WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A Physical Environment Of North America Short Answer Questions

Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Write a note on the boundaries of North America.
Answer:

Boundaries Of North America:-

The boundaries of North America can be described in the following ways-

Coordinates:

North America extends from 7° North latitude (the southernmost tip of Panama) 84°North latitude (northern tip of Greenland) and 20° West longitude to 173° West longitude.

Geographical boundaries:

The continent of North America is shaped somewhat like an inverted triangle. To the east of the continent lies the Atlantic Ocean, to the west lies the Pacific Ocean, to the north is the Arctic Ocean while to the south is the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Panama Canal.

The Bering Strait, which lies to the northwest, separates North America from Asia. The Panama Canal, which lies to the south, separates it from South America.

The seas around North America are dotted with a number of islands which are also part of this continent such as Greenland in the north (the world’s Newfoundland in the east, Cuba and Jamaica in the largest island), the south, and the Queen Charlotte Islands to the west.

Question 2. What is the Western Cordilleras?
Answer:

Western Cordilleras:-

A long, expansive stretch of mountainous land that stretches from Alaska in the north to the Isthmus of Panama in the south along the western part of North America is known as the Western Cordilleras.

This is made up of three almost parallel mountain ranges- the Rockies, the Alaska and the Coast Range, and the plateau areas in between. The word cordillera means chain or rope. This region is named so because of the chain of three continuous ranges.

Question 3. Describe the coastal plains of North America.
Answer:

Coastal Plains Of North America:-

The entire coastline of North America falls under the physical classification of plains. Apart from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and that of the Atlantic in the south and southwest, the remaining areas are quite narrow.

The coast of the Northern (Arctic) Ocean in the north of the continent is quite wide while that in the west is narrow because the Western Cordilleras rise almost from the shoreline of the Pacific Ocean.

The coastal plains of the Gulf of Mexico are quite wide as well. There are several saline water bodies, lagoons, and deltas along the Coastal Plains. The highest part of this area is less than 200m in altitude.

Question 4. Write a short note on the Colorado River.
Answer:

Colorado River:-

The Colorado River is the main river flowing through the western part of North America.

1. Length:

The Colorado River is about 2300km in length.

2. Source and mouth:

This river rises in the Rocky Mountains and then flows into Lake Mead before moving towards Death Valley and then the Mojave desert before finally discharging into the Gulf of California through Mexico.

This river has carved the world’s largest and deepest canyon, the Grand Canyon, in the state of Arizona in the USA. The rivers Gila, Virgin, Fraser, and Yukon Columbia are a few of the tributaries of the Colorado River.

3. Significance:

The main significance of the Colorado River is that it has enabled an arid, near-desert region to become an agriculturally dominant region.

Several dams and reservoirs have been constructed on this river to facilitate municipal water supply to a large population and also for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Among these, the Hoover Dam is notable.

Question 5. Write a brief note on Mississippi- Missouri.
Answer:

Mississippi- Missouri:-

Mississippi, the main river flowing through North America, has Missouri as its main tributary and they form a vast river system.

1. Source and mouth:

The Mississippi originates from Lake Itasca in the Shield area adjacent to Lake Superior and it empties into the Gulf of Mexico.

2. Length:

The Mississippi-Missouri flows over a distance of 6270 km. This means that if both rivers are considered, the Mississippi-Missouri is the fourth longest river in the world.

3. Tributaries:

The main tributary of the Mississippi is the Missouri which rises in the Rocky Mountains and joins the Mississippi near St. Louis port.

Two of the Mississippi’s right-bank tributaries are the Red and Arkansas and two left-bank tributaries are Ohio and Tennessee.

4. Significance:

This river is navigable. St. Louis, St. Paul, Minneapolis, Kansas City, etc., are important port cities that have developed along its course. The culturally rich city of New Orleans has developed at the estuary of the river.

Question 6. Briefly write about McKenzie River.
Answer:

McKenzie River:-

Canada’s longest and the second longest river in North America is McKenzie.

1. Length:

The river flows for 4200km before emptying into the sea.

2. Source and mouth:

The Peace river, the headstream of the McKenzie, originates in the Rockies and then flows northwards where it meets the Athabasca River to form the Slave river which rises from a delta in Alberta.

These two rivers then together flow into the Great Slave Lake from which they rise as one river, the McKenzie. The river then divides into various separate distributaries and discharges into the North Sea after creating the vast McKenzie Delta.

This river is navigable in summer but freezes in winter.

Question 7. Write briefly about the St. Lawrence River.
Answer:

St. Lawrence River:-

St. Lawrence is the primary driver of the Great Lakes region as it connects five lakes.

1. Source: Lake Ontario

2. Length: The river flows for about 1120 km.

3. Mouth: After flowing through the lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, this river empties itself in the Atlantic Ocean. It is known by different names at different parts of its course

  1. Between lakes superior and Huron, it is known as the St. Mary river,
  2. Between lakes Huron and Erie, it is known as the St. Clare river,
  3. Between Erie and Ontario, it is known as the Niagara river.

4. Importance:

The importance of the St. Lawrence Waterway is unparalleled. Seafaring vessels can reach up to 1600km into the interior of the continent through this waterway.

In its non-navigable course (for instance, Niagara Falls), canals such as the Welland Canal have been dug and lock gates have been constructed to facilitate ship transport.

Question 8. Describe the lakes of North America.
Answer:

Lakes Of North America:-

On the basis of their location, the lakes of North America are divided into two categories-

1. The lakes of the plains:

In the northern part of Central Lowland, is a chain of five famous freshwater lakes-Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. All of these are among the 14 largest freshwater lakes in the world.

Lake Superior is the largest lake (82103 sq. km) in North America and the largest freshwater lake in the world. These five lakes are collectively known as the Great Lakes. These five largest lakes originated due to glacial erosion.

These are interconnected by the St. Lawrence River. Except for Lake Michigan, the Great Lakes mark the natural boundary between Canada and the USA. Winnipeg, Great Bear, Athabasca, Great Slave, etc., are some other important lakes that have formed by the denudation of the peneplain region of the central lowland.

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2. Lakes of the mountain regions:

Two notable lakes in this region are the Great Salt Lake and Lake Nicaragua.

Question 9. Why do ocean currents become warm in some places and cold in others?
Answer:

Ocean Currents Become Warm In Some Places And Cold In Others:-

Based on temperature, ocean currents are of two types-warm ocean currents and cold ocean currents. Due to the earth’s spheroidal shape and the difference of the angle of incidence of sun rays, the temperature between landmass and water bodies also differ.

As the Torrid Zone (232°N to 232°S) receives direct sun rays, ocean currents are warm here. In the Temperate Zone (232°-662° latitude in both the hemispheres) the ocean water has moderate temperature, as this zone receives slanting sun rays.

On the other hand, the region belonging to the Frigid Zone (662°-90° latitude in both the hemispheres) have cold ocean currents as the water remains frozen throughout the year and the landmass remains mostly snow-covered.

Thus, the differences in temperature give rise to warm ocean currents in the Equatorial region like warm North Equatorial Currents.

On the other hand, in the polar regions, the snow-melted water gives rise to cold ocean currents like cold Bering Current, cold Labrador Current, etc.

Question 10. Why dry weather occurs in the beginning of spring on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountain?
Answer:

Dry Weather Occurs In The Beginning Of Spring On The Eastern Slope Of The Rocky Mountain:-

A local wind named ‘Chinook’ blows along the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains which is mainly situated in the Western Cordilleras that lie to the western part of North America. This wind is mainly warm and dry in nature.

As the water vapor holding capacity of this air becomes higher, rainfall does not occur in this region. For this reason, the Prairies lying in the eastern slope of Rocky Mountain, the areas near the north and south Dakota region, experience dry weather in the beginning of spring.

Question 11. Describe North America’s rainfall pattern.
Answer:

North America’s Rainfall Pattern:-

The south-eastern, central (Florida peninsula and northern Mexico), and north-western coast of North America receive the highest rainfall-an annual average of 100 cm-200 cm or more.

The southern part of the western coast (California) and the Eastern Highlands receive a moderate rainfall-annual average of 50cm-100 cm. The Central Lowlands are at a great distance from the sea and receive less rainfall-annual average of 25 cm-50cm.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Annual rainfall of north america

 

The plateau regions bounded by mountains in the southwestern part of the continent receive scanty rainfall. Both the desert region and the rainshadow region on the eastern slope of the Rockies receive an annual average of less than 25 cm.

As a result, deserts like the Sonoran and the Mojave have formed here.

Question 12. Describe the location of the Prairies of North America.
Answer:

Location Of The Prairies Of North America:-

The extensive temperate grassland that stretches over a large part of North America is known as the Prairie.

To the west of the Prairies is the Rockies, to the east is the Great Lakes region, to the north is Canada’s northwest territories and to the south is the border between the USA and Mexico.

The natural vegetation of the Prairies consists of different varieties of grasses like hay, clover, and alfalfa.

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Question 13. Why is the dairy industry so well-developed in the Prairie region?
Answer:

Dairy Industry So Well-Developed In The Prairie Region:-

Several factors that led to the well-developed dairy industry in the Prairie region are discussed below-

1. Extensive areas for cattle grazing:

The vast stretches of grasslands and cornfields are highly suitable for cattle grazing.

2. Availability of high-grade animal fodder:

Protein-rich fodder, and grasses like hay, alfalfa, and clover are grown here. As a result, this region is highly suitable for cattle rearing.

3. Cold storage facilities:

Several technologically advanced cold storage facilities have been built for the proper preservation and storage of milk and dairy products.

4. Well-developed transport system:

This factor helps in the quick dispatch and delivery of perishable dairy products.

Question 14. Why is the Prairie region known as the ‘Bread Basket of the World’?
Answer:

Prairie Region Known As The ‘Bread Basket Of The World’:-

A special characteristic of the agricultural pattern in the Prairies is that some specific crops are grown in huge quantities in some specific parts of this region.

The northern parts are completely snow-covered in the winter. So, when the snow melts and the soil is wet in the end of winter, large quantities of wheat are grown here.

Thus this region is known as the ‘spring wheat belt’. The state of Dakota in the USA yields the highest quantity of wheat. South of the spring wheat belt, wheat is grown in the winter as the region remains snow-free.

This region is thus known as the ‘winter wheat’ belt. Throughout the year, the other part of the Prairies is under wheat cultivation. The quantities yielded are huge and so this region is also known as the ‘Bread Basket of the World’.

 

Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. See a map of the world and make a list of where Isthmus are seen in the world.
Answer:

The following is a list of Isthmus that can be seen on a world map-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Isthmus And Location

 

Question 2. Why is North America known as the ‘New World’?
Answer:

North America is known as the ‘New World’ since it was discovered only 500 years ago, which is very less in a geological perspective.

