WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic B The Communal Divide And The Decision Of Partition Of India

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic B The Communal Divide And The Decision Of Partition Of India

Question 1 Write the causes of the development of communalism in India.

Causes Of The Development Of Communalism In India:-


According to historians, the Divide and Rule policy of the British and the separate self-interest of the Hindus and Muslims were the chief causes of communalism in India.

1. Discriminatory:

The British tried to maintain their existence in India by following a discriminatory policy.

After the sepoy revolt, they alternately developed intimacy and repulsion with the Hindus and the Muslims and thus tried to maintain their imperial interests.

2. Religious differences:

The Hindus and Muslims could never remain united for a long time due to their religious differences.

Though there were similarities between their ways and manners, celebrations,
behavior, etiquette, language and literature, food and dress, their religion always kept them apart.

According to Rabindranath, the Hindus regard the Muslims as impure and the Muslims regard the Hindus as Kafer or nonbelievers. This attitude never allowed them to unite.

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3. Pan-Islam ideals of the Muslims:

The progressive middle-class Indian Muslims were inspired by the ideals of Pan Islam or global Islam.

Though many Muslims lived in India they could not accept India as their homeland.

They were more concerned about the prestige of the Caliph of Turkey rather than Indian independence.

This attitude of the Muslims had spread a toxic air of communalism in India.

Aga Khan wrote in his autobiography, “The government must be made to admit that we are a nation within a nation.”

4. Hindu nationalism:

Since the second half of the 19th century, Hindu nationalism centered around the culture and literature of ancient India, began Saraswati’s Arya Samaj (1975) and Purification Movement.

Some literary works of Bankim Chandra concerning Hinduism, ilak’s Ganapati, and Shivaji festivals (1894- 95) created suspicion among the Muslims.

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5. Establishment of Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha:

The Muslim League was formed to protect the political interests of the Muslims and to convey their hopes, aspirations, and needs to the government.

n retaliation, the Hindu Mahasabha was formed to oppose the demands of the Muslim League.

The programs of Hindu Mahasabha and the Muslim League’s attempts to develop the Muslims.

Question 2 Discuss the influence or significance of the Muslim League.

Influence Or Significance Of The Muslim League:-


The Muslim League was formed to bring progress to Muslim society but unfortunately, it paved the way for feelings of communal discrimination and separatism in India.

The birth of the Muslim League on December 30, 1906, was one of the contributing factors to the partition of India in 1947.

Significance Of the Muslim League

1. Hindrance to communal unity:

The Muslim League’s primary focus was the socioeconomic development of Muslims.

To this end, an important objective of the League was to restrain young Muslim intellectuals from joining the National Congress.

This, to an extent, hindered the unified struggle of the Hindus and Muslims against British imperialism.

2. Separate political ways:

the Muslim League removed the Indian Muslims from the mainstream of national politics.

The League rejected the Congress proposal of universal representation irrespective of religion.

A sense of separate communal identity defined the policies and politics of the Muslim League.

3. Rise of separatist factors:

The League leaders felt that Hindus and Muslims had separate existences with no scope for unity. This supported separation in Indian politics.

Different circulars, pamphlets, and handbills began to be distributed among Muslims to spread feelings of separateness.

These circulars and pamphlets opposed Hinduism in strong language and so communal fervor increased.

4. Dominance of aristocrats:

Though the League was formed by the initiative of Bengali Muslims, the League had no intimacy with Bengal.

The educated Muslims of the Bombay Presidency did not support them. So the League was mainly dominated by the aristocrats of north India.

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5. Protection of landlords’ interests:

The League worked towards protecting the interests of Muslim Zamindars and rich farmers.

The objectives and activities of the League did not really reflect the hopes and aspirations of the entire Muslim community.

Question 3. Write a note on All India Hindu Mahasabha.

All India Hindu Mahasabha:-


The Morley Minto Reforms Act was passed in 1909 accepting the demand of the Muslims for a separate electorate.

As a reaction to this, an orthodox group of Hindus took the initiative of forming the Hindu Mahasabha.

All India Hindu Mahasabha

1. Structure:

The All-India Hindu Mahasabha was founded by Madan Mohan Malviya in Haridwar at the time of the Kumbha Mela on April 9, 1915.

He was assisted by Bhai Paramananda Munje, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Ashutosh Mukherjee, Motilal Ghosh, Lala Hansraj, Munshiram (Swami Shraddhananda), Rambhuj Dutta and Bhagwan Dutta.

