WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the location, topography and rivers of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Location of the Great Lakes region:

The Great Lakes region lies in the northeastern part of the USA. This region takes into account the major areas of the US states of

  1. Minnesota,
  2. Wisconsin,
  3. Illinois,
  4. Indiana,
  5. Michigan,
  6. Ohio,
  7. Pennsylvania and
  8. New York.

Latitudinally and longitudinally, this region extends from 41°N to 50°N and 75°W to 93°W.

Topography of the Great Lakes region:

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The main features of the topography of the region are as follows-

  1. This area is mainly plain land and this region is part of the Central lowlands.
  2. Though no part of this region has an elevation greater than 180m, the deposition of moraine over many years has caused the formation of a rolling, undulating landscape.
  3. Low hills are sometimes seen in this region.
  4. In the east, the land between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario is quite steep- a difference of almost 75m. This is known as the Niagara Escarpment or ‘fall line’ and it is along this fall line that the famous Niagara Falls has originated.

Rivers of the Great Lakes region:

The main river of this region is the St. Lawrence River. The river falls into and rises again from each of the five lakes before finally flowing into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. At different points in its course, it is known by different names.

For instance

It is known as the St. Marie River between Lake Superior and Lake Huron,

  1. As St. Clare between Lake Huron and Erie,
  2. As the Niagara River between the Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. It is at this point on its course that the 51m high and 426m long, horseshoe-shaped, world-famous falls-the Niagara has originated. Apart from this Mississippi, Illinois, and Ohio Rivers also flow through this region.

Question 2. Give an account of the mineral resources and the industries of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Mineral resources of the Great Lakes region:

The Great Lakes region is rich in mineral resources. The distribution of mineral resources in this region is tabulated below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Mineral resources ,and industries of the Great Lakes Region

Apart from this, limestone, gypsum, manganese, lead, etc. are also found here.

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Industries in the Great Lakes region:

This is the most developed industrial zone in the USA. The iron and steel, engineering, chemical, paper, meat packaging, leather, flour, rubber, dairy, and petrochemical industries have flourished here.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Industrys In the Great Lakes region

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Industries in the Great Lakes Region in the USA

Question 3. Discuss the causes of industrialisation in the Lake region.
Answer:

Causes Of Industrialisation In The Lake Region:-

The causes of industrialisation in the Lake region are-

1. Support of sufficient capital:

The highly populated Lake region ensures sufficient support of capital for the development of the industries in this region.

2. Abundance of mineral resources:

Iron ore and coal mines of the Lake region provide an easy supply of raw materials which facilitate the development of the industries here.

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3. Hydroelectric power:

The generation of hydroelectricity from Niagara falls provides power supply to the industries in the vicinity.

4. Developed transportation network:

Developed roadways and waterways in the Lake region provide easy transportation facilities for the movement of both people and goods.

5. Dense population:

The dense population of this region creates a demand for goods which generates the need for the growth of industries here. This in turn, also creates a demand for labour supply which is also met by this region.

Question 4. How did the Lake region industrially develop?
Answer:

Lake Region Industrially Develop As Follows:-

The Great Lakes region is the most industrially developed region in the world. The causes of industrialisation are also the main factors behind this rapid and sustained development. These reasons are as follows-

1. Abundance of iron ore:

The Great Lakes region, especially Vermilion, Mesabi, Marquette, Menominee, etc. located in the southern and western regions of Lake Superior are rich in iron ore resources.

This has led to the remarkable development of the iron and steel industry in this region.

2. Proximity to coal mines:

Illinois and Indiana are famous coal mining regions. As the northern Appalachian coalfields are in close proximity to the Great Lakes region, power resources are easily available, which facilitates the growth of several industries.

3. Navigable waterway:

The five lakes and the St. Lawrence River have formed a navigable waterway through which trade can be carried out with the entire world.

4. Adequate hydroelectric power:

The fast-flowing rivers, along with Niagara Falls, help in the production of a large amount of hydroelectricity.

5. Developed roads and railways:

This region is well connected through highly developed roads and railways. Chicago is the largest rail junction in the USA.

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6. Adequate water supply:

The Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River can easily meet the huge demand for water. Hence, industries have managed to develop and sustain themselves.

7. Highly populated region:

As the Great Lakes region is highly populated, there is an easy availability of labour force-both skilled and unskilled. This large population also implies a huge demand for locally manufactured goods.

8. Availability of raw materials from agriculture:

The Great Lakes region and its surroundings, being rich in agricultural resources, industries such as flour milling and cotton weaving have flourished here.