Question 3. Name the volcanoes in the Western Cordillera region.
Answer:

In the southern part of the Western Cordillera, there are quite a few volcanoes in Mexico and in Central America.

Some of these are

  1. Popocatepetl (5426m),
  2. Orizaba (5636m),
  3. Colima (3820m).

All of these are on the Pacific Ring of Fire.

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Question 4. What is meant by ‘piedmont’?
Answer:

Piedmont:-

The word ‘piedmont’ refers to any area which lies at the foot of a mountain. This can be used to qualify a plateau, river or valley. The Cumberland Plateau is an example of a Piedmont plateau.

Question 5. The low-lying region in south-eastern California is known as the ‘Death Valley-Explain.
Answer:

The low-lying region in south-eastern California is known as the ‘Death Valley’:-

The southeastern part of California, which lies to the west of the Rocky Mountains, is about 90m deep below sea level. This is the lowest region in the western hemisphere and has a temperature of about 56°C.

This is also the hottest place in North America. The salinity of the water of this place is so high that no living creature can survive here. Thus, this valley is known as ‘Death Valley.

Question 6. Why are numerous volcanoes found along the Rockies?
Answer:

Numerous Volcanoes Found Along The Rockies:-

According to the theory of Plate Tectonics, after colliding with the North American plate, the denser and heavier Pacific Ocean plate subducted.

As a result, numerous volcanoes originated along the Rockies. Apart from this, the region is a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire and so, many volcanoes are found here.

Question 7. Why does the water of the Mississippi-Missouri turn into ice in spite of being situated in the tropical region?
Answer:

Water Of The Mississippi-Missouri Turn Into Ice In Spite Of Being Situated In The Tropical Region:-

The Appalachian Mountain runs through the eastern part of North America and on the west, the Cordilleras run from north to south. These mountain ranges act as barriers, preventing wind from the sea from entering the area in between.

Besides, cold winds from the north easily pass to the west. This cold wind is responsible for freezing the water of the Mississippi- Missouri River.

Question 8. The Newfoundland islands are always covered with dense fog-Why?
Answer:

The Newfoundland islands are always covered with dense fog:-

The warm Gulf Stream flows along the Newfoundland coast from south to north. The cool Labrador current flows from north to south.

The place where the two currents meet, the warm Gulf Stream melts the ice blocks being carried down by the Labrador Current. The water vapour caused by this comes into contact with the cool air and condenses to form fog.

So, the outer parts of Newfoundland are always shrouded in fog.

Question 9. What is meant by ‘fall line’?
Answer:

Fall Line:-

The fall line is defined as the imaginary line along which the river plunges and waterfalls occur on approximately parallel rivers.

These commonly occur on the edges of plateaus and piedmonts where streams pass from hard and resistant rocks to a plain of weak, soft rocks below. Example- the Niagara Falls.

Question 10. Why is autumn called the ‘Fall Season’ in North America?
Answer:

Autumn Called The ‘Fall Season’ In North America:-

North America is characterized by temperate forests found in the Great Lakes region and in the Eastern Highlands and coastal regions. Different types of deciduous trees such as oak, maple, elm, and ash are found here.

In autumn, the leaves of these trees turn red, yellow, or orange in color, before being shed. Thus, autumn is known as the ‘Fall Season’ in North America.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9

Question 11. See the map and make a list of cities of North America that experience equable and extreme climates.
Answers:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America list of cities of north america

 

The list of few of the cities of North America which experience equable and extreme climate is given below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Equable And Extreme Climate

 

Question 12. Why north the flowing rivers of North America are not suitable for navigation?
Answer:

North The Flowing Rivers Of North America Are Not Suitable For Navigation:-

The north flowing rivers of North America mainly empty into Hudson Bay, the North Sea, and the Beaufort Sea.

Hence, the mouth or the lower course of these rivers lies in the Tundra climatic region, which remains snow-covered during the entire winter season (8-9 months).

During this time, the temperature falls below the freezing point. Thus, these rivers are not suitable for navigation in winter.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A Physical Environment Of North America Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The largest island in the world is-

  1. Dogger’s Bank
  2. Maldives
  3. Sri Lanka
  4. Greenland

Answer: 4. Greenland

Question 2. The mainland of North America was discovered by-

  1. Vasco da Gama
  2. Magellan
  3. Colombus
  4. Amerigo Vespucci

Answer: 4. Amerigo Vespucci

Question 3. North America was discovered in the year-

  1. 1492
  2. 1501
  3. 1941
  4. 1947

Answer: 2. 1501

Question 4. The connector between North and South America is-

  1. Panama Canal
  2. Quebec
  3. Thunder Bay
  4. Thompson

Answer: 1. Panama Canal

Question 5. The number of countries in North America is-

  1. 54
  2. 23
  3. 48
  4. 25

Answer: 2. 23

Question 6. To the east of North America lies the-

  1. Pacific Ocean
  2. Atlantic Ocean
  3. Northern Ocean
  4. Indian Ocean

Answer: 2. Atlantic Ocean

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Question 7. The southernmost latitude of North America is-

  1. 5° North
  2. 20° West
  3. 7° North
  4. 83° North

Answer: 3. 7° North

Question 8. The largest mountain range in North America is the-

  1. Appalachians
  2. Allegheny
  3. Laurentide
  4. Rockies

Answer: 4. Rockies

Question 9. The average height of the Rockies is almost-

  1. 4200m
  2. 4401m
  3. 6800m
  4. 6900m

Answer: 2. 4401m

Question 10. The highest peak in Alaska range is-

  1. Sierra Madre
  2. McKenzie
  3. Denali (McKinley)
  4. Mt. Whitney

Answer: 3. Denali (McKinley)

Question 11. The part of the Rockies that is in Mexico is known as the-

  1. Endicott
  2. Sierra Madre
  3. Sierra Nevada
  4. Cascade Range

Answer: 2. Sierra Madre

Question 12. The highest peak in North America is-

  1. Denali (Mt. McKinley)
  2. Mt. Mitchell
  3. Mt. Elbert
  4. Mt. Whitney

Answer: 1. Denali (Mt. McKinley)

Question 13. The main river flowing through the United States of America is-

  1. Potomac
  2. Mississippi-Missouri
  3. St. Lawrence
  4. Columbia

Answer: 2. Mississippi-Missouri

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

Question 14. The world’s most famous canyon is carved by the river-

  1. St. Lawrence
  2. Colorado
  3. Mississippi
  4. Columbia

Answer: 2. Colorado

Question 15. The climate of Alaska is of the-

  1. Mediterranean type
  2. Tundra type
  3. Monsoon type
  4. Tropical type

Answer: 2. Tundra type

Question 16. The temperate grassland region of North America is known as the-

  1. Prairie
  2. Downs
  3. Pampas
  4. Steppes

Answer: 1. Prairie

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A Physical Environment Of North America Long Answer Quetions

Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America

Question 1. Discuss the geographical significance of North America.
Answer:

Geographical Significance Of North America:-

The geographical significance of North America has been discussed below- Location: The Pacific Ocean in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east protect North America from attacks of enemies.

This locational condition has also helped the continent to develop and retain its unique characteristics. In the south, North America is connected to South America by the Isthmus of Panama.

The Panama Canal also facilitates communication between these two continents and connects the Pacific to the Atlantic.

1. Topography:

The Central Lowland of this continent is highly suitable for agriculture.

The high Rocky Mountain range, the dissected old fold mountains of the Appalachian Range and the dissected plateau of the Canadian Shield Region as well as the vast plain lands of the Mississippi- Missouri watershed area, all have had a great impact on the agricultural pattern and the industrial development of North America.

2. Rivers:

The long, perennial rivers of the continent such as the Mississippi, Columbia, etc., facilitate irrigation as well as the generation of hydel power. Both of these have helped in the development of agriculture as well as industry.

3. Climate:

Climatic variations experienced in different parts of the continent have led to the development of agriculture, animal rearing as well as industry.

The bright and sunny weather of California which experiences the Mediterranean type of climate has contributed immensely to the growth and development of the film industry in Hollywood-a major money earner for the USA.

4. Vegetation:

The vast forests of softwood coniferous trees have helped North America to emerge as a world leader in terms of the production of newspaper pulp, artificial silk, chemical products, matchsticks, etc.

5. Animal rearing and fishing:

Commercial animal rearing is carried out in the vast grasslands of the Prairies. Based on this, a vast meat-packaging industry has developed in Chicago which is known as the ‘Slaughterhouse of the World.

6. Agriculture:

Agricultural practices for commercial production of wheat, corn, flour, soybean, tobacco, sugarcane, and sugar beet ensure that these are grown in vast quantities.

Also, this region is the world’s largest wheat grower, so it is also known as the ‘Granary of the World.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Relief Features of North America

7. Mineral resources:

The continent of North America is rich in resources like mineral oil, natural gas, iron ore, copper ore, lead, zinc, manganese, gypsum, limestone etc. Technologically advanced methods of mining and resource utilisation have led to great prosperity.

8. Industry:

Iron and steel, engineering, petrochemicals, paper, and cement industries have developed greatly and have a great contribution to the economic prosperity of the region.

Question 2. Write a note on the mountainous region of the west in North America.
Answer:

Mountainous Region Of The West In North America:-

The different aspects of the mountainous region of North America or the Western Cordilleras (as they are known) are as follows-

1. Location and extent:

A vast mountainous region extends over almost the entire western part of the Pacific coast of the continent from the northern part of the Bering Strait to the southern part of the Panama Canal in the south.

Since this region stretches to the coast of the Pacific Ocean, it is also known as the Pacific Ocean Mountainous Region.

2. Mountain ranges:

These mountains are young fold and had formed when the Pacific Ocean Plate and the North American Continental Plate had collided with one another. The middle part of this is wider than the sides.

This mountainous region consists of a chain of three almost parallel mountain ranges and the highland areas that lie between the ranges and are together known as the Western Cordilleras. Cordillera is a Spanish word which means rope or chain.

The details of the three parallel ranges are as follows-

  1. To the east is the Rockies whose northernmost section is the Brooks Range,
  2. The central range is known as the Alaska range in Alaska, as the Cascade Range in the border areas between Canada and the USA, as the Sierra Nevada in California and in Mexico as the Western Sierra Madre. Denali (Mt. McKinley, 6195 m) in the Alaska Range is the highest mountain peak in North America.
  3. The third range is known as St. Elias Range in Alaska and as the Coast Range in Canada and the USA.

The Rockies are the main as well as the longest mountains of North America, which stretches over 4800 km from Alaska in the North to southern Mexico in the south. Mt. Elbert (4339 m) is the highest peak in the range.

The Western Cordilleras extend in South America and are known as the Andes.

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3. Inter-montane plateaus:

The Yukon Plateau, Columbia Plateau and Alaska Plateau are some of the inter-montane plateaus in this region.

