WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic A The Rise Of Communalism In Colonial India

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Salient Points At A Glance

1. Communalism:

The word communalism has various connotations. In Bengali, it implies differences in religious views.

In the mid-nineteenth century, communalism referred to the strong grudge that one religious sect bore toward another.

People who believe in communalism think that the interests of people belonging to different religions are different.

2. Divide and rule policy:

The policy adopted by the British government to arouse racial and communal disunity and malice was called the Divide and Rule policy.

The discriminatory policy of the British was really responsible for the rise of communalism in Indian politics.

The shrewd British rulers thought that they could maintain their imperialistic rule in India

by implementing a divide-and-rule policy since the country was already divided into so many castes, races, and religions.

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3. Communal division and the separate electorate:

The British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald introduced the Communal Award on August 16, 1932, to create a rift in the unity of the Indians.

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The main objective was to weaken the national movement. It was actually a package in which the Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, and Anglo-Direct Indians were given separate electorates.

Again, the backward Hindus were also regarded as a separate minority group.

In this way, an attempt was made to destroy the unity of the Hindus. The declaration of the Communal Award made the communal issue more complicated.

4. Muslim League:

The Mohammedan Educational Conference was organized in 1906 under the leadership of Nawab Vikar ul Mulk.

At this conference, the All India Muslim League was founded in the presence of 8000 representatives. Aga Khan became the first president of the League.

Mohsin ul Mulk and Vikar ul Mulk were elected as joint secretaries. The emergence of the League gave rise to the dual nation concept.

In later years the activities of the League paved the way for the division of India and the separate state of Pakistan was created.

5. Hindu Mahasabha:

The All India Hindu Mahasabha was founded on April 9, 1915, at Haridwar during Kumbhamela by the efforts of Madan Mahan Malviya.

Other associated members were Bhai Paramananda, Munje, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Ashutosh Mukherjee, Motilal Ghosh, Lala Hansraj, Munshiram (Swami Shraddhananda) Rambhuj Dutta and Bhagwan Dutta.

This organization was founded to safeguard the interest of the Hindus.

6. Direct action:

Congress finally accepted the proposal of the Cabinet Mission and agreed to join the ‘Interim Government’.

Viceroy Lord Wavell invited Jawaharlal Nehru to form the cabinet. This offended the Muslim League and they decided to protest under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

The Muslim League called upon the Muslim society to observe August 16, 1946, as the Direct Action Day against the government.

Though it was called against the government it practically turned into a fratricidal riot against the Hindus.

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7. The Great Calcutta Killing (Calcutta Riot):

Viceroy Wavell invited Jawaharlal Nehru to form the cabinet on August 12, 1946.

As a protest against this, under the leadership of Jinnah, the Muslim League called upon the Muslims to observe August 16 as a Direct Action Day against the government.

At that time, the cabinet minister in Kolkata was led by Surahwardi.

Under his instigation, a massacre was committed in Bengal while the police and administration remained completely neutral.

The situation continued for four days. Just in Kolkata, 6000 people were killed and 20000 women were raped The Statesman referred to this incident as the ‘Great Calcutta Killing”.

8. Radcliff Line:

In 1947, the National Congress and Muslim League accepted Mountbatten’s plan of partition. Two frontier commissions were set up to divide Bengal and Punjab.

The British lawyer Cyril Radcliff was the President of the Commission. He prepared a map showing the partition of India and this is called Radcliff Line.

However, it was done in an irresponsible way since he did not have clear knowledge about the frontier of India.

The map was erroneous because Radcliff did not take the opinion of the inhabitants of Bengal and Punjab and did the work in a great hurry.

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic A The Rise Of Communalism In Colonial India

Question 1. Discuss the background of the establishment of the Muslim League.
Answer:

The Background Of The Establishment Of The Muslim League:-

Introduction:

The success of the Simla Deputation (1906) encouraged Muslim leaders to establish an all Indian Muslim political institution to protect the interests of their community.

Therefore, the Muslim League was established on December 30, 1906, under the initiative of Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka.

Background Of The Founding Of the Muslim League-

1. Primary initiative:

Muslim leaders like Vikar ul Mulk, Mohsin ul Mulk and others thought of forming a separate political organization to protect the interests of the Muslims.

For this purpose, they called a meeting at Lucknow in October 1901 but their attempt failed.

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2. Letter of Vikar ul mulk:

Vikar ul Mulk wrote a letter to the editor of the Pioneer in October 1903.

He wrote that the personal demands of the Indian Muslims, who were a minority, had to be placed in front of the government.