9. Availability of raw materials from livestock:

Extensive grasslands in the Great Lakes region mean that this region grows a huge amount of animal fodder. Based on this, the meat packaging, dairy and poultry industries etc. have developed here.

Question 5. State the role of the transportation system in the economic prosperity of the Lake region.
Answer:

Role Of The Transportation System In The Economic Prosperity Of The Lake Region:-

The advanced transport system of the Great Lakes region plays an important role in the economic development of this region.

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Navigable waterways:

The main mode of transport in the Great Lakes region is a network of rivers and streams that connect the five lakes. All five lakes are connected to the St. Lawrence River.

Canals and lock gates have been made to ensure navigable waterways in this region. In 1829, the Welland Canal was dug between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, in order to provide a navigable route that bypassed Niagara Falls.

This has enabled. easy access of ships to the ports of Chicago and Duluth. Similarly in 1895, the Sault Ste. Marie was dug between Lake Superior and Lake Huron to provide another route to ships to reach the Atlantic Ocean, besides the St. Lawrence River.

Large sea-going vessels can travel almost 1600km into the continent’s interior through the St. Lawrence waterway. It is through this canal that the region around the Appalachian Mountains and the Great Lakes region can exchange coal and iron respectively.

This has, in turn, resulted in the development of industries such as iron and steel, engineering, etc., in both these areas. Wheat from the Prairies is also transported through this waterway. T

his has resulted in the development of flour mills and bakeries in Buffalo, Duluth, Ontario, etc.

Developed roads and railways:

The Great Lakes region has a network of roads and railways that facilitate trade and hence contribute to its economic development. Chicago is the largest railway terminal in the USA.

Airways:

Airways make an important contribution to the transport sector, with airports situated in Chicago, Detroit and Indianapolis.

Question 6. Discuss the agricultural practices and animal rearing in the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Agriculture:

The salient points of agricultural practices in the Great Lake region are discussed below-

Reasons for highly developed agriculture:

Commercial agriculture carried out with highly developed technology,

  1. Vast expanses of undulating plainlands,
  2. Optimal rainfall and suitable temperature due to the temperate and humid climate,
  3. Fertile chernozem soil,
  4. Modern techniques and methods of farming,
  5. The practice of crop rotation,
  6. High population density implies a very high demand for agricultural products and high availability of labour,
  7. Easy availability of water for irrigation because of the lakes,
  8. Developed communication and transportation network.

Main agricultural products:

  1. Wheat,
  2. Maize,
  3. Oat,
  4. Barley,
  5. Rye,
  6. Beet,
  7. Com,
  8. Different fruits such as apples, peaches and grapes.

To the south of the Great Lakes region lies the famous corn belt of America. To the north of this belt, hay clover and alfalfa are grown for cattle feeding. Besides this, Central Highland is well known for maize production.

Animal rearing:

The salient points of animal rearing in the Great Lakes region are discussed below-

1. Domestic animals:

In the cities and industries of this region for dairy products, cattle and pigs are raised in very hygienic and scientific ways. Poultry farming is also carried out here. This is one of the most famous animal-rearing centres in the world.

Factors for highly developed animal husbandry in this region:

The factors are as follows-

  1. Large quantities of corn grown here along with the production of hay, alfalfa and clover ensure plentiful and high-quality fodder for cattle.
  2. A cool climate facilitates the preservation of highly perishable dairy products.
  3. Availability of vast expanse of land for cattle to graze on.
  4. A plentiful water supply ensures that animals get adequate water.

The state of Wisconsin (on the banks of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior) is especially famous for animal rearing and dairy products so much so that it is known as the ‘Dairy State.

Also, Chicago (on the bank of Lake Michigan) in Illinois is known for meat preservation and its meat packaging industry and is thus known as the ‘slaughterhouse of the world.

Question 7. Discuss the economic significance of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Economic Significance Of The Great Lakes Region:-

The economic significance of the Great Lakes region are as follows-

1. Abundance of farm products:

Though this is mainly an industrial belt, crops such as wheat, maize, barley, rye, oat, beet, etc. are grown in abundant quantities. These in turn, cater to the demand for agricultural products in the northeastern regions.

2. Livestock rearing:

Rearing of cattle is a major occupation here. This region holds the topmost place in beef production. Production of other dairy products such as cottage cheese and butter is also mention-worthy.

3. Largest reserve of iron ore:

A large percentage of the USA’s iron ore is extracted from the Great Lakes region. Vermilion, Mesabi, and Menominee (around Lake Superior and Lake Michigan) are famous for their iron ore resources.

4. Extraction of coal and various other minerals:

Coal is also extracted in large quantities from this area. Besides this, copper, mineral oil, mineral salt, limestone, gypsum, manganese, lead, etc., are also found here.