Upper-class people from different parts of India including rich Hindus, landlords, businessmen, and lawyers were associated with this organization.

2. Objectives:

  1. To oppose the Muslim League’s demand for a separate electorate in the legislature.
  2. More recruitment of Hindus in the legislature as well as administrative posts.
  3. To develop good relationships among different sects of Hindus and support the helpless Hindus.
  4. To bring about the overall progress of the Hindus, particularly in the educational and social fields.
  5. To oppose the National Congres’s ideal of communal unity.
  6. To unite the Hindus into a single communal group.


Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya

3. Activities:

  1. Hindu Mahasabha’s slogan was Hindi Hinduism that is, to develop a linguistic bond between Hindus through Hindi. So the spread of the Hindi language was an important part of their agenda.
  2. Their activities also included the protection of cows and the purification movement of Arya Samaj.
  3. Some programs were also included for the development of lower-caste Hindus.

4. Limitations:

  1. Since the upper-class Hindus dominated the association, it failed to win the support of the educated middle class.
  2. Hindu leaders failed to make people understand the discriminatory policies of the British.

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Question 4. What was the role of the discriminatory policy or the Divide and Rule policy of the British government in the rise of Communalism in Indian politics?

Role Of The Discriminatory Policy Or The Divide And Rule Policy Of The British Government In The Rise Of Communalism In Indian Politics:-


The discriminatory policy of the British government was largely responsible for the rise of communalism in Indian politics.

The shrewd British rulers wanted to continue their rule by using the Divide and Rule policy.

Role Of Divide And Rule Policy In the Rise Of Communalism

1. First phase Rise of Hindu communalism:

British scholars and historians have referred to the ancient and medieval ages as the Hindu age and the Muslim age respectively.

This gave rise to communal feelings. After the Sepoy Mutiny, the British took up a policy of gratifying the Hindus.

At first, the divide-and-rule policy was used to safeguard Hindu interests and to undermine the Muslims.

2. Second phase Rise of Muslim communalism:

After 1870 the British took up the policy of gratifying the Muslims.

  1. Lord Mayo tried to make a section of the Muslims interested in the Divide and Rule policy. So he tried to make them refer to India as Dar ul haram (enemy country) instead of Dar ul Islam.
  2. Ripon introduced a Reform Act (1882) granting Muslims the right to hold a separate election. He also tried to include more Muslims in the local self-governments.

3. Third phase Direct help to Muslims:

1. Proposal of Partition of Bengal:

Lord Curzon declared a policy of granting some privileges to the Muslims through the proposal of partition of Bengal.

So the Muslims supported the British during the anti-partition movements.

2. Morley Minto Reforms:

The British government arranged for separate representation of the Muslims bypassing
the Morley Minto Reforms.

It is determined that in the seats reserved for Muslims, the Muslim voters would elect their own Muslim representative.

3. Communal Award:

The British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald introduced the Communal Award on August 16, 1932.

Through this policy, the demand for separate representation of Muslims and other minorities was accepted.

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Question 5. Describe the nature of Muslim politics.

Nature Of Muslim Politics:-


Muslim politics began with the Aligarh Movement led by Syed Ahmed Khan. It ended with Jinnah’s demand to form a new independent state Pakistan.

Nature Of Muslim Politics

1. First phase (1875-1928):

1. Aligarh Movement:

Syed Ahmed first demarcated the Hindus and Muslims as two separate nations. His Two Nation theory kept a section of Muslims away from the national movement.

The Aligarh Movement led by him indirectly encouraged communalism and separation in the guise of the overall development of Muslim society.

2. Simla Deputation:

A Muslim deputation led by Aga Khan met Lord Minto to secure some privileges for the Muslims.

They submitted a memorandum written by Archbold, the Principal of Aligarh College (October 1, 1906). This was referred to as Simla Deputation.

3. Muslim League formation:

The Muslim League was founded in Dhaka under the initiative of Nawab Salimullah on December 30, 1906.

The League declared that a political alliance between the Hindus and Muslims in India was impossible.

2. Second phase (1919-1929):

1. Khilafat Movement:

In the First World War, the Turkey Germany group joined the Axis Powers. So after the War, the Allied powers split up Turkey and abolished the post of the Caliph.

A protest movement called the Khilafat movement started in India in 1919 under the leadership of Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali,

2. National Deed of Agreement and Bengal Deed of Agreement:

The relationship between the Hindus and Muslim Muslims deteriorated after the Noncooperation Movement.

