The ‘Bread Basket Of The World’:-

A special characteristic of the agricultural pattern in the Prairies is that some specific crops are grown in huge quantities in some specific parts of this region.

The northern parts are completely snow-covered in the winter. So, when the snow melts and the soil is wet in the end of winter, large quantities of wheat are grown here.

Thus this region is known as the ‘spring wheat belt’. The state of Dakota in the USA yields the highest quantity of wheat. South of the spring wheat belt, wheat is grown in the winter as the region remains snow-free.

This region is thus known as the ‘winter wheat’ belt. Throughout the year, the other part of the Prairies is under wheat cultivation. The quantities yielded are huge and so this region is also known as the ‘Bread Basket of the World’.

 

Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. See a map of the world and make a list of where Isthmus are seen in the world.
Answer:

The following is a list of Isthmus that can be seen on a world map-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Isthmus And Location

 

Question 2. Why is North America known as the ‘New World’?
Answer:

North America is known as the ‘New World’ since it was discovered only 500 years ago, which is very less in a geological perspective.

Question 3. Name the volcanoes in the Western Cordillera region.
Answer:

In the southern part of the Western Cordillera, there are quite a few volcanoes in Mexico and in Central America.

Some of these are

  1. Popocatepetl (5426m),
  2. Orizaba (5636m),
  3. Colima (3820m).

All of these are on the Pacific Ring of Fire.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9

Question 4. What is meant by ‘piedmont’?
Answer:

Piedmont:-

The word ‘piedmont’ refers to any area which lies at the foot of a mountain. This can be used to qualify a plateau, river or valley. The Cumberland Plateau is an example of a Piedmont plateau.

Question 5. The low-lying region in south-eastern California is known as the ‘Death Valley-Explain.
Answer:

The low-lying region in south-eastern California is known as the ‘Death Valley’:-

The southeastern part of California, which lies to the west of the Rocky Mountains, is about 90m deep below sea level. This is the lowest region in the western hemisphere and has a temperature of about 56°C.

This is also the hottest place in North America. The salinity of the water of this place is so high that no living creature can survive here. Thus, this valley is known as ‘Death Valley.

Question 6. Why are numerous volcanoes found along the Rockies?
Answer:

Numerous Volcanoes Found Along The Rockies:-

According to the theory of Plate Tectonics, after colliding with the North American plate, the denser and heavier Pacific Ocean plate subducted.

As a result, numerous volcanoes originated along the Rockies. Apart from this, the region is a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire and so, many volcanoes are found here.

Question 7. Why does the water of the Mississippi-Missouri turn into ice in spite of being situated in the tropical region?
Answer:

Water Of The Mississippi-Missouri Turn Into Ice In Spite Of Being Situated In The Tropical Region:-

The Appalachian Mountain runs through the eastern part of North America and on the west, the Cordilleras run from north to south. These mountain ranges act as barriers, preventing wind from the sea from entering the area in between.

Besides, cold winds from the north easily pass to the west. This cold wind is responsible for freezing the water of the Mississippi- Missouri River.

Question 8. The Newfoundland islands are always covered with dense fog-Why?
Answer:

The Newfoundland islands are always covered with dense fog:-

The warm Gulf Stream flows along the Newfoundland coast from south to north. The cool Labrador current flows from north to south.

The place where the two currents meet, the warm Gulf Stream melts the ice blocks being carried down by the Labrador Current. The water vapour caused by this comes into contact with the cool air and condenses to form fog.

So, the outer parts of Newfoundland are always shrouded in fog.

Question 9. What is meant by ‘fall line’?
Answer:

Fall Line:-

The fall line is defined as the imaginary line along which the river plunges and waterfalls occur on approximately parallel rivers.

These commonly occur on the edges of plateaus and piedmonts where streams pass from hard and resistant rocks to a plain of weak, soft rocks below. Example- the Niagara Falls.

Question 10. Why is autumn called the ‘Fall Season’ in North America?
Answer:

Autumn Called The ‘Fall Season’ In North America:-

North America is characterized by temperate forests found in the Great Lakes region and in the Eastern Highlands and coastal regions. Different types of deciduous trees such as oak, maple, elm, and ash are found here.

In autumn, the leaves of these trees turn red, yellow, or orange in color, before being shed. Thus, autumn is known as the ‘Fall Season’ in North America.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9

Question 11. See the map and make a list of cities of North America that experience equable and extreme climates.
Answers:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America list of cities of north america

 

The list of few of the cities of North America which experience equable and extreme climate is given below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Equable And Extreme Climate

 

Question 12. Why north the flowing rivers of North America are not suitable for navigation?
Answer:

North The Flowing Rivers Of North America Are Not Suitable For Navigation:-

The north flowing rivers of North America mainly empty into Hudson Bay, the North Sea, and the Beaufort Sea.

Hence, the mouth or the lower course of these rivers lies in the Tundra climatic region, which remains snow-covered during the entire winter season (8-9 months).

During this time, the temperature falls below the freezing point. Thus, these rivers are not suitable for navigation in winter.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The largest island in the world is-

  1. Dogger’s Bank
  2. Maldives
  3. Sri Lanka
  4. Greenland

Answer: 4. Greenland

Question 2. The mainland of North America was discovered by-

  1. Vasco da Gama
  2. Magellan
  3. Colombus
  4. Amerigo Vespucci

Answer: 4. Amerigo Vespucci

Question 3. North America was discovered in the year-

  1. 1492
  2. 1501
  3. 1941
  4. 1947

Answer: 2. 1501

Question 4. The connector between North and South America is-

  1. Panama Canal
  2. Quebec
  3. Thunder Bay
  4. Thompson

Answer: 1. Panama Canal

Question 5. The number of countries in North America is-

  1. 54
  2. 23
  3. 48
  4. 25

Answer: 2. 23

Question 6. To the east of North America lies the-

  1. Pacific Ocean
  2. Atlantic Ocean
  3. Northern Ocean
  4. Indian Ocean

Answer: 2. Atlantic Ocean

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9

Question 7. The southernmost latitude of North America is-

  1. 5° North
  2. 20° West
  3. 7° North
  4. 83° North

Answer: 3. 7° North

Question 8. The largest mountain range in North America is the-

  1. Appalachians
  2. Allegheny
  3. Laurentide
  4. Rockies

Answer: 4. Rockies

Question 9. The average height of the Rockies is almost-

  1. 4200m
  2. 4401m
  3. 6800m
  4. 6900m

Answer: 2. 4401m

Question 10. The highest peak in Alaska range is-

  1. Sierra Madre
  2. McKenzie
  3. Denali (McKinley)
  4. Mt. Whitney

Answer: 3. Denali (McKinley)

Question 11. The part of the Rockies that is in Mexico is known as the-

  1. Endicott
  2. Sierra Madre
  3. Sierra Nevada
  4. Cascade Range

Answer: 2. Sierra Madre

Question 12. The highest peak in North America is-

  1. Denali (Mt. McKinley)
  2. Mt. Mitchell
  3. Mt. Elbert
  4. Mt. Whitney

Answer: 1. Denali (Mt. McKinley)

Question 13. The main river flowing through the United States of America is-

  1. Potomac
  2. Mississippi-Missouri
  3. St. Lawrence
  4. Columbia

Answer: 2. Mississippi-Missouri

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

Question 14. The world’s most famous canyon is carved by the river-

  1. St. Lawrence
  2. Colorado
  3. Mississippi
  4. Columbia

Answer: 2. Colorado

Question 15. The climate of Alaska is of the-

  1. Mediterranean type
  2. Tundra type
  3. Monsoon type
  4. Tropical type

Answer: 2. Tundra type

Question 16. The temperate grassland region of North America is known as the-

  1. Prairie
  2. Downs
  3. Pampas
  4. Steppes

Answer: 1. Prairie

Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. ___________ acts as the geographical divide between Asia and North America.
Answer: Bering Strait

Question 2. North America and South America are separated by ___________.
Answer: Panama Canal

Question 3. To the west of North America lies the ___________ Ocean.
Answer: Pacific

Question 4. ___________ is the hottest place in North America and has the lowest altitude in the world.
Answer: Death Valley

Question 5. North America is ___________ in the world in the production of softwood.
Answer: First

Question 6. North America is known as the ___________ since it was discovered only 500 years ago by Amerigo Vespucci.
Answer: New World

Question 7. The highest peak of the Appalachians is ___________.
Answer: Mt. Mitchell

Question 8. An active volcano in Mexico is ___________.
Answer: Popocatepetl

Question 9. The steep western part of the Appalachian mountain range is known as the ___________.
Answer: Allegheny mountains

Question 10. The St. Helena volcano is situated in ___________.
Answer: California

Question 11. Washington DC, the capital of the USA, is on the banks of the river ___________.
Answer: Potomac

Question 12. The capital of Cuba is ___________.
Answer: Havana

Question 13. The capital of Costa Rica is ___________.
Answer: San Jose

Question 14. The Grand Canyon, carved by the___________  river, is the world’s longest and largest canyon.
Answer: Colorado

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

Question 15. Grand ___________ is formed on the river Colorado.
Answer: Canyon

Question 16. The eastern part of the Appalachian mountains is known as the ___________.
Answer: Blue Ridge

Question 17. The shrubs that are seen in the tundra forests are known as ___________.
Answer: Bush tundra

Question 18. The ___________ region is called the ‘granary of North America’.
Answer: Prairie

 

Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Match The Columns

1. WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Match The Cloumns

Answer: 1. C, 2. D, 3. A, 4. B

 

Write True Or False

Question 1. The Grand Canyon has been carved by the St. Lawrence River.
Answer: False

Question 2. The Mississippi River flows into Hudson Bay.
Answer: False

Question 3. Mt. Mitchell in the Blue Ridge Mountains is the highest peak in the Appalachians.
Answer: True

Question 4. One important tributary meets the Mississippi near the city of St. Paul.
Answer: False

Question 5. Greenland, the world’s largest island, is actually a dissected plateau.
Answer: True

Question 6. The Appalachians are the longest mountain range in North America.
Answer: False

Question 7. At the mouth of the river Mississippi, a delta-shaped like a bird’s foot has developed.
Answer: True

Question 8. The California Valley is commonly known as the Death Valley.
Answer: False

Question 9. The temperate grasslands of North America is known as the Pampas.
Answer: False

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Name the world’s largest Piedmont glacier.
Answer: Malaspina in Alaska.

Question 2. Which is the world’s largest canyon?
Answer: The Grand Canyon.

Question 3. What connects the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean?
Answer: Panama Canal.

Question 4. Which is the hottest place in North America?
Answer: Death Valley (56°C).

Question 5. Which is the lowest place in the Western Hemisphere?
Answer: Death Valley (90m below the mean sea level).

Question 6. What is the name of the highest peak in North America?
Answer: Denali (Mt. McKinley).

Question 7. Which is the highest mountain range in North America?
Answer: The Alaska Range

Question 8. Where is the source of the Colorado River?
Answer: The Rockies.

Question 9. Which is the main river in North America?
Answer: Mississippi-Missouri.

Question 10. Name one inland river in North America.
Answer: Saskatchewan.

Question 11. Which state in the USA is the largest wheat producer in North America?
Answer: Kansas.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Some Neighbouring Countries Of India And Its Relationship With Them Topic A Neighbouring Countries Of North And South Nepal Bhutan And Sri Lanka

Chapter 8 Some Neighbouring Countries Of India And Its Relationship With Them Synopsis

People living around us are our neighbours. Similarly, the countries located around a particular country, are called neighbouring countries.

For example, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, China, Myanmar, Afghanistan and Maldives are India’s neighbouring countries.

India and its neighbouring countries hold similar social cultures. Among all of these countries, India is situated in the middle and is the largest in terms of both population and area.

In a word, India is called the main centre of this region. So the region is called the Indian subcontinent.

The neighbouring countries of India are Nepal, Bhutan and China in the north, Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east, Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west and Sri Lanka and Maldives in the south.

Read and Learn More WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography

In 1985, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was formed to increase interaction and cooperation between India and her neighbouring countries, with regard to political, economic, educational, cultural and scientific development. The headquarters of SAARC is situated at Kathmandu, Nepal.

Situated to the north of India, Nepal is an important neighbouring country of India. The main language of Nepal is Nepali and its capital is Kathmandu. Tourism is the largest and primary source of foreign exchange in Nepal.