5. Most developed industrial belt in the USA:

Due to the emergence of different types of industries, the area around the Five Great Lakes has become one of the most developed industrial belts in the USA.

Example-

  1. Iron and steel industry (buffalo, Chicago, gary, Duluth, etc.),
  2. Engineering industry (Detroit, Chicago, etc.),
  3. Chemical industry (Chicago, Detroit, Michigan, etc.),
  4. Paper industry (green bay), meat industry (Chicago),
  5. Leather industry (Chicago),
  6. Dairy industry (Milwaukee),
  7. Flour industry (buffalo),
  8. The rubber industry (Akron) have developed in this region.

Also, the world’s largest automobile industry in Detroit, the world’s leading wheat-producing centre in Buffalo and the rubber capital in Akron are situated here.

6. Centre for financial exchange:

The third largest city in the USA-Chicago is situated in the Great Lakes region. Other important cities such as St Louis, Buffalo, Detroit, Duluth, etc., have also grown here. All these have made this region an important centre of financial exchange.

Question 8. Describe the location, size and topographic features of the Canadian Shield.
Answer:

Location of the Canadian Shield:

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The ancient, eroded plateau made up of hard rock such as granite and gneiss is known as the Canadian Shield. The Shield encompasses Hudson Bay in the east, the west and the south. It is also called the Laurentian Plateau.

The longitudinal extent of the region is from 55°W (Labrador. Highlands) in the east to 120°W (Great Bear Lake) in the west and its latitudinal extent is from 45°N (Lake Ontario) in the south to 82°N (north coast of Ellesmere Islands) in the north.

Area of the Canadian Shield:

This ancient plateau of Canada extends for 8 million sq. km. Although most of the Canadian Shield region extends across Canada, some areas adjacent to Lake Superior are also part of this shield region.

Topographic features of the Canadian Shield:

Topographic features of the Canadian Shield region are as follows-

  1. The average elevation of the shield region is about 350m. This region remained buried under snow during the Ice Age and glacial erosion and decay over thousands of years has lowered its elevation. However, the average height of the eastern part of the Canadian Shield is almost 900m.
  2. As an effect of glacial erosion, many lakes of different sizes-Great Bear, Great Slave, Winnipeg, Athabasca, Reindeer, etc. have formed in this region. The slope of the land is form south to north.
  3. Although the Canadian Shield is made up of hard granite and gneiss rocks, limestone and slate stone can also be seen in some places. The slope of the land is from south to north
  4. This region consists of small dome-shaped hills (average height 300 m-600 m), several lakes and swamps. notable mountain in this region is the Torngat (1652m).

Question 9. Describe the rivers, climate and types of vegetation of the Canadian Shield region.
Answer:

Rivers of the Canadian Shield region:

The rivers of the Canadian Shield region are as follows-

  1. The main rivers flowing through the Canadian Shield region are Nelson, Churchill, McKenzie, Albany, Great Whale, etc. These rivers flow from south to north draining out at Hudson Bay and the river, McKenzie joins the Arctic Ocean. The river Saskatchewan, flows into Lake Winnipeg, while Athabasca flows into Lake Athabasca. The St. Lawrence River flows through the southeastern part of the Canadian Shield region and joins the Atlantic Ocean.
  2. Most rivers of this region carry large volumes of water at great speed and this tremendous force is harnessed to generate electricity.
  3. Most of the rivers in this region flow northward.
  4. Different lakes-Great Bear, Great Slave, Winnipeg, Athabasca, and Reindeer have formed in this region due to the deposition of moraines, boulder clay, etc., from melting glaciers and glacial erosion. These lakes are located side by side and connected by rivers.

The climate of the Canadian Shield region:

Climatic conditions of the Canadian Shield region are as follows-

  1. A cool temperate continental type of climate prevails in this region. The summers are short and the winters are long.
  2. The northern parts of the Canadian Shield area belong to the severely cold Tundra region because of which these places experience about 7 months of winter with temperatures reaching well below freezing point.
  3. The average summer temperature is around 10°C and the region receives rainfall during this period. The average rainfall is 40 cm and the south receives more rainfall than the north of the Canadian Shield region.
  4. Due to heavy snow cover, it is almost impossible to carry out regular activities and transportation.
  5. The south and south-eastern parts of the region experience a cool temperate east coast type of climate. The average annual temperature is 4°C.