4. River valleys:

Various river valleys have formed in these plateaus. Notable among these are- the Yukon, Fraser, Columbia and Colorado. The rivers of this region drain into the Pacific Ocean.

Many submerged regions, gorges and other landforms have developed along the river courses.

5. Volcanoes:

There are many active volcanoes in the Western Cordilleras such as the Popocatepetl, Orizaba and Colima. They are a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire.

6. Canyons:

The rivers of this region have created several dramatic canyons-the Grand Canyon carved by the Colorado River is the longest and the deepest in the world.

7. Death Valley:

The southeastern part of California which lies in the Western Cordilleras is almost 90m below mean sea level. This is known as Death Valley.

Question 3. Discuss the Central Lowland of North America.
Answer:

Central Lowland Of North America:-

The Central Lowland exists between the Western Cordilleras and the Eastern Highlands, from the north polar region to the Gulf of Mexico in the south. So, this region is also known as Great Plains.

River basins of McKenzie, St. Lawrence, and Mississippi-Missouri are situated in these Lowlands. However, this region is not a plainland, but rather an undulating terrain consisting of mountains, knolls and low-lying plateaus.

The northern part of this plain is occupied by the Canadian Shield, which is the most ancient landmass of the world. Prolonged glacial erosion has transformed this region into a peneplain, whose height has further reduced at some places and have been transformed into lakes.

Winnipeg, Great Bear, Athabasca, etc. are few of the famous lakes. In the southeastern part of this, lies the five largest lakes which have formed due to glacial erosion.

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These are the Great Five Lakes.

Divisions:

Based on the local characteristics of the parts of this region, it is further subdivided into the following-

1. Plains of St. Lawrence:

The St. Lawrence river flows through the area between the Eastern Highlands and the Canadian Shield and the narrow plains formed by this river basin is known as the St. Lawrence river basin.

2. Plains of lake region:

Five great lakes named Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario flow through the northeast of North America. The regions along the southern banks of these lakes are collectively known as the Plains of the Lake region.

3. The Prairie Plainland:

The extensive grassland that stretches over a large part of North America is known as the Prairie. Located in the Central Lowlands, this is a temperate grassland with an undulating landform.

4. The plains of the Mississippi-Missouri River basin:

The Mississippi-Missouri River basin is located between the Eastern Highlands in the east and the Western Cordillera in the west. The plains are rich in silt deposition because of their location on the Mississippi River basin.

Towards the south of the plains, the Mississippi Delta has developed. It is also called the bird’s foot delta because of its shape.

Question 4. Write a note on the Eastern Highlands of North America.
Answer:

Eastern Highlands Of North America:-

The various aspects of the Eastern Highlands or the Appalachian mountain region are discussed in the given points-

1. Extent:

From Labrador in the north to Alabama in the south, the entire eastern part of the continent is considered to be part of the Eastern Highlands or the Appalachian mountain region.

The Highlands of Greenland, to the north of Labrador, are also part of this.

2. Nature:

This geologically ancient stretch of land is mostly made up of crystalline rocks. Rocks like gneiss, schist, slate, quartzite and granite are usually found here.

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3. Divisions:

This entire region consists primarily of three dissected plateaus. These are-

  1. Labrador plateau in the north,
  2. New England highland in the middle and
  3. The Appalachian mountains in the south.

The Appalachian Mountain system is the most notable of the Eastern Highlands. This is a range of old, fold mountains that extends from the north to the south.

Constant erosional action by various agents has greatly reduced the elevation of these mountains. They are now lower in height than the Rocky Mountains, around or more than 2000 m. St. Lawrence river basin separates the Appalachian Mountains from the Laurentian Plateau.

Some of the subdivisions of the Appalachian Mountains are-

  1. The steep Allegheny Mountains in the western part of the Appalachians.
  2. The Cumberland Plateau lies further to the west and the Blue Ridge Mountains are in the eastern part. Mt. Mitchell (2037 m) is the highest peak in the Appalachian Mountains.
  3. To the east of the Blue Ridge Mountains is a Piedmont plateau.
  4. The eastern slope of the Piedmont plateau is abrupt and this results in a ‘fall line’.
  5. To the west of the Piedmont region lies the rugged highlands known as the Great Smoky Mountains.

Question 5. Write a note on the rivers in the USA.
Answer:

Rivers In The USA:-

Based on the places of origin and confluence, the rivers of North America have been divided into five parts. These are-

East-flowing river(s) that flow(s) into the Atlantic Ocean

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America East following River flow in to the Atlantic Ocean

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America The rivers and lakes of North America

 

West-flowing river(s) that flow(s) into the Pacific Ocean

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America West following River flow in to the pacific Ocean

 

West-flowing river(s) that flow(s) into the Gulf of California

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America West following River flow in to the California

 

River(s) that flow(s) into the Arctic Ocean

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America River flow in to the Arctic Ocean

 

River(s) that flow into the Gulf of Mexico

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America River flow in to the Gulf of Mexico

 

Question 6. Mention the factors affecting the climate of North America.
Answer:

Factors Affecting The Climate Of North America:-

The factors influencing the climatic conditions of North America are as follows-

1. Latitudinal extent:

North America extends from 7°N of the equator to 84°N latitude. Apart from some regions in the north and south, North America mostly experiences temperate climates.

South Mexico and different countries in Central America and Caribbean islands experience sub-tropical climates because the Tropic of Cancer (232°N) passes through Mexico and its adjoining provinces.

As the northern part of the continent extends beyond the Arctic Circle (66%), it experiences tundra and polar climate.

2. Shape and size:

The northern part of North America is wider than the central part. So, the regions of the central part are located away from the sea and hence, experience the continental types of climate.

On the other hand, the regions of the south, being in close proximity to the sea, experience a moderate marine type of climate.

3. Location of mountain ranges:

The mountain ranges in North America stretch vertically from north to south. So, frigid winds from the North Pole blow freely towards the South and further, without facing any barrier.

Due to this, most of the regions in North America experience temperatures below freezing point. Moreover, the location of the Rocky Mountain range prevents sea winds from entering the central regions of North America.

The wet winds from the Gulf of Mexico also blow without resistance.

4. Warm and cold currents:

The warm Gulf Stream flow along the southeast coast of North America. So, the climate of this coastal region is warm and hot.

On the other hand, the cold Labrador Current flows along the northeast coast of North America, and influences the climate of this region, keeping them snow-covered throughout the year.

The cold California Current along the southwestern part of the continent also keeps the region cold.

5. Distance from the sea:

The central regions of North America are situated far from the sea and also receive very little rainfall. As a result, the atmospheric temperature range (difference between maximum and minimum temperature) is very high in these regions.

6. Effects of winds:

The southwest Westerlies blow eastward in the middle latitudes and the northeast Trade winds blow southward in the southern latitudes.

Hence, the coastal regions in the middle latitudes in North America tend to be wetter than those in the southern latitudes.

7. Others:

Some other factors also affect the climate of North America. The local moisture-laden Chinook winds blowing from the windward slope of the Rockies to its leeward slope, cause less rainfall and thus grasses and shrubs grow instead of trees.

Question 7. Describe the different climatic regions of North America.
Answer:

Different Climatic Regions Of North America:-

The various climatic regions of North America are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Different Climatic Regions of north America

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America The Climatic regions of north America

 

Question 8. Describe the different types of vegetation that grow in North America.
Answer:

The different types of vegetation that grow in North America can be classified into the following seven categories. These are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Different types of vegetation

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of North America Relief Features of North America

 

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The average elevation of the Great Lakes region is about-

  1. 150m
  2. 180m
  3. 200m
  4. 250m

Answer: 2. 180m

Question 2. The main river of the Great Lakes region is the-

  1. Mississippi
  2. Colorado
  3. St. Lawrence
  4. McKenzie

Answer: 3. St. Lawrence

Question 3. The Churchill River empties into the-

  1. Atlantic Ocean
  2. Labrador Sea
  3. Hudson Bay
  4. Lake Winnipeg

Answer: 1. Atlantic Ocean

Question 4. In summer, the average temperature that prevails in the Great Lakes region is about-

  1. 10°C
  2. 23°C
  3. 16°C
  4. 32°C

Answer: 3. 16°C

Question 5. The largest steel factory in the Great Lakes region is in the city of-

  1. Buffalo
  2. Gary
  3. Chicago
  4. Milwaukee

Answer: 2. Gary

Question 6. The biggest centre of the iron and steel industry in North America is-

  1. Chicago-Gary
  2. Cleveland
  3. Duluth
  4. Toledo

Answer: 1. Chicago-Gary

Question 7. The main centre of the flour milling industry in the USA is the city of-

  1. Montreal
  2. Gary
  3. Buffalo
  4. Toronto

Answer: 3. Buffalo

Question 8. The ‘rubber capital of the world is-

  1. Buffalo
  2. Chicago
  3. Akron
  4. Detroit

Answer: 3. Akron

Question 9. Wisconsin is known as the-

  1. Breadbasket of the world
  2. Dairy capital
  3. Rubber Capital
  4. Granary of the world

Answer: 2. Dairy capital

Question 10. The city known as the ‘slaughter house of the world’ is-

  1. Buffalo
  2. Chicago
  3. Akron
  4. Thunder Bay

Answer: 2. Chicago

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 11. One of the significant ports in the Midwest USA handling large tonnage is

  1. Duluth
  2. Cleveland
  3. Gary
  4. Buffalo

Answer: 1. Duluth

Question 12. The city near Lake Erie is-

  1. Milwaukee
  2. Chicago
  3. Duluth
  4. Toledo

Answer: 4. Toledo

Question 13. The total number of shields on the earth’s surface is-

  1. 10
  2. 11
  3. 12
  4. 13

Answer: 2. 11

Question 14. The Canadian Shield region is a-

  1. Mountainous region
  2. Hill
  3. Plateau
  4. Plainland

Answer: 3. Plateau

Question 15. Canadian Shield was formed by the erosion of-

  1. River
  2. Wind
  3. Glacier
  4. Wave

Answer: 3. Glacier

Question 16. The largest lake in the Canadian Shield area is-

  1. Great Bear
  2. Winnipeg
  3. Great Slave
  4. Athabasca

Answer: 1. Great Bear

Question 17. Most of the rivers that flow through the Canadian Shield are

  1. North flowing
  2. West flowing
  3. South flowing
  4. East flowing

Answer: 1. North flowing

Question 18. The largest mining city in Canada is

  1. Sudbury
  2. Quebec
  3. Thunder Bay
  4. Thompson

Answer: 1. Sudbury

Question 19. The capital of Canada is

  1. Vancouver
  2. Detroit
  3. Ottawa
  4. Montreal

Answer: 3. Ottawa

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Short Answer Questions

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Short Answer Questions

Question 1. Give an account of the Great Lakes Region of North America. How did these lakes come into existence?
Answer:

Great Lakes System of North America:

In the north-eastern part of North America, near the Canada-USA border, there are five huge lakes-

  1. Superior,
  2. Michigan,
  3. Huron,
  4. Erie and
  5. Ontario.

Apart from these, there are numerous smaller lakes as well, such as Lake St. Clare. Among these, only Lake Michigan is completely within the territory of USA. The Canada-USA border passes through all the other four Great Lakes.