Bhutan is situated to the north of India. The main language of Bhutan is Dzongkha and the capital is Thimpu. It rainfall with heavy experiences thunderstorms regularly in the monsoon season.

So Bhutan is also called the ‘Land of the Thunder Dragon’. The food processing industry is the major industry of Bhutan.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Bangladesh is situated to the east of India. The main language is Bengali and the capital of Bangladesh is Dhaka. Bangladesh is an agrarian country. Jute, paper, clay and cotton textile industry are the major industries of this country.

Myanmar lies to the east of India. The main language of Myanmar is Burmese and the capital is Naypyidaw. Myanmar is rich in minerals and forest resources.

Sri Lanka is situated to the south of India. The principal language of Sri Lanka. is Sinhalese. Tamil is also an official language here. The capital of Sri Lanka is Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte.

Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Sri Lanka. This country is famous for the production and export of coconut, tea, coffee, rubber, cotton and spices.

Pakistan is situated to the west of India. Urdu is the principal language of Pakistan, and the capital is Islamabad. Pakistan is agriculturally prosperous in spite of less rainfall because of improved irrigation techniques.

Karez irrigation is also practised in Pakistan, especially in the dry area of Balochistan province.

 

Chapter 8 Topic A Neighbouring Countries Of North And South Nepal Bhutan And Sri Lanka Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the necessity of maintaining good relations with our neighbouring countries.
Answer:

Necessity Of Maintaining Good Relations With Our Neighbouring Countries:-

India is surrounded by her neighbouring countries. Bangladesh and Myanmar lie on her eastern side, while Pakistan and Afghanistan lie on her western side. To the north, there is Nepal, Bhutan and China.

To the south, Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. Maldives lies to the south of the Lakshwadeep islands.

It is always important for a country to be on friendly terms with her neighbouring countries. The reasons behind maintaining such friendly relations are discussed below-

1. Trade relations:

Every country needs to maintain a balance between the commodities produced and consumed by it. A country can neither produce all the essential commodities by itself nor can it utilise all its products by itself.

Thus, it is necessary for India to share her surplus and make up for her deficits by negotiating with her neighbouring countries.

2. Proper utilisation of water resources:

There are many rivers that originate from or flow through or converge within the territorial boundaries of India’s neighbouring countries.

Thus, India needs to maintain good terms with her neighbours in order to utilise the water of such rivers and to sustain economic development.

3. Prevention of illegal trade and smuggling:

Nowadays, smuggling, illegal entry, drug peddling, etc., are common occurrences along the borders. To check and prevent these anti-social activities, collaboration and cooperation among neighbouring countries are extremely important.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

4. Joint voice in the international platform:

In order to voice issues and concerns or to protest against any kind of exploitation or deprivation on an international platform (such as the United Nations), a cohesive, united voice is extremely important.

This is another reason for India to maintain friendly relations with her neighbours.

5. Assistance in the event of natural disasters:

India needs to maintain good relations with her neighbouring countries so as to receive financial assistance and relief in case of natural calamities like floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, etc.

6. Reduce hostility and warfare:

Hostility and warfare benefit none. So, peaceful relations between India and her neighbouring countries is important. Since a peaceful relationship negates the necessity of budget allocations for defence, more resources are available for development.

Question 2. Discuss the factors that have facilitated the tourism industry in Nepal.
Answer:

Factors That Have Facilitated The Tourism Industry In Nepal:-

Tourism is an important as well as the largest industry of Nepal. Since Nepal is situated in the lap of the Himalayas, it is a place of great natural beauty.

Tourists and mountain climbers from different countries of the world come here to experience the beauty of the majestic Himalayas. The factors which have facilitated the tourism industry in Nepal are as follows-

1. Presence of peaks:

Eight of the ten highest peaks of the world are located in Nepal. The highest peak of the world, Mt. Everest, is also situated in Nepal. So, this country is a favourite spot for mountain climbers.

Nepal earns a huge amount of foreign exchange through levies for foreign nationals who climb peaks like Mt. Everest, Mt. Annapurna, etc.

2. Infrastructure facilitating tourism:

Since a large number of tourists come to visit the mountains here, various facilities for mountain climbing are available.

For example, people can hire the services of ‘sherpas’ and can also get the specialised garments and equipment required for climbing the mountains. Training centres for amateur and new climbers are also present.

These encourage more and more tourists to come and take part in these activities.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

3. Hospitality industry:

The hospitality industry in Nepal is well developed with hotel proper accommodation and transportation facilities.

4. Ancient architecture:

The ancient architectural treasures like Pashupatinath temple, Boudhanath Stupa, Kapilavastu, Muktinath, Janakpur, Nagarkot, Pokhara and Lumbini are major tourist spots.

Question 3. Why is the fruit processing industry in Bhutan so famous?
Answer:

Fruit Processing Industry In Bhutan Is So Famous:-

The fruit processing industry in Bhutan is famous because of the following reasons-

1. Cultivation of fruits:

Due to its topography, Bhutan faces difficulties in developing agriculture and industry. As a result, fruit orchards have been planted along the hill slopes of the country.

Apples, oranges, pineapples and grapes are mainly grown here. These are the raw materials used by the fruit-processing industries of Bhutan.

2. Favourable climate:

Bhutan has a temperate type of climate, which is favourable for the growth of fruits.

3. Modern technology:

Intensive use of modern technology in factories has led to the production of jams, jellies, squashes, sauces and pickles. This ensures tasty and hygienic products that have gained worldwide popularity.

4. Global market:

The demand for fruit-based wine and fruit-based products like jams, jellies, squashes, etc. of Bhutan is gradually increasing in the global market.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

5. Infrastructural development:

There is sufficient infrastructure to store fresh fruits in cold storage and also for the transport of raw fruits to the factories. Phuentsholing and Khamsi of Bhutan are famous for fruit preservation industries.

Question 4. Give an idea about the agriculture of Sri Lanka.
Answer:

An Idea About The Agriculture Of Sri Lanka:-

Agriculture is one of the significant occupations in Sri Lanka. A brief discussion about agriculture in Sri Lanka is provided in the table below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic A Neighbouring Countries Of North And South Nepal Bhutan And Sri Lanka Agriculture in srilanka

 

Apart from the above-mentioned crops, Sri Lanka also produces wheat, jute, sugarcane, maize, millets, oilseeds and cinchona.

 

Chapter 8 Topic A Neighbouring Countries Of North And South Nepal Bhutan And Sri Lanka Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Write a brief note on SAARC.
Answer:

SAARC:-

SAARC stands for South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation. It is an association that was established on 8 December 1985. At the beginning, it consisted of 7 member countries but now, the total number of member countries is 8.

The member countries at present are India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Maldives. The headquarters of SAARC is at Kathmandu in Nepal.

The purpose of this association is to increase interaction and cooperation among the members with regard to development in the political, economic, educational, cultural, scientific and technological spheres, as well as in sports.

Question 2. Discuss the trade relationship between India and Nepal.
Answer:

Trade Relationship Between India And Nepal:-

There is a close trade relationship between India and Nepal. Nepal exports pulse, oilseeds, raw jute, jute goods, leather, textiles, carpets and drugs to India and imports rice, butter, wood, cars, machineries and equipment, cotton, chemical fertilisers and garments from India.

Nepal uses Kolkata and Haldia ports for the purpose of carrying out trading through waterways. Nepal and India carry out trade with each other through roadways via Raxaul and Jogbani in Bihar and Biratnagar in Nepal.

Question 3. What do you know about the Chukha Hydel Power Project?
Answer:

Chukha Hydel Power Project:-

The Chukha Hydel Power Project was developed on the river Wangchhu by a collaboration between Bhutan and India. It is situated in the Chukha district, between Thimpu and Phuentsholing.

The power generated by this power plant is around 336 MW. Most of the energy generated by this hydel power plant is exported to India, especially to West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha and Sikkim.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8

The Chukha Hydel Power Project was Bhutan’s first mega power project.

Question 4. Discuss the major minerals and mines of Sri Lanka.
Answer:

Major Minerals And Mines Of Sri Lanka:-

Graphite, precious stones and limestone are the three important mineral resources found in Sri Lanka.

Graphite is mainly found in Kurunegala, Bogala and Ragedara districts of central Sri Lanka while precious stones are found in the southern part of the Central Highlands near Sabaragamuwa of Ratnapura.

Jaffna, in the northern part of Sri Lanka, is famous for limestone. Sri Lanka occupies a leading position in the world in graphite production.

 

Chapter 8 Topic A Neighbouring Countries Of North And South Nepal Bhutan And Sri Lanka Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. How many neighbouring countries does? India has and what are their names?
Answer:

Neighbouring Countries Of India:-

India has 9 neighbouring countries.

They are

  1. Bangladesh,
  2. Myanmar,
  3. Nepal,
  4. Bhutan,
  5. Pakistan,
  6. Afghanistan,
  7. Sri Lanka,
  8. Maldives and
  9. China.

Question 2. Which neighbouring country is situated on which side of India?
Answer:

India is bordered by Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east and Pakistan and Afghanistan in the west. To the north, there are Nepal, Bhutan and China while Sri Lanka and Maldives are to the south of India.

Question 3. Which countries share the border with the landmass of India?
Answer:

India shares her land borders with Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Myanmar.

Question 4. Name two states of India which touch the boundaries with three neighbouring countries.
Answer:

  1. West Bengal-It shares its borders with Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan.
  2. Arunachal Pradesh-It shares its borders with Bhutan, China and Myanmar.

Question 5. Why do mountain climbers from different parts of the world visit Nepal?
Answer:

Mountain Climbers From Different Parts Of The World Visit Nepal:-

Nepal is located in the foothills of the Himalayas. Out of the ten highest peaks in the world, eight, including Mt. Everest, are located in this country.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8

There are provisions to climb these peaks and hence, mountain climbers come here from different parts of the world.

Question 6. What are the major crops grown in Nepal?
Answer:

Major Crops Grown In Nepal:-

The major crops that are grown in Nepal are rice, wheat, millet, barley, jute, cotton and sugarcane. Besides these, different types of fruits, such as oranges and pineapples are grown here. Nepal also has some tea plantations.

Question 7. Briefly write about the mineral resources of Nepal.
Answer:

Mineral Resources Of Nepal:-

Mineral resources in Nepal are scarce. Small quantities of lignite coal, limestone, iron ore, copper, cobalt, mica, marble, etc. are found in different parts of Nepal.

However, due lack of technological development. these mineral resources are yet to be explored thoroughly.

Question 8. Mention the capital of Nepal and state its importance.
Answer:

Capital Of Nepal:-

Kathmandu is the capital of Nepal. Being situated in the Bagmati Valley, Kathmandu is Nepal’s largest city and the main attraction for tourists.

The headquarters of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is located in this city.

Question 9. Which port does Nepal use for trade purposes?
Answer:

Nepal, being a landlocked country, uses Kolkata and Haldia ports in West Bengal, India to conduct trade with other countries through waterways.

Question 10. Why is Bhutan called the ‘Land of the Thunder Dragon’?
Answer:

Bhutan Called The ‘Land Of The Thunder Dragon’:-

Bhutan is located in the foothills of the Himalayas. So, it experiences heavy rainfall with thunderstorms because of the Bay of Bengal branch of the southwest monsoon winds. That is why Bhutan is called the ‘Land of the Thunder Dragon’.

Question 11. Mention the important agricultural crops of Bhutan.
Answer:

Important Agricultural Crops Of Bhutan:-

The important agricultural crops of Bhutan are paddy, maize, wheat, barley, potato, cardamom, apple and orange.

Question 12. What do you know about the forest resources of Bhutan?
Answer:

Forest Resources Of Bhutan:-

Coniferous trees like pine, fir and spruce are seen in the Alpine regions of Bhutan.

In the southern part of Bhutan, i.e., in the terai region, forests containing bamboo, cane and long grasses are found. Honey, lac, wax, and timber are obtained from these forests.

Question 13. Write about the mineral resources of Bhutan.
Answer:

Mineral Resources Of Bhutan:-

Bhutan’s mineral resources have not been fully explored as yet. Dolomite and limestone are found in Gomtu which is in Samchi (Samtse) district.

