WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 7 Nationalist Ideals And Their Evolution Topic A Indian National Movement Non Violent Movement Of Gandhiji Armed Revolution

Chapter 7 Nationalist Ideas And Their Evolution Salient Points At A Glance

1. Satyagraha:

The term Satyagraha is a combination of two words ‘Satya’ and ‘Agraha’. It was a new strategy introduced by Gandhiji in Indian politics.

The gist of this ideal was to win over the adversary through non-violence and self-suffering and to obtain the faith of the opponent by conquering fear.

2. Lahore Session of Congress:

The Lahore session of Congress held in 1929 was presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru.

The working committee of the Congress took a decision that until India became independent 26th January would be celebrated as the symbolic independence day.

Moreover, a strategy for launching a civil disobedience movement under the leadership of Gandhiji was also adopted in this session.

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3. Gandhi Irwin Pact:

After the first Round Table Conference the British became interested in signing a pact with the Congress.

On noticing such a change in the attitude of the government Gandhiji agreed to enter into a discussion with Viceroy Lord Irwin.

After a long discussion of fifteen days the Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed on March 5, 1931. Since it was signed in Delhi it was also called the Delhi Pact.

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The terms of the pact were

  1.  all the repressive acts and ordinances would be withdrawn
  2. all prisoners except those who were involved in acts of violence would be released.

4. Tinkathia System:

The ‘Tinkathia’ system was a system by which the cultivators of Champaran were compelled to grow indigo by the indigo planters in 3 katas of every 20 katas of land.

Moreover, the cultivators were compelled to sell the produce to the planters at the rate determined by the latter.

5. National Government of Tamralipta:

Tamralipta National Government was formed in 1942 in the Tamluk sub-division of Medinipur under the leadership of Satish Chandra Samanta.

When the agricultural system of Medinipur collapsed in a cyclone this government extended a helping hand towards the sufferers.

The British government had not sent enough relief materials to the affected areas.

The Tamralipta National Government took the initiative of distributing the surplus paddy of the rich persons among the poor. This government existed till September 1944.

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6. Nehru Report:

When the Simon Commission arrived in India on February 3, 1928, the Indian leaders expressed intense grudge against the commission and announced that they would formulate

the future constitution of India by themselves. So in the all-party conference in Delhi in February 1928,

a committee headed by Motilal Nehru (an ex-leader of the Swaraj Party) was entrusted with the responsibility of drafting the main policies to be included in the new Indian constitution.

This committee is known as the Nehru Committee. T

The reports submitted by the Nehru committee at the all-party conference in the Lucknow session of Congress in August 1928 are known as the ‘Nehru Report’ in history.

7. Kakori Conspiracy Case:

The members of the Hindustan Republican Association robbed a train at Kakori station near Lucknow on August 9, 1925, under the leadership of Ram Prasad Bismil and Chandrashekhar Azad.

They amassed huge government wealth to raise a fund for their revolutionary activities. Forty-four revolutionists were arrested and

the case which started against them came to be known as the Kakori conspiracy case.

Ram Prasad Bismil, Rajendranath Lahiri, Sachindranath Sanyal and three others departed for life and some others were sentenced to long-term imprisonment.

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8. Corridor Warfare:

On December 8, 1930, Binoy Bose, Badal Gupta and Dinesh Gupta attacked the Writer’s Building and killed Colonel Simpson (the notorious prison authority) and some other high officials.

Then a huge police force arrived from Lalbazar and firing and counter-firing continued for some time. This incident is known as Corridor Warfare.

9. Kabul Thesis:

Subhas Chandra left India and absconded to Kabul for a while.

At that time he published a document containing an Eight point agenda concerning his future.

plans and objectives of the Forward Bloc. This document is known as the Kabul thesis. Some of the items on the agenda were

  1. uncompromising struggles against imperialism to win complete national liberty.
  2. Construction of a completely modern and socialistic state.
  3. Manufacturing of industrial products in a scientific process for the sake of economic revival.
  4. Equal rights for all. He said, “Our revolution will not end only by driving away the British, another revolution is required in India after this to build up a new social system”.

Chapter 7 Nationalist Ideas And Their Evolution topic A Indian National Movement: Non-Violent Movement Of Gandhiji & Armed Revolution

Question 1. Give an idea of the political life of Gandhiji in South Africa.


The ‘Father of the Nation Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi’s political career was divided into two phases. Out of this 21 years of his political life were spent in South Africa.

He organised a movement against the white people in South Africa with the help of his non-violent Satyagraha and succeeded.

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Gandhiji’s Political Career In South Africa

1. First Phase:

The first phase consisted of the political struggle (1894-1906) of the Indians in South Africa under the leadership of Gandhiji.

1. Unifying the non-resident Indians:

Gandhiji first unified the non-resident Indians and tried to put forward their demands before the European government of South Africa.

So he established the Indian Congress and published a journal named ‘Indian Opinion’.

2. Opposition of the European government:

The European government had to submit before the indomitable tenacity of Gandhiji and was compelled to grant equal rights and enfranchisement to the Indians.

However, these rights were withdrawn in a few days and heavy taxes were imposed on the Indians. Gandhiji vehemently protested against this.

2. Second Phase:

1. Opposition to registrations:

Gandhiji was not so stern. towards the Pretoria government during the Boer’s War (1898) and the July Rebellion (1906) However, when it was made mandatory

that every Indian had to keep a registration certificate with fingerprints, Gandhiji got annoyed with the European Government of South Africa.

forbidden to enter Transvaal. Gandhiji was imprisoned and compelled to break stones like other prisoners.

2. Opposition to the marriage system:

The marriage method was regarded as illegal unless performed by a Christian. Gandhiji protested against this and organised a satyagraha to inspire the women.

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3. Protecting the interest of mine labourers:

Gandhiji organised the mine. labourers of New Castle in South Africa against the South African government and called a strike.

Finally, when the government was impelled to pass the Indian Relief Act (1914) the movement came to an end.

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Question 2. Discuss the role of Gandhiji in the Satyagraha movement of Champaran, Kheda and Ahmedabad or How did Gandhiji emerge in nationalist politics.


Gandhiji entered Indian politics as a national leader by successfully leading the Satyagraha Movements in Champaran, Kheda and Ahmedabad

Rise Of Gandhiji

1. Gandhiji’s role in Champaran Satyagraha Movement:

1. Leadership:

The government, annoyed at Gandhiji’s role, ordered him to leave Champaran.

Gandhiji disobeyed the order and collected information from about 8000 peasants.

Though he was arrested and taken to trial, the government was compelled to release him.

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2. Success:

As an indomitable effort, came to an end, the result of Gandhiji’s

  1. the Tinkathia system
  2. the indigo planters returned 25% of the peasant’s money to them,
  3. the British government passed the Agricultural Bill.

2. Gandhiji’s Role in Kheda Satyagraha Movement:

1. Leadership:

Gandhiji first adopted the policy of prayer and petition through the Sabha and prayed Gujarat Sabha to the Government for tax exemption.

However, the government turned down his request. The unrelenting attitude of the government compelled

Gandhiji adopted the path of Satyagraha along with youths like Ballabh Bhai Patel and Indulal Yagnik.

2. Success:

The Kheda Movement under the leadership of Gandhiji compelled the government to announce that taxes would be collected only from able farmers.