The Great Lakes region of the USA refers to the area off the southern shores of these four lakes. The Great Lakes region occupies a major part of eight states and is the most densely populated area in the country.

These states are Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

The accepted theory of the origin of the Great Lakes:

Centring Hudson Bay, the most ancient landmass and eroded plateau of the world, the Canadian Sheild is situated. In the ice age, this region was fully covered by ice.

These snow-covered regions extended from Hudson Bay to far to the south (at present the five lakes). Due to prolonged glacial erosion, some areas of these vast snow-covered regions have been transformed into basins.

Eventually, this region has transformed into lakes.

Question 2. Discuss the climate of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Climate Of The Great Lakes Region:-

The climatic features of the Great Lakes region are as follows-

  1. Generally, the Great Lakes region experiences a cool temperate type of climate with a greater influence of the winter season.
  2. The average temperature of this region is 16°C. In winter temperature lies below freezing point.
  3. In winter the entire Great Lakes region remains under snow cover.
  4. This region experiences an average annual rainfall of about 70 to cm-80 cm, mostly in summer.
  5. The range of temperature between summer and winter is quite high.

Question 3. Discuss the contribution of the St. Lawrence River to the economic development and prosperity of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Contribution Of The St. Lawrence River To The Economic Development And Prosperity Of The Great Lakes Region:-

The main river of the Great Lakes region is St. Lawrence. The contribution of this river to the economic development and prosperity of this region is great. This can be discussed as follows-

1. Facilitating trade:

Through the Lawrence Waterway, goods are transported to the Great Lakes region and minerals and industrial goods can also be sent to any place of the world. So, this waterway facilitates trade with Europe as well as other parts of the world.

2. Easy availability of water and hydroelectricity:

The St. Lawrence river is a valuable source of water and Niagara Falls is a valuable source of hydroelectricity of this region.

3. Helps in irrigation throughout the year:

Water of the St. Lawrence river great five lakes are used for irrigation throughout the year.

Question 4. What is the role of mineral resources in the economic prosperity of the Great Lakes region?
Answer:

Role Of Mineral Resources In The Economic Prosperity Of The Great Lakes Region:-

Mineral resources of the Great Lakes region play an important role in the economic prosperity of this region. This can be discussed as follows-

1. Largest reserve of iron ore:

A large percentage of iron is extracted from the Great Lakes region. Vermilion, Mesabi, Menominee, etc. are the major iron ore of this region. Availability of iron helps in the remarkable development of the iron and steel industry in this region.

2. Proximity of coal mines:

Illinois and Indiana are famous for coal mining. As the northern Appalachian coalfields are in close proximity to the Great Lakes region, power resources are easily available, which facilitates the growth of several industries.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

3. Extraction of various other minerals:

Copper, mineral oil, rock salt, limestone, gypsum, manganese,, etc., are also found here which help in industrialization. Especially large amounts of mineral salt are used in meat processing and chemical industries, while some amounts are used to melt the snow on the roads by civic authorities.

4. Availability of mineral oil:

Mineral oil is available in Michigan, Ohio and the Ontario Lake region which helps to develop oil refineries and petrochemical industries in Chicago, Buffalo and Cleveland.

Question 5. Why is the Great Lakes region the most industrially developed region in the USA?
Answer:

Great Lakes Region The Most Industrially Developed Region In The USA:-

In the north-eastern part of North America near the Canada-US border, there are five massive lakes-

  1. Superior,
  2. Michigan,
  3. Huron,
  4. Erie and
  5. Ontario.

Apart from these, there are numerous smaller lakes as well, such as Lake St. Clare. This region is known as the Great Lakes region. It is the most industrially developed region in the USA.

Locally available coal, iron ore, developed transport system, electricity generation, water from the five lakes, etc., have facilitated the growth of industries such as iron and steel, engineering, chemical, paper, meat processing, milk products, oil refining, petrochemical, etc.

About one-fourth of the USA’s industrial output comes from this region. Thus, the Great Lakes region is known as the most developed industrial area in the USA.

Question 6. Write about the animal products of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Animal Products Of The Great Lakes Region:-

Extensive grasslands in the Great Lakes region means that this region grows huge amounts of animal fodder. A great demand for milk, dairy products and meat in all the cities of this region has accelerated the rearing of livestock including cattle and pigs.

Poultry farming of chickens and ducks for their eggs and flesh is also common. Based on these factors, the meat packaging, dairy and poultry industries etc. have developed in this region.

High yields of prime quality animal and dairy products has led to Wisconsin becoming the world’s ‘dairy capital. Chicago is known as the ‘slaughterhouse of the world’ because of the high volume of meat and meat products it yields. So, we can say that the Great Lakes region is highly developed in the production of animal products.

Question 7. Write a short note on Chicago.
Answer:

Chicago:-

The city of Chicago, the largest city in the Great Lakes region, is on the southwest bank of Lake Michigan and in the state of Illinois. Chicago is also known as the ‘Windy City.

The Greater Chicago area is home to about 27 lakh people according to 2018 figures. Iron and steel, engineering, chemicals, leather and textiles are some of the industries that have developed in this region.

It has the world’s largest meat production and packing district, for this Chicago is called the ‘slaughterhouse of the world. Chicago is also a very important railway junction and O’Hare Airport is the world’s third busiest airport.

Question 8. Write down the major causes of the development of the paper industry in Canada.
Answer:

Major Causes Of The Development Of The Paper Industry In Canada:-

Canada holds a remarkable position in wood and paper production. About 25 per cent of the world’s paper and pulp is produced in Canada.

Several favourable geographical factors have led to this industry is highly developed in Canada.

These are as follows-

1. Abundance of raw materials:

The central part of Canada has vast coniferous forests. In terms of both nature and size, this is the world’s second-largest forest (the largest is the Taiga in Russia).

2. Ease of transportation:

In winter, when everything is blanketed under snow, the trees are cut down and the logs are piled on the frozen rivers. When the snow melts with the advent of summer, the logs float downstream and are collected by sawmills located on the shores of the rivers.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 Question Answers

3. Easily available hydro-electricity:

Fast-flowing rivers of the Canadian Shield region help to generate hydroelectricity. Canada’s hydel power plants provide electricity to various factories and mills.

4. Other causes:

Modern machinery, supply of efficient labour and support of sufficient capital are also the reasons for the development of the paper industry in Canada.

Question 9. Discuss the transport system of the Canadian Shield region.
Answer:

Transport System Of The Canadian Shield Region:-

The transport system or network of this region is not developed. But in the south-western parts of this region, communication is carried out through the Canadian National Railway, Hudson Bay Railway and the Ontario Northland Railway, as this region is mineral rich and industrially developed.

The Canadian-Pacific Railway extends to the south. The Alaska Highway and the McKenzie Highway are the two main roadways of this region.

Apart from this, the lakes and lake systems are also used as waterways. At present, places which are inaccessible by road, rail or water way receive and send necessary goods and communicate through helicopters and aeroplanes.

Question 10. Briefly write about Detroit and Montreal cities.
Answer:

Detroit:

Detroit, on the banks of the river Detroit, is the world’s largest automobile manufacturing centre. World’s biggest auto-mobile manufacturing companies such as Ford, Daimler, Chrysler and General Motors have their factories here.

Apart from cars, aeroplanes, tanks, artificial rubber, tyre, glass, and car batteries are also manufactured here. That is why Detroit is known as the ‘Motor City’, the automobile centre of the world.

Montreal:

Montreal, on the banks of the St. Lawrence River, is the second-largest city and the largest international port in Canada. The population of this city is about 1.75 million according to the 2016 census.

Aerospace, electronics, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, fur, rayon, engineering and tobacco are some of the main industries developed here.

Question 11. Discuss the transportation network of the Great Lakes region in the USA.
Answer:

Transportation Network Of The Great Lakes Region In The USA:-

The transportation system of the Great Lakes region is highly developed. The roadways and railways are well-developed. Almost every city is connected by air as well. Chicago’s O’Hare airport is the world’s third busiest airport.

The St. Lawrence Waterway has contributed greatly to the economic growth and prosperity of the Great Lakes region. Large sea-going vessels can travel almost 1600 km into the continent’s interior through the St. Lawrence waterway.

Question 12. Why is Chicago known as a ‘Windy City’? 
Answer:

Chicago Known As A ‘Windy City’:-

The largest city in the Great Lakes region is Chicago, which is also known as the ‘Windy City. Chicago is situated on the southwest of Lake Michigan.

Air flows over the city at a speed of almost 17 km/h. Hence, Chicago is also known as the ‘Windy City.

Question 13. Find out the places in India where such Livestock ranching and food processing industries mutually exist together.
Answer:

Gujarat, in our country, is well-known for its agricultural as well as industrial development. Due to the scanty of rainfall, agriculture is not developed in some of the regions of Gujarat.

So, various types of grasses are grown here. On the basis of these grasslands, cattle rearing is practised in northern and western Gujarat (Sanand, Bhuj). India occupies the second position in cattle rearing all over the world.

Based on the milk, derived from cattle rearing, huge amount of dairy products like-processed milk, powdered milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, icecream, chocolate etc. are produced here.

Question 14. Why are numerous lakes seen in the Canadian Shield region?
Answer:

Numerous Lakes Seen In The Canadian Shield Region:-

The Canadian Shield region is a remnant of the ancient landmass, Angaraland, which was composed of ancient igneous and metamorphic rocks. In Ice Age, this area was glacier-laden and the entire area was enveloped in snow and ice.

Later, huge blocks of ice started to move in the form of continental glaciers. The erosional action of these glaciers led to the formation of numerous big and small lakes.

Examples- Great Bear, Athabasca, Great Slave, Winnipeg, etc.

Question 15. Write about the fauna of the Canadian Shield region.
Answer:

Fauna Of The Canadian Shield Region:-

The coniferous forest of the Canadian Shield region are home to several creatures such as reindeer, beaver, wild cat, prairie dog, etc.