Gypsum, quartzite and coal are found in south-east Bhutan. Apart from these, marble, slate, talc and various types of construction stones are also mined in different parts of Bhutan.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answers

Question 14. Name the items of export and import between Bhutan and India.
Answer:

Items Of Export And Import Between Bhutan And India:-

Bhutan imports paper, drugs, coal, steel, salt, machineries and sugar from India. On the other hand, it exports black cardamom, different fruits, jams, jellies, wool and woollen products to India.

Question 15. Why does Sri Lanka experience two rainy seasons a year?
Answer:

Sri Lanka Experience Two Rainy Seasons A Year:-

Sri Lanka experiences two rainy seasons in a year because of the southwest and the retreating monsoon winds. The southwest monsoon winds bring monsoon to Sri Lanka in May just after summer and cause abundant rainfall in this country.

The retreat of the monsoon winds also causes rainfall in the eastern part of the country in autumn.

Question 16. Name the major crops grown in Sri Lanka.
Answer:

Major Crops Grown In Sri Lanka:-

The major crops grown in Sri Lanka are rice, tea, rubber, sugarcane, oilseeds, coconut, various types of spices, maize, banana, millet and potato.

Question 17. Why is Sri Lanka called the ‘Cinnamon Island”?
Answer:

Sri Lanka Called The ‘Cinnamon Island”:-

Different types of spices are cultivated in the hilly tracts and coastal parts of Sri Lanka, depending on the variations in rainfall, topography and soil types.

Among these, clove, cardamom, nutmeg and cinnamon are the major spices grown here. Sri Lanka produces huge amounts of cinnamon and so, is known as the ‘Cinnamon Island’.

Question 18. Mention some important mineral resources of Sri Lanka.
Answer:

Important Mineral Resources Of Sri Lanka:-

Some important mineral resources of Sri Lanka are graphite, bauxite and limestone. Moreover, some precious stones are also found in this country such as, ruby, cat’s eye and sapphire.

Question 19. Write the names of the industries found in Sri Lanka.
Answer:

Names Of The Industries Found In Sri Lanka:-

Some notable industries of Sri Lanka are- tea industry, rubber industry, cement industry, leather industry, paper industry and garment industry.

Question 20. Name the items of export and import between Sri Lanka and India.
Answer:

Items Of Export And Import Between Sri Lanka And India:-

Sri Lanka imports sugar, steel, coal, jute products, drugs, garments, etc., from India. On the other hand, it exports clove, cinnamon, and graphite,. leather, precious stones, coconut products, etc., to India.

Chapter 8 Topic A Neighbouring Countries Of North And South Nepal Bhutan And Sri Lanka Multiple Choice Questions Choose the correct option

Question 1. In terms of foreign trade, Nepal deals mostly with-

  1. Sri Lanka
  2. Bhutan
  3. India
  4. China

Answer: 3. India

Question 2. The capital of Nepal is-

  1. Islamabad
  2. Colombo
  3. Dhaka
  4. Kathmandu

Answer: 4. Kathmandu

Question 3. The main language of Bhutan is-

  1. Dzongkha
  2. Sinhalese
  3. Bengali
  4. Urdu

Answer: 1. Dzongkha

Question 4. The only international airport in Bhutan is in-

  1. Thimpu
  2. Punakha
  3. Paro
  4. Phuentsholing

Answer: 3. Paro

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answers

Question 5. The longest river in Sri Lanka is-

  1. Aruvi Aru
  2. Kalan Oya
  3. Mahaweli Ganga
  4. Parangi

Answer: 3. Mahaweli Ganga

Question 6. The chief cash crop of Sri Lanka is-

  1. Cotton
  2. Tea
  3. Coconut
  4. Jute

Answer: 3. Coconut

Question 7. Which of the following country is known as the ‘Cinnamon Island”?

  1. Sri Lanka
  2. Maldives
  3. Mauritius
  4. Seychelles

Answer: 1. Sri Lanka

Question 8. The smallest neighbouring country of India is-

  1. Maldives
  2. Bhutan
  3. Sri Lanka
  4. Nepal

Answer: 1. Maldives

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answers

Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. The longest river in Nepal is _____________.
Answer: Karnali

Question 2. The neighbouring countries of Nepal are _____________ and _____________.
Answer: India, China

Question 3.  _____________ is the largest lake in Nepal.
Answer: Rara Lake

Question 4. The doon valley in Nepal is called _____________.
Answer: Rapti

Question 5. The capital of Bhutan is _____________.
Answer: Thimphu

Question 6. Most of the rivers in Bhutan fall in the _____________ river
Answer: Brahmaputra

Question 7. is known as the ‘Land of Thunder _____________ Dragon’
Answer: Bhutan

Question 8. The name of a hydel power project in Bhutan is _____________.
Answer: Chukha

Question 9. Bhutan conducts its foreign trade through the _____________ port.
Answer: Kolkata

Question 10. The highest peak of Sri Lanka is _____________.
Answer: Pidurutalagala

Question 11. Gulf of _____________ is located in between India and Sri Lanka.
Answer: Mannar

Question 12. _____________ is the main language spoken in Sri Lanka.
Answer: Sinhalese

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answers

Chapter 8 Topic A Neighbouring Countries Of North And South Nepal Bhutan And Sri Lanka Write True Or False

Question 1. The longest river in Nepal is Kali Gandak.
Answer: False

Question 2. The highest peak in Nepal is Karakoram.
Answer: False

Question 3. The primary mineral resource of Sri Lanka is graphite.
Answer: True

Question 4. The longest river in Bhutan is Manas.
Answer: True

Question 5. The Mahabharat Lekh is in Nepal.
Answer: True

Question 6. Sri Lanka exports sugar to India.
Answer: False

Question 7. Nepal uses the Guwahati port for its foreign trade.
Answer: False

Question 8. India imports cardamom from Sri Lanka.
Answer: False

Question 9. Dubai is a member country of SAARC.
Answer: False

Question 10. Biratnagar is one of the important cities of Nepal.
Answer: True

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Match The Columns

1.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Topic A Neighbouring Countries Of North And South Nepal Bhutan And Sri Lanka Match the Cloumns

Answer: 1. C, 2. E, 3. A, 4. B, 5. D

 

Chapter 8 Topic A Neighbouring Countries Of North And South Nepal Bhutan And Sri Lanka Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. What are the numbers of neighbouring countries of India?
Answer: 9.

Question 2. Which neighbouring country is surrounded on three sides by Indian territory?
Answer: Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.

Question 3. Name two neighbouring countries of India that are completely landlocked.
Answer: Nepal and Bhutan.

Question 4. Mention two neighbouring countries which have no seaport.
Answer: Nepal and Bhutan.

Question 5. Name the two neighbouring countries that depend upon Kolkata port for foreign trade.
Answer: Nepal and Bhutan.

Question 6. In which neighbouring countries does. India makes a trade by waterways?
Answer: Sri Lanka and Maldives.

Question 7. Which three neighbouring countries share boundaries with our state West Bengal?
Answer: Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.

Question 8. By which strait India and Sri Lanka are separated?
Answer: Palk strait.

Question 9. Which is the main river in Nepal?
Answer: Kali Gandak.

Question10. Name two glaciers in Nepal.
Answer: Khumbu and Langtang.

Question 11. Which is the main crop of Nepal?
Answer: Rice.

Question 12. Which is the main industry in Nepal?
Answer: Tourism.

Question 13. Name one of the passes in Bhutan.
Answer: Dochu La.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Question 14. On which river was Chukha hydel power project developed?
Answer: Wangchhu.

Question 15. Which is the major industry in Bhutan?
Answer: Food processing.

Question 16. Which neighbouring country shares the smallest borderline with India?
Answer: Sri Lanka.

Question 17. Name two cash crops of Sri Lanka.
Answer: Tea and rubber.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India

Chapter 7 Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the negative effects of the Green Revolution.
Answer:

Negative Effects Of The Green Revolution:-

The negative effects of the Green Revolution are as follows-

1. Loss of soil fertility:

An area of land loses its fertility if it is used to grow the same crops repeatedly year after year, rendering it barren and useless after some time.

2. Increase in salinity:

Repeated cultivation on the same plot of land results in its repeated irrigation, which increases the salinity of the soil, thereby making the soil infertile.

3. Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides:

The amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides being used since the time of the Green Revolution have had adverse effects on the soil. It makes the soil infertile, increase its salinity and pollutes it as well.

Read and Learn More WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography

4. Loss in biodiversity:

The repeated cultivation of the same high-yielding variety of crops results in the loss of biodiversity.

5. Genetic change:

High-yielding varieties of seeds are usually grown by making genetic modifications of the seeds. These crops, when consumed by human beings or domestic animals, can have adverse effects on their bodies.

Question 2. Give a brief account of environmental degradation in India, citing recent examples.
Answer:

Environmental Degradation In India, Citing Recent Examples:-

India is a fast-developing country. Various activities such as the construction of roads and railways, the building of townships, the extraction of natural resources, industrialization, etc., are taking place in different parts of the country.

Though these activities are necessary for the development of human society, they also have adverse effects on the environment. Examples of environmental degradation due to development are discussed below-

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Green Revolution and the Degradation of Land under Cultivation:

The phase in the early 1970s when improved agronomic technology was taken up for farming, in the states of Punjab, Haryana, etc., which resulted in a high yield of crops, is known as the Green Revolution.

But this ‘revolution’ was also responsible for the degradation of land under cultivation and several environmental problems arising from it.

Problems:

Cultivating crops repeatedly on the same patch of land makes it infertile and it slowly turns in to barren and

  1. Excessive use of pesticides kills the useful microorganisms present in the soil.
  2. Use of chemical fertilizers also changes the nature of the soil and degrades its quality.
  3. Excessive irrigation increases the salinity of the soil.
  4. Various genetic problems can occur in the crops that are produced from high-yielding seeds.
  5. Unregulated use of underground water is lowering the level of the watertable.
  6. Farming methods using modern technology are very costly and hence poor farmers face difficulties in using those.

Filling of wetlands and environmental degradation:

Wetlands also play important functions such as controlling floods, maintaining the level of the underground watertable, providing water for irrigation, etc.

However, they are now undergoing detrimental changes, which is further degrading the environment.

Problems:

  1. Several wetlands are being filled up for construction purposes. This increases the salinity of the soil as well as decreases the level of the groundwater table.
  2. The filling up of wetlands increases the chances of flood in the surrounding areas.
  3. Wetlands are often used as landfills, which pollute the air, water, and soil of that place. Dumping of garbage in wetlands has contaminated the groundwater and soil substantially, which has also made the air stink.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Chapter 7 Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Write a short note on the Chipko Movement.
Answer:

Chipko Movement:-

The word Chipko (or Chipak jao) in Hindi means ‘to stick to’ or ‘ to hug’ or ‘hold tightly onto something. The movement where people hugged trees in order to protect them from being cut down is known as the Chipko Movement.

This non-violent movement started in 1973 in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand in order to protect the trees. People embraced the trees and saved them from being felled whenever the lumbering contractors came to fell those.

Prominent environmentalists such as Sarla Behn, Sunderlal Bahuguna, Chandi Prasad Bhatt, and several others were involved in this movement.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Chipko Movement

Effects:

  1. This movement ensured that trees were not cut in the Himalayan region for a long time.
  2. With this movement, the idea of prevention of deforestation came into prominence, nationwide. This helped in the protection of the environment.

Question 2. What is the Ganga Action Plan? Get an idea about it from your teacher. Write a brief note on the Ganga Action Plan (GAP).
Answer:

Ganga Action Plan:

The 2525 km long river Ganga has become one of the most polluted rivers today due to various causes. The river is especially polluted in the 600 km stretch from the estuary toward its source.

The project that has been taken up to make the Ganga pollution free is known as the Ganga Action Plan (GAP).

Time of initiation and objectives of the Ganga Action Plan:

This project was officially initiated in Varanasi on January 14, 1986. The objectives of the Ganga Action Plan-

  1. Make the water of the Ganga pollution-free and maintain the ecological balance;
  2. Maintain the depth of the river;
  3. Make the river water suitable for drinking;
  4. Prevent rapid erosion of river banks;
  5. Keep the surrounding areas of the river clean and beautiful.

To attain the above objectives, a huge amount of funds has been allotted. The sewage generated from 25 Class I cities was tackled. Many sewage treatment plants were also established.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Question 3. Discuss the positive effects of the Green Revolution.
Answer:

Positive Effects Of The Green Revolution:-

The positive effects of the Green Revolution are as follows-

  1. There has been a rapid increase in the production of food crops, which has helped in supplying food to people all over the country.
  2. Many farmers have achieved economic stability.
  3. Agriculture-based industries have developed rapidly.
  4. Factories for manufacturing agricultural tools and machinery, as well as chemical fertilizers and pesticides producing plants have come up.
  5. Area of arable land has increased many times. Thus, crop yield has enhanced.