3. Gandiji’s Role in Ahmedabad Satyagraha Movement:

1. Leadership :

Gandhiji decided to stand by the labourers. He demanded an increase in the salary of the labourers in the mills but was turned down.

Then he instructed the labourers to go on a strike and himself sat on fast.

2. Significance:

The Movement of the labourers of the textile mills of Ahmedabad is quite significant due to some reasons.

  1. Through this Movement, Gandhiji came into close contact with the pleasures and pains of the Indian labour class.
  2. This Movement provided a personal political base to Gandhiji in the urban areas.
  3. The importance of fast as a weapon of political Movement could be understood. Gandhiji used this weapon successfully in his subsequent struggles.

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Question 3. Narrate briefly the history of the Khilafat movement.


The Indian Muslims started the Khilafat Movement to protect the Turkish empire and to reinstate the power and prestige of the Turkish Sultan.

Khilafat Movement

1. Demands:

Some important demands of Khilafat were

  1. to return the whole of Arabia (Jazirat ul Arab) to the Caliph of Turkey,
  2.  to prevent any interference in the earthly or religious rights of the Caliph,
  3. to preserve the integrity of all the Muslim states in the world, and
  4. to prevent foreign interference in holy places like Mecca and Madina.

2. Beginning of Movement:

The ‘Khilafat Divas’ or Khilafat Day was called on October 17, 1919. Both Hindus and Muslims celebrated it together.

3. Spread:

The All India Khilafat conference was organised by the Ali brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

Some businessmen of Mumbai founded the Majlis I Khilafat. When the Khilafat issue was at a special session in Kolkata, this Movement spread.

3. End of the Movement:

When the Sultani Khalifa system was abolished in Turkey under the leadership of Mustafa Kamaal Pasha the Khilafat Movement became irrelevant.

4. Significance:

The Khilafat Movement occupies an important place in the history of the Indian freedom struggle.

  1. The Khilafat Movement disillusioned the Muslim society towards British rule.
  2. This Movement formed the basis of the Non-cooperation Movement.
  3. As Gandhiji attached himself to this Movement he became more acceptable to the Muslims as a national leader.

Question 4 Write down the background of the Non-cooperation Movement.


The Indian National Congress participated directly in the anti-British movement after 35 years of abandoning the policy of political beggary.

On analysing the background of the movement, the following facts have been disclosed.

1. Failure to achieve self-rule:

The British government had promised to grant self-rule to the Indians at the end of the First World War in exchange for using the wealth and human resources of India in the war.

However, they did not keep their promise after the war. So the aggrieved and disappointed Indians prepared themselves for a mass movement.

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2. Rowlatt Act:

The British Government passed the Rowlatt Act on March 18, 1919, to suppress the Indian nationalist and revolutionary movement.

As the personal liberty and right to justice of the Indians were seized by the Rowlatt Act, the Indians organised a mass movement.

3. Khilafat issue:

Gandhiji wanted to merge the anti-British movement, which grew up among the Muslims over the Khilafat issue, with the national movement.

The Non-cooperation Movement emerged out of that effort.

4. Plight of labourers and peasants:

Though the number of labourers increased in India after the First World War they got no facilities for payment, lodging or security.

On the other hand, the government raised the revenue for reasons related to war.

The peasants were unable to pay the additional taxes since the price of agricultural goods did not increase.

The misery of the peasants and labourers created the background for the mass movement.

5. Price rise:

The First World War pushed the Indians towards an acute economic crisis. Inflation and price rise frustrated the Indians.

The prices of essential items like rice, wheat, sugar, medicine and clothes increased considerably.

6. Contemporary International:

The Russian Revolution, the Sin fin Movement of Ireland, the anti-British Movement in Egypt under the leadership of Juglul Pasha and the mass movement in Turkey.

the leadership of Kamaal Pusha inspired the Indians to organise anti-British mass movements all over the country.

Question 5. Give an account of the Non-cooperation Movement.


The Congress gave up a ‘political beggary’ after a long time and launched the anti-British Non-cooperation Movement.

This Movement, aimed at achieving self-rule, was the first all-India mass movement.

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Account of the Non-cooperation movement

1. Background:

1. Failure of achieving self-rule:

After the First World War, the British government gave Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act to the Indians instead of self-rule.

2. Economic crisis:

The Indian economy faced a crisis due to reasons related to the First World War.

3. Rowlatt Act:

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was a dire outcome of the Rowlatt Act and this incensed the entire nation.

4. Khilafat issue:

A situation was created for national movement by utilising the Khilafat issue with the active cooperation of the Indian Muslims.

2. Objectives: The main objectives of the Movement were

1. Main objective:

The main objective of the Non-cooperation Movement was to achieve complete freedom through non-violent means.

2. Other objectives:

  1. A satisfactory solution to the Khilafat issue
  2. Withdrawal of the repressive Rowlatt Act
  3. punishment of the officials responsible for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
  4. Putting an end to communalism, untouchability and casteism.

3. Agenda :

There were two facets of the agenda of the Non-cooperation Movement positive and negative.

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1 Positive facet:

  1. Collection of a contribution of 1 crore 20 lakhs of rupees by Tilak for
  2. building of Swaraj Fund, indigenous industrial units,
  3. distribution of 20 lakhs of spinning wheels,
  4. removing untouchability, grouping with
  5. forming a voluntary 1 crore members,
  6. building up Hindu-Muslim unity and Forming an arbitration board.

2. Negative agenda:

  1. Discarding all royal titles,
  2. discarding all governmental posts,
  3.  resigning from self-ruled institutions,
  4. boycott of governmental programmes,
  5.  withdrawal of names from governmental educational institutions by both students and teachers,
  6. boycott of English goods,
  7. boycott of legislature and courts.

4. Beginning of the Movement:

The proposal for Non-cooperation Movement was passed unanimously at the annual session of the Congress at Nagpur in December 1920.

The Non-cooperation Movement formally began on August 1, 1920.

5. Spread :

The Non-cooperation Movement spread over the neighbouring areas of U.P., Gujarat, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Bengal.

Satyagraha started in Bardouli and Ahmedabad in Gujarat. The landless peasants of Andhra started the Vana Satyagraha.

The Akali Movement started in Jalandhar and Amritsar of Punjab. The peasant revolt in Malabar assumed a militant form through the Mopala revolt.

6. End of the Movement:

The agitators at Chaurichaura in U.P. set fire to the police station. As a result, 22 policemen died and Gandhiji decided to withdraw from the Movement.

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Question 6. Write down the consequences of the Non-cooperation movement.


The Non-cooperation. movement led by Gandhiji was the first widespread mass movement of the Indians. The effects of this Movement were quite far-reaching.

1. Revolutionist tendency of the Movement:

The long-drawn Indian freedom movement deviated from its constitutional path and developed a revolutionist tendency.

2. Rise of political awareness:

The Non-cooperation Movement created political awareness among the Indians. The common people were inspired by anti-British sentiment for the first time.

3. Increase in the prestige and influence of the Congress:

Whether the Non-cooperation Movement was successful or not, it increased the influence and prestige of the National Congress to a large extent.

Many branches of the National Congress grew up even in remote villages.

4. Gandhiji’s emergence as a national leader:

Gandhiji successfully led the Movement and became a national leader. He was widely accepted as a leader by the common people.

