WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 School Science Chapter 9 Endocrine System and Adolescence Short Answer Type Questions

Chapter 9 Endocrine System And Adolescence Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What is adolescence?


Adolescence describes the teenage years between 13 and 19 and can be considered the transitional stage from childhood to adulthood.

However, the physical and psychological changes that occur in adolescence can start earlier, during the preteen years (ages 9 through 12)t Adolescence can be a time of both disorientation and discovery.

Question 2. Distinguish between the terms ‘puberty’ and ‘adolescence’.

Distinguish between the terms ‘puberty’ and ‘adolescence’:

Puberty is the time in which a child’s sexual and physical characteristics mature. It occurs due to hormone changes.

Adolescence is the period between puberty and adulthood. Puberty is a period of physical transition; adolescence is about a psychological and social transition.

Puberty is the process of physical changes by which adolescents reach sexual maturity, i.e. become capable of reproduction.

Question 3. How do hormones act in our bodies?

Hormones act in our bodies:

Most hormones circulate in the blood, coming into contact with essentially all cells. However, a given hormone usually affects only a limited number of cells, which are called target cells. A target cell responds to a hormone because it bears receptors for the hormone.

  1. Estrogen
  2. Testosterone

Which of the two has a smaller voice box: grown-up boys or grown-up girls?
Grown-up girls.

Question 4. Mention a few feelings associated with adolescence.

Fear, anger, crying, depression, offense, etc.

Question 5. What do you mean by emotion management?

Emotion Management:

Emotion management refers to controlling the uncontrolled expression of happiness, anger, or sorrow which would otherwise affect our physical and mental health.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Locate and give one function of the following endocrine glands in man:

  1. Thyroid,
  2. Adrenal gland.

Thyroid: Location—On either side of the upper border of the trachea, just below the larynx.

Function—It secretes thyroxine which increases BMR by stimulating the metabolism of carbohydrates, fat, and protein in the body.

Adrenal gland: Location-On the upper pole of each kidney.

Function—It secretes corticoid and catecholamine hormones which control the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, fat, mineral, and water and also help to fight against stress.

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Question 6. Name the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary.

  1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or Vasopressin and
  2. Oxytocin.

Question 7. Name two hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in man.

  1. ACTH or Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
  2. TSH or Thyroid stimulating hormone.

Question 8. 1. What is glucagon? 2. From which gland and which cells is it secreted? 3. What is its function?


  1. Glucagon is a polypeptide hormone.
  2. It is secreted from the pancreas gland.
  3. Functions of glucagon—
  4. It stimulates glycogenolysis in the liver to add glucose to blood i.e., it increases blood sugar levels,
  5. It stimulates neo-glucogenesis in the liver to convert amino acids to glucose and glycogen.

Question 9. 1. What do you mean by master gland? 2. Where is it situated in the human body? 3. Mention the different parts, 4. Name two trophic animal hormones.

Master gland:

  1. The master gland means the pituitary gland.
  2. It is situated at the base of the brain, within a cup-shaped cavity of sphenoid bone called sella turcica.
  3. The pituitary gland has two main parts—
  4. anterior pituitary
  5. posterior pituitary
  6. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).

Question 10. Name a hormone secreted by each of the glands adrenal, testis, and ovaries, and mention one important function of each of these hormones.

Adrenaline—It increases the metabolic rate of the body. Testis—Its hormone is testosterone which causes the growth of accessory sex organs and the development of secondary sex characteristics in males.

Ovary—It’s one hormone is estrogen which causes the growth of accessory sex organs and the development of secondary sex characteristics in females.

Question 11. What is diabetes mellitus?

Diabetes Mellitus:

A disorder in which the body’s cells cannot absorb glucose, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the cells do not respond to the effects of insulin that are produced in the body.

Question 12. Which hormone is called emergency hormone and why?

The adrenal medullary hormone adrenaline is called emergency hormone because it helps the body to fight against (or to adjust to) emergency conditions by increasing circulation and respiration along with the activity of skeletal muscles, eyes, etc.

Question 13. Differentiate between Exocrine Gland and Endocrine Glands.

Differentiate between Exocrine Gland and Endocrine Gland:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 School Science Chapter 9 Endocrine System and Adolescence exocrine glands and endorine glands


Question 14. Differentiate between Anterior Pituitary and Posterior Pituitary.

Differentiate between Anterior Pituitary and Posterior Pituitary:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 School Science Chapter 9 Endocrine System and Adolescence Anterior pituitary,posterior pitutary


Question 15. Which hormones are responsible for the changes in human bodies in the adolescent period?

The rise in the level of sex hormones is responsible for the changes in the bodies of adolescent boys and girls at puberty.

The tastes make the male sex hormones called testosterone. The ovaries make female sex hormones called estrogen. The production of these sex hormones is under the control of another hormone called gonadotropic hormone (GTH) secreted by the pituitary gland.

Question 16. People are advised to use iodized salt for cooking food so as to prevent goiter disease- why?

People are advised to use iodized salt for cooking food so as to prevent goiter disease:

The thyroid gland needs a constant supply of iodine in order to produce thyroxine hormone. This iodine normally comes from the diet we eat.

Since iodine is necessary for the making of thyroxine hormone, therefore, a deficiency of iodine in the diet can cause a deficiency of thyroxine hormone in the body.

The deficiency of thyroxine causes a disease known as goiter. Iodized salt can provide all the iodine needed by the thyroid gland to make sufficient thyroxine hormone for our body. Hence iodized salt prevents goiter disease.

Question 17. Gland G is located just below the stomach in the human body.

It is a mixed gland that secretes the hormone H.

The deficiency of hormone H in the body causes a disease D in which the blood sugar level of a person rises too much. What are G, H, and D?

Gland G is the pancreas which is a mixed (heterochrony) gland. Pancreas secretes hormone H called insulin. A deficiency of insulin leads to disease D known as Diabetes mellitus.

Question 18. Name the hormones which are responsible for the following symptoms:

  1. Unnatural growth of body, growth of bones.
  2. The face becomes rounded by swelling, skin becomes rough and pale, and wounds take more time to heal.
  3. Swelling of glands, eyes bulge out, body temperature increases.
  4. Gigantism: Hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH).
  5. Cushing syndrome: Hypersecretion of corticosteroids.
  6. Goiter: Hypersecretion of thyroxine.

Question 19. Mention the problem associated with the adolescence stage. What are the steps of problem-solving?

The problems of the adolescence stage are:

  1. sex problem
  2. emotional problem

social problem including drug abuse Problem solving incorporates the identification of the root cause of the problem and searching for a suitable way to overcome it.

Four basic steps in problem-solving are:

  1. Defining problems
  2. Brainstorming about alternatives
  3. Evaluating and selecting the best alternative
  4. Implementation of solution.


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