The areas that fall under the Tundra climate type have animals with long fur and hair, like deer, bears, wolves, furred dogs like huskies and numerous birds. The waters abound in beavers, seals, whales, etc.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Short Answer Questions

WBBSE Class 8 Geography  Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The dense equatorial forest in the Amazon River basin is known as-

  1. Savanna
  2. Selva
  3. Campos
  4. Mediterranean forest

Answer: 2. Selva

Question 2. The highest concentration of Selva forest is seen in-

  1. Peru
  2. Argentina
  3. Brazil
  4. Paraguay

Answer: 2. Brazil

Question 3. Piranha is a type of-

  1. Fly
  2. Spider
  3. Tree
  4. Fish

Answer: 4. Fish

Question 4. The literal meaning of ‘Pampas’ is-

  1. Extensive Desert
  2. Extensive Plainland
  3. Highlands
  4. Waterbody

Answer: 2. Extensive Plainland

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 5. Pampas region is basically a-

  1. Plateau
  2. Grassland
  3. Desert
  4. Drainforest area

Answer: 2. Grassland

Question 6. The general slope of the Pampas region is from-

  1. North to south
  2. East to west
  3. West to east
  4. South to north

Answer: 3. West to east

Question 7. The type of climate prevailing in the Pampas grasslands is-

  1. Temperate type
  2. Warm desert type
  3. Mediterranean type
  4. Polar type

Answer: 1. Temperate type

Question 8. Alfalfa grass is seen in-

  1. Selva region
  2. Patagonian desert
  3. Atacama desert
  4. Pampas region

Answer: 4. Pampas region

Question 9. Grasslands in the Pampas region has developed due to-

  1. Scanty rainfall
  2. Sea breeze
  3. Abundant rainfall
  4. Fertile soil

Answer: 1. scanty rainfall

Question 10. The main commercial crop of the Pampas region is-

  1. Wheat
  2. Tea
  3. Jute
  4. Cocoa

Answer: 1. Wheat

Question 11. The huge grazing areas in the Pampas grasslands are called-

  1. Frigorifico
  2. Estero
  3. Estancia
  4. Gran Chaco

Answer: 3. Estancia

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 12. Cordoba is famous for-

  1. Meat
  2. Automobiles
  3. Dairy products
  4. Petrochemicals

Answer: 3. Dairy products

Question 13. The capital of Argentina is-

  1. Quito
  2. Brasilia
  3. Buenos Aires
  4. Rio de Janeiro

Answer: 3. Buenos Aires

Question 14. The city of Buenos Aires is located on the estuary of the river-

  1. Amazon
  2. La Plata
  3. Colorado
  4. Orinoco

Answer: 2. La Plata

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Short Answer Questions

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Write a short note on the Pampas region or, Discuss the temperate grasslands of South America.
Answer:

Pampas Region:-

Pampas is a Spanish word meaning extensive plainlands. The South American temperate grasslands, situated in eastern Argentina, are known as Pampas. The total area of this region is about 7.5 lakh sq. km.

It extends from the foothills of the Andes in the west to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in the east. Being situated in the cool temperate climate (average summer temperature-22°C-24°C, average winter temperature-8°C-10°C And annual average rainfall-50 cm-100 cm), short grasses have grown in this region.

Alfalfa, Stipa, and pampas grass are the dominant grass species of this region. This region is a notable cattle-rearing field and wheat-producing area. Buenos Aires and many other cities are located in the Pampas region.

Question 2. Briefly discuss the location of the Pampas region and the area occupied by it.
Answer:

Location Of The Pampas Region And The Area Occupied By It:-

The Pampas is surrounded by the Gran Chaco plains and the Brazilian Highlands in the north and the temperate Patagonian Desert in the south. To its east lies, the Atlantic Ocean and to the west lies the Andes Mountain range.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Latitudinal location of the Pampas

 

Coordinates:

From 30°S to 38°S latitude and from 54°W to 65°W longitude, the Pampas has grown in the north-eastern parts of Argentina and along the banks of the river La Plata that passes through the south-west of Uruguay.

Area:

The Pampas covers 7.5 lakh sq. km of area. This grassland is 1/4th of Argentina in terms of area.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 3. Give an account of the humid Pampas and the dry Pampas.
Answer:

Humid Pampas And The Dry Pampas:-

The word ‘Pampas’ has originated from the Spanish word Pampa, meaning ‘uninterrupted extensive plainland’. The vast grassland that surrounds the capital of Argentina, Buenos Aires, in a half-moon shape, is called the Pampas.

The eastern part of the Pampas receives a comparatively higher amount of rainfall which helps in the growth of tall grasses. Therefore, this region is referred to as the humid Pampas.

The western part of the grassland is situated in the interior part of the continent, away from the sea. So, it receives less amount of rainfall, which leads to the growth of short grasses.

Hence, the western part is referred to as the dry Pampas. The Pampas grassland is famous for cattle rearing and the system of cattle-rearing followed in this region is the best in South America.

Question 4. Give a physiographic description of the Pampas grassland.
Answer:

Physiographic Description Of The Pampas Grassland:-

In terms of physical features, the Pampas is a plainland.

Origin:

For many years, loess and sediments have been carried from the western highlands and accumulated over the ancient rock strata to form this deep silt-layered region.

Characteristics:

  1. The region slopes from west to east.
  2. The layer of silt in this region is fertile and deep.
  3. Although the region is a plainland, it is undulating in many areas (Uruguay).
  4. There are some low hills in the southeastern parts of the region (Sierra del Tandil, Sierra de La Ventana).

Question 5. Differentiate between the tropical and temperate grasslands of South America.
Answer: The differences between the tropical and the temperate grasslands of South America are as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Differences between Tropical and Temperate grassland

 

Question 6. Differentiate between wild rubber and natural rubber.
Answer: The differences between wild rubber and natural rubber are discussed below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Differences between Wild and Natural rubber

 

Question 7. Write a short note on Buenos Aires.
Answer:

Buenos Aires:-

Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina. The characteristic features of the city are as follows-

  1. It is situated on the estuary of the river La Plata and ranks as the second-largest metropolitan area in South America.
  2. Buenos Aires is considered to be the most important city and port in the southern hemisphere. It is also the primary centre of educational and cultural development in Argentina.
  3. Some of the important industries of the region are cotton textile, flour, meat, leather products, food-processing, tobacco, etc.
  4. Goods imported include coal, cotton garments and industrial machinery while goods exported are wheat, corn, meat, leather and fur.
  5. Buenos Aires is called the Paris of South America because the city is culturally rich and has one of the world’s busiest live theatre industries.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic A Physical Environment Of South America Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The shape of South America resembles a-

  1. Quadrilateral
  2. Circle
  3. Triangle
  4. Dot

Answer: 3. Triangle

Question 2. In terms of area, South America is the world-

  1. Third largest continent
  2. Second largest continent
  3. Fourth largest continent
  4. Fifth largest continent

Answer: 3. Fourth largest continent

Question 3. One of the important imaginary lines that pass through South America is-

  1. Tropic of Cancer
  2. Equator
  3. Prime Meridian
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Equator

Question 4. In terms of area, the largest country in South America is-

  1. Chile
  2. Brazil
  3. Ecuador
  4. Peru

Answer: 2. Brazil

Question 5. Aconcagua is the-

  1. Highest mountain peak in the Andes
  2. Highest mountain peak in the Alps
  3. Highest mountain peak in the Himalayas
  4. Highest mountain peak in the Rockies

Answer: 1. Highest mountain peak in the Andes

Question 6. In terms of population, South America ranks-

  1. First
  2. Third
  3. Fourth
  4. Fifth

Answer: 4. Fifth

Question 7. Longitudinally, South America is located in the-

  1. Eastern Hemisphere
  2. Southern Hemisphere
  3. Western Hemisphere
  4. Northern Hemisphere

Answer: 3. Western Hemisphere

Question 8. Andes is an-

  1. Young Fold Mountain Range
  2. Old Fold Mountain Range
  3. Volcanic Mountain
  4. Block Mountain

Answer: 1. Young Fold Mountain Range

Question 9. ‘Land of Eternal Spring’ is a term used for-

  1. Lima
  2. Bogota
  3. Quito
  4. Brasilia

Answer: 3. Quito

Question 10. The world’s highest navigable lake is-

  1. Lake Ladoga
  2. Pangong Lake
  3. Lake Baikal
  4. Lake Titicaca

Answer: 4. Lake Titicaca

Question 11. The Spanish language originates from-

  1. Sanskrit
  2. English
  3. Latin
  4. Hebrew

Answer: 3. Latin

Question 12. To the south of South America lies the-

  1. Palk Strait
  2. Drake Passage
  3. Magellan Strait
  4. Strait of Otranto

Answer: 3. Magellan Strait

Question 13. Which of the following places in South America has the highest atmospheric humidity?

  1. Patagonia
  2. Pampas grassland
  3. Amazon rainforest
  4. Atacama

Answer: 3. Amazon rainforest

Question 14. The current that flows across the south-west coast of South America is the-

  1. Warm brazil current
  2. Cold humboldt current
  3. Warm gulf stream current
  4. Cold california current

Answer: 2. Cold humboldt current

Question 15. The Equator passes through-

  1. Chile
  2. Argentina
  3. Ecuador
  4. Venezuela

Answer: 3. Ecuador

Question 16. An important tributary of the Amazon that comes from the eastern and central parts of the plateau area is the-

  1. Japura
  2. Jurua
  3. Xingu
  4. Branco

Answer: 3. Xingu

Question 17. Pico da Bandeira, the highest mountain peak along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, is in-

  1. Brazil
  2. Argentina
  3. Guiana
  4. Patagonian highlands

Answer: 1. Brazil

Question 18. The Orinoco River originates from-

  1. Mishawum Lake
  2. Parima Mountain in Guiana Highlands
  3. Pico da Bandeira
  4. Plateau of Mato Grasso

Answer: 2. Parima Mountain in Guiana Highlands

Question 19. River La Plata has formed as a result of the convergence of the rivers-

  1. Parana and Paraguay
  2. Paraguay and Uruguay
  3. Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay
  4. Parana and the Rio Grande

Answer: 3. Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay

Question 20. The longest tributary of the Amazon is-

  1. Purus
  2. Madeira
  3. Jurua
  4. Negro

Answer: 2. Madeira

Question 21. The Peru Current flows through South America from the-

  1. East
  2. West
  3. North
  4. South

Answer: 2. West

Question 22. The desert located in Chile is the-

  1. Atacama
  2. Patagonia
  3. Sonoran
  4. Sahara

Answer: 3. Atacama

Question 23. The Amazon river flows from-

  1. East To West
  2. North To South
  3. West To East
  4. South To North

Answer: 3. West To East

Question 24. The combined flow of the Parana and Paraguay rivers is known as-

  1. La Plata
  2. Uruguay
  3. Parana
  4. Rio de La Plata

Answer: 3. Parana

Class 8 Geography Solution WBBSE

Question 25. A north-flowing river in South America is-

  1. Amazon
  2. Paraguay
  3. Parana
  4. Sao Francisco

Answer: 4. Sao Francisco

Question 26. The capital of Peru is-

  1. Lima
  2. Santiago
  3. Lapaz
  4. Quito

Answer: 1. Lima

Question 27. The world’s largest coffee-producing country is-

  1. Columbia
  2. Argentina
  3. Brazil
  4. Peru

Answer: 3. Brazil

Question 28. The Mediterranean type of climate is seen in-

  1. Central brazil
  2. Southern chile
  3. Central chile
  4. Peru

Answer: 3. Central Chile

Question 29. The temperate grasslands in South America is known as-

  1. Pampas
  2. Llanos
  3. Campos
  4. Gran Chaco

Answer: 1. Pampas

Question 30. The tropical grasslands in the Orinoco River basin is known as-

  1. Pampas
  2. Llanos
  3. Campos
  4. Gran Chaco

Answer: 2. Llanos

Question 31. Most of South America is in the-

  1. Torrid Zone
  2. Grigid Zone
  3. Dub-Tropical Zone
  4. Dub-Polar Zone

Answer: 1. Torrid Zone

Question 32. The capital of Uruguay is-

  1. Quito
  2. Buenos Aires
  3. Montevideo
  4. Caracas

Answer: 3. Montevideo

Question 33. The Savanna grasslands in Brazil are called

  1. Llanos
  2. Pampas
  3. Campos
  4. Gran Chaco

Answer: 3. Campos

Question 34. A hot desert in South America is the-

  1. Atacama
  2. Patagonia
  3. Sahara
  4. Thar

Answer: 1. Atacama

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic A Physical Environment Of South America Short Answer Questions

Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Short Answer Questions

Question 1. What is the Strait of Magellan?
Answer:

Strait Of Magellan:-

The narrow waterbody or passage of water that joins two waterbodies and separates two land masses is called a strait.

