WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Topic C Miscellaneous

Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Topic C Miscellaneous Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Zamindari system, Mahalwari system, Bhaiyachari system, Ryotwari system
Answer: Zamindari system

Question 2. Silk, Wool, Cotton, Indigo
Answer: Indigo

Question 3. Dahsala system, Eksala system, Panchsala system, Mahalwari system.
Answer: Mahalwari system.

Question 4. Zamindar, Mahajan, Farmer, Trader
Answer: Farmer

Question 5. Cornwallis, Hastings, Bentinck, John Shore
Answer: John Shore

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Question 6. John Shore, Philip Francis, Hastings, Thomas Munro
Answer: Hastings

Question 7. Tea, Indigo, Jute, Paddy
Answer: Paddy

Question 8. Agriculturist Relief Act, Sunset Act, Tenancy Act, Vernacular Press Act.
Answer: Vernacular Press Act

Question 9. De industrialisation, drainage of resouces Famine of 1770, Jallianwalabagh Massacre.
Answer: Jallianwalabagh Massacre

Question 10. Telegraph, post, railways, drainage of resources
Answer: drainage of resources

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Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Topic C Miscellaneous Match The Columns

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Match the colmns table 1
Answer: A-3,B-4,C-1,D-5,E-2

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Match the colmns table 2
Answer: A-3,B-5,C-4,D-1,E-2

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Match the colmns table 3
Answer: A-5,B-3,C-4,D-1,E-1

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Match the colmns table 4
Answer: A-2,B-3,C-5,D-1,E-4

Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Topic C Miscellaneous Fill In The Blanks With The Correct Alternative

Question 1. Permanent Settlement was started by __________ (Hastings/Cornwallis/Dalhousie).
Answer: Cornwallis

Question 2. Mahalwari system started in ___________ (Bengal/North India/South India).
Answer: North India

Question 3. Dadan means ___________ (advance payment/abwab/unpaid labour).
Answer: advance payment

Question 4. The first jute factory in colonial India came up at ___________ (Rishra/Calcutta/Bombay).
Answer: Rishra

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Question 5. The outflow of wealth from the country is ___________(Drainage of wealth/Deindustrialisation/Bargadari system).
Answer: Drainage of wealth

Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Topic C Miscellaneous Identify The Wrong Statement

Question 1. Permanent Settlement started in 1794.
Answer: Wrong

Question 2. The Indigo revolt occurred in Madras.
Answer: Wrong

Question 3. Cotton cultivation in Deccan was linked to American Civil War.
Answer: Wrong

Question 4. The Indian market saw an influx of native commodities with the expansion of railways.
Answer: Wrong

Question 5. The telegraph system was set up in Company’s interest.
Answer: Right

Answer Briefly

Question 1. What was the Sunset Law?
Answer:

Sunset Law:-

According to the terms of Permanent Settlement introduced on March 22, 1793, if a landlord failed to deposit his rent before sunset on the stipulated date, then his land would be confiscated by the Company and auctioned. The law was known as Sunset Law.

Question: What do you understand by the commercialisation of agriculture?
Answer:

Commercialisation Of Agriculture:-

The farmers were so overburdened by the high rate of revenues that they were compelled to take loans from the Mahajan or money lenders.

These Mahajan compelled the helpless farmers to cultivate cash crops like indigo, jute and cotton to ensure the repayment of the loans.

Thus agriculture came to be commercialized and the farmers had to suffer from starvation due to the scarcity of food.

Question 3. Why did the ‘Deccan riots’ occur?
Answer:

Deccan Riots:-

The farmers of Poona and Ahmednagar rose in rebellion in 1875.

The Deccan riots took place due to the oppression of farmers by money lenders, forcible acquisition of lands from the farmers and imposition of high rates of revenue on them.

Again, the evil effects of the Ryotwari system, reduction in the price of cotton, lack of rain and crop failure also rendered the farmers helpless.

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Question 4. What is the drainage of wealth?
Answer:

Drainage Of Wealth:-

After winning the Battle of Plassey the Company began to transport large amounts of wealth, commodities and products from Bengal and other regions of India to England without bringing anything in return.

This is called the ‘drainage of wealth’ or ‘drainage of resources’. This was done in two ways

  1. through the Company officials, and traders
  2. through Company’s commercial, economic and revenue policies. A large amount of wealth and resources were drained away in this manner.

England, the pioneer of industrialization used their colonies as centres for importing raw materials and exporting finished products and thus drained. away their wealth.