This letter helped form public opinion in favor of establishing a separate political organization for Muslims.

3. Demand For Forming A Political Party:

On the eve of the Simla Deputation, the Muslim leaders met at a private conference in Lucknow on September 16, 1906, and had a serious discussion about The establishment of an all-India political party for their own community.

Then they placed the proposal before Lord Minto on October 1. Aga Khan has written in his autobiography.

“The Muslim leaders who participated in the Simla conference have unanimously agreed that their future depended on an independent organization and a fixed strategy.

4. Formation of Muslim League:

Finally, on December 30, 1906, the All India Muslim League was founded at the Mohammedan Education Conference in the presence of 8000 representatives under The presidency of Vikar ul Mulk.

Aga Khan became the first President and Vikar ul Mulk and Mohsin ul Mulk became the Joint Secretaries of the League.

Significance:

The Two Nation theory propounded by the Muslim League later on partitioned India permanently.

The Muslim League said that social alliance between the Hindus and the Muslims was possible but political alliance was absolutely impossible.

A. B. Rajput said, “This proves beyond doubt that India is no more a single nation, it can no more be made so.”

Question 2 Give an account of the Khilafat Movement.
Answer:

Khilafat Movement:-

Introduction:

The Khilafat Movement was an important phase of the Indian freedom movement. It created a golden opportunity for Hindu Muslim alliance.

Gandhiji said that such an opportunity would not come again even if one waited for a hundred years.

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Description Of the Khilafat Movement

1. Beginning:

It was decided to celebrate the Khilafat Day on October 17, 1919. Both Hindus and Muslims celebrated the day jointly.

When Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali, and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad were released from prison in 1920 the Khilafat Movement gained momentum.

2. Causes:

In the First World War, Turkey joined Germany against England. So after the war ended the Allies split up the Turkish empire.

The Turkish Sultan was revered by the Muslims as Caliph or religious head. The action of the Allies aggrieved all the Muslim societies of the world.

The Indian Muslims then started the anti-British Khilafat Movement.

3. Demands:

The Khilafat Movement had three chief demands

  1. Keep the Caliphate intact,
  2. Keep the Caliph’s control over Arabia, Syria, and Palestine undisturbed and maintain the sovereignty,
  3. Stop foreign interference over Mecca and Madina.

4. Agenda:

In June 1920 the central Khilafat committee announced their program of the Non-cooperation Movement. Their agenda. included

  1. boycott of governmental titles and unpaid posts,
  2.  resignation from government and military services,
  3.  Stop paying revenue.

5. Khilafat Conference:

The All India Khilafat Conference was held in 1919 by the initiative of Shaukat Ali, Muhammad Ali, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, and Azmal Khan.

Gandhiji was elected the President of the session.

In this session, it was decided that a non-cooperation policy would be adopted against The government if the Khilafat issue was not sorted out soon.

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6. Gandhiji’s support:

Gandhiji regarded the Khilafat Movement as a golden opportunity for Hindu-Muslim unity.

In Young India, he wrote, “If I regard the Muslims as my brothers then it is my duty to help them at the utmost when they are in trouble and are working towards keeping justice.

” These words of Gandhiji overwhelmed the Khilafat Committee.

7. End of Movement:

Gandhiji refused the Kaizer I Hind medal given by the British government and thus initiated the Movement.

In 1922 Mustafa Kamaal Pasha came to power in Turkey. He abolished the Caliph’s post and declared Turkey a secular state. So the Khilafat Movement lost its importance.

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic A The Rise Of Communalism In Colonial India Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. State the significance of the Aligarh Movement.
Answer:

Significance Of The Aligarh Movement:-

1. Initiation of Two Nation Theory:

The Aligarh Movement initiated the Two Nation Theory in national politics. This movement initiated the concept that the Hindus and Muslims were two different nations.

2. Emergence of separatist tendency:

The Aligarh Movement sowed the seeds of separation among the Indians. The effect of such separation was the collapse of communal unity between the Hindus and the Muslims.

3. Partition of India:

A far-reaching effect of the Aligarh Movement was that it paved the way for the partition of India.

Later on, the leaders of the Muslim League demanded a separate Muslim territory under the leadership of Jinnah.

Question 2. State the importance of the Khilafat Movement.
Answer:

Importance Of The Khilafat Movement:-

The Khilafat Movement was a very important part of the Indian national struggle.

1. Increase in Gandhiji’s acceptability:

The Khilafat Movement increased Gandhiji’s prestige.

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He became more popular among the Muslims as a national leader through this movement.

