WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition

Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Summary

Nutrition is a combination of processes, by which living organisms obtain the substances necessary for growth, developing resistance against diseases and acquiring potential energy for life by intake of food, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion (in animals) or by synthesis and assimilation (in plants).

1. The two important modes of nutrition include:

  1. Autotrophic nutrition.
  2. Heterotrophic nutrition.

2. In Autotrophic nutrition, plants and other photosynthetic organisms prepare their own food with the help of sunlight, water and carbon dioxide.
3. The animals cannot prepare their own food.
4. Therefore they have to rely on other animals or plants for nutrition.
5. This is known as heterotrophic nutrition.
6. The different modes of heterotrophic nutrition include Parasitic, Saprophytic, Symbiosis, Holozoic, etc.
7. Holozoic nutrition is the mode of heterotrophic nutrition that involves ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food material.
8. Example: Humans, animals and insectivorous plants. In some cases, two different plants live in close association and are mutually benefited by that association. This mode of nutrition is called symbiotic nutrition.
9. The saprophytic type of nutrition depends on non-living substances. Food and decaying organic material are absorbed through the body wall of the organism.
10. Example: Bacteria, Fungi.
11. The parasitic mode of nutrition depends on another living organism (Host).
12. It has a close association with the host and obtains food from it. The host is not benefited but harmed.
13. Examples: Bacteria, fungi, plants like Cuscuta and animals like tapeworms.
14. The human digestive system or alimentary system is mainly made up of three parts:

  1. Alimentary canal
  2. Accessory organs
  3. Digestive glands

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition

15. The Alimentary canal consists of the mouth, vestibule, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
16. Teeth and tongue are the accessory organs related to digestion. In the adult human body, the number of teeth in both jaws is 32.

The dental formula of man is: \(I=\frac{2}{2} ; C=\frac{1}{1} ; P M=\frac{2}{2} ; M=\frac{3}{3}\)

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17. The tongue acts as a taste organ which helps in the mixing of food with saliva.
18. Digestive glands are glands which secret juices with enzymes for the digestion of foods.
19. They are salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gastric glands, and intestinal glands.
20. Saliva is a turbid, viscous, slightly acidic digestive juice secreted from the salivary glands.
21. Gastric juice is the slightly yellowish-strongly acidic digestive juice secreted from peptic, oxyntic and mucous cells in the mucous layer of the stomach.
22. Pancreatic juice is slightly transparent, colourless, odourless, salty in taste and strongly alkaline fluid containing proteolytic, lipolytic and amylolytic enzymes and secreted from the pancreatic acini.
23. Intestinal juice is the alkaline, light yellow-coloured digestive juice secreted from the glands in the mucous layer of the small intestine.

Digestive enzymes are of three types:

  1. Amylolytic enzyme
  2. Proteolytic enzyme
  3. Lipolytic enzyme.

Assimilation is the process by which the absorbed food is incorporated into the substances forming protoplasm as well as extracellular materials. Egestion is the process by which the unabsorbed food remnants, along with the remains of digestive juices mixed with them are expelled from the body.

A balanced diet is defined as a diet consisting of different food items including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals and water in perfect quantities and proportions in order to meet the requirement of the body.

 

Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1 What is nutrition?

Answer:

Nutrition:-

Nutrition is a combination of processes, by which living organisms obtain the substances necessary for growth, developing resistance against diseases and acquiring potential energy for life by intake of food, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion (in animals) or by synthesis and assimilation (in plants).

Question 2 Write the relationship between respiration and nutrition.

Answer:

Relationship Between Respiration And Nutrition:-

Nutrition is the process of obtaining food by the organism and digesting the complex nutrients in the food. In respiration, the energy present in the food (taken in through nutrition) is released and used to carry out different metabolic processes.

Question 3 What do you mean by nutrients?

Answer:

Nutrients:-

The components of food that provide nourishment to the body is called nutrients. Example-Carbohydrate, proteins, vitamins etc.

WBBSE Class 9 Life Science Question And Answer

Question 4. What is food?

Answer:

Food:-

The edible matter, which a living organism consumes for growth, replenishing physical loss, developing resistance against diseases and acquiring energy for performing all life activities, are called food.

Question 5 All foods are nutrients but all nutrients are not food-Explain.

Answer:

All Foods Are Nutrients But All Nutrients Are Not Food:-

All substances required for the overall nutrition and metabolism of the body, either directly or indirectly, are known as nutrients. Among them, only energy-yielding nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats are generally considered food.