Question 5 What is deindustrialisation?
Answer:

Deindustrialisation:-

Deindustrialisation means the complete destruction of industries. The traditional handicraft and cottage industries were destroyed during British rule.

This led to the decline of indigenous industries, unemployment and less prosperity in the cities.

India was finally converted into a country that could supply raw materials and serve as a ready market for finished goods.

Write In Your Own Words

Question 1. What was the effect of the Permanent Settlement on peasant society?
Answer:

The Effect Of The Permanent Settlement On Peasant Society:-

Introduction:

‘Permanent refers to the system in which the landlords could enjoy ownership rights over their lands hereditarily by paying a fixed revenue to the company annually.

This system was implemented in Bengal by Lord Cornwallis in 1793.

Misery Of The Farmers Of Bengal Under Permanent Settlement Scheme

The farmers of Bengal were plunged into deep misery because the Permanent Settlement scheme did not have any provision to safeguard their rights and interests.

1. Oppression by Zamindars :

While implementing the system Cornwallis had hoped that the Zamindars would themselves safeguard the interest of the farmers but the situation turned out to be different.

They imposed heavy taxes upon the farmers and evicted them from the land at their own will.

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2. Victims of new landlords:

Many traders and money lenders bought lands on auction in order to become land owners. They were completely unaware of rural life and the process of agricultural production.

They somehow wanted to collect revenue from the farmers and become rich. So the poor farmers were subjected to inhuman torture by this new class of landlords.

3. Eviction from land:

The government gave the landlords the right to evict the farmers in case of non-payment of revenue by issuing Regulation No. 7 in 1799.

The Zamindars took advantage of this regulation and evicted many farmers on very simple pretexts. The peasants had to suffer greatly Historian Narendra Krishna Sinha said

that this law made the Zamindars ‘possessors of irresistible powers’.

4. Exploitation through the Pattani system:

With the introduction of the Pattani system, some additional taxes were imposed on the farmers and the tyranny over them increased.

Many illegal taxes and Abwab were imposed in addition to the fixed revenue. All these brought untold misery to the peasants

Question 2. Compare and contrast the Permanent Settlement system with Rotwari and Mahalwari systems. Which was of lesser harm to the peasants? Give reasons.
Answer:

0Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Q2 toplc c Permanent Settlement and Pyotwari and Mahalwari System

Question 3. Did the commercialisation of agriculture have a direct relation with peasant discontent and revolt? How will you view ‘Deccan Riot’ in this context?
Answer:

Commercialisation Of Agriculture And Peasant Revolts

The Peasant unrest in the Deccan was directly related to the commercialisation of agriculture. This unrest subsequently turned into revolts.

So it can be said that the commercialisation of agriculture created the background for the Deccan Riots.

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The Deccan Riots Causes-

1. Evil effects of Ryotwari systems:

The English Company introduced the Ryotwari system in the Deccan to increase revenue and thereby increase government income. The revenue collectors tortured the peasants in various ways and even seized their lands and houses.

2. Misery of the Kunwi farmers:

The Kunwi peasants of the Poona and Ahmadnagar districts of Maharashtra were highly oppressed by the money lenders and other intermediaries.

Therefore, these peasants were forced by their misery to rise in rebellion.

3. Oppression by Mahajans or money lenders:

The peasants were compelled by poverty to borrow money, seeds and food crops from the Mahajans who charged an interest of 30-60%. Thus the farmers were oppressed by these Mahajans.

4. Reduction in the price of cotton:

After the end of the Civil War in America, cotton began to be exported from there to England.

So the export of cotton from India faced a setback and the price of cotton fell. On the other hand, the rate of revenue on

the part of the government and the rate of interest on the part of the money lenders kept on increasing. This led to rebellion by the peasants.

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Question 4. What relation did the Company’s business policy have with the Bengal textile industry? Why did the Indians form indigenous banks and insurance companies?
Answer:

Relationship between the Textile Industry and the Commercial Policy of the Company-

1. Company’s Motive:

British East India. The company adopted a new commercial policy after the Industrial Revolution in Britain.

It was decided that the textiles manufactured in Britain would be sold in the Indian markets.

The company aimed at destroying the indigenous textile industry in order to capture the market.

2. Result:

The British textile industry made steady progress in the trade as a result of possessing the facility of tax-free trade. The Indian textiles lagged behind in the competition and finally decayed.