Question 4. Briefly discuss about the Narmada Bachao Andolan.
Answer:

Narmada Bachao Andolan:-

Originating in Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh, the Narmada River flows to the west and discharges into the Gulf of Khambhat.

The government had decided to build 10 large dams along the main course of the river and 30 large, 135 medium, and 3000 small dams on its tributaries.

If this plan had been worked upon, large areas of land would have been flooded and about 320000 people would have been displaced. Besides, it would have caused major disturbances in the ecosystem of the area.

The movement that was carried out in protest of this plan is known as the ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’. Environmentalists such as Medha Patkar and Baba Amte initiated this movement.

This movement helped in spreading awareness among the people which is a prior need for protecting the environment.

Question 5. What do you know about the Anti-Tehri Dam Movement?
Answer:

Anti-Tehri Dam Movement:-

In the Tehri district of Uttarakhand, a project for the construction of a dam at the confluence of the rivers Bhagirathi and Bhilangana was taken up.

The dam will have a maximum installed capacity for the production of 2400 MW of power and for the irrigation of about 270000 hectares of land. The movement started as a protest against the construction of this dam.

Origin of the movement:

The movement was started presuming and anticipating the follow-

  1. The physical environment of the place would be destroyed by the construction of the dam.
  2. There would be a major change in the climate of the place.
  3. The place is geologically unstable and earthquakes might occur, damaging the dam and causing the destruction of life and property.
  4. About 125000 people from 112 villages would be displaced.

Effects:

The movement started under the leadership of Sunderlal Bahuguna and gained huge popularity, which resulted in the construction of the dam being kept on hold for a long time.

Question 6. Write a short note on the Silent Valley Movement.
Answer:

Silent Valley Movement:-

The evergreen forest situated in the Palakkad district in north Kerala is known as the Silent Valley.

A project was initiated by the Kerala State Electricity Board that planned to build a dam over the river Kunthipuzha that flowed through the valley, in order to produce hydroelectricity.

This valley has a tropical evergreen forest that is home to hundreds of different species of flora and fauna. If a dam had been built here, it would have resulted in the loss of a variety of plant and animal species, wiping out the entire ecosystem and destruction of natural resources as well.

To prevent all these from occurring, the Silent Valley Movement was started.

Effects:

This movement was mainly initiated in the 1970s by the Kerala Sasthra Sahitya Parishad (KSSP) and after much protest, the plan for the project was canceled. In the year 1985, Silent Valley has declared a National Park.

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Chapter 7 Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What do you mean by G20?
Answer:

G20:-

G20 or Group of 20 is an international association formed by 20 countries. This group came into being in 1999 and now has a total membership of 20 nations (2017). It was created primarily to develop trade relations among its member nations.

Question 2. What is WHO?
Answer:

WHO:-

The full form of WHO is World Health Organisation. Its headquarters is located in Geneva in Switzerland.

As an agency of the United Nations, WHO is responsible for issues on public health around the world. It also plays an important role in the eradication of diseases.

Question 3. With which environmental movements are Sundarlal Bahuguna, Baba Amte and Medha Patekar associated?
Answer:

Environmental Movements Are Associated With Sundarlal Bahuguna, Baba Amte And Medha Patekar:-

Sundarlal Bahuguna-Chipko Movement, Anti-Tehri Dam Movement. Baba Amte (Murlidhar Devidas Amte)- Narmada Bachao Andolan. Medha Patekar- Narmada Bachao Andolan, Ghar Bachao Ghar Banao.

Question 4. Though the Green Revolution was a success at many levels, why did it result in environmental degradation?
Answer:

The negative effects of the Green Revolution are as follows-

Loss of soil fertility:

An area of land loses its fertility if it is used to grow the same crops repeatedly year after year, rendering it barren and useless after some time.

Increase in salinity:

Repeated cultivation on the same plot of land results in its repeated irrigation, which increases the salinity of the soil, thereby making the soil infertile.

Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides:

The amounts of chemical fertilizers and pesticides being used since the time of the Green Revolution have had adverse effects on the soil. It makes the soil infertile, increase its salinity and pollutes it as well.

Loss in biodiversity:

The repeated cultivation of the same high-yielding variety of crops results in the loss of biodiversity.

Genetic change:

High-yielding varieties of seeds are usually grown by making genetic modifications of the seeds. These crops, when consumed by human beings or domestic animals, can have adverse effects on their bodies.

Question 5. Why do the filling of wetlands cause environmental degradation?
Answer:

Filling Of Wetlands Cause Environmental Degradation:-

Wetlands help to maintain a balance in the environment. Thus, when these are being dredged and filled, they can have adverse effects on the environment.

Some of these include

  1. The underground water level will decrease.
  2. The Wetland ecosystem will be destroyed.
  3. Wetlands often act as natural water purifiers, and this too shall be affected.
  4. As the filling of wetlands adversely affects the marine ecosystem, the growth of fish will also be affected.
  5. The overall biodiversity of that place shall be disturbed.

Chapter 7 Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The Chipko Movement was launched in-

  1. Punjab
  2. Bihar
  3. Uttarakhand
  4. Kerala

Answer: 3. Uttarakhand

Question 2. The Chipko Movement started in order to-

  1. Protect trees
  2. Purify rivers
  3. Conserve arable land
  4. Support local contractors

Answer: 1. Protect trees

Question 3. According to WHO report, out of the 20 most polluted cities in G-20 countries, India has-

  1. 0
  2. 3
  3. 10
  4. 13

Answer: 4. 13

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Question 4. Medha Patkar was associated with the-

  1. Chipko Movement
  2. Appiko Movement
  3. Narmada Bachao Andolan
  4. Anti-Tehri Dam Movement

Answer: 3. Narmada Bachao Andolan

Question 5. Silent Valley is situated in-

  1. Manipur
  2. Karnataka
  3. Madhya Pradesh
  4. Kerala

Answer: 4. Kerala

Question 6. Pandurang Hegde was an active leader in the-

  1. Chipko Movement
  2. Appiko Movement
  3. Narmada Bachao Andolan
  4. Anti-Tehri Dam Movement

Answer: 2. Appiko Movement

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. The Chipko Movement was organized in the year ________.
Answer: 1973

Question 2. The ________ was a notable protest against deforestation in India.
Answer: Chipko Movement

Question 3. Sunderlal Bahuguna is an eminent environmentalist who led the ________ movement.
Answer: Chipko

Question 4. The full form of G-20 is ________ of Twenty.
Answer: Group

Question 5. Environmental movements are also known as ________ movements.
Answer: Green/ Conservation

Question 6. Amrita Devi was the main leader of the ________ movement.
Answer: Bishnoi

Question 7. The Appiko Movement was held in the ________ and ________ districts of Karnataka.
Answer: Shimoga, Uttara Kannada

Class 8 Geography Solutions WBBSE

Write True Or False

Question 1. The Sundarbans region in West Bengal was the worst affected by Aila.
Answer: True

Question 2. Medha Patkar was a leader of the Chipko Movement.
Answer: False

Question 3. India is a developed country.
Answer: False

Question 4. Environmental degradation is occurring with simultaneous economic development in India.
Answer: True

Question 5. Unplanned urbanization and poverty are the two main causes of environmental degradation in India.
Answer: True

Question 6. Excessive irrigation in Punjab-Haryana has not created any environmental problems in those areas.
Answer: False

Question 7. We should increase the use of plastics at home, but not in school.
Answer: False

Chapter 7 Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Match The Columns

1. WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Match the cloumns

Answer: 1. C, 2. A, 3. D, 4. B

 

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. How much monetary loss does India suffer due to environmental degradation every year?
Answer: About 80 billion USD or 480000 crore rupees.

Question 2. Where did the Chipko Movement start?
Answer: Garhwal region in Uttarakhand.

Question 3. What is the meaning of the word ‘Chipko”?
Answer: “To stick to or to hold tightly onto something.”

Question 4. Where is the headquarters of WHO?
Answer: Geneva, Switzerland.

Question 5. What is the full form of SPM?
Answer: Suspended Particulate Matter.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Chapter 7 Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Conceptual Questions And Answers

 

Who am I?

Question 1. ‘I am used to increasing crop yield. But I am harmful for the soil as well as the crops.-  Who am I?
Answer: Chemical fertilizers

Question 2. ‘I am sprayed on crops to protect them from insects. But I pollute the soil and even cause the deaths of farmers.’-Who am I?
Answer: Insecticides/ Pesticides

Question 3. I am the poisonous gas responsible for Bhopal Gas Tragedy. I am also used in pesticides and certain chemicals.’-Who am I?
Answer: MIC (Methyl Isocyanate)

Question 4. ‘I am generated when coal is burnt. I am converted into electrical energy that runs. the fans and lights in your house.’-Who am I?
Answer: Thermal power

Question 5. ‘I am a protest movement originating in the Garhwal region in Uttarakhand, where people protested against the cutting down of trees by hugging them.’-Who am I?
Answer: Chipko Movement

Question 6. ‘I am concerned with international public health. I look after vaccinations, proper use of medicines, healthy eating and maintaining a pollution-free world.’-Who am I?
Answer: World Health Organisation

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Scrambled Words

1. OCHOSTAMETI
2. LIPHANI
3. LLPOAIIONUTR
4. THMMARITESU
5. IEFRECLYOND

Answers

1. Homeostatic
2. Phailin
3. Air pollution
4. Earth Summit
5. Eco-friendly

 

Fill Up The Blanks In The Knowledge Hive

Question 1. Fill in the knowledge hive with information on the Earth Summit.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Fill the blanks

 

Answers:

1. Governments of 178 countries took part in this conference.
2. A meeting of a parallel NGO called the ‘Global Forum’ was also held here.
3. A seminar called ‘Eco-Tech’ was held here.
4. Issues related to environments like ozone layer depletion and the ways to control it were discussed in this conference.
5. Discussions were made on the idea of sustainable development.

 

Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Fani, Phailin, Aila, Tsunami
Answer: Tsunami (It is not the name of a cyclone)

Question 2. Storm, Industry, Flood, Drought
Answer: Industry (It is not a natural hazard)

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Chapter 7 Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Crossword

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Crossword

 

CLUES

Down:

1. A disastrous gas tragedy took place here in 1984.
3 The revolution is specially related to the state of Punjab and Haryana regarding agriculture.

Across:

2. Full form of WHO is World Organisation.
4. The Narmada Bachao Andolan was aimed at saving this river from being blocked.

Answers:

Down: 1. Bhopal, 3. Green
Across: 2. Health, 4. Narmada, 5. Ozone

 

Correct The Following

Question 1. Overall qualitative reduction of the components of the environment is called environmental pollution.
Answer: Degradation

Question 2. The main factors causing environmental degradation are illiteracy and impertinence.
Answer: Poverty

Question 3. Volcanic eruption is a type of man-made environmental disaster.
Answer: Natural

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1. How can we protect our environment even while carrying on development?
Answer:

We Can Protect Our Environment Even While Carrying On Development:-

Along with carrying on developmental processes, the earth can also be protected and conserved. In order to do this the following steps should be taken-

1. Recycling of substances:

Recycling of used substances enables development as well as helps reduce the wastage of resources.

2. Development of technology:

Both technology and knowledge should be put to use to figure out in how many different ways a single material can be used.

Example- A decade ago, 10 tonnes of coal was required to produce 1 tonne of steel. However, nowadays, the production of 1 tonne of steel requires only 0.75 tonnes of coal.

3. Judicious use of resources:

Instead of wasting resources in an unplanned manner, they should be used judiciously and within a certain limit.

Example- If we use public transport instead of private transport, we can save a lot of fuel.

Question 2. Write a short note on Green Bench.
Answer:

Green Bench:-

A separate bench, called the Green Bench, has been formed for dealing with the issues related to the environment. The Supreme Court of India has ordered the High Courts of different states to form this bench.

West Bengal government formed its Green Bench in the year 1986.