The others such as vitamins, mineral salts and water are incapable of yielding energy but are essential for growth, developing resistance against diseases, and replenishing physical loss and thus, are called protective nutrients. Therefore, we can say that all. foods are nutrients but all nutrients are not food

Question 6 What is meant by autotrophic nutrition?

Answer:

Autotrophic Nutrition:-

The nutrition in which green plants and other phototrophic or chemoautotrophic organisms synthesise their own organic food from inorganic matter within their body cells is called autotrophic nutrition.

Question 7 What is meant by heterotrophic nutrition?

Answer:

Heterotrophic Nutrition:-

The nutrition in which organisms take in complex organic or inorganic matter as food, digest it before absorption and assimilation or absorb organic matter from dead and decaying plant and animal products is called heterotrophic nutrition.

Example: All animals and non-photosynthetic plants perform heterotrophic nutrition.

WBBSE Class 9 Life Science Question And Answer

Question 8 What is meant by holophytic nutrition?

Answer:

Holophytic Nutrition:-

The physiological process in which autotrophic organisms perform nutrition by synthesising their own food and assimilating it within the body is called holophytic nutrition.

Example: All green plants and photosynthetic organisms perform this type of nutrition.

Question 9 What is meant by holozoic nutrition?

Answer:

Holozoic Nutrition:-

The physiological process, which involves the intake of complex organic or inorganic matter as food, followed by their digestion, absorption of end-products of digestion, assimilation of essential nutrients within the protoplasm and finally egestion of undigested matters, is called holozoic nutrition.

Example: All animals perform holozoic nutrition.

Question 10 What is meant by saprophytic nutrition?

Answer:

Saprophytic Nutrition:-

The nutrition in which organisms absorb organic matter from dead and decaying plant and animal products is called saprophytic nutrition.

Example:
Different fungi like Agaricus, Mucor, Penicillium, Saccharomyces etc. perform saprophytic nutrition.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition Saccharomyces sp

Question 11 What is meant by parasitic nutrition?

Answer:

Parasitic Nutrition:-

The nutrition in which an organism (parasite) collects food from the body of another organism (host) for its growth and nourishment is known as parasitic nutrition. In this process, the parasite is benefited at the expense of the host.

Example: Among plants, Cuscuta, and Rafflesia perform parasitic nutrition. In animals, louse, tapeworm, and roundworms show this type of nutrition.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition rafflesia sp.

WBBSE Class 9 Life Science Question And Answer

Question 12 What is meant by symbiotic nutrition?

Answer:

Symbiotic Nutrition:-

The nutritional process where two different organisms depend upon each other to get nutrition and in this process both are benefit, is called symbiotic nutrition.

Example: Rhizobium forms a symbiotic relationship with the roots of legumes.

Question 13 Explain the mutually beneficial association (symbiosis) of lichen.

Answer:

Mutually Beneficial Association (Symbiosis) Of Lichen:-

The most famous example of a symbiotic mode of nutrition is of a lichen, an organism which has a chlorophyll-containing partner alga and a fungus. The fungus helps in providing minerals, water and shelter to the alga. The alga uses the things provided by fungus and has chlorophyll in itself which helps in the process of photosynthesis.

Question 14 What is meant by insectivorous nutrition?

Answer:

Insectivorous Nutrition:-

Certain plants capture insects with their specialised organs, dissolve it enzymatically and then absorb the nitrogen-rich sap to fulfil the need for extra nitrogen. This Pitcher plant type of nutrition is called insectivorous nutrition.

Example:
Venus-flytrap, sundew, pitcher plant etc.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition pitcher plant

Question 15 What is meant by coprophagy?

Answer:

Coprophagy:-

The faeces of animals contain a number of nutrients. Certain animals get these nutrients by consuming its own faeces or of other animals. This type of nutrition is called coprophagy.

Example: Guinea pigs and rabbits consume their own faeces whereas pigs and dung beetle consume the faeces of others to perform this type of nutrition.

Question 16 What is caecotrophy?

Answer:

Caecotrophy:-

Certain mammals like rabbits, guinea pigs, etc. eject the semi-digested food of the caecum in the form of faeces or pellets and engulf it again for complete digestion. This type of nutritional process is called caecotrophy.

WBBSE Class 9 Life Science Question And Answer

Question 17. What is sanguinary?

Answer:

Sanguinary:-

Certain animals perform nutrition by sucking blood from warm-blooded animals, this type of nutrition is called sanguinary.

Example: Mosquitoes, leeches, bedbugs, and vampire bats perform this type of nutrition.

Question 18 Mention the function of the human tongue.