Indian Initiative

1. Setting up banks:

The Indian capitalists were deprived of bank loans. Even if they were provided loans in a few cases, they had to comply with rigid rules and regulations.

There was also discrimination regarding the rate of interest payable against the loan. The Indian industrialists and traders had to pay comparatively high rates of interest.

So, the Indian traders and industrialists decided to set up their own banks to avail of loans.

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Nation Bank of India,Bombay

2. Setting up insurance companies:

The British government was hesitant to bring the Indian industrial and trade institutions under the purview of the insurance system.

If the native industrial institutions were affected by any accident or natural disaster or if the native production was hampered then the government did not provide any aid.

So, the Indian industrialists and traders took up the initiative of establishing an indigenous insurance company.

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Question 5. Discuss the expansion of colonial rule in India with regard to railways and telegraph systems.
Answer:

Expansion Of Colonial Rule In India With Regard To Railways And Telegraph Systems:-

Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 4 Nature Of Colonial Economy Q5 topic c Railways and Telegraph

Imagine And Write

Question .1 Suppose you are travelling by train for the first time. Describe your pre-boarding and post-boarding experience in a letter addressed to your friend.
Answer:

Pre-Boarding And Post-Boarding Experience In A Letter Addressed To My Friend:-

Dear Asit,

Hope you are doing well. I also hope that all your family members are well by the grace of God. We are all in the best of spirits here.

I think you are aware of the fact that railways have been introduced in our country. Well, I was quite curious about the train and wanted to know how such a gigantic vehicle plied so fast.

We are habituated to travelling by bullock carts and horse carriages but today all my curiosity, hope and anxiety came to an end. Today I boarded a train for the first time and I want to share my experience with you.

So long I had been watching the train. whistling and rushing through the field. Today I had a joy ride on it. I first took a ticket from the counter.

Then the train arrived at its appointed time. At first, I and some others were scared and stepped back. Then I got into it with a beating heart.

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On seeing a blue lantern the train began to move, whistling and emitting black smoke at the same time. It moved over the iron rails with some jerks.

It seemed as if all the trees and huts were receding at a great speed. I and some others were highly excited and began to shout. Soon we reached our destination.

Really Asit, I never thought that so many. people can be carried so quickly and so comfortably. Come to my place one day and we Telegraph the news of revolts could reach the administrative centres beforehand and appropriate measures could be taken.

will board the train together. We will have a good ride and you will also be able to overcome your fear. Let me stop here today. Reply soon. Yours affectionately Rohan

Question 2. Suppose you are a resident of the Deccan in the 1870s. Record in your personal diary the discontent of the peasants of the region regarding cotton cultivation.
Answer:

The Discontent Of The Peasants Of The Region Regarding Cotton Cultivation:-

1. June 13, 1873, 9 p.m.::

This year I am highly anxious about cotton cultivation. There is no capital. I am also scared of going to the Mahajan.

Last year’s paddy is also exhausted. Nowadays Gujarati, Marwari, Lingayat and Kulkarnis are carrying on the money lending business.

I think I have to borrow seeds from some Mahajan. I don’t know what’s in store for me.

2. July 14, 1873; 10 p.m.:

I heard that the company has decided to reform the land revenue system which has been implemented over a wide area of Deccan to increase the government’s income.

The Patels, who have been entrusted with the task of collecting revenue, are torturing the peasants in various ways.

If the peasants cannot pay the revenue, their houses and property are confiscated. Since the farmers do not have tenancy rights they are suffering a lot.

3. September 10, 1874, 11 p.m. :

The price of cotton has suddenly fallen. So cotton cultivators like me will be in great trouble.

I have heard that after the end of the Civil War in America, England is importing cotton from there.

So the rate of export of cotton from India has decreased and consequently, the price has fallen.

On the other hand, the rates of land revenue and interest on loans taken from money lenders are continuously increasing.

4. December 10, 1874:

10 p.m.: The economic crisis has intensified. We the farmers are in great misery because of drought and crop failure.

The fall in the price of agricultural products is making our condition more pathetic. Again the Bombay government has increased the rent considerably.

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5. December 20, 1874:12 midnight:

Today a terrible peasant revolt has broken out in the Deccan. It started in Karde village in the Singur Taluka of the Poona district.

A Mahajan named Kaluram has purchased the house and landed property of an indebted farmer named Babasaheb Deshmukh at just rupees one hundred and fifty.

So the angry villagers started revolting in Deccan under the leadership of Kengliya.

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