WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule Cooperation And Revolt Topic C Miscellaneous

Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule: Cooperation And Revolt Topic C Miscellaneous Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Sati, Child marriage, Zamindari, Polygamy.
Answer: Zamindari

Question 2. Dikdarshan, Samachar Darpan, Bengal Gazette, Sambad Pravakar.
Answer: Bengal Gazette

Question 3. Dinu Mondal, Bishnucharan Biswas, Digambar Biswas, Birsa Munda.
Answer: Birsa Munda

Question 4. Dudu Mian, Syed Ahmed, Iyahiya Ali, Mir Nishar Ali.
Answer: Dudu Mian

Question 5. Rammohan Roy, Swami Vivekananda, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
Answer: Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose

Question 6. Dudu Mian, Sidhu, Shariyatullah, Noa Mian.
Answer: Sidhu

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Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule: Cooperation And Revolt Topic C Miscellaneous Match Column A With ColumB

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule Cooperation And Revolt Match The Column A With B table 1
Answer: A-3,B-4,C-2,D-1,E-5

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule Cooperation And Revolt Match The Column A With B table 2
Answer: A-2,B-3,C-1,D-5,E-4

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule Cooperation And Revolt Match The Column A With B table 3
Answer: A-2,B-3,C-2,D-5,E-1

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule Cooperation And Revolt Match The Column A With B table 4
Answer: A-4,B-3,C-2,D-5,E-4

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule Cooperation And Revolt Match The Column A With B table 5
Answer: A-3,B-4,C-5,D-2,E-1

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule Cooperation And Revolt Match The Column A With B table 6
Answer: A-5,B-1,C-2,D-3,E-4

Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule: Cooperation And Revolt Topic C Miscellaneous Match column A with column B

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule Cooperation And Revolt Match The Column A With B table 7
Answer: A-5,B-1,C-2,D-3,E-4

Chapter 5. Reaction To Colonial Rule: Cooperation And Revolt Topic C Miscellaneous Find The Odd One Out

Question 1. Pandita Ramabai, Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain, Sister Subhalaxmi, Rani Laxmibai.
Answer: Rani Laxmibai

Question 2. Atmaram Pandurang Mahadev Govind Ranade, Jyotirao Phule, Vireshlingam Pantulu.
Answer: Vireshlingam Pantulu

Question 3. Rammohan Roy, Debendranath Tagore, Keshabchandra Sen, Dayanand Saraswati.
Answer: Dayanand Saraswati

Question 4. Bahadur Shah Zafar, Nana Saheb, Titu Mir Mangal Pandey.
Answer: Titu Mir

Class 8 History Solution WBBSE

Answer Briefly

Question 1. Who was called the ‘middle class’ in colonial India?
Answer:

The ‘Middle Class’ In Colonial India:-

1. Introduction:

The semi-affluent people living in society are generally referred to as the middle class.

The members of the Hindu elite class of Kolkata were considered to be the middle class in the 19th century.

2. Development:

The Brahmins, Kshatriyas, and Vaishyas availed themselves of Western education and took up jobs with the English government.

They tried to carve out a separate position for themselves in society and came to be known as ‘middle-class gentlemen’.

This newly educated middle class tried to rid society of various ills like Sati, child marriage, and so on.

Question 2. Against which social customs did the Young Bengal group protest?
Answer:

The followers of Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, a professor at the Hindu College of Kolkata, were called the Young Bengal Group.

They vehemently opposed the social customs and practices prevalent in India at that time.

1. Protest against superstitions:

The Young Bengal Group strongly protested against the superstitions prevalent in Hindu society in the name of religion.

They took up the issues of casteism, untouchability, polygamy, suttee, and other socio-economic malpractices.

They also vehemently opposed idolatry which was a part of the ancient tradition of Hinduism.

Question 3. What was the aim of the reforms of Sir Syed Ahmed?
Answer:

Aim Of The Reforms Of Sir Syed Ahmed:-

Class 8 History Solution WBBSE

Sir Syed Ahmed tried to modernize Muslim society by removing superstitions and religious bigots.

His main intention was to bring about an overall development of the Muslims by spreading Western science and learning among them.

He urged people to leave behind medieval notions and protest against polygamy, divorce, and purdah.

He also tried to gain some favor from the British government by showing loyalty to them.