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Types of vegetation of the Canadian Shield region:

The types of vegetation of the Canadian Shield region are as follows-

  1. In the northern parts of the Shield region, a tundra type of climate prevails, which is suitable for the growth of mosses, algae, small shrubs, bushes, and lichens.
  2. Coniferous trees such as pine, fir, maple, spruce, birch, balsam, etc., cover a vast area in the south and southeastern part of the Shield region.
  3. Deciduous trees such as oak, beech, maple etc., and coniferous trees such as pine, fir, etc., together form a mixed forest in the south-eastern of the Canadian Shield region.

Question 10. Give an account of the mineral resources and industries of the Canadian Shield region.
Answer:

Mineral resources of Canadian Shield region:

The Canadian Shield is rich in mineral resources. The most important mineral resources of the region are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Mineral resources of Candian Shield Region

 

Industries of the Canadian Shield region:

The different types of industries that have developed in the Canadian Shield region are as follows:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Industries of the Candian Shield Region

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Mineral resoures of the Canadian Shield region

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Give an account of the Great Lakes Region of North America. How did these lakes come into existence?
Answer:

Great Lakes System of North America:

In the north-eastern part of North America, near the Canada-USA border, there are five huge lakes-

  1. Superior,
  2. Michigan,
  3. Huron,
  4. Erie and
  5. Ontario.

Apart from these, there are numerous smaller lakes as well, such as Lake St. Clare. Among these, only Lake Michigan is completely within the territory of USA. The Canada-USA border passes through all the other four Great Lakes.

The Great Lakes region of the USA refers to the area off the southern shores of these four lakes. The Great Lakes region occupies a major part of eight states and is the most densely populated area in the country.

These states are Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York.

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The accepted theory of the origin of the Great Lakes:

Centring Hudson Bay, the most ancient landmass and eroded plateau of the world, the Canadian Sheild is situated. In the ice age, this region was fully covered by ice.

These snow-covered regions extended from Hudson Bay to far to the south (at present the five lakes). Due to prolonged glacial erosion, some areas of these vast snow-covered regions have been transformed into basins.

Eventually, this region has transformed into lakes.

Question 2. Discuss the climate of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Climate Of The Great Lakes Region:-

The climatic features of the Great Lakes region are as follows-

  1. Generally, the Great Lakes region experiences a cool temperate type of climate with a greater influence of the winter season.
  2. The average temperature of this region is 16°C. In winter temperature lies below freezing point.
  3. In winter the entire Great Lakes region remains under snow cover.
  4. This region experiences an average annual rainfall of about 70 to cm-80 cm, mostly in summer.
  5. The range of temperature between summer and winter is quite high.

Question 3. Discuss the contribution of the St. Lawrence River to the economic development and prosperity of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Contribution Of The St. Lawrence River To The Economic Development And Prosperity Of The Great Lakes Region:-

The main river of the Great Lakes region is St. Lawrence. The contribution of this river to the economic development and prosperity of this region is great. This can be discussed as follows-

1. Facilitating trade:

Through the Lawrence Waterway, goods are transported to the Great Lakes region and minerals and industrial goods can also be sent to any place of the world. So, this waterway facilitates trade with Europe as well as other parts of the world.

2. Easy availability of water and hydroelectricity:

The St. Lawrence river is a valuable source of water and Niagara Falls is a valuable source of hydroelectricity of this region.

3. Helps in irrigation throughout the year:

Water of the St. Lawrence river great five lakes are used for irrigation throughout the year.

Question 4. What is the role of mineral resources in the economic prosperity of the Great Lakes region?
Answer:

Role Of Mineral Resources In The Economic Prosperity Of The Great Lakes Region:-

Mineral resources of the Great Lakes region play an important role in the economic prosperity of this region. This can be discussed as follows-

1. Largest reserve of iron ore:

A large percentage of iron is extracted from the Great Lakes region. Vermilion, Mesabi, Menominee, etc. are the major iron ore of this region. Availability of iron helps in the remarkable development of the iron and steel industry in this region.

2. Proximity of coal mines:

Illinois and Indiana are famous for coal mining. As the northern Appalachian coalfields are in close proximity to the Great Lakes region, power resources are easily available, which facilitates the growth of several industries.

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3. Extraction of various other minerals:

Copper, mineral oil, rock salt, limestone, gypsum, manganese,, etc., are also found here which help in industrialization. Especially large amounts of mineral salt are used in meat processing and chemical industries, while some amounts are used to melt the snow on the roads by civic authorities.

4. Availability of mineral oil:

Mineral oil is available in Michigan, Ohio and the Ontario Lake region which helps to develop oil refineries and petrochemical industries in Chicago, Buffalo and Cleveland.