The waterbody that exists between the Tierra del Fuego islands and the main landmass of South America is called the Strait of Magellan.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

The Portuguese explorer Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean through this strait, after crossing the Atlantic Ocean. Hence, the strait has been named after the explorer.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Strait o Magellan

Question 2. Why is South America also called ‘Latin America’?
Answer:

South America Also Called ‘Latin America’:-

Latin America actually refers to South America as well as Mexico, the Caribbean Islands and the countries of Central America. This region is dominated by Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italians.

Thus the language of the first colonial settlers is widely spoken in this region. These languages have been originated from Latin, the ancient classical language.

Still, now these are practised in Middle and South America. So the region is called Latin America.

Question 3. Mention the main physiographic divisions of South America. Explain briefly about any one of them. Or, Divide South America into physiographic regions. Give a brief. account of any one of them.
Answer: Based on topography, South America has been classified into four physiographic divisions.

These are

  1. The western mountain region,
  2. Narrow coastal plains of the west,
  3. The eastern highland region,
  4. The extensive central plains and

1. The Western Mountain Region:

The mountain region in the west of South America covers the Andes Mountain ranges. The Andes Range is the longest Coastal Plain of a continuous chain of mountains in the world. It extends from Panama in the north to Cape Horn in the south.

It is the second-highest mountain range in the world. The Andes is a chain of young fold mountains and hence is geologically active. This leads to frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

The entire region of the Andes is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire: Mt. Chimborazo (6272 m) and Cotopaxi (5896 m) are the first and second highest active volcanoes on Earth respectively.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

The highest mountain peak in the Andes is the Aconcagua (6960m). World’s highest lake, Titicaca (3810m) is located in this area.

2. Narrow Coastal Plains of the west:

Besides the Central Plains, there are a narrow stretches of plain lands lying along the western, eastern and northern coasts of South America. In western part, the Andes descend abruptly into the ocean.

Thus, it can be said that the coastlines barely exist here. Atacama desert, about 1100 km long lies in the middle of this region. This is one of the most driest and drought-prone areas of the world.

On the other hand, the coastal plains are quite extensive in the eastern as well as the northern parts, near the Amazon and the La Plata river basins.

3. Eastern Highland Region:

The Eastern Highlands consist of the Guiana Highlands (average height 800 m) in the north, the Brazilian Highlands (average height 1000m) in the east and the Patagonian Plateau region in the south.

The Amazon separates the Guiana Highlands from the Brazilian Highlands. The Mato Grosso plateau exists between Brazilian Highlands and Andes.

This area acts as a watershed between Amazon and La Plata river. The Angel Falls in Venezuela is in the Guiana Highlands. It is the world’s highest waterfall (979 m) and is situated on a tributary of the river Orinoco.

Roraima (2769 m) is the highest peak of the Guiana Highlands. The Brazilian Highlands extend over a larger area and are higher than the Guiana Highlands. The Brazilian Highlands cover the eastern part of South America.

The central parts of the Brazilian Highlands are occupied by the Campos grasslands. Pico-da-Banderia is the highest peak of this region located along the coastal zone of the Atlantic Ocean in the south-eastern margin of this highland.

The rivers San Francisco and the Parana flow through these highlands. The Patagonian Plateau is situated close to the southern part of the Andes and the western part of Argentina. This region gradually slopes down to the Atlantic Ocean.

The climatic condition in the plateau region is arid. Patagonia is a large cold desert and experiences an average temperature of 3°C.

4. The extensive Central Plain:

These plains consist of three large river basins-the Orinoco river basin, the Amazon river basin and the La Plata river basin. The Central Plains refer to the vast stretch of plainland that lies between the Andes and the Eastern Highlands.

The Orinoco River originates in the Guiana Highlands and after travelling through Venezuela and Colombia, meets the Atlantic Ocean. The Orinoco River basin covers the northern region of South America.

The World’s largest river in terms of water discharge, is the Amazon. The rainforest formed along the Amazon river basin is the largest in the world.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

The Amazon originates in the Andes and after travelling through Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Brazil, it drains into the Atlantic Ocean. The La Plata basin consists of three major rivers-the Parana, the Paraguay and Uruguay.

These rivers originate in the Brazilian Highlands and join the Atlantic Ocean. The river basin is in the southern part of the continent.

Question 4. Write a brief note on the Andes mountain range.
Answer:

Andes Mountain Range:-

The Andes is the world’s longest range of mountains. It extends from the Caribbean Sea in the north to Cape Horn in the south. This range consists very high mountain peaks and it is the longest mountain chain of the world.

It becomes narrower in the east-western parts. The Andes is a range of young fold mountains and so, the process of its formation is still continuing. As a result of this, the Andes region is highly prone to earthquakes.

The highest peak of the Andes is the Aconcagua (6960 metre). In many places of Andes region, intermontane plateaus are located, such as- Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Titicaca, etc. Titicaca Lake (3810m) is the highest lake of the world.

Question 5. Why are the hilly regions of the Andes prone to earthquakes?
Answer:

Hilly Regions Of The Andes Prone To Earthquakes:-

The Andes hilly regions are earthquake-prone, because-

  1. The Andes has developed on the convergence point of the Nazca oceanic plate and the South American continental plate. Since these two plates are dynamic and are moving towards each other, it makes that particular region earthquake-prone.
  2. As a result of the convergence of these two plates, many volcanoes have developed in the Andes region. Due to volcanic eruptions, this region is prone to earthquakes as well.
  3. Since the region is made up of soft sedimentary rocks, landslides are common and the process of land formation is still continuing. Hence, the Andes region is earthquake-prone.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America The Andes mountains and its plate region

Question 6. Describe the important volcanoes in South America.
Answer:

Important Volcanoes In South America:-

Aconcagua, the highest mountain peak in South America is an extinct volcano. It is in the west-central Argentine province of Mendoza. and has an altitude of 6960 metres.

Mount Chimborazo (6267 metres) and Cotopaxi (5896 metres) are two notable active volcanoes in Ecuador. These are the first and second highest active volcanoes on the earth respectively.

Both of these are located on the volcanic belt of the Pacific Ocean. [Ojos del Salado, situated on the Chile-Argentina border, is now considered to the highest active volcano in the world.]

Question 7. Briefly discuss the northern plateau region of South America.
Answer:

Northern Plateau Region Of South America:-

Location:

The northern plateau region of South America extends from the Andes in the west to the Atlantic coast in the east. It is as old as the Deccan plateau of India and the Canadian shield of North America.

Characteristics:

The following characteristic features are found in this region-

  1. It is a type of ancient dissected plateau made of hard rock.
  2. Although it is made of hard rock, erosion by natural forces such as wind, rain and river has reduced the height of the plateau to some extent. At present, the average height of the plateau is 800 metres.
  3. Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and Brazil are the five countries across which the plateau region extends. The region is also known as the Guiana Highlands. Its length is 1600 km, its average height is 300m- 1500m and its maximum height is 3000 m.
  4. The plateau region is quite high in Venezuela because some mountain ranges have also developed there. The region slopes towards the north and east coasts.
  5. Angel, the world’s highest waterfall is located in this upland.
  6. Roraima (2769 m) is the highest peak of this region.

Question 8. Describe the important plains of South river basin and America.
Answer:

Important Plains Of South River Basin And America:-

There is a vast stretch of plainland which extends from north to south of the continent of South America. This region has the Andes mountains to the west, the Guiana Highlands to the north and the Brazilian Highlands to the east.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Plains Of South America

Some important rivers, namely, the Amazon, the Orinoco and the La Plata, pass through this region. According to physical features, this region can be classified into the following four sub-divisions-

  1. Plains of the amazon river basin,
  2. Plains of the Orinoco river basin,
  3. Plains of the la plata river basin and
  4. The parana-paraguay among these, the plains of the amazon river basin are the largest but, they are not flat throughout and have some uneven highlands and hillocks.

The plains of the Amazon are called the Selva, those of the Orinoco are called the Llanos, and the Parana-Paraguay plains are known as the Gran Chaco. The La Plata plains of Argentina are called the Pampas.

Question 9. Describe the central and eastern plateau regions of South America.
Answer:

Central And Eastern Plateau Regions Of South America:-

There is a vast highland region in the eastern and central parts of South America. The eastern part is known as the Brazilian Highland (it occupies almost rd of Brazil’s total area) and the central part is known as the Mato Grosso Plateau.

The following characteristic features are found in this region-

  1. The Mato Grosso Plateau region has actually connected the Andes mountain range in the west with the Brazilian Highlands in the east.
  2. The famous Iguazu waterfall is situated here.
  3. The eastern side of the Brazilian Highlands, i.e., the side towards the Atlantic. Ocean is very steep. However, the western side gradually slopes towards the central plainland. This implies that the highland slopes from east to northwest.
  4. A vast stretch of this highland is occupied by the Campos grassland.
  5. The highlands have an average elevation of 1000 metres. Pico-da-Bandeira is the highest peak of this region.

Question 10. Differentiate between the Brazilian Highlands and the Guiana Highlands.
Answer: The differences between the Brazilian and the Guiana Highlands are as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South AmericDifferentiate Brazilian and Guiana highlands

 

Question 11. Classify the central plains of South America according to regional variations.
Answer: The central plains of South America are classified as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Central plains of south America

 

Question 12. Give a physiographic description of the Amazon River basin.
Answer:

Amazon River Basin:-

In terms of physical features, they can be classified into three main sub-divisions, Amazon river basin is a plainland.