Question 4. Against whom did Titu Mir revolt?
Answer:

The main aim of the Barasat Rebellion under Titu Mir was to attain unlimited power for the lower-class people. It was actually a struggle against the tyranny of the. British

Write in your own words

Question 1. Analyze the main similarities between the movements against the practice of Sati and the movement for Widow Remarriage. What steps did Vidyasagar initiate for the education of women?
Answer:

The Main Similarities Between The Movements Against The Practice Of Sati And The Movement For Widow Remarriage, Steps Taken By Vidyasagar Initiate For The Education Of Women:-

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 5 Reaction To Colonial Rule Cooperation And Revolt Topic B Q1 Anti-Sai Movement and Widow Remarrige Movement

Contribution Of Vidyasagar To Women’s Education

1. Establishment of girls’ school:

Vidyasagar emphasized the necessity of establishing girls’ schools in the villages.

He founded the Hindu Balika Vidyalaya (modern Bethune School) in 1849 with the help of John Elliot Drinkwater Bethune.

As a school inspector, he took up the initiative of setting up girls’ schools in the different districts of Bengal.

2. Campaigns:

On becoming the secretary of Hindu Balika Vidyalaya, he invited the daughters of his friends and relatives to come and study there.

In order to make his countrymen aware of the necessity of women’s education, he distributed circular

that stated that if a woman was educated and knowledgeable, then she could teach her child better.

3. Formation of women’s education fund:

Vidyasagar built up a fund for women’s education to run the schools that he had founded.

He personally bore the expenses of paying salaries to the teachers and other necessary expenses.

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4. Establishment of colleges:

He established Bethune College and Metropolitan College (now Vidyasagar College) to provide higher education to women.

He succeeded in establishing centers of higher education in spite of opposition from Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, George Campbell.

5. Educational Association:

Vidyasagar built up an educational association called ‘Stri Shiksha Vidyayani Sammilani’ in the districts of Medinipur, Hooghly, and Burdwan to spread women’s education.

Question 2. What was the main aim of the ‘Brahmo Movement’? Analyze the limitations of the Brahmo Movement.
Answer:

Main Aim Of The ‘Brahmo Movement’:-

Main Objectives

The Brahmo Samaj acted as a socio-religious platform for cleansing Hindu society of its vices.

The Brahmo Samaj believed in monotheism (oneness of God) and egalitarianism (equality of men).

They opposed idolatry and elaborate Vedic rituals and emphasized the purification of the soul. They also advocated religious tolerance.

The Samaj condemned casteism, Sati, child marriage, polygamy, and female infanticide and worked hard to further the causes of women’s education and widow remarriage.

Limitations

The Brahmo Movements had some limitations.

1. Urban character:

The Brahmo Samaj movements grew up around the cities. These movements remained restricted and did not reach the rural areas. So they could not get the desired popularity.

2. Movement of the middle class:

The Brahmo Samaj grew up under the leadership of the bourgeoisie or the educated middle class.

So, naturally, these movements mainly served the interests of the middle class and did not touch the other classes.

3. Lack of support from conservatives:

The Brahmo movements dealt a great blow to the ancient conservative Hindu society. As a result,

the staunch supporters of Hinduism reacted adversely. The conservatives opposed the Brahmo movement under the leadership of Radhakanto Dev.

4. Elitist movement:

These movements were led by people from the upper classes. So some people call them elitist movements.

The leaders were self-satisfied with their supremacy. So the Brahmo movement lost its popularity and could not influence the whole society.

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Question 3. Make a comparative analysis of the ‘Santhal Rebellion’ and ‘Indigo Rebellion’. What was the role of the Hindu Patriot in both cases?
Answer:

Analysis Of The ‘Santhal Rebellion’ And ‘Indigo Rebel- Lion’ And The Role Of The Hindu Patriot In Both Cases:-

Introduction:

The Santhal Rebellion of 1855 was the most significant organized protest movement that preceded the Great Revolt of 1857.

The Santhal Rebellion led by Sidhu Kanhu, Chand, and Bhairva spread from Bhagalpur to the region of Rajmahal.

Causes of the Santhal Rebellion

1. Burden of revenue:

The British government included the lands of the Santhals in the Zamindaries. As a result, a heavy burden of revenue fell on them.

So they were highly aggrieved and rose in revolt.