In order to solve the dispute the drafts for the National Deed of Agreement and the Bengal Deed of Agreement were prepared under the initiative of Ansari and Lajpat Rai and Chittaranjan Das respectively.

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3. Jinnah’s Fourteen Points:

Jinnah submitted a Fourteen Point demand at the Delhi session of the League on March 28, 1929.

The British government tried to increase the distance and animosity between the Hindus and Muslims on the basis of these demands.

3. Third phase (1930-1947):

1. Lahore Proposal:

When the Congress Cabinet under Jawaharlal Nehru resigned, Jinnah gave a call to celebrate Deliverance Day on December 22, 1939, and received a huge response.

This encouraged him to take up the initiative of forming an independent Muslim state on the basis of the Two Nation theory.

At the annual session of the League in Lahore on March 20, 1940, the demand for an independent Muslim state arose.

The Lahore Proposal was raised by the Prime Minister of Bengal A. K. Fazlul Huq.

2. Formation of Pakistan:

According to Wavell’s plan, the Cabinet Mission was sent to India in 1946.

Though this mission did not recommend a separate state for the Muslims, it put forward a plan for dividing the provinces on a communal basis.

Finally, according to the Mountbatten plan India was divided and Pakistan was created.

Question 6 Assess the role of Muhammad Ali Jin nah in Indian politics.

Role Of Muhammad Ali Jin Nah In Indian Politics:-


Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s freedom movement.

He played important was an important leader of the national role in liberating India from British rule and in building up a separate Muslim state Pakistan.

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Rule Of Muhammad Ali Jinnah In Indian Politics

1. First Phase: Messenger of Hindu-Muslim unity:

In the first phase of his political career, he was absolutely devoted to nationalism. Sarojini Naidu praised his liberal and noncommunal attitude by calling him

the Messenger of Hindu-Muslim Unity. He tried to establish unity between the Congress and the League through the Lucknow Pact (1916).

2. Second Phase:

1. Supporter of Muslim extremism:

Jinnah gradually moved towards the extremist Muslim group due to narrow communal opposition by Hindu Mahasabha.

In March 1929 1929, Jinnah submitted his famous Fourteen Points demand for the Muslims.

Here, demands were made for the reservation of one-third of seats in the legislature and the reservation of government jobs.

2. President of Muslim League:

Jinnah was elected President of the Muslim League in 1934. Under his efficient leadership, the members of the League increased manifold. Father

3. Father of a separate state:

At the Lahore session in 1940, Jinnah said that the Muslims were a separate nation and should have their own dwellings, area, and state.

In this session, a demand was raised for a separate state. This is called Pakistan Proposal. The act of partitioning India began with Jinnah’s presence and initiative.

4. Call for direct struggle:

Jinnah was offended when Jawaharlal Nehru formed the interim. government in 1946 and called for Direct Action on 16th August.

Internal riots began in Kolkata and various places in East Bengal.

5. Partition of India:

The British government had declared that by June 1948, the transfer of power to India would be finalized.

The League was adamant about the demand for a separate state which was finally accepted by Congress.

Pakistan got independence on August 14, 1947, and thus Jinnah’s dream came true.

Question 7 State the background of Hindu communalism.

Background Of Hindu Communalism:-


Towards the end of the 19th century, Hindu communalism arose as a complement to Muslim communalism. It found its climax through the foundation of Hindu Mahasabha in 1915.

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Background Of The Rise Of Hindu Communalism

1. Movement against cow slaughter:

Though the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II prohibited cow slaughter for the sake of Hindu-Muslim unity during the Great Revolt, the British did not adopt any specific policy about it.

Therefore, since 1890 the Hindus began to campaign against cow slaughter all over the country.

This helped in the rise of Hindu communalism.

2. Hindi Urdu dispute:

Hindi was accepted as a native language by the Hindus of the north. India and Bihar while Urdu was accepted by the Muslims.

This language conflict embittered the relationship between the two communities.

When the British government gave recognition to Urdu as the official language the Hindus rose in protest. This movement also contributed to the rise of communalism.

3. Purification Movement of Arya Samaj:

The purification movement of Arya Samaj created an atmosphere of communalism.

Millions of Malkana Rajputs, Gurjaras, and Baniyas who had converted to Islam returned to the fold of Hinduism.

4. Extreme nationalism:

The extremist leaders Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, and Aurobindo Ghosh were not communalists in any way but their thoughts and preaching reflected Hindu ideals.

This indirectly encouraged the growth of Hindu communalism.

