WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 School Science Chapter 9 Endocrine System and Adolescence Long Answer Type Questions

Chapter 9 Endocrine System And Adolescence Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What is chemical coordination? Why are hormones called chemical messengers? Name the hormone secreted by the human heart.
Answer:

Chemical Coordination:-

The animal body has two levels of coordination: nervous coordination and chemical coordination.

Chemical coordination occurs through the endocrine system by secreting hormones that stimulate or inhibit one or more physiological processes for the welfare of the body.

Chemical coordination aims to maintain the balance of the internal chemical environment of the body. Hormones are informational molecules that carry the message of metabolic changes from the endocrine glands to the target cells or organs.

Hormones play a major role in maintaining the balance of the internal chemical environment through their integrated action throughout the body.

These are secreted at one part of the body and then transported by the blood to another part for stimulating or inhibiting one or more physiological processes.

Since the function of the hormone is chemically at sites far away from their places of origin, they are known as chemical messengers.

The atria of the heart secrete the hormone called Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).

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Question 2. How many lobes are there in the Pituitary gland? Name the hormones secreted by it.
Answer:

Pituitary Gland:

Although it is no bigger than a pea, the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is considered the most important part of the endocrine system.

It’s often called the “master gland” because it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands.
The production and secretion of pituitary hormones can be influenced by factors such as emotions and seasonal changes.

To accomplish this, the hypothalamus relays information sensed by the brain (such as environmental temperature, light exposure patterns, and feelings) to the pituitary.

The tiny pituitary gland is divided into two lobes: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe.
The anterior lobe regulates the activity of the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands. Among the hormones it produces are:

  1. Growth hormone,
  2. Prolactin
  3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH),
  4. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),
  5. Luteinizing hormone (LH),
  6. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

The other lobe of the pituitary gland is called the posterior pituitary which controls different physiological functions of the body, it produces the following two hormones:

  1. Oxytocin,
  2. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin.

The pituitary also secretes endorphins, chemicals that act on the nervous system to reduce sensitivity to pain. In addition, the pituitary secretes hormones that signal the ovaries and testes to make sex hormones. The pituitary gland also controls ovulation and the menstrual cycle in women.

The posterior lobe of the pituitary releases antidiuretic hormone, which helps control body water balance through its effect on the kidneys and urine output; and oxytocin, which triggers the contractions of the uterus that occur during labor.

Question 3. In a tabular form mention the hormones of the anterior pituitary, adrenal gland, and ovary and- state their functions.
Answer:

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 School Science Chapter 9 Endocrine System and Adolescence endocrine glands ,Their hormones and the action of hormone

 

Question 4. Write notes on gigantism and dwarfism.
Answer:

Problems with The Endocrine System:

Too much (hyperfunction) or too little (hypofunction) of any hormone can be harmful to the body. For example, if the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a child may grow excessively tall. If it produces too little, a child may be abnormally short.

Endocrine disorders are typically grouped into two categories:

An endocrine disease that results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone, is called a hormone imbalance.

Endocrine disease is due to the development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect hormone levels.

The following are just a few of the many disorders that can result from an improperly functioning endocrine system.

1. Gigantism (acromegaly) and other growth hormone problem: Acromegaly is a disorder in which the anterior pituitary produces too much growth hormone (GH).

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 School Science Chapter 9 Endocrine System and Adolescence gigantism.jpg

This causes an increased growth in bone and soft tissue, especially in the extremities—nose, jaw, fingers, and toes. If the disorder occurs in children who have not yet fully developed, the increased levels of GH also result in the exceptional growth of the long bones. This condition, a variation of acromegaly, is known as gigantism.

2. Pituitary dwarfism: Pituitary dwarfism or growth hormone deficiency is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone. This results in a child’s slow growth pattern and unusually small stature (below average height).

3. Hyperthyroidism: Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are excessively high.
Symptoms may include weight loss, nervousness, tremors, excessive sweating, increased heart rate and blood pressure, protruding eyes, and swelling in the neck from an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter).

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 School Science Chapter 9 Endocrine System and Adolescence Hyperthyrodism.jpg

 

4. Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism is when the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are abnormally low. Thyroid hormone deficiency slows body processes and may lead to fatigue, a slow heart rate, dry skin, weight gain, constipation, and, in kids, slowing growth and delayed puberty.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 School Science Chapter 9 Endocrine System and Adolescence hypothyroidism.jpg

 

5. Diabetes mellitus: Disorder in which the body’s cells cannot absorb glucose, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the cells do not respond to the effects of insulin that are produced. It has two types.