Answer:

Human Tongue:-

Human tongue has many taste buds on it to taste different food. The taste buds at the tip are for tasting sweet food. The lateral buds are for tasting salty and sour food. The buds at the posterior region of the tongue are for tasting bitter food. Besides tasting food, the tongue helps in the movement of food inside the mouth to mix it with saliva. The tongue also helps in swallowing the bolus. It also takes part in the articulation of speech.

Question 19 What is saliva? What is its source?

Answer:

Saliva: Saliva is colourless, tasteless, viscid digestive juice secreted from the salivary glands in the mouth cavity.
Source: Its sources are parotid, submaxillary and sublingual salivary glands.

Question 20 How many types of salivary glands are found in the human body? Mention their location.

Answer:

There are three pairs of salivary glands in the human mouth:

1. The Parotid gland-Located at the base of the ears.
2. Sub-maxillary or submandibular gland-Located on two sides of the lower jaw.
3. Sublingual gland-Located below the floor of the mouth.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition salivary glands in human

WBBSE Class 9 Life Science Question And Answer

Question 21 Write the functions of saliva.

Answer:

Functions Of Saliva:-

1. Saliva helps in chewing and swallowing food.
2. Saliva contains salivary amylase or ptyline enzyme which breaks down starch into sugar like maltose.
3. Saliva excretes some heavy metals like Hg, Pb, etc.
4. Lysozyme of saliva destroys microbes.
5. Saliva also helps gustation (taste sensation), and speech production and also helps in the maintenance of oral hygiene.

Question 22 Mention the dental formula of an adult person and a three-year-old baby.

Answer:

The dental formula of an adult individual:

\(\mathrm{I} \frac{2}{2}, \mathrm{C} \frac{1}{1}, \mathrm{PM} \frac{2}{2}, \mathrm{M} \frac{3}{3}\)

The dental formula of a three-year-old child:

\(\mathrm{I} \frac{2}{2}, \mathrm{C} \frac{1}{1}, \mathrm{M} \frac{2}{2}\)

Question 23 What is the pharynx? Mention its function.

Answer:

Pharynx And Its Functions:-

Pharynx: The posterior portion of the buccal cavity from where the larynx and oesophagus start, is called the pharynx.
Function: Pharynx helps in the flow of bolus into the oesophagus and the passage of inspired and expired air through the larynx.

Question 24 What is the oesophagus? What does it do? 

Answer:

Oesophagus: Oesophagus is a 10-12 cm long tube, which comes down vertically from the base of the pharynx to the stomach along the mid-chest line.
Function: Oesophagus carries food bolus to the stomach from the mouth.

Question 25 Briefly mention the structure of the stomach.

Answer:

Structure Of The Stomach:-

The human stomach is a ‘J’ shaped highly extensible muscular sac. The upper portion of it, approaching the heart, is called the cardiac end. The body of the stomach is known as the fundus. The posterior end, approaching the duodenum is called the pyloric end. The inner wall of the stomach has many longitudinal ridges, called rugae.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition stomach

WBBSE Class Nine Life Science

Question 26 Mention the role of HCI in the stomach.

Answer:

Role of HCl in the stomach are as follows:

1. HCI, secreted from oxyntic cells of the stomach wall, activates pepsinogen to active pepsin which helps in protein digestion.
2. HCl helps in the hydrolysis of sucrose inside the stomach.
3. HCl kills many germs, which enter the stomach with the food.

Question 27 Mention the functions of the stomach.

Answer:

The functions of the stomach are as follows:

1. The stomach holds the food for some time.
2. HCl secreted from the stomach acidifies the food to kill germs, which enter along with it.
3. HCl activates inactive proenzymes to active enzymes.

Question 28 What is peristalsis?

Answer:

Peristalsis:-

A wave of contraction and relaxation movement proceeds all along the alimentary tract from the oesophagus to the rectum. This typical movement is called peristalsis. Peristalsis pushes the contents of the GI tract downwards.

Question 29 Write a brief description of the human colon.

Answer:

Brief Description Of The Human Colon:-

The colon is the wider tube situated at the posterior portion of the human GI tract. It has four portions ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending. colon and sigmoid colon.

The ascending arm emerges from the base of the caecum and the sigmoid colon ends at the rectum. The colon is the site of water absorption and the formation of faeces from undigested food.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition large intestine

WBBSE Class Nine Life Science

Question 30 Give a brief structural account of the human liver.

Answer:

Structural Account Of The Human Liver:-

The liver is the largest gland of the human body. It is a dark reddish-brown coloured triangular gland with two distinct lobes. The liver is lodged at the right side of the abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm. A club-shaped, thin-walled gall bladder is present on the lower side of the right hepatic lobe.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition liver

Question 31 Mention the functions of the human liver.