5. Inspiration for subsequent movements:

Later on, several small movements grew up in the model of the Non-cooperation Movement like the Akali Movement and Anti taxation Movement of the peasants of Bardauli taluka in Surat.

6. Economic self-dependence:

The country once again became self-reliant as the Khadi textile industry and other native industries developed. The tax collection by the government also decreased a lot.

7. Rise in desire for independence:

This Movement greatly increased the desire of the Indians for independence. The subsequent movements became freedom movements in the true sense of the term.

Question 7. What was the impact of the First World War on India?


The First World War began on July 28, 1914, and ended on November 11, 1918. This world war left a deep impact on the economy,

society and politics of India as in other countries of the world.

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Impact Of First World War On India

1. In Economy: Financial Crisis:

The Indian economy faced a deep crisis after the First World War. The British government used much of the wealth and resources of India in this war.

The Indian economy was greatly harmed while supplying the resources required for the war

2. Ruin of native industries and trade:

The First World War affected the Indian industrialists and traders adversely.

After the world war, the goods produced in England once again captured the Indian markets thereby stagnating native industries and trade.

2. In the Social system:

The First World War affected Indian society in various ways.

  1. The narrow nationalism that had prevailed before the war now became quite liberal and generous.
  2. The nationalism which was so long confined to the urban intellectuals now spread among the illiterate labourers, farmers and artisans who lived in the villages.

3. In politics:

  1. Since the beginning of the First World War, the revolutionists within India and abroad tried to achieve freedom. The revolutionary activities started with the help of external powers
  2. During the war there was a merger between the Moderates and Extremists and the Hindu Muslim unity developed through the Lucknow Pact and the national movement was strengthened.

Question 8. Give an account of the movement of the Indians against the Simon Commission.


The Simon Commission was formed to fulfil the demands of the Indians regarding administrative and constitutional reforms.

The Indians were greatly angry at the formation of the Simon Commission for the third time after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the Rowlatt Act.

Agitation Of Indians Against The Simon Commission-

1. Backdrop:

The Swarajya Party raised the demand for the reconsideration of the Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act under the leadership of Chittaranjan Das in 1919.

So the British Parliament formed the ‘Indian Statutory Commission’ under the leadership of John Simon in 1927 for constitutional reforms.

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2. Vow to boycott the Commission:

The Indians were highly aggrieved at being deprived of the right to determine their own good and bad. This grievance added momentum to the national movement.

All the political parties including the Congress, Muslim League and the Leftists unanimously took a vow to boycott

the Simon Commission socially and politically. So a new slogan ‘Go back Simon’ was created.

1. Movement in Mumbai:

When the Simon Commission arrived at Bombay Port on February 3, 1928, the public burst out into agitation.

A strike was observed all over the country on that day. There were processions with black flags and pamphlets with the slogan ‘Go back, Simon’.

2. Movement in Lahore:

On October 30, 1928, an anti-Simon procession was organised in Lahore and the demonstrators were mercilessly beaten up by the police.

The aged leader Lala Lajpat Rai was seriously injured and died on November 17.

3. Movement in Kolkata:

When Simon came to Kolkata the people observed a general strike and abstained from cooking in their houses.

The students and youths assumed an important role by leading the agitation. against the Simon Commission.

4 All-Party conferences in Delhi:

A committee was formed under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru, an ex-leader of the Swarajya Party, at an all-party conference in Delhi.

This committee was entrusted with the responsibility of drafting the chief policies. of the new constitution of India.

It was decided that the country’s fate would be determined by national leaders only and not by any foreign commission.

In this way, the Simon Commission was ignored and boycotted from all aspects.

Question 9. What do you know about Montague Chelmsford’s reforms?

Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act

1. Background:

When the Morley Minto Reforms (1909) failed the British felt the need of formulating another administrative reforms act.

So the Secretary of State for India Andrew Stanley Montague and Viceroy Lord Chelmsford together passed an act which was known as Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act (1919).

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2. Objectives:

To involve Indians in the judiciary, legislature and executive, to strengthen the self-government institutions, and to entrust more responsibilities to Indians in the provincial governments.

3. Clauses or sections:

The main clauses of this act were as follows

It was proposed that India would remain under British domain, a responsible government would be formed in India gradually, Indians would be allowed to participate in the administration,

  1. a dual government would be introduced in the provinces,
  2. the central legislative assembly would comprise upper and lower houses,
  3. the minority Muslim community would form a separate electorate,
  4. in the elections, seats would be reserved for undeveloped backward communities,
  5. law council with five British members and three Indian members would be formed within the Governor General’s executive committee.

4. Flaws:

  1. By this law, all the powers were concentrated in the hands of the Governor General and his Executive Council;
  2. as the right to vote was confined to a handful of aristocrats, the right to vote of the general public was not acknowledged;
  3. Communal harmony was disrupted because Muslims as well as other religious minorities were given separate electorates.

5. Reaction:

Since the demands of Indians were ignored in the Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act, the Indian leaders protested vehemently.

Tilak asked everybody to reject the Act as it was not fit for consideration. Anne Besant called the Reforms Act an insult to both Britain and India.

Question 10 Write a note on the role of the Swarajya Party.


The failure and end of the Non-cooperation Movement created a void in the national movement of India.

All eminent leaders including Gandhiji were arrested and the anti-British freedom movement suffered a setback.

So the Swarajya Party arose to keep national politics in motion.

Role Of Swarajya Party

1. Formation:

Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das formed Congress Khilafat Swaraj Dal within the Congress on January 1, 1923, with the help of Motilal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose.

It was later named Swarajya Party. The president and secretary were Chittaranjan Das and Motilal Nehru respectively.

2. Objectives:

The chief aim of the Swarajya Party was to attain colonial self-government.

According to Chittaranjan Das, the objectives of the Swarajya Party would be to express faith in Congress policies,

to boycott foreign goods, to boycott courts and schools, to oppose the government by participating in the legislative assembly and if needed, to begin the civil disobedience movement.

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3. Agenda:

The agenda of the Swarajya Party included

  1. to oppose the government in the legislative assembly;
  2. to criticise and reject governmental budget;
  3. to help in the progress of nationalism by raising various bills and proposals;
  4.  to adopt a specific economic policy and stop foreign oppression;
  5.  to embarrass the government and disturb the activities of the legislative council as a protest against depriving the Indians of the right to frame their own constitution.

4. Contribution of the Swarajya Party to the national movement:

1. A demand appropriation:

The Swarajya Party established that it was possible to get the demands fulfilled by staying within the legislature and opposing the government from there.

2. Adoption of constructive schemes:

When the Congress was passing through a crisis the Swarajya Party planned constructive schemes and agendas in conformity with the policies of the Congress.

3. Opposition to faulty budget:

The members of the Swarajya Party participated in the legislative assembly as Indian representatives and opposed the faulty budget of the government.

4. Administrative reforms:

The government was finally compelled to surrender before the vehement opposition of the members of the Swarajya Party.

Therefore, a committee as well as the Simon Commission were formed to investigate the utility of the Montague Chelmsford Reforms Act.

5. Hindrance to administration:

The members of the Swarajya Party boycotted all governmental programmes,

walked out of the assembly to register their protest against repressive measures and thus hindered administrative activities.

Question 11. Discuss the causes of the Civil Disobedience Movement.