Type-1 Diabetes:

When the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, type 1 diabetes (previously known as juvenile diabetes) occurs. Type 1 diabetes can cause long-term complications, including kidney problems, nerve damage, blindness, early coronary heart disease, and stroke.

To control their blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of developing diabetes complications, kids need regular injections of insulin.

Type-2 Diabetes :

Unlike type 1 diabetes, in which the body can’t produce normal amounts of insulin, in type 2 diabetes the body is unable to respond to insulin normally.

Children and teens with this condition tend to be overweight, and it is believed that excess body fat plays a role in the insulin resistance that characterizes the disease.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 School Science Chapter 9 Endocrine System and Adolescence diabetes

 

6. Adrenal insufficiency: This condition is characterized by decreased function of the adrenal cortex and the consequent underproduction of adrenal corticosteroid hormones.

The symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, dehydration, and skin changes.

7. Addison’s disease: Disorder in which the adrenal cortex underproduces cortisol and aldosterone, resulting in the disruption of numerous bodily functions.

8. Cushing syndrome: If the condition is due to a tumor in the pituitary gland that produces excessive amounts of corticotropin and stimulates the adrenals to overproduce corticosteroids, it’s known as Cushing’s disease.

Symptoms may take years to develop and include obesity, growth failure, muscle weakness, easy bruising of the skin, acne, high blood pressure, and psychological changes. Moon face- a rounded shape of the face that develops from a specific pattern of fat distribution.

9. Precocious puberty: Body changes associated with puberty may occur at an abnormally young age in some kids if the pituitary hormones that stimulate the gonads to produce sex hormones rise prematurely.

10. Polycystic ovary syndrome: Overproduction of androgens interfere with the development of eggs and their release from the female ovaries. PCOS is a leading cause of infertility.

Question 5. Mention the characteristic features of hormones. What do you mean by calorigenic hormones?
Answer:

The general characteristics of hormones are as follows:

Hormones are secreted by ductless endocrine glands directly into the blood. These are never stored in any other place of the animal or human body for future use except the secreting glands.

  1. Chemically hormones are either proteins or nan proteinous in nature.
  2. The secretion of 6f hormones Is regulated by the nervous system through a feedback mechanism.

Most hormones are highly soluble ‘in water ’and are conducted freely in the bloodstream. soluble hormones are conducted In a bound state with transport protein.

Hormones can not act on the secretory cells ‘from where these are secreted. They generally act at a Site remote from their place of production after being transported through the circulatory system.

Hormones are destroyed and excreted immediately after their functions are over. Thyroid hormones (Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine) are known as calorigenic hormones because they increase oxygen uptake and tissue metabolism of the human body.

Question 6. What are the types of diabetes mellitus? Describe them.
Answer:

Question 7. What is an anti-diabetic hormone? What happens due to the hyposecretion of the hormone? What is the full form of ADH?
Answer:

Anti-diabetic hormone:

Insulin secreted from the pancreas is known as an antidiabetic hormone. Hyposecretion of insulin leads to Diabetes mellitus type I.

It used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes because it often begins in childhood. As a result movement of glucose from the blood to the cell is hampered.

The person becomes weak. The functional power of the kidney, heart, and eye is reduced. ADH stands for Antidiurectic hormone.

Question 8. Write about some of the normal changes going on for teens.
Answer:

Some of the normal changes going on for teens:

  1. With the onset of puberty, preteens and teenagers experience rapid growth and changes in their bodies, develop sexually, and become increasingly aware of their body image.
  2. Teens develop their own morals, values, and self-direction; they test limits and try on different points of view; they develop a conscience.
  3. Social skills continue to develop and include romantic relationships.
  4. Teens have an increased awareness of self, which can include feeling self-conscious and fluctuating high or low self-esteem,
  5. Teens continue to develop cognitively, with an increased capacity for problem-solving, decision-making, and abstract thinking;
  6. however, their thinking is still more impulsive than adults; for example, the mere presence of peers can encourage them to engage in risky behavior.