Answer:

The functions of the human liver are as follows:

1. Alkaline bile, secreted from the liver, neutralizes acidic chyme from the stomach.
2. Bile salts emulsify fat to facilitate its digestion.
3. Bile helps in the absorption of fat.
4. Kupffer cells of the liver kill germs by phagocytosis.

Question 32 Name the location and function of
1. Kupffer cells,
2. Crypts of Lieberkuhn

Answer:

The following table shows the location and function of Kupffer cells and crypts of Lieberkuhn.

Name Location Functions:

1. Kupffer cells Liver
2. Crypts of Small Lieberkuhn intestine

WBBSE Class Nine Life Science

Question 33 What is a common bile duct?

Answer:

Common Bile Duct:-

Hepatic ducts from the right and left lobes of the liver join to form a common hepatic duct. The cystic duct from the gall bladder comes to unite with the common hepatic duct to form a wider descending bile duct, called the common bile duct.

Question 34 Mention the functions of the pancreas.

Answer:

The functions of the pancreas are as follows:

1. Pancreas secretes both enzymes and hormones. Pancreatic juice contains amylolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes, which help in the hydrolysis of carbohydrates, fat and proteins respectively.
2. From a and ẞ cells of islets of Langerhans two important hormones are secreted, which are glucagon and insulin respectively. These two hormones jointly regulate the sugar level of blood.

Question 35 State the location and function of the gall bladder.

Answer:

Location: The gall bladder is located on the right side of the abdomen just beneath the right lobe of the liver.

Function: Its function is to store, concentrate and release bile which is produced by the liver.

Question 36 What is bile? Name of constituents of bile.

Answer:

Bile: Bile is a secretory as well as excretory product of the liver which is temporarily stored and modified in the gall bladder.

Constituents of bile:

1. Bile Salts Sodium taurochlolate, sodium glycholate.
2. Bile pigments → Bilirubin, biliverdin
3. Others → Water, mucin, bicarbonate.

WBBSE Class Nine Life Science

Question 37 Write the functions of bile.

Answer:

Functions Of Bile:-

1. Bile neutralises the acidity of chyme entered into the duodenum.
2. Bile salts emulsify fats into smaller particles.
3. Bile also helps in the absorption of digested fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K).

Question 38 Why should one chew food for some time before swallowing?

Answer:

One should chew food for some time before swallowing, because:

1. Chewing helps in the grinding of food materials. Enzymes can act better or finely ground food particles.
2. In the course of chewing, profuse salivary secretion occurs, which makes the bolus softer to ease swallowing.
3. Chewing causes excess salivation, which helps in killing different bacteria by the action of lysozyme present in it.

Question 39 Name three proteolytic enzymes, their sources, substrates and the end products of hydrolysis.

Answer:

The following table shows the sources, substrates and end products of three proteolytic enzymes.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition sources substrates and end products of three proteolytic enzymes

Question 40 Name three amylolytic enzymes, their sources, substrates and the end products of hydrolysis.

Answer:

The following table shows the sources, substrates and end products of three amylolytic enzymes.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition sources substrate and end products

WBBSE Class Nine Life Science

Question 41 What is meant by absorption? Where does it occur?

Answer:

Absorption: The process by which end products of digestion are taken into blood and lymph from the intestine is called absorption.

Site: Though absorption mainly occurs in the ileum of the small intestine, certain matters like some drugs, alcohol, salts etc., are also absorbed in the stomach and large intestine.

Question 42 What are villi? What do they do?

Answer:

Villi: Villi are numerous tiny cylindrical finger-like projections emerging from the inner wall of the small intestine.

Function: The blood vessels inside the villi absorb amino acids, simple sugars and glycerols from the small intestine. The lymph ducts or lacteals absorb all other end products of fat digestion.

Question 43 Mention the most important function of microvilli.

Answer:

Microvilli are small processes on the free surface of the intestinal cells. It increases the surface area for the absorption of food.

Question 44 What is meant by assimilation? Mention its significance.

Answer:

Assimilation: Assimilation is the process by which all essential ingredients of food are integrated into the protoplasm of living cells.

Significance: By assimilation, cells get necessary raw materials from which they synthesise essential cellular macromolecules as well as get necessary fuel, in the form of glucose and fats, to generate metabolic energy.

Question 45 What is meant by egestion? What is its importance?

Answer:

Egestion: Egestion is the disposal of undigested food matter from the rectum in the form of faeces.