Origin:

The Amazon, passes through the adjacent highlands of the western part of the Andes, the northern part of Guiana Highlands and the southeastern part of the Brazilian Highlands.

Along its course, the river has transported and accumulated sand and silt to form the vast Amazon River basin.

Features:

  1. The size of the Amazon River basin is 7050000 sq. km and it slopes from west to east.
  2. The region is wide in the west and quite narrow in the east.
  3. Due to the winding course of the Amazon river in the central region, several oxbow lakes, canals and swamps are found there.
  4. Many riverine islands are there in the mouth of the river, among which Marajo is the largest.

Physical classification:

The Amazon river basin is according to its physical features. These are-

  1. The western highlands,
  2. The central and eastern plains and,
  3. The northern and southeastern highlands (Guinea and brazil).

Question 13. Which is the main river of South America? Write a brief note on it.
Answer: Amazon is the main river of South America. The length of this river is 6437 km.

Amazon River: It is the largest river of the world in terms of the volume of water discharge.

Origin: Mismi peak in the Andes. Length: 6437km

Tributaries:

  1. Left bank tributaries-Putu- mayo, Japure, Negro, Napo, etc.,
  2. Right bank tributaries-Madeira, Jurua, Purus, Xingu, etc.

Special features:

  1. It is the largest river in the world in terms of the discharge of water.
  2. It is the second longest river in the world after the river Nile of Egypt.
  3. Though it has no delta near its mouth, the largest riverine island of the world, the Marajo, has developed on this river.
  4. The discharge of water per second is 209000 cubic metres.
  5. There are about more than 1000 tributaries of Amazon and they are quite long.

Mouth: North Atlantic Ocean.

Navigable course: 3600km from the mouth.

Question 14. On which river is the world’s highest waterfall located? Describe that river. 
Answer: The world’s highest waterfall is the Angel Falls which falls from a height of 979 metres. It is situated on the course of the river Orinoco. [Actually, Angel waterfall is situated on the river Caroni which is a tributary of the river Orinoco.]

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Angel Falls

Orinoco River: It is the third largest river of the world in terms of the volume of water discharge.

Origin: The Orinoco originates from the Parima mountain in the Guiana Highlands to the south of Venezuela.

Length of its course: 2150 km

Tributaries: Meta, Caroni, Inirida and Guaviare.

Special Features: World’s highest waterfall, the Angel Falls has formed on the river Orinoco. The only delta in South America has developed at the mouth of the Orinoco River.

Mouth: The Atlantic Ocean.

Question 15. Write a short note on the La Plata River.
Answer:

La Plata River:-

The major river that flows through the southern part of South America is the La Plata. The Paraguay River originates from the Mato Grosso Plateau region and the Parana River originates from the Brazilian highlands.

These two rivers flow separately for about 2400km and converge with each other. The combined channel flow further south in the form of the Parana River.

Then, the Salado river from the west and the Uruguay River from the east joins the Parana and flow as the La Plata through Argentina, to meet the Atlantic Ocean. The deltaic area of La Plata is known as Rio-de-la- Plata.

At the mouth, the river is 224 km wide. The La Plata River has the Campos grassland to its north and the Pampas grassland to its south. This estuary has developed in port and water transportation facilities.

Question 16. No delta has formed in the mouth of the Amazon River. Why?
Answer:

No delta has formed in the mouth of the Amazon River:-

The mouth of the Amazon has no delta because of the following reasons-

  1. The Amazon River basin slopes towards the sea. Hence, a large volume of water gets discharged into the Atlantic Ocean with great force.
  2. The mouth of the river is very wide. Due to this, the tidal waves can enter the river without any barrier and thus, silt deposition is prevented.
  3. Since the ocean current is very high near the mouth, the silt carried along by the river gets removed by it. Hence, no delta has developed on the mouth of the Amazon River.

Question 17. Which are the important lakes in South America? Describe any one of them.
Answer: There are quite a few big lakes in South America-Titicaca, Poopo, Junin, Sarococha, Maracaibo, etc.

Titicaca lake:

Titicaca is situated at Peru- Bolivia border in the Andes region. It is the highest navigable lake of the world. Actually, the lake is situated in the Bolivia plateau region, which is surrounded by the Andes mountain range.

It is quite big in terms of size as well. The average depth of the lake is about 107 m. Hence, small ships and other means of water transport are able to travel across the lake. This lake is at an altitude of 3810 metres.

The river Desaguadero has originated from it.

Question 18. Briefly describe the major climatic regions that are prevalent in the continent of South America.
Answer:

Major Climatic Regions That Are Prevalent In The Continent Of South America:-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Various Climatic regions of South America

Question 19. Describe the climatic features of the is Orinoco River basin in Venezuela to the Amazon River basin.
Answer: The climatic features of the Amazon River basin are as follows-

Climate type:

The Amazon River basin experiences hot and humid climate because of its location in the equatorial climatic region.

Temperature:

Season change does not occur here. Humid summers prevail throughout the year and the average annual temperature is 27°C.

Rainfall:

Heavy convectional rainfall, along with thunder and lightning, occurs in the evenings in this region. The average annual rainfall is 250 cm-300 cm or more.

Humidity:

The humidity of this region is almost 90%. Hence, the climate is wet, uncomfortable and unhealthy. There is no climatic variation because of the high water vapour content in the air.

Heavy rainfall causes the rivers to collect large volumes of water which sometimes overflow and cause floods.

Question 20. Write about the Savanna grassland.
Answer:

Savanna grassland:-

About 20 per cent of total land of South America is covered with tropical grassland called the Savanna. Both trees and grasses grow here, neither of which is very tall in size.

The grassland has tree cover of 10-15 per cent and grass cover of 85-90 per cent. These trees and grasses are generally found in the transitional regions between deserts and forests.

These grow during specific seasons. The Savanna grassland is found in Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina and the northern parts of Uruguay.

Question 21. Discuss the tropical grasslands in South America.
Answer:

Tropical Grasslands In South America:-

The tropical grasslands are found mainly in the intermediate regions of 5°N-20°S latitudes of South America. This stretch of land is known as the Savanna grasslands. These grasslands are seen in two regions.

One of them north of the Equator, while the other is the Brazilian Highlands to the south of the Equator. These two grasslands are locally known as the Llanos (in the Orinoco river basin) and the Campos (in the Brazilian Highlands).

Although the grasses that grow here have varying lengths (approximately 4 metres), they are all quite thick and sturdy by nature.

Question 22. Write a short note on the Campos.
Answer:

Campos:-

The tropical grassland in the Brazilian Highlands to the south of the equator, is called the Campos. The characteristics of the grassland are-

  1. Instead of trees, different types of grasses grow here because the hot climatic conditions cause rapid evaporation of rainwater.
  2. Tall, thick grasses grow near the equator as this region receives more rainfall.
  3. The scattered growth of deciduous trees is also seen in this region.

Question 23. Elucidate on the Gran Chaco.
Answer:

Gran Chaco:-

Gran Chaco is the region where mixed vegetation of dense deciduous forests and grasses have grown. It has developed along the Parana-Paraguay river valley in the southern part of the Brazilian Highlands.

This region remains warm all the year round. There is moderate to heavy rainfall during summer, but the winter months are very dry. Trees in these forests shed their leaves in the winter, have very strong trunks and yield hardwood.

For example, the hardwood Quebracho or the’ axe-breaker’ is a deciduous tree.

Question 24. What are the factors that led to the formation of the Atacama desert?
Answer:

Factors That Led To The Formation Of The Atacama Desert:-

During the summer months, the trade winds collect a large amounts of water vapour from the Atlantic Ocean.

Then, in accordance with Ferrel’s Law, these trade winds deflect to the right and become the Northeastern trade winds in the northern hemisphere and divert to the left in the form of the Southeastern trade winds in the southern hemisphere.

These winds enter South America from the east. On hitting the Andes in the western part of South America, these winds cause heavy rainfall on the eastern slope of the Andes.

However, when these winds reach the western slope of the mountain range, their water vapour content decreases. Henceforth, they cannot cause rainfall.

Therefore, the Atacama desert has developed in the northern part of Chile, which is situated on the western slope of the Andes.

Question 25. Write a short note on the Atacama Desert.
Answer:

Atacama Desert:-

The Atacama Desert lying in the Pacific coast extends in Peru and Chile (up to 30°S latitudes). Being situated in the leeward side of the Andes, it is the driest, hot tropical desert.

It covers a 105000 sq. km area. Lack of precipitation and the existence of cold Humboldt currents along the southwest coast of South America have resulted in this desert.

Annual average rainfall in this desert ranges between 1mm-15mm. Some parts of this desert have never met rain at all. The Atacama Desert is also the driest non-polar region in the world.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Atacama Desert

Question 26. Give an account of the arid and semi-arid climatic regions in South America.
Answer:

Arid And Semi-Arid Climatic Regions In South:-

The northern part of Chile (to the west of the Andes) remains rain-deprived because it is located in the rain-shadow region of the Andes Mountains, in the path of the southeast trade winds.

On the other hand, the area is also considerably hotter since it is in the tropical region. As a result, the climate is hot and dry, which has led to the development of the hot desert of Atacama.

Again, the southern part of Argentina (to the east of the Andes) also remains rain-deprived because it is located in the rain-shadow area in the path of the westerlies.

Even though the region is in the temperate zone and is less hot, lack of rainfall has led to the development of the Patagonian semi-arid region.

Question 27. Write a brief note on the Patagonian desert.
Answer:

Patagonian Desert:-

The Patagonian Desert lies in the southern part of Argentina in South America. It is a temperate desert and hence, a cool climate prevails there throughout the year.

Being located in the rain-shadow area of the Andes, it receives the very little amount of rain from the westerlies. It extends for 673000 sq. km. This region experiences about seven months of winter and five months of summer.

The average temperature in this desert generally ranges from 3°C-12°C. The Patagonian Desert is the largest desert of Argentina.

Question 28. Why is Quito, the capital of Ecuador, called the ‘Land of Eternal Spring’?
Answer:

Quito, The Capital Of Ecuador, Called The ‘Land Of Eternal Spring’:-

Equatorial regions generally have hot and humid climates throughout the year. The capital of Ecuador, Quito, is in the northwestern part of South America.

Although the city is situated on the equator (0°), the land on which the city has developed is quite high (at the height of 2891 m, on the Andes).

Due to this, as per the normal lapse rate of temperature (6.5°C decrease per every 1000 m of ascent), the climatic condition of the city is pleasant and relatively cool all through the year. Hence, Quito is called the ‘Land of Eternal Spring’.