2. Disillusion against the British rule:

This movement succeeded in disillusioning the Muslims towards British rule to a large extent. Research scholar Aziz has written,

“The Khilafat movement put an end to Muslim loyalty like a folktale.”

3. Foundation for Non-Cooperation Movement:

The Khilafat Movement served as the foundation or stepping stone for the Non-cooperation Movement.

Question 3. State the features of the Aligarh Movement.
Answer:

Features of the Aligarh Movement:

  1. The Movement lacked the support of the poor and backward classes of society.
  2. The chief aim of the Movement was to bring about an overall development of Muslim society through reformation programs with the help of the British.
  3. This Movement was opposed by the orthodox Maulavis and Mollahs who were against reforms.
  4. The root of this Movement was the fact that students from all classes were not allowed to enter. So people from all sections of society did not participate in it.
  5. This Movement had two streams one was orthodox and anti-British, and the other was progressive and loyal to the British.

Question 4. What was the role of Theodor Beck in the Aligarh Movement?
Answer:

Role Of Theodor Beck In The Aligarh Movement:-

Theodor Beck was the Vice Chancellor of Aligarh University. He edited a literary journal named Institute Gazette through which he began to spread Communalism.

However, it was the British government that encouraged Beck’s activities because Beck was made the Vice Chancellor to put the Divide and Rule policy into action while maintaining political faithlessness.

Beck himself acknowledged in Rajendra Prasad’s ‘Divided India’ that he had played an important role in opposing the National Congress and had formed an association named United Patriotic Association.

Question 5. Mention the background of the Aligarh Movement.
Answer:

Background Of The Aligarh Movement:

1. Deprivation In Securing High Posts:

The Hindus availed themselves of Western education and secured high governmental posts and thus improved their position. The Muslims remained aloof and backward.

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So leaders like Syed Ahmed and Theodor Beck tried to take them forward.

2. Compromise With The British:

The Muslim leaders could make the people understand that their community would benefit if they would compromise with the British and avail themselves of the privileges offered by the British.

Question 6. What were the limitations of the Aligarh Movement?
Answer:

Limitations Of The Aligarh Movement:-

Limitations: The Aligarh Movement had some limitations which were as follows

1. Communal:

The Aligarh Movement was based on religious bigots from the very beginning and went on to assume an ugly communal form.

2. Urban-centered:

This Movement was confined to the educated upper classes of the cities. So it failed to influence the whole country.

3. Lacked mass character:

The agenda of the Movement had nothing to do with the majority of the Muslim society. So it could never assume the character of a mass movement.

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic A The Rise Of Communalism In Colonial India State Whether The Following Statements Are True True Or False

Question 1. Syed Ahmed Khan was called the Father of the Two Nation Theory in India.
Answer: True

Question 2. Nawab Salimullah was the Nawab of Dhaka and the architect of the Muslim League.
Answer: True

Question 3. Aga Khan preached the Two-Nation theory.
Answer: False

Question 4. Salimullah was the Nawab of Murshidabad.
Answer: False

Question 5. The All India Muslim League was founded at the Mohammedan Educational Conference in Dhaka under the leadership of Nawab Vikar ul Mulk.
Answer: True

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Question 6. The British government introduced Persian instead of Urdu as the medium of education and as an official language in governmental jobs in Ayodhya and north west province.
Answer: True

Question 7. The British government gave many privileges to the Muslims through Morley- Minto Reforms Act.
Answer: True

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic A The Rise Of Communalism In Colonial India Fill In The Blanks By Selecting The Appropriate Expressions From The Brackets

Question1. Muslim League was established in _________ (1905/1906/1907).
Answer: 1906

Question2. _________ (Syed Ahmed Khan/Theodor Beck/ Archbold) was the first Principal of Aligarh College.
Answer: Theodor Beck

Question3. _________ (Syed Ahmed Khan/A.K.Fazlul Huq/ Jinnah) was the first to introduce the Two Nation Theory in Indian politics.
Answer: Syed Ahmed Khan

Question4.(Urdu/English/Hindi) recognized as an official language instead. of Persian in 1837.
Answer: English

Question5. The All India Muslim League was founded at the Mohammedan education conference held in _________ (Dhaka/Kolkata/ Lahore) in 1906.
Answer: Dhaka

Question6. The post of the Caliph of Turkey was abolished in _________ (1920/1924/1928).
Answer: 1924

Question7. The election for the provincial legislature was held according to _________ (Montague Chelmsford/India Government/Morley Minto) Act.
Answer: Indian Government

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic A The Rise Of Communalism In Colonial India Answer In A Complete Sentence.