The Civil Disobedience Movement was the second biggest non-violent mass movement after the Non-cooperation Movement in the history of the Indian liberation movement.

The actions and reactions in the political life of the Indians and their idealistic differences created the background of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Causes Of the Civil Disobedience Movement

1. Failure of Non-cooperation Movement:

The Indians had joined the Non-cooperation Movement with a lot of expectations. However, their hopes could not be fulfilled.

due to the withdrawal of the Movement. So they were looking forward to another mass movement.

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2. Failure of Swarajya Party:

The Swarajya Party was formed to bring momentum and liveliness to Indian politics. However, this Party failed to fulfil its objectives.

So the need for a new national movement was felt.

3. Peasant and labour unrest:

As the demand for agricultural products like cotton, jute and oilseeds fell in the international market the peasants became the victims of utter misery.

At the same time, the labourers were aggrieved by the reduction of salary, an increase in working hours, layoffs and lockout.

The grievances of the peasants and labourers created the background for future mass movements.

4. Awakening of the backward classes:

The backward as well as lower classes of the Hindu society were being exploited at the hands of the upper-class Brahmins and Kshatriyas for a long time.

The movement of the milkmen and Yadavas in Bihar and Satyashodhak’ or Purification Movement in Maharashtra helped to awaken the back. ward classes.

5. Simon Commission:

The Simon Commission was formed to discuss the introduction of a new constitutional system but no Indian member was included in it.

This offended all the Indians irrespective of their parties or ideologies. So a general grievance against the British developed.

6. Nehru Report:

Motilal Nehru put forward a draft of the new constitution in the Lucknow session (28-31 August 1928). This was known as Nehru Report.

On Gandhiji’s intervention, it was decided that the proposals of the report would be put into action or the Congress would launch Civil Disobedience Movement to attain complete independence.

Question 12. Give an account of the Civil Disobedience Movement.


The next movement after the Non-cooperation Movement was the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Gandhiji sparked this movement by conducting the Dandi march and making salt from the water of the Arabian Sea.

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First Phase Of Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-31)

1. Agenda:

Gandhiji submitted a demand. a petition containing 11 clauses to Governor General Irwin as a part of his agenda. Some of these clauses were

  1. 50% decrease in land tax,
  2. More than a 50% reduction in the military budget,
  3. the repeal of the salt tax,
  4.  the imposition of tax on foreign goods,
  5. granting Indians the right to keep firearms for self-defence.

2. Dandi March:

On March 12, 1930, Gandhiji marched from his Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi with 78 followers to violate the Salt Act.

He walked 241 miles in 24 days and made salt from the water of the Arabian Sea on the early morning of April 6.

3. Spread of the movement:

The no-taxation movement reached its climax in Gujarat, U.P. and West Bengal. The Forest Protection Act was violated in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

The Civil Disobedience Movement became quite pervasive in the North-West Frontier Province under the leadership of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan.

4. End of the first phase:

When Gandhiji planned to capture the salt storage centre at Dharsana he was arrested.

Panicked at the intensity of the Movement, the government called a round table conference but the Congress did not join it.

So the government released Gandhiji and other eminent leaders.

Then Gandhi Irwin pact was signed between Gandhiji and Lord Irwin and the Civil Disobedience Movement was temporarily suspended.

Second Phase Of Civil Disobedience Movement (1931-34)

1. Spread of movement:

When the British government resorted to intense repressive measures, Gandhiji again gave a call for Satyagraha on January 3, 1932.

The second phase of the Civil Disobedience Movement spread over large areas of the United Province, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Bengal.

2. Poona Pact:

British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald introduced the policy of communal division by granting the Communal Award. Gandhiji sat in a continuous fast in protest.

Finally, Gandhiji signed a pact called the Poona Pact with the leader of the scheduled castes Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar on September 25, 1932.

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3. Withdrawal of Movement:

After signing the Poona Pact, Gandhiji concentrated on the Harijan Movement.

Finally, at the Patnal session of Congress on May 8, 1934, the decision to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement was taken.

Question 13. State the significance of the Civil Disobedience Movement.


The Civil Disobedience Movement was the second non-violent mass movement led by Gandhiji. This Movement was quite significant in various aspects.

Significance Of the Civil Disobedience Movement

1. Mass Awakening:

The Civil Disobedience Movement gave the nation an inspiration for mass awakening, an attitude of self-confidence and a mental capacity for relentless struggle.

Journalist H.M. Brelsford said, “this Movement liberated the minds of the Indians. They have attained freedom in their hearts.”

2. Blow to the colonial economy:

This Movement gave a strong blow to the British colonial economy. About one-third of the import of British goods to India decreased.

3. Rise of awareness:

This Movement was able to create political awareness as well as spiritual awakening among the Indians.

They had already lost reverence towards the British and now they conquered fear.

4. Lessening of the prestige of the British:

Through this Movement, Gandhiji inspired the freedom fighters with moral strength. At the same time,

he also lessened the prestige of the British by holding up their inhuman and immoral character in front of the world.

5. Indian issue internationalized:

This Movement stirred the minds of intellectuals in England and America and Indian independence became a global issue.

6. Prosperity of native industries:

In this Movement, British manufactured goods were boycotted and native products were used. This helped the indigenous industries to prosper.

The Indians also realised the importance of economic independence.

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7. Preparation of the ground for subsequent mass movements:

This Movement took the Indians through an ordeal of self-sacrifice and voluntary suffering and thus prepared the ground for subsequent and more widespread movements.

Question 14 Give an account of the armed revolutionary movement in India in the post-World War I period.


When the Non-cooperation Movement was suddenly called off in 1922, the youth lost faith in the Congress movements and became interested in armed struggle.

After the Non-cooperation Movement, attempts were made to organise pervasive armed movements.

Armed Movements In India In Post World War Period

1. Attempt to assassinate Tegart:

The revolutionaries of Bengal began to commit political plunder in 1923 in order to collect wealth.

During this time, the police commissioner of Kolkata Charles Tegart tortured the revolutionaries in various ways.

Gopinath Saha took up the task of assassinating Charles Tegart but, by mistake, he killed somebody else. He was tried and hanged.

2. Kakori Conspiracy Case:

The Indian revolutionists founded a new party named Hindusthan Republican Association.

The members of this party participated in the daring train dacoity at Kakori in 1925 under the leadership of Ram Prasad Bismil.

The police arrested them and filed the Kakori Conspiracy Case. In the trial, some leaders were sentenced to death while others were sent to prison.

3. Establishment of Navjawan Bharat Sabha:

The Navjawan Bharat Sabha was founded in 1925 by Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad, Sukhdev and Yashpal.

In 1928 it was renamed as Hindusthan Socialist Republican Association.

4. Corridor Warfare:

Three members of Bengal Volunteers Binoy Bose, Badal Gupta and Dinesh Gupta entered the Writers’ Building in Kolkata in disguise on December 8, 1930, and assassinated Simpson, the Officer in charge of the prison.

When the police cordoned off the Writer’s Building, the revolutionaries fought very bravely. This incident is known as Corridor Warfare.

5. Murder of Sanders:

Lala Lajpat Rai was fatally beaten up by the police during the anti-Simon Movement. He died of his injuries within a few days.

In revenge, Bhagat Singh and Rajguru gunned down the concerned police officer Sanders on December 17, 1928.