Question 9. Describe the psychological and cognitive changes occurring during adolescence.
Answer:

Changes during Adolescence:

Physical

  1. Physical changes (e.g., growth spurt and skeletal and structural changes) are rapid and visually apparent.
  2. Considerable diversity in physical developmental rates occurs due to genetics, environmental factors, and health issues.
  3. Distinct gender differences are evident in size, strength, and age of growth spurt (e.g., girls around age 12 and boys around age 14).
  4. Self-esteem changes due to adolescents’ home and school lives.
  5. Preoccupations with the self lead to critical self-examination and subsequently to the formation of self-perceptions.
  6. Argumentative and aggressive behaviors become evident and often disturb parents and teachers.

Psychosocial

  1. Friendships form and social interactions increase, which have the potential for boosting self-esteem and reducing anxiety.
  2. Distinct gender differences occur in socialization patterns (e.g., females tend to have smaller numbers of close friends and males tend to have larger “social networks”).
  3. Allegiance and affiliation shift from parents and teachers to friends and peers.
  4. Social tasks and situations are handled without adult supervision and advice.

Cognitive

  1. Higher levels of cognitive functioning (e.g., reasoning and higher-level thought processes) develop.
  2. Moral and ethical choices are now possible and often guide behavior.
  3. Development diversity leads to varying abilities to think and reason.
  4. Cognitive ability is often affected by overall socialization.
  5. Perspectives about past, present and future developments that allow enhanced perspectives of time.
  6. Language and overall verbalization skills increase, allowing improved communication in both school and home situations.

Question 10. Write briefly about the problems of the adolescence stage.
Answer:

Problems of Adolescence Stage:

The problems of adolescence may be summarized in the following manner:

1. Sex Problems

We have read that all the aspects of adolescent development are basically conditioned by physical changes. The onset of puberty gives the physical excitement never experienced before.

The adolescent reacting to these experiences is excited, often without realizing what is happening to him. Some react with pleasure or excitement and some others experience shame, disgust, confusion, anxiety, and guilt. They may lead to sexual maladjustment.

2. Emotional Problem

Heightened emotionality is a major problem of adolescence. Adolescents experience excessive emotion and they do not have sufficient control over violence.

Excitability and anger may find expression in their destructive form and may lead to law and order problems. The emotion of love, suspicion, jealousy, frustration, and revengefulness is very common among adolescents. Thus emotional immaturity is a major problem in adolescence.

3. Social Problem

Every society has its own customs and traditions, which it wants to maintain. Every individual has to follow these social values but often adolescents think all these are outdated and they are not willing to obey

This leads to conflicts. Physical development has many social implications. Sexual development necessarily includes heterosexual orientation and they want to take part in social activities with the opposite sex.

The denial of this desire often makes them discontented and restless. Drug addiction is a major social problem during adolescence.

Drugs are powerful chemicals that when taken into the body change the functions of the body, influence the mind, and therefore, sometimes even change the behavior of the person.

Adolescent boys and girls should avoid drugs to maintain physical, mental and social well-being which are necessary to live a purposeful, fruitful, and satisfying life in this world. Thus, a number of social problems disturb adolescents.

Question 11. Describe the various aspects of life skill education.
Answer:

Various aspects of life skill education:

The various aspects of life skill education are as follows:

  1. “Self-awareness c A person needs to identify his/her likes, dislikes, success, and failures and learn to control them, effectively.
  2. Critical thinking involves proper analysis of problems and behavior.
  3. Decision makingiProper decision needs to be taken by overcoming the confused thinking pattern.

Creative thinking: A person should participate in various creative arts like drama, painting, song, or other cultural activities to gain gradual control over emotions.

Problem-solving: It encompasses quick identification of the root cause of the problem and its solution.

Interpersonal communication: A person has to be a patient listener. Simultaneously a person should also learn to speak and communicate properly.

Interpersonal relationship: It is important to make good and healthy relationships with family members and friends to balance personal and working life.

Empathy: It is important to treat others’ problems as own one after a proper .. understanding of others’ feelings.

Stress management: Areas of mental pressure need to be identified and suitable measures …. should be practiced to reduce them.

Emotion management: It is necessary to control the uncontrolled expressions of happiness, anger, or sorrow that would otherwise affect somebody’s health and increase unnecessary mental stress.

 

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