Importance: By egestion, the post-digestive waste matter is removed from the GI tract to make it clear for normal functioning.

Question 46 What is meant by metabolism?

Answer:

Metabolism:-

A series of constructive and destructive biochemical reactions continue in the protoplasm of all living cells to run the life activities, which are collectively called metabolism. The constructive reactions of metabolism are called anabolism and the destructive ones are known as catabolism.

WBBSE Class Nine Life Science

Question 47 What is anabolism?

Answer:

Anabolism:-

Anabolism is a metabolic process, by which some new molecules are synthesised or integrated within the protoplasm to increase the dry weight of an organism.

Example: Photosynthesis and nutrition.

Question 48 Mention the significance of anabolism in a living organism.

Answer:

Significance of anabolism are as follows:

1. Building up of organs and tissues.
2. Growth and differentiation of cells.
3. Synthesis and storage of complex molecules within the protoplasm.

Question 49 What is catabolism?

Answer:

Catabolism:-

Catabolism is a metabolic process by which certain materials from protoplasm are utilized or broken down and as a result, the dry weight of an organism decreases.

Example: Respiration and excretion.

Question 50 Mention the significance of catabolism.

Answer:

The significance of catabolism is as follows:

1. Providing kinetic energy for life activities.
2. Releasing chemical energy for the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
3. Disposal of harmful waste materials, produced in the body from different physiological reactions.

WBBSE Class Nine Life Science

Question 51 Distinguish between anabolism and catabolism.

Answer:

Differences between anabolism and catabolism are described below:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition anaboliam and catabolism differences

Question 52 What is meant by a balanced diet?

Answer:

Balanced Diet:-

The diet consists of different food items including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals and water in perfect quantities and proportions, in order to meet the requirement of the body for normal growth, replenishing physical loss, developing resistance against diseases and collecting potential energy necessary to perform all life activities, is called a balanced diet.

Question 53 What is meant by basal metabolic rate? Mention the normal BMR of a healthy adult male and female individual.

Answer:

Basal metabolic rate: Basal metabolic rate is defined as per hour energy output of an individual, who is at complete physical and mental rest in a comfortable environment, 12 to 18 hours after taking a light meal.

Normal BMR values: BMR of a healthy adult male is 40 kcal/hour/sq.metre body surface. The BMR of a healthy adult female is 37 kcal/hour/ sq.metre body surface.

Question 54 Mention the calorific demand of a healthy adult man and a woman, performing normal jobs.

Answer:

The following table shows the calorific demand of a healthy adult man and a woman, performing normal jobs.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition male and female body weight and calorific demand

Question 55 Mention the diet of an adult individual according to daily energy requirements.

Answer:

The following table shows the diet of an adult individual according to daily energy requirements. Type of food Calorific Require-Calorie

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition types of food

WBBSE Class Nine Life Science

Question 56 What is meant by metabolic disorder?

Answer:

Metabolic Disorder:-

Within all the living cells several metabolic reactions go on continuously day and night. If any of these reactions go out of order due to insufficiency of any reactant (nutrients or substrates), enzyme or any physical factor, the effect is seen as abnormal life activity in an organism. This abnormality is known as a metabolic disorder.

Example: Diabetes mellitus, obesity, and arthritis are some common metabolic disorders.

Question 57 Why milk cannot be considered as a balanced diet?

Answer:

Milk Cannot Be Considered As A Balanced Diet:-

Milk is generally deficient in vitamin C and iron (Fe) and therefore, an adult individual cannot obtain his/her required nutrients from milk. Thus, milk is not considered as a balanced diet in adults.

Question 58 What is meant by hyperthyroidism? Mention its symptoms.

Answer:

Hyperthyroidism: The disorder related to increased secretion of thyroxine hormone from the thyroid gland, is known as hyperthyroidism.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism are:

1. Irregular heart rate
2. Hypertension
3. Increased BMR
4. Exophthalmic goitre.

Question 59 What is diabetes mellitus? Mention its symptoms.

Answer:

Diabetes mellitus:

The metabolic disorder in which blood sugar level is elevated above normal (140 mg/100 ml blood) after two hours of taking full meal, due to insulin deficiency, is called diabetes mellitus.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of diabetes mellitus are:

1. Frequent urination
2. Fatigue
3. The excessive urge for sweet food
4. Weight loss
5. Delayed healing of wounds
6. Boils and sores.

Question 60 What is meant by obesity? Mention the problems related to obesity.

Answer:

Obesity:

The metabolic disorder noticed as a very high body mass index (above 30), caused mainly due to intake of high-calorie food beyond the normal requirement of the body, is known as obesity.