5. Preaching for Hindu glory through literature:

The glory of Hinduism was spread through the writings of Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Maithili Sharan Gupta, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Navin Chandra Sen, Bhudev Mukherjee, Rangalal Banerjee, and others.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, Aurobindo Ghosh, Mahadev Govind Ranade, and Dayanand Saraswati used Hindu symbols, comparisons, and heroic tales in their writings.

Though their aim was to arouse patriotism, it indirectly paved the way to Hindu communalism.

6. Responsibility of the Muslim League:

When the Muslim League was founded, the Muslims thought that the Hindus and Muslims were two different nations and their interests were different.

From the beginning, the Muslim League focussed on the socio-economic development of the Muslims. This worried the Hindus and this led to Hindu communalism.

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Question 8. Discuss the nature of forming a separate Pakistan after the Second World War.

Nature Of Forming A Separate Pakistan After The Second World War:-


As declared by Prime Minister Attlee, a deputation of the British Cabinet (Cabinet Mission) came to India in March 1946 to survey the Indian issue.

Nature Of Forming Independent Pakistan After World War Il

1. Attempt of Cabinet Mission:

The members of the Cabinet Mission held long discussions with different political parties about the drafting of the future constitution of India.

The Muslim League held on to their demand for a separate Pakistan.

Though the Mission did not speak about the partition of India on the basis of the difference between the Congress and the League in their recommendation, they kept provisions for an independent Muslim state in the future.

2. Communal riots:

The Congress won the election of the Constituent Assembly in 1946 and agreed to form the interim. the government at the request of Lord Wavell.

This annoyed the Muslim League and Jinnah called for direct action.

It was decided that on August 16, 1946, would be observed as Direct Action Day to demand the establishment of an independent Pakistan. That day, violent riots broke out in Kolkata.

3. League Congress conflict:

Finally, the League joined the interim government. However, the Congress and the League could not work unitedly even in the Cabinet.

Communal conflicts could be seen in various places.

4. Possibility of forming Pakistan:

The League declared that they would not join the coming session of the Constituent Assembly.

At that time the British government announced that the session of the Assembly would be held without the League.

However, if any constitution was framed in the absence of the League then it would not be applicable for a province with a Muslim majority.

This declaration of the government indirectly admitted the formation of an independent Pakistan.

5. Independence and partition:

The demand for Pakistan gained in fervor which changed to fury. Communal riots reached a climactic point.

point. Finally, Finally, India was partitioned and India and Pakistan emerged as two free and independent states on August 14, 1947.

Question 9. Analyze the effect of the Two Nation theory in the last phase of the independence movement.

The Effect Of The Two-Nation Theory In The Last Phase Of The Independence Movement:-


At the Lahore session of the Muslim League in 1940, an attempt was made to form a separate state which created a communally toxic situation towards the end of the freedom struggle.

Effect Of Two Nation Theory On The Last Phase Of Freedom Struggle

1. 1946:

1. Proposal of League Council and Direct Action:

The League Action Committee took up the Direct Action program at the Bombay session on July 27, 1946.

Direct Action against the Hindus began on August 16 under the leadership of the League.

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2. Beginning and spread of horrifying riots:

The Muslim League carried on a violent riot and massacre for four consecutive days from August 16.

The riot spread from Kolkata to Bombay (October 1), Noakhali (October 10), Bihar (October, 25), and Garmukteshwar and Punjab.

3. Joining the interim government:

he interim government was formed on September 2, 1946, under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru.

Though the Muslim League did not join the government initially, five members joined later. However, they Did not flinch from their demand for a separate Pakistan.

4. Boycott of constituent assembly:

The Muslim League did not join the session of the Constituent Assembly led by Rajendra Prasad.

So Indian politics became more complicated.

2. 1947:

1. Reaction against the declaration made by the British Prime Minister:

The British Prime Minister Clement Atlee. declared that by June 1948, the British government would transfer the power to the Indian leaders.

In reaction to this declaration, the League again got involved in communal riots.

2. Mount batten plan:

Lord Mountbatten declared his famous Mountbatten plan (award) of partitioning India on June 3, 1947.

3. Creation of a separate Pakistan:

According to Mountbatten’s declaration for Indian Independence Act, India was partitioned on August 14, 1947, and two different states India and Pakistan emerged.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan became the Governor and Prime Minister respectively.

Question 10. Which events helped in the development of communalism during the anti-partition movement? Make a list of the events.