6. Lahore Conspiracy Case:

In April 1929 Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutta threw a bomb into the Parliament.

The police arrested both of them and started the Lahore Conspiracy Case. During the trial, the prisoners went on fast against the ill-treatment of the police.

Class 8 History Question Answer WBBSE

7. Chattagram Armoury Raid:

The ”Indian Republican Army’ was formed during the Civil Disobedience Movement under the leadership of Surya Sen.

On April 18, 1930, Surya Sen’s followers Nirmal Sen, Ambika Chakraborty, Ganesh Ghosh, Ananta Sinha, Preetilata Waddedar and Kalpana Dutta participated in the famous Armoury Raid at Chattagram (Chittagong).

Question 15. Write an essay on the ‘August Movement’ or ‘Quit India movement’.


The last and most widespread mass movement in the history of the Indian freedom struggle was the August Movement or Quit India Movement of 1942.

No other movement that followed the Sepoy Mutiny was as widespread as this Movement.

Quit India August Movement

1. Background:

1. Failure of Cripps’ proposal (Mission):

Cripps Mission failed because it did not contain any provision for granting independence to India. So when this Mission failed, the Indians became eager for another mass movement

2. Food scarcity and price rise:

As a consequence of the Second World War, the prices of the items of daily use rose sky-high.

An acute scarcity of food exhausted the faith of the Indians in the British government and they wished for the rule to end.

3. Desire for independence :

The Non-cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements aroused the political awareness of the city dwellers as well as the villagers.

This created a backdrop for an all-India mass movement.

2. Expansion:

The August Movement began in Bombay, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Puna, Nagpur and Kanpur. The independent Tamralipta National government was formed at Tamluk in Medinipur.

Again, Munghyr, Bhagalpur, and Purnia in Bihar, Balia and Sultanpur in United Province, and Baleshwar and Cuttack in Orissa became the main centres of the Quit India Movement.

Matangini Hazra from Tamluk, Kanaklata Barua from Assam and Hemu Kalani of Karachi were shot dead by the police.

Class 8 History Question Answer WBBSE

3. Leadership:

Anushilan group, Jugantar group and Congress socialist group also got involved in this Movement.

The pioneer leaders of the Movement were Jay Prakash Narayan, Achyut Patabardhan, Rammanohar Lohia and Aruna Asaf Ali.

4. Causes of failure:

1. Absence of planning and discipline:

From the very beginning, the Quit India Movement was unplanned.

So the lack of discipline in the Movement weakened it.

2. Opposition by other groups:

The opposition by the Communist Party of India, Hindu Mahasabha and some political parties and groups were responsible for the failure of the Movement.

5. Significance:

  1. Increasing desire for independence: The Quit India Movement boosted the desire of the Indians for independence.
  2. Increase in popularity of Congress: The Quit India Movement, in fact, demonstrated that the popularity of Congress among the masses was beyond question.

Question 16. Discuss the importance of the Quit India Movement in India’s struggle for independence.


The Quit India Movement was the last step in terminating the centuries-long British rule in India.

This movement doubtlessly speeded up the attainment of freedom for the Indians.

Importance Of the Quit India Movement In India’s Freedom Struggle

1. Indomitable pledge for independence:

The Quit India Movement (1942) was the climax of the Indian freedom struggle.

The determination to become free from British rule was clearly proved by this movement.

2. Maintaining communal harmony:

No communal disturbances took place during this movement. So communal harmony and Hindu-Muslim unity were the greatest wealth of this movement.

3. National revolution:

The movement of 1942 was a revolutionary movement. The Indians joined this movement because they were desperate for freedom.

4. Foundation for attaining independence:

There is no doubt that the movement of 1942 laid the foundation of Indian independence. On the one hand Subhas Chandra’s armed revolutionary zeal and on the other hand,

the intensity of the Quit India Movement within the country rendered the independence of the Indians from British rule inevitable.

5. Realisation of the British:

The intense desire of the Indians for independence which was manifested through the movement made the British realise that it was their time to leave India.

Witnessing the intensity of the movement Lord Wavell, who succeeded Lord Linlithgow, had written.

“Discussions should be opened with the Indian leaders before being compelled to grant them independence after the war.”

Class 8 History Question Answer WBBSE

6. Re-establishment of the Congress prestige:

Gandhiji’s fasting during the movement re-established the prestige of the Congress in the hearts of the nation.

It was proved beyond doubt through the movement that the popularity of Congress was pervasive and supreme.

Question 17. Assess the role of Gandhiji in the Indian freedom struggle.


Gandhiji was the main spirit of the Indian freedom movement. He was the first to make the movement a mass movement.

Jawaharlal Nehru wrote about Gandhiji’s emergence in his book ‘Discovery of India” “He was like a strong current of fresh air. He awoke us, we took a deep breath”.

Gandhiji’s Role In The Indian Freedom Movement

1. Regional Satyagraha:

Gandhiji successfully launched Satyagraha in Champaran in Bihar, Ahmedabad and Kheda in Gujarat. Then he entered all-India politics.

2. Rowlatt Satyagraha:

The British government passed the repressive Rowlatt Act after the First World War and tried to cripple the normal lifestyle of the Indians.

Gandhiji requested the Viceroy to withdraw the Rowlatt Act but his request was turned down. So he called for Satyagraha.

3. Khilafat movement:

Gandhiji extended his support to the Khilafat Movement which began after the First World War. He was elected all India President of the Khilafat conference.

4. Non-cooperation movement:

According to the decision at the Nagpur session of the Congress (1920), the Non-cooperation movement started on August 1, 1920.

The Movement spread rapidly all over the country under the leadership of Gandhiji. However, when the agitators in Chaurachaura in U.P.

set fire to a police station in response to open fire by the police, Gandhiji suddenly suspended the movement as he did not agree with violence.

5. Civil Disobedience Movement:

When the British Government rejected the demand of the Congress for self-government Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience Movement.

He conducted the Dandi March on March 12, 1930, with 78 followers and violated the Salt Act and thereby sparking off the Movement.

This Movement received an unprecedented response from all over the country.

6. Quit India Movement:

The Congress launched the Quit India Movement on August 8, 1942, where Gandhiji’s slogan was ‘Karenge ya Marenge’.

It was the most widespread Indian mass movement led by Gandhiji.

Through this Movement, he succeeded in proving that the Indians were ready to sacrifice everything for the sake of independence.

He thus hinted that the attainment of independence for the Indians was inevitable.

Question 18. Suppose you have joined Gandiji’s Civil Disobedience Movement. You have also been a part of the Dandi March. Write a letter to your friend about your experience in the Dandi Campaign.

Dear Vasant,

Today I shall tell you about the best experience of my life. I hope you know that Gandhiji selected salt as the instrument of his Civil Disobedience.

This is because salt is an important ingredient in the food of the Indians and the British government has levied a tax on it.

So Gandhiji decided to march to Dandi with his followers. This historic march began in Sabarmati in Gujarat on March 12, 1930. Thousands of people joined Gandhiji.

I also followed them. Every day, the number of walkers increased. This procession created a stir within the country and abroad.

Foreign exporters also came to witness the march. After 24 days, Gandhiji reached Dandi village on the coast of the Arabian Sea.

In the early morning of April 5, he took a bath in the sea and made some salt from the seawater among cheers and slogans shouted by his followers.