Problems:

Problems of obesity:

1. Loss of normal agility
2. Fatigue
3. Breathlessness
4. Hypertension
5. Cardiac disorder.

Question 61 What is meant by atherosclerosis?

Answer:

Atherosclerosis:-

The metabolic disorder in which cholesterol and WBC accumulate on the inner wall of arteries to make it rough, non-elastic and reduce the diameter of arterial lumen, is known as atherosclerosis.

Question 62 What is meant by liver cirrhosis?

Answer:

Liver Cirrhosis:-

The metabolic disorder in which normal hepatic cells are transformed into fibrous scar tissues hindering normal secretory activities of the liver and finally inactivating the liver function as a whole is known as liver cirrhosis.

Question 63 What is meant by arthritis?

Answer:

Arthritis:

Arthritis is a metabolic disorder that involves bone joints due to the deposition of metabolic wastes painful inflammation and impaired movement or degradation of bones and cartilage.

 

Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition Answer In A Single Word Or Sentence

Question 1. Which physiological process provides potential energy to living organisms?
Answer: Nutrition provides potential energy to living organisms.

Question 2. Which two steps are involved in the nutrition of green plants?
Answer: Photosynthesis and assimilation are involved in the nutrition of green plants.

Question 3. What is the similarity between Rafflesia and Louse?
Answer: Both Rafflesia and louse are parasitic in nature.

Question 4. In which type of nutrition is one member benefited at the expense of another?
Answer: In parasitic nutrition, one member is benefited at the expense of the other.

Question 5. What is the similarity between a dung beetle and a pig?
Answer: Both dung beetle and pig show coprophagy.

Question 6 What is the nutritional dissimilarity between louse and tapeworm?
Answer: Louse is an ectoparasite but tapeworm is an endoparasite.

Question 7 In which nutritional association both associates are benefited?
Answer: In symbiotic nutrition, both associates are benefited.

Question 8 Why do some plants capture insects for nutrition?
Answer: Some plants capture insects to fulfil the nutritional needs of nitrogen.

Question 9 By which process does food bolus reach the stomach through the oesophagus?
Answer: Food bolus reaches the stomach through the oesophagus by peristalsis.

Question 10 Which acid makes the chyme acidic inside stomach?
Answer: HCl makes the chyme acidic inside stomach.

Question 11 From which cells HCI is secreted in the stomach?
Answer: HCI is secreted from oxyntic cells of the inner lining of the stomach.

Question 12 Which is the widest portion of the human GI tract?
Answer: Large intestine or colon is the widest portion of the human GI tract.

Question 13 Which cells secrete digestive enzymes in the small intestine?
Answer: Digestive enzymes are secreted from Brunner’s gland cells inside the small intestine.

Question 14 Which portion of the human GI tract is responsible for the absorption of excess water from the residue of digestion?
Answer: The colon is responsible for the absorption of excess water from the residue of digestion.

Question 15 From which gland is ptyaline secreted?
Answer: Ptyaline is secreted from the salivary glands.

Question 16 On which substrate does ptyaline act?
Answer: Ptyaline acts upon boiled starch.

Question 17 Which digestive enzymes prefer lower pH to act properly?
Answer: Pepsin and gastric lipase prefer lower pH to act properly.

Question 18 Which proteolytic enzyme is secreted from the pancreas?
Answer: Trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme, secreted from the pancreas.

Question 19 Which is the primary centre for protein digestion?
Answer: The stomach is the primary centre for protein digestion.

Question 20 Which, other than digestive enzymes, are secreted from the pancreas?
Answer: Other than digestive enzymes, hormones like insulin and glucagon are secreted from the pancreas.

Question 21 Which cells in the stomach secrete digestive enzymes?
Answer: The peptic cells or chief cells in the stomach, secrete digestive enzymes.

Question 22 Name an enzyme, which prefers neutral or slightly alkaline pH for better action.
Answer: Trypsin prefers neutral or slightly alkaline pH for better action.

Question 23 Which type of food is not digested in the stomach?
Answer: Starch is not digested in the stomach.

Question 24 Which type of carbohydrate is hydrolysed in the stomach?
Answer: Sucrose is hydrolysed in the stomach.

Question 25 Which enzyme hydrolyses protein into peptone?
Answer: Pepsin hydrolyses protein into peptone.

Question 26 Which enzyme hydrolyses fats into fatty acids and glycerol?
Answer: Lipases hydrolyse fat into fatty acids and glycerol.