2. Oppression by Mahajan:

When the Mahajan or moneylenders came to the place where the Santhals lived, they tried to exploit the innocent Santhals.

They trapped the Santhals in the snare of debt and oppressed them in order to maximize their own profits.

The Santhals then rose in rebellion to free themselves from the traps of the moneylenders.

3. Fraud by traders:

Some dishonest traders came to Santhal Pargana and cheated the Santhals taking advantage of their innocence and ignorance.

These activities of the traders enraged the Santhals and made them rebellious.

4. Exploitation by indigo planters:

The indigo planters inflicted inhuman torture on the Santhals if they refused to cultivate indigo on their lands.

So the Santhals were compelled to revolt in order to stop the torture.

5. Employment in railways:

The misery of the Santhals increased with the expansion of the railways. They were forced to work as laborers in building the railways. Their unique culture was also endangered.

Results Of The Revolt

1. Construction of separate Santhal Pargana:

The British authorities made a separate pargana for the Santhals by combining Teliagarai Pargana with Birbhum and 9000 km of Bhagalpur.

It is said that the British laws did not operate in the newly created Santhal Pargana.

2. Recognition of special rights:

The law and order of Santhal Pargana were entrusted to the tribal leaders like Majhi and Parganite instead of the police by granting them special rights.

The Santhals were now recognized as a separate tribe.

3. Beginning of Kherwa Movement:

The Kherwas (Santhals) organized the Kherwa movement under the leadership of Bhagirath Majhi with a view of discarding old customs and practices and building up a pure lifestyle based on newly created moral values.

This was the first step in the direction of establishing an independent Santhal kingdom.

Causes Of Indigo Revolt-

1. Tyranny of Indigo planters:

When indigo cultivation was declared tax-free by the Charter of 1833, many Europeans came to India and started trading in indigo.

The cultivators were compelled to grow indigo by these planters and those who were unwilling had to face immense torture.

Their houses were set on fire, their tools and equipment were snatched and their women were humiliated. So, the indigo farmers rose in rebellion.

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2. Dadan System:

In the root system, the farmers were given an advance payment of two rupees per bigha. This was called Dan.

This little amount of advance gave temporary relief to the poor peasant families but they got entrapped in a maze of debt from which they could never manage to free themselves.

3. Legislation:

Lord William Bentinck passed a grievance against the Santhals who were exploited an Act in 1830.

which said that if a farmer did not grow indigo after taking Dad, then his action will be regarded as illegal and he will be imprisoned.

Even Macaulay, Bentinck’s Secretary of Law, had to admit that though the indigo agreements were ethical, they were highly objectionable.

4. Fraud:

The uneducated and helpless indigo farmers were greatly deceived when they were given less price and more than the mentioned quantity was extracted from them.

Again, the planters deducted the dadan (advance) and interest from the price of indigo. Moreover, the officials extorted money from the farmers.

Result Of Indigo Revolt-

1. Indigo Commission:

The intensity of the Indigo Revolt compelled the Governor of Bengal P P Grunt to set up the Indigo Commission in 1860. The Commission reported that

  1.  indigo cultivation could be done on 3 kittehs per bigha of land,
  2.  the business tactics of the indigo planters were corrupt, harmful, and misleading;
  3. the allegations brought against the planters by the farmers were true.

2. Retreat of indigo the planters:

The government measures were taken after the Revolt went mostly against the interest of the planters.

So the planters withdrew their capital from indigo in Bengal and invested them in other fields in Bihar.

Some of them invested their capital in the tea industry in the mountainous regions.

3. Victory of farmers:

The farmers had been successful in the Indigo Revolt under the leadership of Digambar Biswas and Bishnucharan Biswas.

Their success proved that the farmers were not weak or helpless. They could establish their rights even after suffering so much torture.

Harish Chandra Mukherjee, the editor of the Hindu Patriot supported both movements. He was sympathetic toward the economy.

They were compelled to work without wages and to pay heavy taxes.

Class 8 History Solution WBBSE

The Hindu patriots defended the cause of the Santhals who were fighting for their right to live freely in their own land.

Harish Chandra also wrote in favor of the indigo farmers who had rebelled against the planters.

According to him, the indigo plantation was only a means for oppressing and cheating the poor and innocent farmers who were compelled to grow indigo on their lands and were not paid reasonable prices.