Question 1. Who was the founder of the Aligarh movement?
Answer: Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was the founder of the Aligarh movement.

Question 2. When did Sir Syed Ahmad die?
Answer: Sir Syed Ahmad died in 1898.

Question 3. What did Sir Syed Ahmad think about the Congress?
Answer: Sir Syed Ahmad considered Congress as a representative organization of the Hindu community and instructed the Muslims not to join it.

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Question 4. Which movement initiated the modernization of Muslim society?
Answer: Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s Aligarh movement initiated the modernization of Muslim Society.

Question 5. Name two young Muslim leaders who were deeply influenced by the Ulema at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Answer: Muhammed Ali and Shaukat Ali were two young Muslim leaders who were deeply influenced by the Ulema at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Question 6. Name a person who opposed Sir Syed’s idea of Westernisation.
Answer: Jamaluddin Al-Afghani opposed Sir Syed’s idea of Westernization.

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic A The Rise Of Communalism In Colonial Indiaselect The Most Appropriate Explanation For The Following Statement

Question 1. In colonial India,

the identity of the Muslims began to be determined by their religion.

  1. The colonial government demarcated the Indian Muslims as a separate religious sect.
  2. The Muslims in India emerged as a different community.
  3. The Indian Muslims showed much interest in displaying their religious identity.

Answer: 1. The colonial government demarcated the Indian Muslims as a separate religious sect.

Question 2. Statement The colonial government took different administrative measures for different social groups.

  1. It was not possible to take the same measures for all sections of society.
  2. The colonial authorities discriminated against the different classes.
  3. Adopting the same measure was harmful to the interest of the British Empire.

Answer: 2. The colonial authorities discriminated among the different classes.

Question 3. The Muslims gradually suffered a setback in securing government jobs and in the case of other facilities.

  1. The average level of academic ability of Muslims was quite low.
  2. The Muslims were indifferent towards government jobs and other privileges.
  3.  The rate of spread of English education among Muslims was less.

Answer: 3. The rate of spread of English education among Muslims was less.

Question 4. Towards the end of the 19th century, the Muslims began to feel more deprived in comparison to the Hindus.

  1. Majority of the Hindus. received a Western education and secured government jobs.
  2. The Hindus became the owners of large properties in colonial. India.
  3. The Hindus, who were al majority, captured all the privileges.

Answer: 1. Majority of the Hindus. received a Western education and secured government jobs.

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Question 5. Syed Ahmed Khan was directly opposed to the National Congress.

  1. The activities of the Congress were against the interest of the Muslims.
  2. The Congress party gave more preference to the Hindus.
  3.  He felt that the Congress was a representative body of the Hindus who were in the majority.

Answer: 3. He felt that Congress was a representative body of the Hindus who were in the majority.

Question 6. At the beginning of the 20th century, the action of Mohammedanisation was quite strong.

  1. The Muslims became more emotional about their religion.
  2. Young leaders like Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali were deeply influenced by the Ulemas.
  3. The Indian Muslims were inspired by the ideals of the Caliph.

Answer: 2. Young leaders like Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali were deeply influenced by the Ulemas.

Chapter 8 From Communalism To The Partition Topic A The Rise Of Communalism In Colonial India Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1. To weaken the nationalist movement the colonial government changed its policy. From

  1. 1850 Onwards
  2. 1860 Onwards
  3. 1870 Onwards
  4. 1880 Onwards

Answer: 3. 1870 Onwards

Question2. The Mohammedan educational conference was held in

  1. 1906
  2. 1910
  3. 1911
  4. 1919

Answer: 1. 1906

Question 3. Aligarh anglo oriental college was founded by

  1. Muhammed Ali
  2. Shaukat Ali
  3. Sirsyed Ahmad khan
  4. Badruddin table

Answer: 3. Sirsyed Ahmad Khan

Question 4. The Ganapati festival was started by

  1. Mohammed Ali Jinnah
  2. Mahatma Gandhi
  3. Bal gangadhar tilak
  4. Syed Mahmud

Answer: 3. Bal gangadhar tilak

Question 5. The aim of the Muslim League was

  1. To spread Islamic teaching all over India
  2. To restore khilafat
  3. To keep a watch over Muslim interests and political rights
  4. To achieve independence of India

Answer: 3. To keep a watch over Muslim interests and political rights

Question 6. Sir Syed Ahmad’s idea of Westernization was disliked by

  1. The Congress
  2. The Muslim League
  3. The ulema
  4. The Hindu extremist

Answer: 3. The ulema

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