Question 27 Which intestinal enzyme hydrolyses lower peptides into amino acids?
Answer: Erepsin hydrolyses lower peptides into amino acids.

Question 28 What is the function of lipids in blood?
Answer: Lipids help to dissolve and transport vitamins A, D, E and K in the blood.

Question 29 Which digestive juice is alkaline in nature?
Answer: Bile is alkaline in nature.

Question 30 What is bile comprised of?
Answer: Bile is comprised of water, various inorganic salts, bile salts, bile pigments, fatty acids, cholesterol etc.

Question 31 Name the bile salts.
Answer: Sodium taurocholate and sodium glycol-cholate are bile salts.

Question 32 What do bile salts do in digestion?
Answer: Bile salts emulsify fat to help its enzymatic hydrolysis.

Question 33 Name the two bile pigments.
Answer: The two bile pigments are bilirubin and biliverdin.

Question 34 Name the hormone secreted by the stomach.
Answer: The hormone secreted by the stomach is gastrin.

Question 35 Name two lipolytic enzymes present in the human body.
Answer: Two lipolytic enzymes present in the human body are pancreatic lipase and gastric lipase.

Question 36 Give two examples of pro-enzymes.
Answer: Pepsinogen and trypsinogen are two examples of pro-enzymes.

Question 37 Define apoenzyme.
Answer: The protein part of a holoenzyme is known as an apoenzyme.

Question 38 What is a coenzyme?
Answer: The organic non-protein part, which combines with the apoenzyme, thus forming a holoenzyme, is called a coenzyme.

Question 39. Name two coenzymes.
Answer: NADP and NAD are two coenzymes.

Question 40 Which type of food does one need the most to fulfil the daily requirement of energy?
Answer: Carbohydrate is needed the most to fulfil the daily requirement of energy.

Question 41 How much energy is necessary for a healthy adult to perform daily life activities?
Answer: To perform all life activities, a healthy adult requires 2500-3000 kcal energy.

Question 42 Which nutritional insufficiency is the cause of hypothyroidism?
Answer: Nutritional insufficiency of iodine is the cause of hypothyroidism.

Question 43 Insufficiency of which hormone causes diabetes mellitus?
Answer: Insufficient secretion of insulin from the beta-cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas causes diabetes mellitus.

Question 44 Which disease is caused due to impaired carbohydrate metabolism?
Answer: Diabetes mellitus is caused by impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

Question 45 Which disease is caused due to abnormal intake of a high-calorie diet?
Answer: Obesity is caused due to abnormal intake of a high-calorie diet.

Question 46 Which disease results in the thickening of walls of arteries due to the deposition of fat?
Answer: In atherosclerosis, the walls of arteries become thick and rigid due to the deposition of fat.

Question 47 Which disease results in the transformation of liver cells into fibrous tissue?
Answer: In liver cirrhosis, cells of the liver are transformed into fibrous tissue.

Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition Fill In The Blanks

1 Growth and Nutrition are two anabolic processes.

2 Autotrophic nutrition is a type of Holophytic nutrition.

3 Heterotrophic nutrition involves Five steps.

4 Sundew (Drosera) is an Insectivorous plant.

5 Haustoria is a Sucking root

6 Agaricus performs a Saprophytic type of nutrition.

7 Mycorrhiza is located in the root of Pine.

8 Amoeba engulfs food with the help of pseudopodia.

9 Hydra engulfs food with the help of Tentacles

10 We can taste sweet with the taste buds placed at the Tip of our tongues.

11 Teeth appear twice in a lifetime of man. Such type of dentition is called Diphyodont

12 There are Six salivary glands in the human mouth.

13 The part of the alimentary canal to which the appendix is attached, is the Caecum

14 HCl is produced in the Stomach

15 Gall bladder is located beneath the Right lobe of the liver.

16 Bile is synthesised in the Liver, gall bladder

17 Small intestine in an adult person is 6.5 meters long and 2.5 cm in diameter.

19 The protein part of the enzyme is called Apoenzyme.

20 Digestion Starch begins in the mouth.

21 Ptyaline is an Amylolytic enzyme.

22 The substrate of Ptyaline is Starch

23 Boiled Starch Ptyaline Maltose, Maltase glucose.

24 The major enzyme for the digestion of proteins present in the stomach is Pepsin

25 Trypsin is a Proteolytic enzyme.

26 Inactive pepsinogen is converted to active pepsin by the influence of HCI

27 The nutrients after absorption go directly to the Liver via blood.

28 The Pancreatic juice contains sodium bicarbonate that neutralises HCl in the duodenum.

29 By the breakdown of sucrose, glucose Fructose is produced.

30 Unabsorbed food is expelled from the body by the process of Egestion/ Defecation

31 Milk is a balanced diet for children.

Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition State True Or False

Question 1 During photosynthesis anabolism occurs.