Issues of appeal:

The issues which are handled by this Bench include

  1. Filling up of ponds and wetlands,
  2. Pollution from the transport sector,
  3. Pollution caused by industries,
  4. Pollution from waste material and garbage and sound pollution.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Special advantage:

Common people can easily convey their problems to this Bench. An ordinary letter enjoys the status of an appeal in this Bench. This Bench is also known as Environment Court.

Question 3. Briefly discuss about arsenic pollution.
Answer:

Arsenic Pollution:-

When the arsenic level in the drinking water of a particular area rises above the acceptable limit, the water is said to be contaminated by arsenic. Groundwater in different parts of West Bengal contains high levels of arsenic.

Sources of arsenic:

  1. Sedimentary rock layers contain arsenic which comes up with groundwater.
  2. Excessive use of arsenic-laced pesticides which, in turn, contaminates the environment.
  3. The ores of iron, lead as well as coal themselves contain arsenic. So arsenic is released when these ores are melted and when coal is burnt.

Effects:

  1. When arsenic comes into contact with human hair, nails, and skin, it gives rise to black spots. This is known as ‘Blackfoot disease.
  2. Drinking and using of water that is contaminated with arsenic can affect the lungs, kidneys, and liver very badly. It can even cause cancer.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Black foot disease

 

Question 4. Write a short note on global warming.
Answer:

Global Warming:-

An increase in the number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is causing a rise in the average temperature of the earth. This gradual increase of temperature all over the world is known as global warming.

According to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the temperature of the earth has increased by about 0.74°C in the last century. Besides carbon dioxide, gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, freon, ozone, and water vapor are also responsible for global warming.

Effects:

  1. Sea level is rising due to the melting of ice in the polar regions.
  2. Coastal areas are getting inundated.
  3. Forest fires are occurring and large-scale destruction of forests is an inevitable effect.
  4. Various plants and animals are being lost permanently.
  5. Different types of diseases will also spread.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 5. What is eutrophication?
Answer:

Eutrophication:-

Phosphates present mostly in detergents, fertilisers, etc., reach closed water bodies (ponds, lakes) due to surface run-off from the land. This results in excessive growth of algae in those waterbodies. This process is known as eutrophication.

Harmful effects:

  1. The level of oxygen present in water decreases, creating a Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD).
  2. Excessive algae create a layer over water, blocking the sunlight to penetrate. This prevents underwater plants from receiving sunlight and they are unable to perform photosynthesis.
  3. Layers of algae on the water’s surface obstruct the movement of boats. These also release a toxin, which is harmful for livestock.

 

Chapter 7 Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Formative

 

Participation

This segment will indicate how much the students have actively participated and taken the initiative during the class.

Question 1. Human activities are responsible for the degradation of the environment. With reference to this, answer the following-

Question 1. How does environmental degradation take place?
Answer: Due to environmental pollution/ deforestation/ destruction of ecosystems/…

Question 2. What is the difference between environmental degradation and environmental pollution?
Answer: Environmental pollution occurs due to various natural and human activities, whereas environmental degradation is the deterioration of the overall quality of the environment.

Question 3. Give a few examples of environmental degradation.
Answer: Bhopal MIC Gas Tragedy in India (1984)/Chornobyl Nuclear Disaster in Ukraine (1986)/ Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster in Japan (2011)/…

Question 4. How can environmental degradation be controlled?
Answer: Strict measures should be taken for environmental conservation/ steps have to be taken for sustainable development/ use of environment-friendly products should be encouraged/…

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Question 2. Point out the ones in the following related to environmental degradation and those related to environmental pollution.

Loss of biodiversity, expansion of the desert, deforestation, Jhoom cultivation, fish dying in the pond, Bhopal Gas Tragedy, smog in the airport, dearth of food for animals in the forests, construction of a dam and reservoir on a river, the effect of Aila in the Sunderbans, a stinking fish market.

Answer: Points mentioned above are divided into two panels of environmental degradation and environmental pollution.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India pollution and Degration

 

Question 3.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Natural

 

1. Bimal lives in a village near the sea in Gopalpur of Odisha. The wrath of ‘Phailin’ has put them in a great crisis. Demolished huts and uprooted trees can be seen everywhere. Sea water has flooded the roads and agricultural lands.

Scenes of devastation are all around. Dead and decayed corpses of cattle are floating around. Bimal’s family has taken refuge in the Pucca village school building.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Man made thing

 

2. The dumping ground is quite far away from Sreelekha’s locality. Garbage trucks dump garbage here from all over the city. Household garbage, industrial and medical wastes, and all other wastes are thrown here! Over time a huge hillock of garbage has accumulated. agricultural lands, water bodies and people around are suffering a lot.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Questioning And Experimentation

This segment will investigate the student’s understanding of the subject, questioning capacity, ability to explain and apply and urge for experimentation.

Question 1. Discuss in your class about the events related to environmental degradation and pollution that you observed in your locality.
Answer:

Many events related to environmental degradation and pollution are observed in our locality. Some of these are-

  1. Dumping of household wastes into nearby lakes and ponds;
  2. Indiscriminate use of plastic and other non-biodegradable materials;
  3. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides;
  4. Unplanned farming;
  5. Extreme use of fossil fuel;
  6. Discharge of untreated water, toxic wastes from factories into waterbodies, and emission of smoke that come out from industrial units;
  7. Directly dumping both solid and liquid municipal waste into rivers etc.

Interpretation And Application

This segment will test whether the students have understood the topics, or whether they are just mugging up.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Environmental Degradation

 

Question 1. What is your impression after seeing the above pictures? Which activities of humankind, do you think, can cause such incidents? Discuss among yourselves and write it down.
Answer: The first thing that comes up seeing the above pictures is, all images depict the effects of environmental degradation.

The effects of man-made environmental degradation are as follows-

Drought:

Excessive deforestation and the lifting of groundwater are the main reasons of drought.

Earthquake:

Terrace farming, deforestation and construction of roads in hilly areas, multipurpose river valley projects, extraction of minerals, and test explosion of nuclear bombs are the vital reasons of earthquakes.

Water pollution and water scarcity:

Discharge of toxic water and waste of industries and municipalities into the river are the main causes of water pollution. Besides this, unregulated use of groundwater and depletion of groundwater level creates a scarcity of water.

Loss of biodiversity:

Numerous plants and animal species that have evolved on the earth’s surface have been wiped out by man-made events, that cause environmental degradation.

Air pollution:

Toxic gases released from running vehicles, industrial sectors, nuclear power plants, etc., into the atmosphere, are the main source of air pollution.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Chemical disaster:

Lack of skilled laborers, back-dated technology, and carelessness of laborers are the main causes of a chemical disaster. 1984 Bhopal Gas Tragedy, the Nuclear disaster of Chornobyl, 1908, etc., are a few examples of this type of disaster.

Inflation and decreasing balance between demand and supply:

Inflation is an economic problem. Population explosion, trade deficit, all these lead to inflation. These also disrupt the balance between demand and supply.

Depletion of natural resources:

Excessive use of natural resources, forest fires, and animal hunting are slowly depleting the biodiversity from the surface of the earth.

Flood:

Deforestation, unplanned farming, filling of wetlands, and unscientific construction of river dams lead to floods.

Global warming and climate change:

Excessive use of fossil fuels, deforestation, unplanned urbanization, etc., are increasing the average temperature of the earth. This in turn, is causing the polar ice caps to melt, causing a significant rise in the sea level.

 

Empathy And Cooperation

This segment will determine the ability of students to cooperate and help others within a group.

Question 1. Do you know that many things of daily use help environmental degradation? Discuss in the classroom and make a list of such items. Write down with the help of your teacher how they cause environmental degradation.
Answer:

Some of the items of daily use that degrade the environment are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Degrade environment

 

Aesthetics And Creativity

This segment will check the aesthetic sense and creativity of the students.

Question 1. Make a collage showing the effects of human development on the environment.
Answer:

The following collage depicts the effects of human development on the environment-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities And Environmental Degradation Topic B Environmental Degradation And India Human development.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Human Activities and Environmental Degradation Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation

Chapter 7 Human Activities and Environmental Degradation Synopsis

The physical and biotic processes of nature have a self-regulatory style of working. Any change or damage caused by them to the environment is naturally restored, compensated or adjusted. This is called a homeostatic mechanism.

The Industrial Revolution in Europe in the eighteenth century was a giant step in the advancement of human civilization.

Environmental degradation means the overall lowering of environmental qualities because of adverse changes brought about by natural processes and human activities.

The main causes of environmental degradation are soil erosion, deforestation, floods, desertification, and loss of biodiversity.

Read and Learn More WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography

The degradation of any component of the environment caused by natural processes or human activities is called Environmental pollution.

Bhopal Gas Tragedy occurred in December 1984 due to the leakage of Methyl Isocyanate gas from a plant of the Union Carbide Factory.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

The Chornobyl disaster occurred in April 1986 in a nuclear reactor plant in Chornobyl.

The Fukushima Daiichi accident occurred in March 2011 in a nuclear power plant in Fukushima Daiichi.

Sustainable development refers to development aimed at the optimum use of natural resources in the present scenario so that development can take place without the environment being hampered and also preserving the reserves of nature and the potential of human society to develop, for future use.

Lack of education and poverty are the two main indirect causes of environmental degradation.

Earth Summit or Rio Summit was another name for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. It was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 3 June to 14 June 1992. 178 nations and more than 30 thousand people participated in this conference.

Ganga Action Plan (GAP) has been taken up to make the Ganga pollution free and maintain the ecological balance. This project was officially initiated in Varanasi on January 14, 1986.

G20 or Group of 20 is an international association formed by 20 countries. This group came into being in 1999 and now has a total membership of 20 nations (2017). It was created primarily to develop trade relations among its member nations.

The full form of WHO is World Health Organisation. Its headquarters is in Geneva in Switzerland. As an agency of the United Nations, WHO is responsible for issues on public health around the world. It plays an important role in the eradication of diseases.

The Chipko movement was started in 1973 in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand in order to protect trees. The name of the movement came from the Hindi word ‘Chipko meaning ‘to embrace’, as the villagers hugged the trees and prevented the contractors from felling them.

The Green Revolution in India has contributed much in improving crop production and the overall condition of agriculture of the country. But it also exerted some negative impacts such as degradation of soil fertility, change in biodiversity and genetic modification of the seeds, etc.

We, the students, can contribute much in keeping our environment clean by reducing waste, planting saplings, organizing seminars and rallies, etc.

Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. How has the evolution of human civilisation affected the environment?
Answer:

Evolution Of Human Civilisation Affected The Environment:-

On the basis of primary means of subsistence, human beings can be said to have evolved through different phases. These are divided as- hunter-gatherer, pastoral, agrarian, and industrial phases.

Hunter-gatherer phase:

In this phase, human beings used to sustain themselves by gathering fruits and hunting animals in the forests. They did not cause any change or damage to the surrounding environment.

Pastoral phase:

With the discovery of fire and awareness of its use, the evolution of civilization took an important turn, which started with the domestication and rearing of animals. Primarily the pastoralists were nomadic.

They reared livestock for milk and meat, but slowly they started exploiting the environment.

Agrarian phase:

Taking up the practice of farming for obtaining food was a notable stage in the evolution of mankind. This resulted in the clearing of forests for agricultural lands and settlements.

The increase in population created an increasing demand for farmlands and slowly human beings began to modify the environment.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Industrial phase:

The Industrial Revolution from the 1760s marked the beginning of a rapid change in the environment as well as an increase in population.

Demand for land for agriculture, industry, and townships increased and human beings started the indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources.

Human activities, in the name of development, are damaging the environment. which cannot be repaired again. The effect of this can be felt by everyone at present.

Question 2. Classify different kinds of human activities according to their nature and enlist them below. How do you think, these activities influence the human environment?
Answer:

Different kinds of human activities according to their nature and their influence on the environment are enlisted below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental DegradationActivities influence the human Environment

 

Question 3. Discuss the reasons for environmental degradation.
Answer:

Reasons For Environmental Degradation:-

Environmental degradation occurs due to the two following reasons

  1. Natural events and
  2. Human activities.

1. Natural events:

Different natural events are often responsible for the degradation of the environment.

These include

  1. Volcanic activities,
  2. Floods,
  3. Droughts,
  4. Earthquakes,
  5. Landslides,
  6. Tsunamis,
  7. Forest fires,
  8. Acid rain,
  9. Formation of methane gas,
  10. Excessive snowfall snowstorms,
  11. Flash floods,
  12. Cyclones, etc.