Indigo cultivation brought permanent misery to the cultivators. Thus the Hindu Patriot constantly upheld the cause of the indigo cultivators.

Question 4. Do you think the Revolt of 1857 was merely a ‘Sepoy Mutiny’? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:

Introduction:

There is a difference of opinion among historians regarding the real nature of the revolt of 1857. Some, like Kishori Chand, think that it was solely a military uprising.

Great Revolt-Sepoy Revolt-

1. Supporters:

The then Secretary of State for India Earl Stanley referred to the Great Revolt as a sepoy mutiny in one of his reports.

His view was supported by historians like John Lawrence, T-R Holmes, and Earl Roberts.

Among the Indian historians Ishwar Chandra Gupta, Kishori Chand Mitra, Dadabhai Naoroji, Akshay Kumar Dutta, Raj Narayan Basu, and Syed Ahmed Khan regarded it as a Sepoy Mutiny.

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2. Arguments:

1. Beginning by sepoys:

The Sepoy Mutiny started at the military cantonment at Barrackpore in Bengal when Mangal Pandey declared revolt.

Then the sepoys of Meerut broke out in rebellion. Gradually the Indian soldiers from Delhi, Kanpur, and other regions joined the revolt. Therefore, we can call it a sepoy revolt.

2. Mass participation of sepoys:

The sepoys had participated in the revolt in large numbers in order to safeguard their interests. They had desperately fought against the British.

So Kishori Chand Mitra had written ‘this revolt was, of course, a mere military uprising’.

3. Aim of capturing Delhi:

After the first mutiny broke out in Ambala and Meerut the sepoys proceeded toward Delhi.

At that time Delhi was not only the capital but an area filled with resources and military equipment.

The intention of the sepoys to capture Delhi proves that it was only a sepoy mutiny.

4. Military conflict:

The participants who were equipped with military power vowed to take it forward. The Indian soldiers were the first to challenge the British.

The uprising of soldiers in different parts of India clearly proves that it was a sepoy mutiny.

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Imagine And Write

Question 1. Imagine you have met Rammohan Roy and Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar. Write an imaginary dialogue with them on the abolition of Sati and the introduction of Widow Remarriage.
Answer:

Imaginary Dialogue With Rammohan Roy And Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar On The Abolition Of Sati And The Introduction Of Widow Remarriage:-

Rammohan And Sati System

Neelkamal: Regards Sir, is everything fine?

Rammohan: Oh, Neelkamal, so early today?

Neelkamal: One should seek the blessing of a noble person like you in the morning only. Anyway, I have come to tell you that we want to felicitate you on behalf of Nagarik Samaj.

So you have to be present there.

Rammohan: The age-old practices of Hindu society, Sati, Kulinism, and violence against women have been stirring my thoughts for a long time.

My conscience has impelled me to stand against Sati. How can I silently watch a woman being compelled to die against her wishes? It’s nothing less than deliberate murder.

So I protested against it by writing books and pamphlets and distributing them among people.

Neelkamal: It’s also true that you had to suffer a lot of insult and torture,

Rammohan: If you want to do good work, then you will have to face such problems. It was chiefly the conservative Hindus who were furious with me. I translated the treatises of

Rammohan: Really? But was there any need for Smriti in Bengali and explained to them that of such excesses?

Neelkamal: What do you mean by excesses Sir? Do you think any Bengali can ever forget what you’ve done for Bengal? Is it the work of an ordinary person to stop something like the Sati system?

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Rammohan: See Neelkamal, it ought to have been done much earlier. Since nobody came forward, I did.

The Company could not enact any laws in this matter because they were afraid of hurting the sentiments of the Hindus.

However, I knew that the Hindus would only come forward to put an end to this.

Hinduism does not support Sati. It only advises the widows to stay within restrictions.

Neelkamal: I know Sir. You really had a tough time breaking the conventions and opposition of so many priests and aristocrats.

Rammohan: Whatever, Neelkamal, I never looked back. What was necessary was mass awakening and mass awareness which could be achieved.

As a result, Raja Kalinath Roy of Dhaka was the first to sign the petition against Sati. Again,

Governor General William Bentinck was also against Sati and he was supported by the public opinion that I had gathered. So he banned

Neelkamal: That’s right, Sir, Many people Sati by Regulation no 17. have co-operated with you.

Neelkamal: So Sir, you are coming?