Answer:  True

Question 2 Lichen is an example of a symbiotic association between algae and fungi.

Answer: True

Question 3 Blue-green algae are capable of synthesising their own food by photosynthesis.

Answer: True

Question 4 A symbiotic bacterium Rhizobium sp. synthesises vitamin B12 in the human intestine.

Answer: False

Question 5 There are three pairs of salivary glands, namely parotid, sub-maxillary and sublingual glands.

Answer: True

Question 6 Oesophagus is a 10-12 cm long tube, which comes down vertically from the base of the pharynx to the stomach along the mid-chest line.

Answer: True

Question 7 One of the functions of the liver is to kill germs by phagocytosis.

Answer: True

Question 8 Bile acts in the acidic pH of the stomach.

Answer: False

Question 9 Bile juice contains different enzymes that help in the emulsification of fats.

Answer: False

Question 10 Ptyaline acts on boiled proteins.

Answer: False

Question 11 For the perfect distribution of calories in a diet, the ratio of carbohydrates, protein and fat should be 2:1:1.

Answer: True

Question 12 About 9.3 kcal energy is generated by the complete oxidation of one gram of protein.

Answer: False

Question 13 Prolonged fasting leads to excessive protein breakdown and the discharge of ketone through urine.

Answer: True

Question 14 In atherosclerosis, hypertension occurs due to a reduction in the diameter of the arterial lumen.

Answer: False

Question 15 Hyperthyroidism is a metabolic disorder.

Answer: False

Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition Match The Columns

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition match the columns 1

Answer: 1-C; 2-A; 3-D; 4-E

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition match the colums 2

Answer: 1-D; 2-C; 3-E; 4-A

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition match the columns 3

Answer: 1-B; 2-C; 3-D; 4-A

WBBSE Solutions For Class 9 Life Science And Environment Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition match the columns 4

Answer: 1-B; 2-C; 3-A; 4-E

Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition Find The Odd One Out

Question 1 Duodenum, Jejunum, Colon, Ileum
Answer: Ptyaline

Question 2 Pepsin, Trypsin, Rennin, Ptyaline
Answer: Colon

Question 3 Parasite, Heterotrophic, Saprophytic, Insecti-vigorous plant
Answer: Insectivorous plant

Question 4 Maltase, Lipase, Amylase, Sucrase
Answer: Lipase

Question 5 Saccus Entericus, Villi, Absorption, Egestion
Answer: Egestion

Question 6 Bile, Bile salts, Protein, Emulsification
Answer: Protein

Question 7 Trypsin, Pepsin, Erepsin, Maltose
Answer: Maltose

Question 8 Monosaccharide, Fatty acids, Amino acid, Protein
Answer: Protein

Question 9 Diabetes, Goitre, Arthritis, Polio
Answer: Polio

Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition Fill In The Blanks By Looking At The First Pair

1 Sundew: Insectivory:: Leech: Sanguinivory

2 Bile salts: Liver:: Ptyaline: Salivary glands

3 Jejunum: Small intestine:: Caecum: Large intestine

4 Ingestion: Mouth cavity:: Absorption: Small Intestine

5 Stomata: Transpiration:: Lacteal: Absorption of food juice

6 Lipase: Fat:: Amylase:: Starch

7 Stomach: Chyme:: Intestine: Chyle

8 Tooth: Mechanical digestion:: Enzyme: Enzymatic/Chemical digestion

Chapter 3 Physiological Processes Of Life Nutrition Among The Four Concepts Given, Three Of Them Belong To One. Find That

Question 1 Sundew, Pitcher plants, Venus fly trap, Insectivorous plant
Answer: Insectivorous plant

Question 2 Absorption of fat, Villi, Micelles, Lacteal
Answer: Absorption of fat

Question 3 Intestinal secretion, Sucrase, Succus entericus, Erepsin
Answer: Intestinal secretion

Question 4 Colon, Caecum, Large intestine, Appendix
Answer: Large intestine

Question 5 Pepsin, Trypsin, Proteolytic enzymes, Erepsin
Answer: Proteolytic enzymes

Question 6 Vitamin, Minerals, Balanced diet, Calorie producing food
Answer: Balanced diet

Question 7 Obesity, Atherosclerosis, Liver cirrhosis, Metabolic disorder
Answer: Metabolic disorder

 

 

 

 

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