These pollute the environment and lead to its degradation. Normal life cycles of human beings, animals, plants and microbes are disrupted by this.

Human activities:

Some of the primary human activities that cause environmental degradation are-

  1. Excessive use of fossil fuels,
  2. Population explosion,
  3. Unplanned urbanization,
  4. Unplanned farming with the help of machinery,
  5. Testing of weapons and war equipment,
  6. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides,
  7. Dumping of industrial wastes into lakes, rivers, and seas,
  8. Misuse of natural resources,
  9. Deforestation,
  10. Extraction of excessive mineral resources,
  11. Construction of dams on rivers,
  12. Indiscriminate use of plastic and other non-biodegradable materials,
  13. Establishments of nuclear power plants, etc. Landslide floods, earthquakes, droughts, etc., Are nowadays considered to be greatly related to human activities.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 4. What are the environmental impacts of technology-dependent activities?
Answer:

Environmental Impacts Of Technology-Dependent Activities:-

Technology has made our lives easier, but it also has several adverse effects on the environment. Some of these effects are as follows

  1. The burning of coal and mineral oil for the production of thermal power releases SO2, CO2, and other harmful gases into the atmosphere in large amounts. This is one of the main causes of air pollution.
  2. The construction of roads also has the same adverse effect on the atmosphere.
  3. The construction of dams and hydel power stations are responsible for the destruction of the ecological balance at the construction site.
  4. Smoke and untreated water discharged from factories are responsible for polluting air and water.
  5. Pollution occurs from almost all kinds of activities related to infrastructural development.

Question 5. Discuss the effects of environmental degradation.
Answer:

Effects Of Environmental Degradation:-

The different effects of environmental degradation are as follows-

1. Pollution:

One of the main effects of environmental degradation is pollution.

This mainly includes

  1. Toxic gases released by vehicles running on fossil fuels (petrol, diesel), nuclear power plants, etc., into the atmosphere and render it toxic. for life on earth. This causes air pollution.
  2. Dumping of industrial wastes in waterbodies, oil spills in oceans, etc., thus renders the water unsuitable. This causes water pollution.
  3. Use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, excessive irrigation, etc., which wash away the top layer of the soil and thus render it unfit for plant and crop growth, causing soil pollution.

2. Floods and droughts:

Floods and droughts are the results of climatic degradation. Excessive deforestation is one of the main reasons for drought. On the other hand, deforestation also causes flash floods in hilly areas as there is no vegetation cover to absorb the surface runoff during heavy rainfall.

Besides, soil erosion causes the deposition of too much silt in the river beds, causing them to overflow their banks and flood the surrounding areas.

3. Global warming and climatic change:

Practices such as excessive use of fossil fuels and deforestation are increasing the average temperature of the earth. This in turn, is causing the polar ice caps to melt, causing a significant rise in the sea level.

4. Depletion of natural resources:

As the environment gets degraded over time, various mineral resources, forests, drinking water, fertile soil, etc., are slowly depleting from the surface of the earth.

5. Loss of biodiversity:

Several plant and animal species that have evolved on the surface of the earth over thousands of years have been wiped out in the last few centuries. This steady loss in biodiversity is aggravating the rate of degradation of the environment.

6. Earthquakes:

Terrace farming, deforestation and construction of roads in hilly areas, extraction of minerals, unregulated use of groundwater, etc., are all factors that induce earthquakes. Earthquakes occurring in an area degrade the physical and human environment of the area.

7. Diseases:

As the global environment is degrading, human health is getting affected as well. As a result, the rate of occurrence of diseases such as cancer, tuberculosis, malaria, encephalitis, and various lung and heart diseases is rapidly increasing.

8. Chemical Inadequate disaster:

Infrastructure, lack of skilled laborers, upgraded technology not being used, and carelessness on the part of the workers can cause fatal chemical disasters at factories.

9. Inflation and disequilibrium between demand and supply:

Inflation in society is an economic problem. Poor economic decisions, business houses going bankrupt, imports exceeding the exports of a country all lead to inflation. These also disrupt the equilibrium between demand and supply.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 6. Discuss the ways of conserving the environment. Or, How can degradation be controlled?
Answer:

Ways Of Conserving The Environment:-

Environmentalists have suggested several steps to control environmental degradation.

Few of these are

1. Increase in awareness and fighting poverty:

Awareness about the environment needs to be spread so that people understand its importance and hence try to reduce its degradation.

It has been found that environmental degradation is closely related to poverty. Thus, people of economically backward countries need to be made aware through education.

2. Use of eco-friendly forms of energy:

The use of coal, mineral oil, and natural gas should be reduced and instead, alternative and pollution-free eco-friendly forms of energy should be used. Per-capita consumption of energy should be decreased.

Example The increased use of wind energy, solar energy, and other forms of non-conventional sources of energy can prevent further environmental degradation.

3. Recycling of resources:

With the help of technology, resources should be recycled. Recycling and judicious use of resources will prevent the misuse of natural resources. Consumers should be encouraged to buy reusable commodities.

4. Population control:

A balance between the population of a nation and the resources available to it is necessary, or else it is bound to cause degradation of the environment. Thus, regulation of the population in a country is essential.

5. Conservation of biodiversity:

A loss in biodiversity can have adverse effects on the local ecosystem and eventually on the environment. Thus, it is necessary to preserve the natural environment. Man must allow all animals and plants to grow in their natural habitat.

Cleanliness of air, water, soil, and woodlands should be maintained.

6. Planned development:

Urbanization, construction of roads, railways, factories, watershed management, dams on rivers, power plants, etc., should be done in a planned manner, keeping in mind the short and long-term effects they shall have on the environment.

People should be made aware of environmental issues.

7. Implementation of laws:

Special laws regarding the protection of the environment and their strict implementation can reduce and eventually stop environmental degradation at the hands of human beings.

8. Assessing environmental impact of projects:

The environmental impacts of a project or proposal should be assessed properly before their implementation. Steps should be taken so that a development plan does not affect the environment too adversely.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 7. What is meant by eco-friendly forms of energy? Why are these unconventional forms of energy regarded as eco-friendly forms?
Answer:

Eco-friendly forms of energy:

Eco-friendly forms of energy are those which do not harm the environment when they are generated or used. The discovery of solar-powered pumps, engines, cookers, refrigerators, etc., was aimed at the reduction of the use of fossil fuels.

Even though hydel power plants reuse water for generating electricity, hydel power is not considered eco-friendly. This is due to the fact that building a hydel power plant causes great damage to the ecosystem.

Unconventional forms of energy as eco-friendly forms of energy:

Unconventional forms of energy include solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, biogas, etc. The above-mentioned forms of energy are eco-friendly because of the following reasons

  1. The generation of energy from these forms do not use any non-renewable natural resources. Thus, the environment is not damaged.
  2. No fossil fuel is used in the production of these power sources. Therefore the fossil fuel reserves are not used up.
  3. The generation of unconventional forms of energy do not cause any kind of pollution.
  4. Even though the initial establishment cost to generate this energy is high, later the energy can be obtained practically free of
    cost.
  5. There is no chance of global warming in the process of generation of electricity from non-conventional sources.

Therefore, unconventional forms of energy are eco-friendly in nature.

Question 8. How can sustainable development be achieved by any nation?
Answer:

Sustainable Development Be Achieved By Any Nation As Follows:-

The agenda of sustainable development was taken up in the 1992 Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Steps taken to achieve sustainable development by any nation are as follows-

  1. Environment-friendly technology should be used.
  2. Local ecosystems should be looked after and preserved.
  3. Steps should be taken to control social problems such as poverty, hunger, and illiteracy.
  4. Developmental programs should be implemented according to the environment of a particular place.
  5. Efforts should be made in establishing a balance in society between the natural environment and anthropological activities.
  6. Levels of pollution should be controlled. Steps should be taken to control the misuse of natural resources.
  7. A vigilant eye should be kept on the maintenance of the balance between population and natural resources in a country.
  8. Recycling of materials should be done.

Question 9. What are the effects of war on the environment? 
Answer:

Effects Of War On The Environment:-

A war is not only a conflict between two or more nations involving humans, it also causes damage to air, soil, and water resources. The flora and fauna of the region also incur damage due to war.

The effects of war on the environment are-

1. Loss of life:

Loss of life is the inevitable and immediate consequence of war. It is the greatest damage caused to the environment of a place or region.

2. Air pollution:

The explosion of bombs and firing of missiles during a war cause air pollution. The explosion from nuclear bombs degrade the environment.

Hiroshima and Nagasaki are prominent examples of how war affects the environment. Chemical warfare also causes air pollution, killing human beings and other animals.

3. Soil pollution:

The explosions not only damage the air but also damage the soil. The area of land where the explosion occurs is greatly damaged and becomes unfit for use.

4. Water pollution:

Wars are also responsible for causing water pollution. The Gulf War Oil Spill was one of the largest oil spills in the history of mankind which eventually led to the Gulf War.

Oil Spill damages the aquatic ecosystem and leads to the death of numerous aquatic flora and fauna.

5. Morale damage:

War damages human morale also. It creates a lasting fear in people’s minds.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Question 10. How do multipurpose river valley projects affect the environment?
Answer:

Multipurpose River Valley Projects Affect The Environment:-

Multipurpose river valley projects affect the environment in several ways. These are

1. Earthquakes:

The huge amount of water stored by dams exerts pressure on the underlying rock strata and often causes earthquakes.

For example, the earthquake at Koyna, Maharashtra in 1967.

2. Destruction of forests:

To implement a multipurpose project many canals need to be dug up. This damages forest cover in the surrounding areas.

3. Ecosystem disrupted:

Multipurpose river valley projects create an imbalance in the ecosystem of that area, and that consequently affects the catchment area and the whole river basin.

4. Floods:

An excessive amounts of silt, carried by rivers, gets deposited in the dams. Thus the depth of the dams reduce and the surrounding areas are very often inundated.

5. Displacement of people:

Another ill-effect of a multipurpose river valley project is that it displaces the local residents of that area, forcing them to leave their homes and shift elsewhere.

Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. What do you understand by nature-based activities?
Answer:

Nature-Based Activities:-

All sorts of human activities which are dependent on products found in nature, are involve the gathering of resources from nature.

Example

  1. Gathering of wood, flowers, leaves, fruits, etc., from forests,
  2. Fishing from rivers and lakes,
  3. And hunting of animals from known nature-based activities. forests and
  4. Cultivating crops using ancient cultivation techniques.

These resources of nature are mostly non-renewable. If the number of fish in a river is reduced due to overfishing, it cannot be replenished. The same happens in case of loss. of the fertility of the soil.

If the soil loses its natural fertility, the land becomes unsuitable for agriculture and the use of fertilizers to enhance productivity becomes useless.

Question 2. What do you mean by environmental degradation?
Answer:

Environmental Degradation:-

The overall deterioration of the quality of the environment due to human activities is known as environmental degradation. It is, therefore, the complete destruction of the balance in the ecosystem.

In this case, homeostatic mechanism cannot restore the natural balance of the environment.

The main aspects of environmental degradation are

  1. Environmental pollution,
  2. Deforestation,
  3. Expansion of towns and cities,
  4. Loss of biodiversity,
  5. Loss of fertility in agricultural lands,
  6. Construction of dams on rivers,
  7. Desertification, etc.

Question 3. How does environmental degradation take place?
Answer:

Environmental Degradation Take Place As Follows:-

Environmental degradation takes place in several ways.

These are as follows

  1. Burning fossil fuels emit huge quantities of COCO2, SOCO2, and other harmful gases into the atmosphere. This is the main cause of air pollution as well as environmental degradation.
  2. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation degraded the soil of that area and thus render it unfit for further use.
  3. The construction of large dams and hydel power stations are responsible for the destruction of the ecological balance of that area. These thus induce environmental degradation.
  4. Unscientific excavation of mineral resources and lifting the of huge amounts of groundwater are the principal causes of environmental degradation.
  5. Chemical disaster like Bhopal Gas Tragedy (1984) and nuclear disasters like Chernobyl, Fukushima, etc., are considered as the factors leading to environmental degradation.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Question 4. Differentiate between environmental degradation and environmental pollution.
Answer:

The differences between environmental degradation and environmental pollution are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Environmental pollution and degradation

 

Question 5. Point out the differences between natural hazards and man-made hazards.
Answer:

The differences between natural hazards and man-made hazards are as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradationdifferences between Natural and Man made hazards

Question 6. How do modern methods of agriculture affect the environment?
Answer:

Modern Methods Of Agriculture Affect The Environment:-

Several modern methods of agriculture, such as use of chemical fertilizers, a high-yielding variety of seeds, excessive irrigation, etc., have been undertaken to increase agricultural production.