Through this violation of the Salt Act, the Civil Disobedience Movement began throughout India. I have narrated to you my experience of walking with Gandhiji but

I cannot explain the feeling of patriotism that I experienced through a letter. Anyway, hope you will soon send me a reply.

Yours affectionately,
Janak Patel

Chapter 7 Nationalist Ideas And Their Evolution Topic A Indian National Movement: Non-Violent Movement Of Gandhiji & Armed Revolution Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. How were the political activities of Gandhiji in South Africa?

1. Movement:

Gandhiji was greatly stirred by the oppression and torture carried out by the white people over the Asians and Africans.

He organised a mass movement against the South African government which followed a policy of racial discrimination.

He established the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) by uniting the Indians residing there.

2. Result:

The South African government tried to distract Gandhi in different ways.

Attempts were made to assault him physically but he kept on fighting against injustice and discrimination for two decades.

Ultimately the government was compelled to step back and the Indian Relief Act was passed in 1914.

This helped to improve the condition of the Indians. residing in South Africa.

Class 8 History Question Answer WBBSE

Question 2 Write a note on Rowlatt Act.

1. Committee Formation:

The British Government formed a five members sedition committee under the leadership of Sir Sydney Rowlatt,

an English judge, to suppress the revolutionary movement and terrorist activities in India.

2. Compilation:

The Rowlatt Act was formulated on this basis. of the recommendation of the Rowlatt Committee which was passed in 1919.

The independence of the Indians was seized by this Act.

3. Provisions:

  1. This Act empowered the government to arrest any person nearly on suspicion.
  2. The government also got the power to detain without trial any person who was arrested without any provocation,
  3. There were also provisions to subdue the press.
  4. Moreover, it included trial in court secretly without a jury and extraction of fines from suspects.

Question 3. Write briefly about what you know about the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

1. Meeting at Jallianwala Bagh Garden:

A peaceful meeting was organized at Jallianwala Bagh Garden at Amritsar in Punjab on April 13, 1919, defying the order of Michael O’Dyer, the lieutenant governor of Punjab.

2. The Massacre:

Soon after the meeting began Brigadier General Reginald O’Dyer positioned his forces at the single gate and ordered them to open fire.

1600 round shots were fired from 50 rifles and 379 persons were killed while 1200 were wounded.

3. Reaction among Indians :

The Indians all over the country protested strongly against the atrocious massacre at Jallianwala Bagh.

Rabindranath Tagore gave up knighthood with strong disgust. In the Young India journal, Gandhiji

wrote “It is impossible to rectify this devilish government, it has to be destroyed”.

Question 4. What was the role of the common people in the non-cooperation movement?

1. Role of peasants:

The peasants of U.P., Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal and Andhra widely participated in the Non-cooperation Movement.

The landless peasants of Andhra launched Vana Satyagraha over a vast area of the state.

2. Role of labourers:

The labourers working in Burn and Jessop companies as well as post-telegraph, railways and ports participated in the strikes.

3. Role of other classes:

Apart from the labourers and farmers the artisans, weavers, shopkeepers, small traders, tribals and lower caste people also participated in the Non-cooperation Movement.

Question 5 What were the reasons for the withdrawal of the Non-cooperation movement?

Reasons for withdrawal of Non-cooperation Movement:

1. Chaurichaura Incident:

On February 5, 1922, the police fired at a demonstration at Chaurichaura near Gorakhpur and the angry mob set fire to the police station.

This shocked Gandhiji and he decided to call off the Movement.

2. Repressive measures of the British:

The British government tried to stop the Movement by applying repressive measures.

So the volunteer organisations were split up, public meetings were banned and leaders were arrested.

3. Other reasons:

Gandhiji decided to call off the Movement due to the oppression of farmers by the government, the despair of the middle class and the apathy of the Muslims towards the Movement after the solution of the Khilafat issue.

Question 6. What was the reaction against the withdrawal of the Non-cooperation movement?

Reaction against the withdrawal of the Movement:
1. Reaction of leaders:

Netaji Subhas Chandra, who was in prison, referred to the withdrawal of the Movement as a National Disaster. He said,

that the order to withdraw the Movement just at the time when public excitement was as its peak, was nothing less than a national disaster.

According to Lala Lajpat Rai, “We have absolutely disintegrated.” Motilal Nehru said, “Gandhiji has punished

the entire nation for the sin of a handful of people. “Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das said, “The opportunity has been lost forever.”

2. Reaction of others:

According to Romain Rolland “There is a danger in bestowing all the powers on a single person, but the order to stop a movement when it is at its peak,

is more dangerous” Louis Fischer said, “Gandhiji has sacrificed all the zeal and endeavour of the people for self-sacrifice on the gallows of non-violence”.

Question 7. What was the reason behind the formation of “The Swarajya Party’?

Deshbandhu Chittaranjan founded the ‘Swarajya Party’ on January 1, 1923, with the help of Motilal Nehru and Subhas Chandra. There were some reasons behind this

1. Lack of leadership in national Movement:

After the Non-cooperation Movement was called off, all the chief leaders including Gandhiji were arrested.

So a void was created in the leadership of the Movement and the need for a new party arose.

2. Internal conflict:

A conflict arose within the Congress regarding the opposition of the government inside the parliament.

Those who supported this action were called pro changers and those who opposed it were called no changers.

When Chittaranjan Das supported the pro-changers his proposal was rejected. So he founded the Swarajya Party.

Question 8. Write a note on Dandi March. Write a note

In March 1930 Gandhiji 12, conducted a procession from Sabarmati ashram to Dandi with 78 followers with the purpose of violating the Salt Act. This is known as ‘Dandi March’.

1. Route:

Gandhiji walked with his followers for about 241 miles from Sabarmati to Dandi in Gujarat.

2. Call for a boycott:

He called upon the public to resign from government jobs and stop paying taxes. This created unprecedented zeal and impetus throughout the country.

3. Violation of Salt Act:

On the morning of April 6, Gandhiji took a bath in the sea on the coast of Dandi and ceremonially violated the Salt Act by making some salt by himself.

As the British had imposed a tax on salt Gandhiji wanted to oppose it and thus initiated the Civil Disobedience Movement.

In fact, the Civil Disobedience Movement started all over the country immediately after Gandhiji violated the Salt Act through the Dandi March.

Question 9. State the reasons for taking up the programme of violating the Salt Act.

Gandhiji wanted to begin the Civil Disobedience Movement through a programme which would be universally accepted.

Here Gandhiji had taken up the programme of violating the Salt Act. The reasons were

1. Universal acceptance:

Gandhiji felt that if the Civil Disobedience Movement could be sparked off by the violation of the Salt Act then people of all religions,

castes and sects would unhesitatingly participate in it because salt formed an essential element of most of the food items.

2. High tax rate:

Salt was one of those imported items on which the British. the government had levied a heavy tax. Gandhiji firmly believed that if he started.

the Civil Disobedience Movement by demanding the repeal of a tax on a necessary item like salt then all the sections of Indian society would participate in it.

Question 10. State the reasons for the withdrawal of the Civil disobedience movement.

The decision to withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement was formally declared on May 8, 1934, at the conference of the All India Congress in Patna.

1. Cruel oppressive policy of the British:

Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement to protect the agitators from the repressive measures of the British government like fines,

imprisonment and confiscation of movable and immovable property.