List Of The Events Helped In The Development Of Communalism During The Anti-Partition Movement:-

During the anti-partition movement, some incidents helped in the development of communalism. The events are listed below

1. Worship and oaths of Hindus:

The mass worship of the Hindus at Kalighat temple and the vows taken by them on the day of partition hurt the sentiments of the Muslims.

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So many of them regarded the anti-partition movement as the Hindu nationalist movement.

2. Instigation of the British:

During the partition most of the landlords of East Bengal were Hindus and most farmers were poor Muslims.

The British tried to fan the flames of communalism by exaggerating the oppression meted out to the farmers by the landlords.

They tried to add a communal color to this treatment.

3. Differences regarding equal prestige:

The newly educated Hindus of East Bengal were not ready to give the same respect to the Muslims.

On the other hand, educated Muslims claimed equal respect in economic, political, and other spheres.

They felt neglected in society and the distance. was created between the two communities over this issue.

4. Hindu majority in Congress:

The Muslims became suspicious of the foundation and activities of the Congress. From the beginning most of the leaders were Hindus.

The Muslims believed that the National Congress was a national political organization conducted by the Hindus who were the majority.

5. False propaganda:

The British carried on propaganda among the Muslims of East Bengal.

They said that the partition would benefit the Muslims and so the Hindus were protesting against it. This propaganda helped to spread communalism.

6. Economic disaster:

The Indian agitators compelled the poor Muslims to buy expensive Swadeshi items.

This brought about a financial crisis among them. So their list of grievances grew.

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic B The Communal Divide And The Decision Of Partition Of India Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Write the meaning of communalism.

Meaning Of Communalism:-


The word communalism has different meanings. In Bengali, it means hatred among people belonging to different religions.

In the mid-19th century, communalism referred to the strong grudge that one religious community bore toward other communities.

1. In a wider sense:

When one community harms another to satisfy its own socio-economic or political interest the meaning of communalism becomes clear.

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2. In the sense of communal differences:

The colonial government tried to create. differences among different communities and spread communalism in order to keep their domination intact.

Question 2. What is the nature of communalism?

Nature of communalism:

1. Narrow religious interest:

People with a communal bent of mind think of their own religious interests only. So the minor interest of a particular religious community assumes much importance.

2. Contradictory interests:

Those who believe in communalism try to show that the interests of different religious communities always differ from each other.

3. Violence:

Communalism begins with a clash of religious interests but culminates in outbursts of violence.

Question 3. Write a note on Lucknow Pact.

Lucknow Pact:-

1. Background:

The Moderates and Extremists merged together when the Home Rule Movement was launched by Tilak and Annie Besant.

On the other hand, Jinnah, who was offended by the role of the British government against the Caliph of Turkey, decided to make a compromise with Congress.

So the Congress and Muslim League together signed the Lucknow Pact (1916).

2. Conditions:

1. The Congress and Muslim League would unitedly demand administrative reforms from the British government.

2. The Muslim League would accept the Congress ideal of Swarajya and the Congress would accept the League’s demand for a separate electorate.

3. One-third of the members of Central and Provincial legislatures would be Muslims.

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3. Significance:

1. Lucknow strengthened the Hindu-Muslim relationship.

2. The acceptance of the League’s demand for a separate electorate by Congress proved that the Hindus and Muslims were two separate nations.

3. However, the Pact also proved that the two communities could forget their religious differences and unite for national needs.

Question 4. What do you mean by Two Nation theory?

Two Nation Theory:-

1. Main Idea:

Two Nation theory meant two separate theories for two different nations.

This implied that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate communities and their social polarities, objectives, and interests were different.

2. Explanation:

The Hindus were very particular about their social polarity, prestige interests but and protection of their, unfortunately, the Muslims were not so.

The Hindus availed themselves of Western education representatives in every legislature of law and occupied.

the government posts and thus brought about their own progress which the Muslims could not.

So discrimination automatically came up between the two communities.

In these circumstances, the British government used the Divide and Rule policy for imperial interest and Muslim communities were different.

Question 5. Describe the objectives and results of the Two Nation theory.

1. Objectives of TwoNation theory:

1. Protection of Muslim interest progress:

The chief motive of the Two Nation theory propounded by Syed Ahmed was to protect the interest and overall development of the Muslims.

2. Formation of an independent Muslim State:

Subsequently, the famous Urdu poet Muhammad Iqbal and Jinnah preached that Hindus and Muslims were two different communities.

So the Muslims should form their own state.

2. Result of Two Nation Theory:

1. Emergence of Pakistan:

Muhammad Ali Jinnah used the Two Nation theory to form an independent Muslim state named Pakistan (which means holy land).