However, these have an adverse effect on the environment. Some of these effects are discussed below-

1. Lowering the fertility level of the soil:

Repeated cultivation on a specific area of land, year after year, causes the land to lose its fertility and renders it infertile for a long time in the future.

2. Pollution:

To increase crop production, chemical fertilizers are used for cultivation. These, in turn, cause groundwater pollution. Besides these, the insecticides and pesticides which are used also pollute the soil.

On the other hand excessive use of high yeilding seeds speeds up vital genetic defects.

3. Deforestation:

To increase crop production, large forested areas are being brought under cultivation. This has resulted in rapid deforestation. As a result, many ecosystems have been destroyed.

Question 7. How has urbanization caused the degradation of the environment?
Answer:

Urbanization Caused The Degradation Of The Environment:-

Urbanisation encompasses better lifestyles and better living conditions for the people. However, environmental degradation is an eventual consequence of the process.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

The causes of environmental degradation due urbanization are

1. Reduction in the level of watertable:

An increase in population in the towns and cities has naturally increased the need for water. One of the main sources of water used on a daily basis by human beings is groundwater.

The overuse of groundwater is rapidly decreasing the level of underground watertable. This has resulted in arsenic and fluoride pollution.

2. Increased level of pollution:

Urbanisation has resulted in a rapid increase in modes of transport, factories, and other economic activities. This in turn has increased noise and air pollution in the cities.

3. Problem of drainage, sanitation, and housing:

Much of the waste disposed of in urban areas is discharged into waterbodies and into drains. This practice clogs the drainage and sanitation system and aggravates the problem of water logging.

Excessive migration of people to urban areas also causes housing problems. Unplanned urbanization leads to narrow and congested roads. This causes traffic congestion.

4. Disposal of wastes:

Indiscriminate use of plastics and other non-biodegradable materials dumped in nearby areas causes soil pollution. Dumping of garbage contaminates the groundwater and also makes the air stink.

Question 8. How do thermal power plants affect the environment?
Answer:

Thermal Power Plants Affect The Environment:-

Effects of thermal power plants on the environment are

1. Air pollution:

Thermal power plants use coal as their primary source of energy. When coal is used as fuel, it releases huge amounts of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere, which are extremely harmful for living organisms.

2. Increase in atmospheric temperature:

Excessive use of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum increases atmospheric temperature. This results in global warming, which, in turn, affects the earth’s climate.

3. Soil pollution:

Ash from thermal power plants are dumped on the surrounding land and renders it unfit for cultivation.

4. Acid rain:

Sulfur and nitrogen compounds emitted by thermal power plants combine with moisture in the atmosphere and cause acid rain, which has harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure.

Question 9. How do hydroelectric power plants affect the environment?
Answer:

Hydroelectric Power Plants Affect The Environment:-

The effects of hydroelectric power plants on the environment are as follows

1. Disrupting the flow of rivers:

Dams built on rivers for generating hydroelectricity disrupt the flow of the rivers, and for that reason, catchment areas of the rivers are degraded continuously.

2. Destruction of forests:

When a dam is built on a river for hydroelectric power generation, large areas of surrounding forests are destroyed in order to build reservoirs to store the water.

3. Earthquakes:

The pressure created by the huge quantity of water impounding from the dam can cause earthquakes in the surrounding areas.

4. Loss in biodiversity:

Due to the loss of their habitat, the number of plants and animals in and around the river basin decreases significantly, leading to a loss in biodiversity.

Besides this, many people become homeless as the dam sites are evacuated before construction.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Question 10. What are the effects of exploding dynamite during the construction of roads in hilly areas?
Answer:

Effects Of Exploding Dynamite During The Construction Of Roads In Hilly Areas:-

When roads are constructed in hilly regions, dynamites are used for blasting the rocks. The adverse effects of blasting are as follows

1. Noise pollution:

Dynamites explode with a lot of noise. This causes noise pollution.

2. Landslides:

The use of explosives not only causes noise pollution but also induces landslides in hilly areas.

3. Earthquakes:

The explosions can induce earthquakes in the surrounding areas.

4. Air pollution:

Dynamite explosions are responsible for the spreading of rock particles and dust in the air. This causes air pollution.

5. Destruction of the ecosystem:

Repeated explosions have an adverse effect on the flora and fauna of that region. This results in the destruction of the ecosystem of that region. This results in the destruction of the ecosystem of that area.

Question 11. Write a brief note on the Bhopal Gas Tragedy.
Answer:

Bhopal Gas Tragedy:-

On midnight of December 3, 1984, there was a leakage of poisonous MIC (thin Methyl Isocyanate) gas from Bhopal’s Union Carbide factory.

This caused one of the most terrible industrial disasters ever, which had an adverse effect on the environment. It damaged the human lungs and also burnt the cornea, killing many people and rendering others blind or crippled.

This incident came to be known as the Bhopal Gas Tragedy. People of that area are still bearing the brunt.

Effects:

  1. About 4000 people and innumerable birds and animals had died.
  2. About 200 thousand people were affected in some way or other.
  3. Most of the affected people became crippled.
  4. Many of the affected people suffered from gene mutations.
  5. Pregnant women gave birth to mutated babies.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Efffects of Bhopal Gas Tragedy

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Question 12. Write a brief note on the Chornobyl Disaster.
Answer:

Chornobyl Disaster:-

On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred in a reactor in the nuclear power plant in Chornobyl, Ukraine. This incident came to be known as the Chornobyl disaster.

The operating crew were conducting some tests and had deliberately switched off the reactor’s safety systems. This resulted in the overheating of the uranium fuel rods, which exploded, and highly radioactive fallout spread over a large area of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Efffects of Chernobyl Disaster

 

Effects:

  1. A few people died and workers of the nuclear power plant were admitted to the hospitals.
  2. Thousands of people were evacuated from that area.
  3. It affected the environment adversely. The surrounding land became unfit for cultivation.
  4. High levels of radioactive elements affected livestock as well. Calves were born physically disabled and the meat and milk obtained from them also showed levels of radiation.
  5. Researchers were of the opinion that its effects would continue for the next 100 years.

Question 13. Write a short note on Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster.
Answer:

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster:-

On March 11, 2011, an accident took place in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that involved five of its reactors.
This disaster was not directly related to any human activity.

Water from the sea entered the power plant due to a tsunami which had, in turn, occurred as a consequence of an earthquake. This affected five of the reactors in the power plant and the roofs of three reactors were blown off due to a hydrogen explosion.

Effects:

  1. Radioactive water from the factory contaminated the seawater.
  2. According to Japan’s Nuclear Safety Commission officials, the radiation released during this accident affected both air and water adversely.

Question 14. What do you know about the Minamata Disaster?
Answer:

Minamata Disaster:-

Minamata disease was first discovered in 1956. People of Minamata Bay in Japan were dying or turning disabled after consuming fish from the Bay. This is known as the Minamata Disaster.

The Chisso Corporation’s chemical factory situated in this area manufactured paint and dumped its wastes in the water of Minamata Bay. This waste contained highly toxic methylmercury which was led out in the water of Minamata Bay.

When methylmercury entered the human body through fish consumption caught from the Bay, it became fatal or caused disabilities and disorders.

Effects:

  1. As a result of this contamination, 2265 people were victims of the Minamata disease. 1784 of these victims had died.
  2. The water of the Minamata Bay became polluted and the ecosystem of the place was destroyed.
  3. Importance has been given on controlling the levels of lead while manufacturing paint since then.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Efffects of Minamata Disaster

Question 15. Discuss the advantages of eco-friendly forms of energy.
Answer:

Advantages Of Eco-Friendly Forms Of Energy:-

The advantages of environment-friendly forms of energy include

  1. The production of this form of energy does not cause pollution.
  2. The sources for generating this type of energy (the sun, wind, etc.) are inexhaustible.
  3. The initial establishment cost is high, but in the long run the production cost is negligible.
  4. The generation of electricity through this method can prevent the misuse of energy resources of the earth.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Question 16. What is Earth Summit?
Answer:

Earth Summit:-

Earth Summit is an international conference on environment and development which was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in the year of 1992. It is also known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) or Rio Summit.

More than thirty thousand people from 178 countries participated in this conference. The famous action plan for the 21st century, Agenda 21, was the product of this Earth Summit.

Some resolutions regarding the environment and development were adopted in this conference.

Question 17. What is sustainable development?
Answer:

Sustainable Development:-

Sustainable development refers to development aimed at the optimum use of natural resources in the present scenario so that development can go unhampered while also preserving the reserves of nature and the potential of human society to develop, for future use.

The objectives of sustainable development are as follows

  1. Using the available resources in multiple ways.
  2. Judicious use of non- renewable resources.
  3. Using technology to optimise the use of available resources.
  4. Preventing the misuse of natural resources.

Question 18. How did the idea of sustainable development emerge?
Answer:

Idea Of Sustainable Development Emerge:-

Population explosion, human activities, exploitation of resources for their increasing and uncontrolled demand for comfort has caused degradation of the environment to an alarming extent.

This has hugely depleted the resources and put the very existence of future generations at risk. It is the acknowledgment of this extreme situation that led to the idea of sustainable development being proposed, legislated, and implemented worldwide.

Question 19. What is desertification?
Answer:

Desertification:-

A type of land degradation, where certain areas of land become arid and slowly take the form of a desert, is known as desertification.

Causes:

The causes of desertification are

  1. Excessive farming in the desert margins,
  2. Indiscriminate felling of trees in the semi-arid regions,
  3. Overgrazing by animals,
  4. Exploitation of groundwater and
  5. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Effects:

The effects of desertification are

  1. Salinity of the soil increases,
  2. Change in climate occurs,
  3. Vegetation cover reduces,
  4. The growth of cactus-like plants is prominent,
  5. Droughts occur frequently.

Question 20. What is Jhum cultivation? What are its impacts on the environment?
Answer:

Jhum cultivation:

Jhum cultivation is one of the ancient practices used for agriculture. It is the process of growing crops on a particular land surface by clearing the existing trees and vegetation cover on it, and burning them thereafter.

After a few years, when the land loses move on to another patch of land and repeat this its fertility, the farmers abandon the land and process. This form of cultivation is also known as shifting agriculture.

Impact of Jhum Cultivation on the Environment:

  1. This form of cultivation requires the clearing of forest areas. This affects the environment adversely and also results in the loss of several rare species of flora and fauna.
  2. It results in rapid soil erosion.
  3. Jhum cultivation creates an imbalance in the existing ecosystems and the burning of trees causes severe air pollution.

Question 21. What is the greenhouse effect?
Answer:

Greenhouse Effect:-

In colder countries, crops are often grown in glass houses to keep them warm.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Greenhouse gases

 

These are known as greenhouses. Shortwave radiations from the sun enter through the glass, but the long-wave radiations that are reflected back from the earth are stopped by the glass walls.

As a result, the plants inside the greenhouse remain warm and grow well. French mathematician and physicist Joseph Fourier had compared the earth’s atmosphere to a greenhouse.

The sun’s rays enter the earth as shortwave radiations, but when they are reflected back by the earth as long-wave radiations, different gases, dust particles, water vapour, etc., present in the atmosphere prevent them from leaving.

Instead, these rays are sent back to the earth. This, in turn, increases the temperature of the earth’s surface. This is known as the greenhouse effect and the gases causing it are known as greenhouse gases.

Question 22. What are the consequences of the greenhouse effect?
Answer:

Consequences Of The Greenhouse Effect:-

The consequences of the greenhouse effect are as follows-

  1. The average temperature of the earth is gradually rising.
  2. The climate is changing.
  3. Glaciers are melting at an alarming rate.
  4. The sea level is gradually rising.
  5. There is a decrease in agricultural production as well as in the supply of drinking water.
  6. Loss of biodiversity is seen worldwide.

Question 23. Write a short note on Phailin.
Answer:

Phailin:-

The 260 km/hr cyclone that originated in the Bay of Bengal in 2013 was named Phailin. It is considered to be the second most powerful cyclone that has hit India in recent times.