2. Communal differentiation :

The British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald encouraged communal differentiation by introducing Communal Award utilising

the policy of communal division on August 16, 1932. So Gandhiji withdrew the Civil Disobedience Movement to keep national unity intact.

Question 11. Give a brief description of the Chittagong armoury raid.

A plan to plunder the Chittagong armoury on April 18, 1930, at 10 p.m. was made under the leadership of Surya Sen (Masterda) at Chittagong in eastern India.

1. Formation of the Indian Republican Army:

Mastarda formed the Indian Republican Army for carrying out the armoury raid.. Some of the members were Ganesh Ghosh,

Lokenath Bal, Ambika Chakravarty, Upen Bhattacharya, Naresh Roy, Ananta Sinha, Nirmal Sen and Triguna Sen.

2. Revolutionary activities:

The members of the Indian Republican Army raided the Chittagong (Chattagram) armoury on April 18, 1930, under the leadership of Surya Sen.

They also occupied Chittagong and hoisted the national flag there.

3. Establishment of temporary independent government:

The revolutionists paralysed the British administrative machinery and established a temporary independent government at Chittagong with Surya Sen. as its Prime Minister.

4. Conflict:

A conflict took place between the Republican Army and the British forces which were sent to suppress them at the Jalalabad hills.

Thirteen of the revolutionists were killed and Surya Sen managed to escape.

12 Write a note on Binoy Badal Dinesh.


The three great revolutionists who are known as B.B.D. in the history of Bengal were Binoy Bose, Badal Gupta and Dinesh Gupta.

These three brave revolutionaries carried on the Writers’ Building attack on December 8, 1930.

1. Corridor War:

Binoy, Badal and Dinesh- three members of the Bengal volunteer group entered the Writers’ Building in disguise. Binoy shot down Colonel Simpson, the Inspector General of Prison.

A corridor war took place between the revolutionists and the police force. The revolutionists decided to commit suicide to avoid capture.

2. Inspiration to youths:

The Writers’ Building expedition plan and the self-sacrifice of Binoy, Badal and Dinesh served as an inspiration for

the youths who were devoted to the cause of freedom in their motherland.

Question 13 Write a note on Bhagat Singh.

1. Beginning of revolutionary life:

Bhagat Singh took up membership in the Hindusthan Republican Party and established a youth organisation called Navjawan Bharat Sabha in 1925.

2. Formation of the revolutionist party:

Bhagat Singh also founded the Hindusthan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) with the help of Chandra Shekhar Azad and others at Firoz Shah Kotla stadium in Delhi.

3. Assassination of Sanders:

Bhagat Singh shot down Sanders, the notorious police officer of Lahore, on December 17, 1928.

4. Self-sacrifice:

Bhagat Singh was hanged on March 23, 1931, by the verdict of the Lahore Conspiracy case on the charge of assassinating Sanders.

This caused great turmoil among the masses all over the country.

5. Inspiration to youths:

Bhagat Singh’s fearless sacrifice created revolutionary awareness among the Indian youths and they became newly inspired to fight for the cause of their country.

Question 14. State the importance of the Quit India movement.

1. Awareness of the British Government:

The Quit India Movement made it very clear to the British government that their days in India were numbered.

2. Increase in the prestige of Congress:

After this Movement, the prestige and influence of the Congress increased manifold.

3. Communal harmony:

This Movement reestablished communal harmony.

4 . National awakening:

The Movement of 1942 created national awareness for the first time.

Chapter 7 Nationalist Ideas And Their Evolution Topic A Indian National Movement: Non-Violent Movement Of Gandhiji & Armed Revolution state Whether The Following Statements Are True Or False

Question 1. The National Government was established in the Tamluk subdivision of the Medinipur district of West Bengal during the time of the Quit India Movement.
Answer: True

Question 2. Chittranjan Das was the political preceptor of Subhas Chandra Bose.
Answer: True

Question 3. Gandhiji’s Sabarmati ashram was a secret revolutionary society.
Answer: False

Question 4. Subhas Chandra Bose referred to Gandhiji as ‘Mahatma’.
Answer: False

Question 5. The Swarajya Party was formed after the failure of the Non-cooperation Movement.
Answer: True

Question 6. There was only one Indian member in the Simon Commission.
Answer: False

Question 7. The Congress Khilafat Swaraj Party was popularly called the ‘Swarajya’ Party.
Answer: True

Question 8. The Indian Republican Army was formed under the leadership of a Master in Chittagong.
Answer: True

Question 9. Bhagat Singh was a founder member of Bengal Volunteers.
Answer: False

Question 10. Smt. Sarojini Naidu was one of the leaders of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer: True

Question 11. The followers of Frontier Gandhi were called the ‘Red Shirts”.
Answer: True

Question 12. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was led by General Michael O’Dyer.
Answer: True

Question 13. Motilal Nehru was the leader of Swarajya Party.
Answer: True

Question 14. ‘Home Rule’ means self-government.
Answer: True

Question 15. Lord Irwin was the Viceroy during the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer: True

Question 16. The most massive Indian Independence movement launched by Gandhiji was Quit India Movement.
Answer: True

Question 17. ‘Karenge ya marenge’ was the slogan of Jawaharlal Nehru.
Answer: False

Question 18. The Chittagong armoury plunder was led by Masterda Surya Sen.
Answer: True

Question 19. The Gandhi-Irwin pact signed on March 4, 1931, was also known as the Delhi Pact.
Answer: True

Question 20. Lala Lajpat Rai was fatally beaten up by the police and died later on while leading the movement against Simon Commission.
Answer: True

Question 21. Bhagat Singh, Batukeshwar Dutta, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged by the verdict of the Lahore Conspiracy case.
Answer: True

Chapter 7 Nationalist Ideas And Their Evolution Topic A Indian National Movement: Non-Violent Movement Of Gandhiji & Armed Revolution Fill in the blanks by selecting the appropriate expressions from the brackets

Question 1. While leading an anti-Simon procession. _________ (Lala Lajpat Rai/Bal Gangadhar Tilak/Bipin Chandra Pal) was fatally wounded and died later on.
Answer: Lala Lajpat Rai

Question 2. _________ (Jawaharlal Nehru /Subhas Chandra Bose/Chittaranjan Das) established the Swarajya Party.
Answer: Chittaranjan Das

Question 3. Chauri Chaura incident took place during the _________ (Non-co-operation/Civil Disobedience/Quit India Movement).
Answer: Non-co-operation

Question 4. _________ (Aurobindo Ghosh/Subhas Chandra Bose/Surendranath Banerjee) became the Principal of Bengal National College.
Answer: Subhas Chandra Bose

Question 5. _________ (Irwin/Amherst/Allenborough) was the Viceroy of India during the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer: Irwin

Question 6. The attack on Writer’s Building and the fatal war by Binoy Badal Dinesh was named ‘Corridar Warfare’ by _________ (Jugantar/Dainik Basmati/Anandabazar).
Answer: Anandabazar

Question 7. _________ (Rabindranath Tagore/Sarat Chandra Chatterjee/Bankim Chandra Chatterjee) gave up the title of ‘Sir’ in protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
Answer: Rabindranath Tagore

Question 8. Navjawan Bharat Sabha or Youth India Association was founded by _________ (Bhagat Singh/Sukhdev/Rajguru).
Answer: Bhagat Singh

Question 9. Gandhiji had joined the _________ (first/ second/third) Round Table Conference.
Answer: second

Question 10. _________ (Preetilata Waddedar / Bina Das/ Matangini Hazra) was shot dead by the police while leading the Quit India Movement in Tamluk of Medinipur.
Answer: Matangini Hazra

Chapter 7 Nationalist Ideas And Their Evolution Topic A Indian National Movement: Non-Violent Movement Of Gandhiji & Armed Revolution Answer In A Complete Sentence

Question 1. In protest of which incident Rabindranath Tagore gave up his knighthood?
Answer: Rabindranath Tagore gave up his knighthood in protest of the inhuman Jallianwalabagh massacre.