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2. Division of India:

As a far-reaching consequence of the Two Nation theory, unified India split up into two separate countries named India and Pakistan.

Question 6 Write a note on Fourteen Points.

Fourteen Points:-

Jinnah submitted his famous Fourteen Points at the Delhi session of the Muslim League.

Demands: Jinnah’s fourteen demands were

  1. Inclusion of one-third of Muslim members in Central and Provincial cabinets.
  2. Introduction of a federal system of government.
  3. Application of Communal Award.
  4. The opportunity of electing Muslim
  5. Equal rights in the federal provinces.
  6. Reorganization of the Indian provinces.
  7. Every community should be allowed to carry on their own religious activities.
  8. Reservation of one-third of seats for the Muslims in the central legislature.
  9. Sindh is to be recognized as a separate province.
  10. To annul a bill if one-fourth of any community spoke against it.
  11. Not to amend the Constitution without the permission of the provincial legislatures.
  12. Proper reservation of posts for Muslims in the provincial and local institutions.
  13. Constitutional reforms in Baluchistan and North West Frontier Province.
  14. Preservation of Islamic literature, education, and culture.

Question 7 Write a note on Communal Award.

Communal Award:-


British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald made a declaration on August 16, 1932, as a solution for the minority problem. This declaration is known as Communal Award.

1. Separate electorate:

The Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, and other minority groups were given the right to separate the electorate.

2. Separation within Hindus:

An attempt was made to create separatist tendencies among the Hindus by declaring the backward Hindu classes as a separate category.

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3. Special rights to Scheduled Castes:

The Scheduled Castes, who were a backward Hindu class, were given special rights to participate in the elections independently.

Question 8. State the importance of the Lucknow Pact.

Importance Of The Lucknow Pact:-

1. Hindu-Muslim unity:

The Lucknow Pact was a severe blow to the separatist policies and communal conspiracy of the British.

According to Surendranath Banerjee, this pact is an example of increasing emotional unity between the Hindus and Muslims.

2. Increase in the prestige of Tilak and Jinnah:

The images of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Muhammad Ali Jinnah became more glorious as architects of the Pact and national leaders respectively.

3. Communal stability:

This Pact indirectly acknowledged the separate interests of both the Hindus and the Muslims.

9. What was the Pakistan proposal?

1. First mention:

In January 1933 Choudhuri Rahmat Ali, a Punjabi Muslim student at Cambridge University, first raised the proposal of a separate state Pakistan in his pamphlet ‘Now or Never’.

2. Areas:

Choudhury Rahmat Ali proposed to include Punjab, Afghan province, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan in Pakistan state.

Question 10. Which proposals did Muhammad Iqbal and Rahmat Ali give for forming a separate Muslim state?

Proposals Of Muhammad Iqbal And Rahmat Ali Given For Formation A Separate Muslim State:-


1. Muhammad Iqbal:

Iqbal proposed to build a separate territory for the Muslims including Punjab, North West Frontier province,

Sindh and Baluchistan. solve the thought that this would solve the communal issues.

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2. Rahmat Ali:

In 1933 some Muslim students of Cambridge University published a pamphlet ‘Now or Never’under.

The leadership of Rahmat Ali in which a proposal was made for a separate Pakistan state consisting of Muslim-inhabited areas.

These areas included Punjab, North West Frontier Province, Sindh, and Kashmir.

The Muslim League did not accept the proposal then. Even the British government did not support it.

Question 11 Write a note on Poona Pact

Poona Pact:-


The British Prime Minster Macdonald declared the Communal Award in which the backward Hindu

classes were provided a separate electorate in the legislature. Gandhiji was highly grieved at this and began a fast till death at Jarbeda prison in Poona.

1. Signing of the treaty:

The national leaders became worried at Gandhiji’s decision to fast till death.

So a pact was signed between B. R. Ambedkar (representing the backward Hindu classes) and Rajendra Prasad (representing the Varna Hindus).

This was called Poona Pact and Gandhiji withdrew the fast expressing his approval for the Pact.

2. Importance:

Through the Poona Pact, an attempt was made to prevent the rift among the Hindus. The British failed to divide Hindu society on a communal basis.

However, the upper-class Hindus could not accept Gandhiji’s compromise with the backward Hindu classes.

Question 12. State the significance of Simla Deputation.

Significance of Simla Deputation:

1. Improvement of British Muslim relationship:

The sympathy shown by Lord Minto to the Simla Deputation improved the relationship of the British with the Muslims.