Rammohan: Since you are requesting so much, I shall come.

Neelkamal: I am greatly relieved. We will regard ourselves to be fortunate to be able to felicitate you.

Vidyasagar And Widow Remarriage

Srinivas: Sir, where are you going?

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Vidyasagar: Where? I have to rush this way and that throughout the day since there is so much controversy going on over widow remarriage.

It’s not a simple task to do something good in this country.

Srinivas: Exactly, Sir. Raja Rammohan had to face the same hurdles while attempting to stop Sati. However, you have completed the work that he had started.

I mean to say that he saved the lives of the widows by putting an end to Sati and you have made arrangements to rehabilitate them. You have achieved the impossible, Sir.

Vidyasagar: Srinivas, the introduction of widow remarriage is the foremost charitable work of my life.

Earlier King Rajballav, Kalikrishna Mitra, and Neelkamal Bandopadhyay tried but did not succeed.

I focussed on the misery of the Hindu widows for the first time in my essay ‘Balya Vivaher Dosh’ in the first education of ‘Sarvashubhankari Patrika’.

Then I also wrote about this in a book named ‘Bidhava Vivah Etadrishayak Prastav’.

Srinivas: This step created many protests among the conservatives. Radhakanta Dev had launched a protest through Dharmasabha.

Vidyasagar: I then quoted a sloka from Parashar Samhita and wrote a book that explained the scriptures in detail.

Srinivas: What does it mean Sir?

Vidyasagar: If any woman’s husband is missing, or dies, or becomes ascetic, or becomes impotent or morally degenerate then the woman can remarry.

Srinivas: Oh, excellent!

Vidyasagar: Then ignoring the opposition of the conservatives and staking my life, I collected signatures from many distinguished persons and submitted the petition to the government.

Srinivas: I know Sir, most of the intellectuals of Bengal had supported you.

Vidyasagar: On the other hand, the conservatives were not lagging behind. They also collected signatures of 36,763 persons to stop widow remarriage.

Luckily the government did not heed their request.

Srinivas: Finally the government legalized widow remarriage by Regulation no. 15. This law also recognizes the right of inheritance

which is the right of the children to inherit their father’s property and wealth. So Sir, how far have the marriages progressed?

Vidyasagar: The first marriage was held between Srish Chandra Vidyaratna and Kalimata Devi, the widowed daughter of Brahmananda Mukhopadhyay of Burdwan.

There was a lot of trouble here also. You’ve heard all that. It would have been impossible without the government’s help.

Then I made another widow Bhavsundari my own daughter-in-law.

Srinivas: You have also organized many other marriages, Sir?

Vidyasagar: Yes, I have. In these few years, I have given about 60 widows in marriage. To be frank, I have incurred a loan of rupees 82,000 to organize these marriages.

Srinivas: So people rightly say that you are not only the sea of knowledge but also the sea of kindness.

Vidyasagar: Don’t talk nonsense. I’m getting late. See you.

Question 2. Imagine you are a journalist. You gained experience and knowledge about the Revolt of 1857 by visiting different places in India during the Revolt. Write a newspaper report based on your experience.
Answer:

Newspaper Report Based On My Experience And Knowledge About The Revolt Of 1857 By Visiting Different Places In India During The Revolt:-

Staff reporter, Delhi, August 1857: The revolt started on 26th February 1857 at Native Infantry No 11 of the military barrack at Ayodhya, Kanpur, Lucknow, Shah Jahanpur, Behrampore in Murshidabad.

The agitation which started over the greased cartridges spread rapidly through all parts of the country.

Then a wider agitation started at Barrackpore cantonment where Mangal Pandey of Native Infantry no 34 declared revolt on 29th March.

The rebels of Meerut proceeded towards Delhi on 11th May.

They killed the English soldiers and occupied Delhi and declared Bahadur Shah II the emperor. From here the revolt spread to

Moradabad, Rohilkhand, Varanasi, Allahabad, Fatehpur, Faizabad, Bareilly, Jhansi, and Bihar. The soldiers of Kanpur revolted in June under the leadership of Nanasaheb.

In Ayodhya, it became a mass revolt. Rohilkhand, Jhansi, and Bihar became important centers of the Great Revolt.

The revolt spread from Punjab in the north to the valley in the south and from Bihar in the east to Rajputana in the West.

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