 

 

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic A Physical Environment Of South America Long Answer Questions

Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Long Answer Questions

Question 1. Discuss the geographical location and size of South America.
Answer: The geographical location and size of South America are discussed below-

Geographical location:

South America lies to the south of the North. America is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the east, the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Antarctic Ocean in the south.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

The continent has a triangular shape. The location of South America can be discussed under the following heads-

1. Latitudinal:

South America extends from 12°28′ N to 55°59′ S. This implies that the Equator (0°) and the Tropic of Capricorn (23°30’S) pass through the continent.

2. Longitudinal:

South America extends from 34°50′ W in the east to 81°20′ W in the west.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Geographical location of south america

3. Hemisphere:

About 85 per cent of the continent lies in the southern hemisphere. South America is often referred to as a continent of the southern hemisphere.

4. Boundaries:

This continent is flanked by seas And oceans-Panama Canal and the Caribbean Sea in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west, the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Antarctic Ocean in the south.

Size:

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

In terms of size, South America is the fourth largest continent in the world (17,840,000 sq. km area). South America is about twice the size of Europe and five times that of India.

Question 2. Give a brief description of the topography of South America.
Answer:

Topography Of South America:-

The topography of South America is classified into four categories based on the features of the landforms-

  1. The Western Mountain Region,
  2. Narrow Coastal Plains of the west,
  3. Eastern Highland Region,
  4. The extensive Central Plain.

1. The Western Mountain Region:

The mountain region in the west of South America covers the Andes Mountain ranges. The Andes Range is the longest Coastal Plain of a continuous chain of mountains in the world. It extends from Panama in the north to Cape Horn in the south.

It is the second-highest mountain range in the world. The Andes is a chain of young fold mountains and hence is geologically active. This leads to frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Topographic division of south America

The entire region of the Andes is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire: Mt. Chimborazo (6272 m) and Cotopaxi (5896 m) are the first and second highest active volcanoes on Earth respectively.

The highest mountain peak in the Andes is the Aconcagua (6960m). World’s highest lake, Titicaca (3810m) is located in this area.

2. Narrow Coastal Plains of the West:

Besides the Central Plains, there are narrow stretches of plain lands lying along the western, eastern and northern coasts of South America. In the western part, the Andes descend abruptly into the ocean.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Thus, it can be said that the coastlines barely exist here. Atacama desert, about 1100 km long lies in the middle of this region. This is one of the most driest and drought-prone areas of the world.

On the other hand, the coastal plains are quite extensive in the eastern as well as the northern parts, near the Amazon and the La Plata river basins.

3. Eastern Highland Region:

The Eastern Highlands consist of the Guiana Highlands (average height 800 m) in the north, the Brazilian Highlands (average height 1000m) in the east and the Patagonian Plateau region in the south.

The Amazon separates the Guiana Highlands from the Brazilian Highlands. The Mato Grosso plateau exists between Brazilian Highlands and the Andes.

This area acts as a watershed between Amazon and La Plata rivers. The Angel Falls in Venezuela is in the Guiana Highlands. It is the world’s highest waterfall (979 m) and is situated on a tributary of the river Orinoco.

Roraima (2769 m) is the highest peak of the Guiana Highlands. The Brazilian Highlands extend over a larger area and are higher than the Guiana Highlands. The Brazilian Highlands cover the eastern part of South America.

The central parts of the Brazilian Highlands are occupied by the Campos grasslands. Pico-da-Banderia is the highest peak of this region located along the coastal zone of the Atlantic Ocean in the south-eastern margin of this highland.

The rivers San Francisco and the Parana flow through these highlands. The Patagonian Plateau is situated close to the southern part of the Andes and the western part of Argentina. This region gradually slopes down to the Atlantic Ocean.

The climatic condition in the plateau region is arid. Patagonia is a large cold desert and experiences an average temperature of 3°C.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Physiographic division of south america

4. The extensive Central Plain:

These plains consist of three large river basins-the Orinoco river basin, the Amazon river basin and the La Plata river basin. The Central Plains refer to the vast stretch of plainland that lies between the Andes and the Eastern Highlands.

The Orinoco river originates in the Guiana Highlands and after travelling through Venezuela and Colombia, meets the Atlantic Ocean. The Orinoco River basin covers the northern region of South America.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10

Question Answer

The World’s largest river in terms of water discharge, is the Amazon. The rainforest formed along the Amazon River basin is the largest in the world.

The Amazon originates in the Andes and after travelling through Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Brazil, it drains into the Atlantic Ocean. The La Plata basin consists of three major rivers-the Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay.

These rivers originate in the Brazilian Highlands and join the Atlantic Ocean. The river basin is in the southern part of the continent.

Question 3. What are the major rivers in South America? Give a brief account of these rivers.
Answer:

Rivers of South America:

The major rivers in South America are the Amazon, the Orinoco, the La Plata and the Sao Francisco. Most of the rivers in South America originate either in the Mato Grosso Plateau region or in the western parts of the Andes and then flow into the Atlantic Ocean in the east.

Overview of the rivers of South America:

An overview of the rivers is given below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Overview of the river of south America

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Rivers Of South America

 

Question 4. Describe the topography of the northern and eastern highlands or plateaus.
Answer:

Topography of the Highland:

The plateaus that extend over a considerable area in the north of South America are of residual type. Various forms of erosion over the years have led to a reduction in the height of these plateaus.

The plateau region that stretches across Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and Brazil are called the Guiana Highlands.

However, since these highlands rise to considerable heights in Venezuela, some mountain ranges have also developed here. Roraima (2769 m) is the highest peak in this upland.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

Topography of the Eastern Highland:

The eastern highlands of South America are called the Brazilian Highlands, while the central highlands are called the Mato Grosso Plateau region. This plateau actually connects the Brazilian Highlands in the east with the Andes in the west.

The sharp edges of the Brazilian Highlands abruptly descend to the Atlantic Ocean in the east. On the other hand, in the west, these highlands gradually become sloping and blend with the central plain lands.

A major area of the Brazilian Highlands is occupied by the Campos grassland. The average elevation of the highlands is 1000 metres and the highest mountain peak in this region is this Pico-da-Bandeira.

Question 5. What are the determinants of the climatic diversity prevailing in South America? Or, Discuss the factors affecting the climatic characteristics of South America.
Answer: The main determinants of the climatic characteristics of South America are-

1. Shape of the continent:

The continent has a wide and extensive northern part and a southern part that gradually tapers. So, South America appears triangular in shape. That is why no maritime effects are seen in the interior of the northern parts of this continent.

Most of South America lies to the south of the equator, while a considerably small part in the north of the continent lies to the north of the equator.

As a result, the northern and the southern parts of South America experience opposite seasons during the same time.

2. Latitudinal extent:

The maximum portion of South America is in the tropical zone because it extends from 55°59′ S to 12°28′ N latitudes. The areas in the equatorial zone experience is extremely hot climates.

However, places located at high latitudes in the southern hemisphere experience comparatively cooler climates.

3. Distance from the sea:

The southern part of the continent is narrow. Some regions in this part are only 250 km away from the sea. Hence, these regions experience a maritime climate (moderate).

On the other hand, the regions in the north experience a continental type of climate (extreme) because of their huge distance from the sea.

4. Effect of the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn:

The equator passes through the Amazon river basin in the north, which causes an equatorial type of climates to prevail in these regions. On the other hand, the Tropic of Capricorn passes through the central part of the southern region.

This leads to hot tropical climate in the north and cool temperate climate in the south. Actually, 70% area of this continent lies in the torrid zone, 20% in the warm temperate zone and 10% in the cold temperate zone.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

5. Location of the Andes:

The Andes mountain range occupies the western part of South America and it extends from the north to south in a long, continuous chain.

The Andes acts as a barrier to the moist winds, as a result of which very little rainfall is experienced on the leeward side of the mountain. This leads to the formation of a rainshadow region here.

6. Ocean currents:

The cold Humboldt Current or the Peru Current that moves across the southwestern coast leads to a cold and dry climate in these regions.

Similarly, the warm Brazil Current that moves along the eastern coast leads to the development of hot and humid climate in these regions.

7. Constant flow of trade winds:

The northeast trade winds blowing from the north and the southeast trade winds blowing from the south lead to heavy rainfall in these regions throughout the year. The northwest westerlies also cause heavy rainfall in the southern parts of Chile.

8. Elevation of land:

The higher regions of the Andes experience a pleasant and cool climate due to their high altitude. The Brazilian and the Guiana Highlands also experience cool climates due to their comparatively high altitudes, in spite of being located in the torrid zone.

Question 6. Write about the various climatic regions of South America.
Answer:

Various Climatic Regions Of South America:-

The climatic regions of South America can be classified into the following nine categories based on temperature, rainfall, air pressure, etc. These are discussed in the following table-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Various Climatic regions of South America

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America Climatic regions of south America

Question 7. Write about the characteristic features of the topography and rivers of the Amazon river basin.
Answer:

Characteristic features topography of the Amazon River basin:

The topographic characteristics of the Amazon River basin are as follows-

  1. The central region of the Amazon River basin is almost plain.
  2. From this central region, the land has gradually elevated in three sides-the Guiana Highlands in the north, the Brazilian Highlands in the south and the Andes mountain range in the west.
  3. The river does not form any delta at its mouth and flows uninterruptedly towards the east into the Atlantic Ocean. Hence, the shape of the river basin is like a funnel.
  4. This region naturally slopes from west to east.
  5. The river basin has developed as a result of silt deposition by the Amazon and its tributaries.
  6. The Amazon has a wide mouth and some islands have developed there. Among these, Marajo is the largest fluvial island in the world.
  7. The Amazon River basin consists of flood plains, ox-bow lakes, swamps and islands.

Characteristic features of the rivers of the Amazon basin:

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answer

The characteristic features of the rivers of the Amazon River basin are as follows-

1. Amazon:

The Amazon is the largest river in the world, in terms of the volume of water it carries and the area of the river basin. It is the longest river in South America.

It originates in the Mismi mountain peak in the Andes. Then it travels first across the north and then across the east to join the Atlantic Ocean. The Amazon River basin is located in the equatorial region that receives heavy rainfall.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Topic A General Introduction And Physical Environment Of South America location of Amazon Basin

So, a large volume of rainwater, collected by several tributaries, gets accumulated in the Amazon river. From the origin to the mouth, the length of the river is 6437 km.

The left bank tributaries of the river are-Napo, Negro, Japure, etc., and the right bank tributaries are Jurua, Purus, Madeira, Tapajos, Xingu, etc.

2. Other rivers:

Most of the other rivers that flow through the Amazon River basin are its tributaries. Among these, the main rivers are Madeira, Tapajos, Xingu, Jurua, Negro, Japura, etc.

The Madeira (3250 km) carries a large volume of water and discharges into the Amazon. It is the largest tributary of the Amazon River.