Phailin first originated as a tropical depression on October 4, 2013, in the Gulf of Thailand. On October 7, it reached the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and on October 12, it wreaked havoc in and around Gopalpur in Odisha.

This cyclone prompted India’s biggest evacuation in 23 years with more than 5 lakh people moving up from the coastline in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh to safer places. Phailin damaged agricultural crops and caused a huge loss of property.

Question 24. Write the differences between environmental hazards and environmental disasters.
Answer:

Differences between environmental hazard and environmental disaster are

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradationdifferences between Environmental Hazard and Disaster

 

Question 25. Why do fish at times and other aquatic creatures die in ponds?
Answer:

Fish At Times And Other Aquatic Creatures Die In Ponds:-

When the water in a pond gets polluted, the fish living in it die. Ponds can get polluted due to several reasons

1. Eutrophication:

The process of eutrophication reduces the amount of oxygen present in the water, resulting in the death of fish living in the pond.

2. Dumping of wastes:

Often in towns or villages, nearby ponds are used as a place to dump the garbage. This causes pollution and reduces the depth of the ponds as well, thereby resulting in the death of aquatic life.

3. Water from factories:

Often dirty and toxic water discharged from factories flow directly into nearby ponds, causing an acute level of water pollution. This destroys the eco-system of the pond killing aquatic creatures.

4. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides:

Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture contaminates the nearby waterbodies when the soil mixed with these chemicals enters the waterbodies as a part of surface run-off.

 

Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What do you understand by the nature-based activities of human beings?
Answer:

Nature-Based Activities Of Human Beings:-

Nature-based activities are those in which human beings directly use natural resources as the basis for their economic activities. These are classified as primary economic activities.

Example- hunting, fishing, and primitive agriculture.

Question 2. What are technology-based activities?
Answer:

Technology-Based Activities:-

When the resources obtained from primary economic activities are used to create and develop goods through the use of technology, they are known as technology-based activities.

Example-Generation of electricity from coal.

Question 3. What do you mean by the social activities of human beings?
Answer:

Social Activities Of Human Beings:-

Social activities are those activities that provide human beings with helpful services.

Examples- Banking, insurance, education, healthcare, transport, etc.

Question 4. Name some activities which are considered to be social services.
Answer:

Some activities which are considered as social services are healthcare, teaching, banking, insurance, etc.

Question 5. What is meant by homeostatic mechanism?
Answer:

Homeostatic Mechanism:-

The physical and biotic processes of nature have a self-regulatory style of working. Any change or damage caused by them to the environment is naturally restored, compensated or adjusted. This is called homeostatic mechanism.

Question 6. In the initial stages of civilization, how were human beings totally dependent on nature?
Answer:

In the early years of civilization, human beings were hunters and gatherers, collecting fruits from forests and hunting animals that lived there. Early man lived as a part of nature, without degrading or causing damage to the environment.

Question 7. How did the invention of the wheel increase the pace of evolution?
Answer:

Invention Of The Wheel Increase The Pace Of Evolution:-

With the invention of the ‘wheel’, the pace of human life increased. The usage of vehicles for transportation gained popularity. Also, from this phase, the man started exploiting nature for his own interests.

The invention of the wheel changed man’s relationship with nature. However, the human population was very low at that time and human activities did not cause any significant harm to the environment.

Question 8. What is meant by environmental pollution?
Answer:

Environmental Pollution:-

Soil, air and water are integral parts of our environment. When these components become contaminated or degraded due to natural or human activities, it causes environmental pollution. This, in turn, has adverse effects on living organisms.

Question 9. What are multipurpose river valley projects?
Answer:

Multipurpose River Valley Projects:-

Projects are undertaken to build large dams on various rivers to store the river water and use it for diverse purposes. These projects are known as multipurpose river valley projects.

Example- Damodar Valley Corporation.

Question 10. What are the main objectives of the multipurpose river valley projects?
Answer:

Main Objectives Of The Multipurpose River Valley Projects:-

The main objectives of these projects are

  1. Irrigation,
  2. Generation of hydro-electricity,
  3. Flood control,
  4. Pisciculture,
  5. Tourism,
  6. Transportation,
  7. Distribution of drinking water,
  8. Prevention of soil erosion,
  9. Construction of roadways, railways, and bridges, etc.

Question 11. The main causes of environmental degradation are lack of education and poverty. Explain.
Answer:

The main causes of environmental degradation are lack of education and poverty:-

Illiteracy and poverty are the two main reasons why people exploit the environment. Collecting of wood from forests, grazing cattle, unplanned exploitation of mineral resources, lifting of excessive groundwater, etc., have adverse effects on the environment.

Again, poverty and lack of awareness are also responsible for the uncontrolled growth of the population. It is mainly through education that people will become aware of the importance of keeping the environment healthy and take up the path of sustainable development.

Question 12. Only environmental reform movements can protect the environment. Justify.
Answer:

Only environmental reform movements can protect the environment:-

Various movements have been initiated over the years in order to save the environment from being affected adversely.

Example

  1. No trees were cut for about 10 years in the Himalayan region due to the Chipko Movement that was launched in Uttarakhand’s This region. the movement had a global impact.
  2. Due to the Silent Valley Movement, the evergreen forest in the Palakkad district of Kerala has been declared a National Forest.
  3. Narmada Bachao Andolan, Anti-Tehri Dam Movement, etc., have been equally effective in protecting the environment.

Question 13. How did the Bhopal Gas Tragedy which caused the death of about 4000 people and numerous birds and animals occur?
Answer:

On midnight of December 3, 1984, a tank of MIC (Methyl Isocyanate) gas exploded in Bhopal’s Union Carbide Factory, causing one of the most terrible industrial disasters ever.

This gas is used to produce pesticides. If not stored in a cold place and if it comes in contact with water, the gas undergoes a chemical reaction. This reaction between water and MIC was the main cause of the accident.

Question 14. What do you understand by eco-friendly forms of energy?
Answer:

Eco-Friendly Forms Of Energy:-

Environment-friendly or eco-friendly forms of energy are those that do not harm or pollute the environment when they are produced or used. These include solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, etc.

These forms of energy are also known as green energy or sustainable energy or renewable energy.

Question 15. What is meant by biodiversity?
Answer:

Biodiversity:-

Biodiversity means the variety of living organisms, both flora and fauna, existing in a particular habitat. The Earth Summit. organised in 1992 put forth a comprehensive idea of biodiversity.

Question 16. Why is the idea of sustainable development gaining importance?
Answer:

The idea of sustainable development is gaining importance because

  1. Wastage of resources can be checked;
  2. The use of eco-friendly technology will increase;
  3. Poverty and illiteracy will decrease;
  4. Environmental pollution will be checked.

All these help in keeping the environment healthy. Hence, sustainable development is gaining importance at present.

Question 17. What do you mean by environment?
Answer:

Environment:-

The term environment indicates an organism’s surroundings including both living and non-living things, where plants and animals can co-exist.

Thus, the environment not only includes human beings but also other living and non-living things around them, each of which are co-related.

Question 18. What do you mean by physical environment?
Answer:

Physical Environment:-

Physical environment is equated with nature, which includes the physical components of the earth namely land, air, water, soil, etc. Human activities are not included in this environment.

Question 19. What is meant by economic environment?
Answer:

Economic Environment:-

Economic environment is the sum of those factors which directly or indirectly influence economic activity in an area. Agriculture and industry, are examples of the economic environment.

Question 20. What is meant by ecosystem?
Answer:

Ecosystem:-

A community of organisms living in association with the non-living components of the environment in a particular area, interacting as a system, forming an ecosystem. It may be as small as a cowshed or a tree.

The largest unit of an ecosystem is the entire biosphere. A.G. Tansley (1935) had first used the term ‘ecosystem.

 

Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Multiple Choice Questions Choose the correct option

Question 1. The activity of manufacturing goods is a-

  1. Self-service
  2. Social service
  3. Technology-based activity
  4. Nature-based activity

Answer: 3. Technology-based activity

Question 2. The overall deterioration of the quality of the environment is known as-

  1. Environmental pollution
  2. Homeostatic mechanism
  3. Environmental management
  4. Environmental degradation

Answer: 4. Environmental degradation

Question 3. Which of the following is associated with environmental degradation?

  1. Construction of reservoir
  2. Loss of biodiversity
  3. Smog
  4. Bad odor from the fish market

Answer: 2. Loss of biodiversity

Question 4. The ‘Phailin’ had hit-

  1. Assam
  2. Odisha
  3. Bihar
  4. Maharashtra

Answer: 2. Odisha

Question 5. The destructive power of ‘Aila’ was felt in-

  1. Jharkhand
  2. West Bengal
  3. Kerala
  4. Gujarat

Answer: 2. West Bengal

Question 6. Arsenic pollution is a part of

  1. Soil pollution
  2. Groundwater pollution
  3. Air pollution
  4. Noise pollution

Answer: 2. Groundwater pollution

Question 7. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides pollute the-

  1. Soil
  2. Water
  3. Air
  4. Soil and water both

Answer: 4. Soil and water both

Question 8. The following is emitted due to the burning of fossil fuels-

  1. H2
  2. CO2
  3. CH4
  4. bO2

Answer: 2. CO2

Question 9. Bhopal Gas Tragedy occurred in-

  1. 1984
  2. 1974
  3. 1994
  4. 2008

Answer: 1. 1984

Question 10. Chornobyl nuclear disaster occurred in-

  1. 1966
  2. 1976
  3. 1986
  4. 1996

Answer: 3. 1986

Question 11. The Fukushima Daiichi accident occurred in-

  1. 1981
  2. 1991
  3. 2001
  4. 2011

Answer: 4. 2011

Question 12. Environment-friendly energy is-

  1. Thermal energy
  2. Nuclear energy
  3. Solar energy
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Solar energy

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 7

Question 13. World Environment Day is observed on

  1. 5 June
  2. 5 September
  3. 5 March
  4. 2 October

Answer: 1. 5 June

Question 14. The following may happen as a result of excessive deforestation-

  1. Soil erosion and flood
  2. Reduction of biodiversity
  3. Desertification
  4. All of the above

Answer: 4. All of the above

Question 15. Which of the following is directly responsible for the climatic change?

  1. Indiscriminate use of resources
  2. Deforestation
  3. Unplanned development
  4. Increase in temperature

Answer: 4. Increase in temperature

 

Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. Computer manufacturing is a _______-based activity.
Answer: Technology

Question 2. Environmental pollution accelerates environmental _______.
Answer: Degradation

Question 3. Unscientific agricultural methods reduce _______ of soil.
Answer: Fertility

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 7

Question 4. The full form of MIC gas is _______.
Answer: Methyl isocyanate

Question 5. Almost _______ people lost their lives in the Bhopal Gas Tragedy.
Answer: 4000

Question 6. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development called the _______ was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992.
Answer: Earth Summit

Question 7. _______ is one of the primary factors responsible for increasing desertification of land.
Answer: Deforestation

 

Match The Columns

1.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Match the columns

Answer: 1. C, 2. A, 3. B, 4. E, 5. D

2.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 7 Topic A Consequences And Control Of Environmental Degradation Match the columns.

Answer: 1. D, 2. E, 3. A, 4. B, 5. C

 

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Give an example of nature-based activity.
Answer: Agriculture.

Question 2. Give an example of technology-based activity.
Answer: Computer manufacturing.

Question 3. Name the system which compensates any disturbance caused to any part of the environment and thus maintains ecological balance.
Answer: Homeostatic mechanism.

Question 4. Give an example of environmental degradation caused by man.
Answer: Industrial toxic wastes are discharged into nearby waterbodies.

Question 5. What is the name of the type of cultivation that causes environmental degradation in India?
Answer: Jhum cultivation.

Question 6. Give an example of an earthquake in India caused due to the pressure of the reservoir of a dam.
Answer: Koyna earthquake, Maharashtra, 1967.

Question 7. What is the full form of MIC?
Answer: Methyl Isocyanate.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 7

Question 8. What primarily caused the mishap in Fukushima, Japan?
Answer: Tsunami.

Question 9. Name eco-friendly non-conventional energy.
Answer: Solar energy.

Question 10. Which country hosted the ‘Earth Summit’ of 1992?
Answer: Brazil.

Question 11. Give an example of a natural disaster.
Answer: Tsunami.