Question 2. When was the Khilafat Committee formed?
Answer: Khilafat Committee was formed in March 1919.

Question 3. What is Kakori Conspiracy Case?
Answer: The British government made out a conspiracy case (1925) related to Kakori railway station dacoity against Bhagat Singh and his associates, which is known as Kakori Conspiracy Case.

Question 4. How many round table conferences were organised?
Answer: A total of 3 round table conferences. were organised.

Question 5. Chauri Chaura village is in which state?
Answer: Chauri Chaura village is in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh.

Question 6. Name the organisation founded by Bhagat Singh.
Answer: The organisation founded by Bhagat Singh is Naujawan Bharat Sabha.

Question 7. Who founded Khuda e Khidmatgar?
Answer: Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan founded Khuda e Khidmatgar.

Question 8. Who was known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’?
Answer: Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan was popularly known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’.

Question 9. Why was Matangini Hazra famous?
Answer: An elderly woman and revolutionary of Tamluk, Matangini Hazra actively took part in the Quit India movement and died in police firing while leading the agitation.

Question 10. Who led the Chittagong uprising?
Answer: The Chittagong uprising was led by Surya Sen.

Chapter 7 Nationalist Ideas And Their Evolution Topic A Indian National Movement: Non-Violent Movement Of Gandhiji & Armed Revolution Select The Most Appropriate Explanation For The Following Statement

Question 1. The movements organised by Gandhiji were halted midway.

  1. Violence had entered the movements.
  2. There was no adequate finance to conduct the movements.
  3. There was a lack of efficient leadership.

Answer: 1. Violence had entered the movements.

Question 2. The Gandhian ideals had lost popularity partially.

  1. The movements did not contain universal public welfare principles.
  2. The ideals of non-violence were not universally accepted.
  3. The symbols of Hinduism were used.

Answer: 3. The symbols of Hinduism were used.

Question 3. For a few years after the Non-cooperation Movement, the circumstances were not favourable for launching a new mass movement.

  1. The people had lost interest in non-violent mass movements.
  2.  Gandhiji was interned in prison for some years.
  3. The National Congress had moved away from the path of struggle.

Answer: 2. Gandhiji was interned in prison for some years.

Question 4. All the political organisations of India opposed the Simon Commission.

  1. The commission formed under John Simon (regarding the granting of constitutional rights to the Indians) had no Indian representative.
  2. This commission had decided against granting the right of self-rule to the Indians.
  3. The commission had adopted oppressive measures against the Indians.

Answer: 1. The commission formed under John Simon (regarding the granting of constitutional rights to the Indians) had no Indian representative.

Question 5. The British government confiscated the lands of the farmers during the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explanation

  1. The agitators opposed the government in granting ownership rights of lands.
  2. The farmers participating in the movement refused to pay taxes to the British.
  3. The farmers had wide. participated in the anti-British Movement.

Answer: 2. The farmers participating in the movement refused to pay taxes to the British.

Question 6. There was a split among the Congress in the 1930s.

  1. A difference of opinion between the senior and junior leaders of Congress arose over the method of agitation and socio-economic programmes.
  2. A section of Congress asserted their faith in revolutionist ideals.
  3. The senior leaders of Congress tried to support and consolidate British Rule.

Answer: 1. A difference of opinion between the senior and junior leaders of Congress arose over the method of agitation and socio-economic programmes.

Chapter 7 Nationalist Ideas And Their Evolution Topic A Indian National Movement: Non-Violent Movement Of Gandhiji & Armed Revolution Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi became the main leader of anti-British movements from

  1. 1917
  2. 1915
  3. 1919
  4. 1921

Answer: 3. 1919

Question 2. ‘Satyagraha’ was the brainchild of

  1. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
  2. Mahatma Gandhi
  3. Dadabhai Naoroji
  4. Rabindranath Tagore

Answer: 2. Mahatma Gandhi

Question 3. Which of the following is the correct chronological sequence of Gandhi-led movements?

  1. Champaran, Khera, Quit India, Non- violent Non-Cooperation
  2. Khera, Champaran, Quit India, Non-Violent Non-Cooperation
  3. Champaran, Khera, Non-Violent Non- Cooperation, Quit India
  4. Khera, Quit India, Non-Violent Non- Cooperation, Champaran

Answer: 3. Champaran, Khera, Non-Violent Non- Cooperation, Quit India

Question 4. In which movement indigo cultivators were involved?

  1. Khera
  2. Ahmedabad
  3. Lahore
  4. Champaran

Answer: 4. Champaran

Question 5. Gandhi Irwin Pact was signed on

  1. 5th March 1928
  2. 5th March 1931
  3. 5th March 1935
  4. 5th March 1939

Answer: 2. 5th March 1931

Question 6. Who among the following was related to Kakori Conspiracy Case?

  1. Badal Gupta
  2. Ganesh Ghosh
  3. Bhagat Singh
  4. Surya Sen

Answer: 3. Bhagat Singh

Question 7. ‘Do or Die was the cry of

  1. Gandhiji
  2. Netaji
  3. Nehru
  4. Jinnah

Answer: 1. Gandhiji

Question 8. Gandhiji broke the salt law in

  1. 1919
  2. 1930
  3. 1942
  4. 1950

Answer: 2. 1930

Question 9. Dandi March was undertaken during the

  1. Non-cooperation Movement
  2. Civil Disobedience Movement
  3. Quit India Movement
  4. Khilafat Movement

Answer: 2. Civil Disobedience Movement

Question 10. The President of the temporary independent government established by the revolutionist of Chittagong was

  1. Surya Sen
  2. Lokenath Bal
  3. Ganesh Ghosh
  4. Pritilata Waddedar

Answer: 1. Surya Sen

Question 11. Gandhiji violated the Salt Act by conducting the Dandi March in the state of

  1. Gujarat
  2. Andhra Pradesh
  3. Tamil Nadu
  4. Kerala

Answer: 1. Gujarat

Question 12. The Khilafat Movement started in India in protest against the overthrow of the Sultan of

  1. Turkey
  2. Iraq
  3. Iran
  4. Jordan

Answer: 1. Turkey

Question 13. Who first initiated the Indians into the concept of non-cooperation or passive resistance?

  1. Lala Lajpat Rai
  2. Bipin Chandra Pal
  3. Mahatma Gandhi
  4. Motilal Nehru

Answer: 2. Bipin Chandra Pal

Question 14. The Quit India Movement is known as

  1. August Movement
  2. Khilafat Movement
  3. May 4th Movement
  4. Chartist Movement

Answer: 1. August Movement

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