2. Decrease in preference for Hindus:

The preference that the Hindus had been getting from the British authorities in London was greatly reduced as a result of this deputation.

3. Prestige of Muslims as an independent community:

Though the Muslims were a minority in India, the privileges which were assured to them raised their prestige as an independent community.

Question 13. Write a note on Simla’s Deputation.

Simla’s Deputation:-

1. Introduction:

A Muslim delegation of 35 members met the then Viceroy Lord Minto under the leadership of Aga Khan.

They brought a memorandum written by Archbold, the Principal of Aligarh College, and submitted a deputation demanding some privileges for the Muslims.

This is referred to as Simla Deputation.

2. Demands of the deputation:

  1. Recruitment of Muslims at high posts in civil, military, and judicial fields without any competitive examinations.
  2. Appointment of Muslims in greater numbers in civil and military jobs.
  3. Fixed reservation of seats for the Muslims in the Municipality, Zilla Parishad, and Senate as well as a syndicate of the Universities.
  4. The separate electorate for the Muslims in the Central and State legislatures.

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic B The Communal Divide And The Decision Of Partition Of India State Whether The Following Statements Are True Or False

Question 1. The word ‘Pakistan’ means holy land.
Answer: True

Question 2. The word Pakistan was first proposed by Chaudhuri Rahmat Ali.
Answer: True

Question 3. Jinnah called for Direct Action on August 16, 1946.
Answer: True

Question 4. The book ‘The Indian Mussalmans’ was written by William Hunter.
Answer: True

Question 5. Muhammad Iqbal was a famous Urdu poet and a spokesman for Pakistan.
Answer: True

Question 6. Liberation Day was observed on December 22, 1939
Answer: True

Question 7. The Simla Deputation (1906) was led by Aga Khan.
Answer: True

Question 8. The Hindu Mahasabha was founded by Madan Mohan Malviya.
Answer: True

Question 9. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the first President of the Muslim League.
Answer: False

Question 10. The memorandum of the Simla Deputation was written by Archbold.
Answer: True

Question 11. The Simla Deputation was led by Salimullah, the Nawab of Dhaka
Answer: False

Question 12. The National Voluntary Organisation was formed in 1925 by Hedgewar and Mutrez who left Hindu Mahasabha.
Answer: True

Question 13. The Punjab Hindu Sabha was founded by U. N. Mukherjee and Lalchand in 1909.
Answer: True

Question 14. The Lucknow Pact was signed between Congress and Muhammad Ali Jinnah under the initiative of the extremist leader Tilak.
Answer: True

Question 15. The Purification movement of the Arya Samaj against the Tanzim and Tabligh of the Muslims created an environment of communalism.
Answer: True

Question 16. The British Prime Minister Mountbatten announced the Communal Award scheme.
Answer: False

Question 17. The Muslim League called for Direct Action under the leadership of Jinnah.
Answer: True

Question 18. The Statesman called the riot which occurred in Kolkata as a result of Direct Action, The Great Calcutta Killing.
Answer: True

Question 19. Fazlul Huq, the Prime Minister of Bengal raised the proposal of an independent Muslim province at the Lahore session of the Muslim League.
Answer: True

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic B The Communal Divide And The Decision Of Partition Of India Fill In The Blanks By Selecting The Appropriate Expressions From The Brackets

Question 1. The Poona Pact was signed between _________________ (Gandhi and Irwin/Gandhi and Jinnah/Gandhi and Dr. Ambedkar).

Answer: Gandhi and Dr. Ambedkar

Question 2. __________________ (Gandhiji/Jinnah/Subhas Chandra) had instructed to observe Liberation Day.

Answer: Jinnah

Question 3. Hindu Mahasabha was founded in __________________ (1914/1915/1916).

Answer: 1915

Question 4. The Simla Deputation was sent in __________________ (1904/1905/1906).

Answer: 1906

Question 5. The __________________ (Delhi Proposal/Karachi Proposal/Lahore Proposal) of the Muslim League was called Pakistan Proposal though it did not contain the word Pakistan.

Answer: Lahore Proposal

Question 6. In 1940 the draft of the Lahore Proposal of the Muslim League was made by __________________ (Muhammad Iqbal/Sikandar Hayat Khan/ Liyaqat Ali).

Answer: Sikandar Hayat Khan

Question 7. The Prime Minister of Bengal __________________ (Abul Kasim Fazlul Huq/Salimullah/Aga Khan) raised the Lahore Proposal at the conference of the Muslim League in 1940.

Answer: Abul Kasim Fazlul Huq

Question 8. Muhammad Ali Jinnah submitted his Four Teen Points in __________________ (1927/1928/1929).

Answer: 1929

Question 9. The draft for Pakistan’s proposal of the Muslim League at the Lahore session was made by __________________ (Sikander Hayat Khan/ Choudhuri Rahmat Ali/Muhammad Iqbal).

Answer: Sikander Hayat Khan

Question 10. The British government approved the Indian Independence Act in __________________ (1943/1945/1947).

Answer: 1947

Question 11. The National Congress and the Muslim League accepted the India partition plan of  __________________ (Mountbatten/Wavell/Cripps) in

Answer: Mountbatten

Question 12. Mountbatten’s declaration of Pakistan was criticized as handicapped and worm-eaten by __________________ (Jinnah/Liaquat Ali Khan/Syed Surahwardi).

Answer: Jinnah

Question 13. The first Governor General of Pakistan was __________________ (Muhammad Ali Jinnah/Liaquat Ali
Khan/Syed Surahwardi).

Answer: Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Question 14. The first Prime Minister of Pakistan was  __________________ (Liaquat Ali Khan/Jinnah/Maulana
Abul Kalam Azad).

Answer: Liaquat Ali Khan

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic B The Communal Divide And The Decision Of Partition Of India Answer In A Complete Sentence

Question 1. Name a Swarajist leader.
Answer: Motilal Nehru was a Swarajist leader.

Question 2. When were the provincial assembly elections held by the Government of India Act (1935)?
Answer: The elections to the provincial assembly were held in 1937 by the Government of India Act (1935).

Question 3. When has the Calcutta riot happened?
Answer: The Calcutta riot happened on 16th August 1946.

Question 4. Name an extremist Hindu nationalist organization.
Answer: Hindu Mahasabha is an extremist Hindu nationalist organization.

Question 5. Who founded the Krishak Praja Party?
Answer: A. K. Fazlul Huq founded the Krishak Praja Party.

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic B The Communal Divide And The Decision Of Partition Of India Select The Most Appropriate Explanation For The Following Statement

Question 1. Competition and conflict began among the various religious communities over the question of privileges.

  1. In colonial India, communities gave priority to their respective religions.
  2. In colonial India religious identity was the chief concern for the communities.
  3. The various religious communities bore grudges against each other.

Answer: 2. In colonial India religious identity was the chief concern for the communities.

Question 2. A large section of the Indian Muslims began to move away from the national movement.

  1. Many Muslims became victims of politics while trying to preserve their communal existence.
  2. The issue of the development of Muslims did not find a place in the national movement.
  3. The Hindus held the reins of the national movement.

Answer: 1. Many Muslims became victims of politics while trying to preserve their communal existence.

Question 3. The Khilafat Movement lost momentum in 1924.

  1. The British government let loose cruel repressive measures upon the Khilafatists.
  2. The post of the Caliph was abolished in Turkey.
  3. The Khilafatists joined the Non-cooperation Movement.

Answer: 2. The post of the Caliph was abolished in Turkey.

Question 4. Muhammad Ali Jinnah rejected the C. R. Formula.

  1.  It was against the interest of the Muslims.
  2.  It did not mention anything about United India.
  3. It did not recognize Pakistan. separately.

Answer: 3. It did not recognize Pakistan. separately.

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic B The Communal Divide And The Decision Of Partition Of India Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1. The president of the Muslim League’s Lahore session was

  1. Fazlul Huq
  2. Khwaja Abdul Rahman
  3. Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  4. Chowdhury Rahmat Ali

Answer: 3. Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Question 2. The leader of the Unionist Party was

  1. Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan
  2. C. Rajagopalachari
  3. Motilal Nehru
  4. Muhammad Iqbal

Answer: 1. Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan

Question 3. Simla session was held in

  1. 1940
  2. 1942
  3. 1945
  4. 1947

Answer: 2. 1942

Question 4. ‘August Offer’ in 1940 was declared by

  1. Lord Ripon
  2. Lord Lytton
  3. Lord Linlithgow
  4. Lord Wavell

Answer: 3. Lord Linlithgow

Question 5. ‘Pakistan Proposal’ was accepted at

  1. Calcutta session
  2. Lahore session
  3. Dhaka session
  4. Delhi session

Answer: 2. Lahore session

Question 6. Indian Independence Act was passed i

  1. 1947
  2. 1946
  3. 1945
  4. 1942

Answer: 1. 1947

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