Question 5. Why is the Great Lakes region the most industrially developed region in the USA?
Answer:

Great Lakes Region The Most Industrially Developed Region In The USA:-

In the north-eastern part of North America near the Canada-US border, there are five massive lakes-

  1. Superior,
  2. Michigan,
  3. Huron,
  4. Erie and
  5. Ontario.

Apart from these, there are numerous smaller lakes as well, such as Lake St. Clare. This region is known as the Great Lakes region. It is the most industrially developed region in the USA.

Locally available coal, iron ore, developed transport system, electricity generation, water from the five lakes, etc., have facilitated the growth of industries such as iron and steel, engineering, chemical, paper, meat processing, milk products, oil refining, petrochemical, etc.

About one-fourth of the USA’s industrial output comes from this region. Thus, the Great Lakes region is known as the most developed industrial area in the USA.

Question 6. Write about the animal products of the Great Lakes region.
Answer:

Animal Products Of The Great Lakes Region:-

Extensive grasslands in the Great Lakes region means that this region grows huge amounts of animal fodder. A great demand for milk, dairy products and meat in all the cities of this region has accelerated the rearing of livestock including cattle and pigs.

Poultry farming of chickens and ducks for their eggs and flesh is also common. Based on these factors, the meat packaging, dairy and poultry industries etc. have developed in this region.

High yields of prime quality animal and dairy products has led to Wisconsin becoming the world’s ‘dairy capital. Chicago is known as the ‘slaughterhouse of the world’ because of the high volume of meat and meat products it yields. So, we can say that the Great Lakes region is highly developed in the production of animal products.

Question 7. Write a short note on Chicago.
Answer:

Chicago:-

The city of Chicago, the largest city in the Great Lakes region, is on the southwest bank of Lake Michigan and in the state of Illinois. Chicago is also known as the ‘Windy City.

The Greater Chicago area is home to about 27 lakh people according to 2018 figures. Iron and steel, engineering, chemicals, leather and textiles are some of the industries that have developed in this region.

It has the world’s largest meat production and packing district, for this Chicago is called the ‘slaughterhouse of the world. Chicago is also a very important railway junction and O’Hare Airport is the world’s third busiest airport.

Question 8. Write down the major causes of the development of the paper industry in Canada.
Answer:

Major Causes Of The Development Of The Paper Industry In Canada:-

Canada holds a remarkable position in wood and paper production. About 25 per cent of the world’s paper and pulp is produced in Canada.

Several favourable geographical factors have led to this industry is highly developed in Canada.

These are as follows-

1. Abundance of raw materials:

The central part of Canada has vast coniferous forests. In terms of both nature and size, this is the world’s second-largest forest (the largest is the Taiga in Russia).

2. Ease of transportation:

In winter, when everything is blanketed under snow, the trees are cut down and the logs are piled on the frozen rivers. When the snow melts with the advent of summer, the logs float downstream and are collected by sawmills located on the shores of the rivers.

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3. Easily available hydro-electricity:

Fast-flowing rivers of the Canadian Shield region help to generate hydroelectricity. Canada’s hydel power plants provide electricity to various factories and mills.

4. Other causes:

Modern machinery, supply of efficient labour and support of sufficient capital are also the reasons for the development of the paper industry in Canada.

Question 9. Discuss the transport system of the Canadian Shield region.
Answer:

Transport System Of The Canadian Shield Region:-

The transport system or network of this region is not developed. But in the south-western parts of this region, communication is carried out through the Canadian National Railway, Hudson Bay Railway and the Ontario Northland Railway, as this region is mineral rich and industrially developed.

The Canadian-Pacific Railway extends to the south. The Alaska Highway and the McKenzie Highway are the two main roadways of this region.

Apart from this, the lakes and lake systems are also used as waterways. At present, places which are inaccessible by road, rail or water way receive and send necessary goods and communicate through helicopters and aeroplanes.

Question 10. Briefly write about Detroit and Montreal cities.
Answer:

Detroit:

Detroit, on the banks of the river Detroit, is the world’s largest automobile manufacturing centre. World’s biggest auto-mobile manufacturing companies such as Ford, Daimler, Chrysler and General Motors have their factories here.

Apart from cars, aeroplanes, tanks, artificial rubber, tyre, glass, and car batteries are also manufactured here. That is why Detroit is known as the ‘Motor City’, the automobile centre of the world.

Montreal:

Montreal, on the banks of the St. Lawrence River, is the second-largest city and the largest international port in Canada. The population of this city is about 1.75 million according to the 2016 census.

Aerospace, electronics, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, fur, rayon, engineering and tobacco are some of the main industries developed here.

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the transportation network of the Great Lakes region in the USA.
Answer:

Transportation Network Of The Great Lakes Region In The USA:-

The transportation system of the Great Lakes region is highly developed. The roadways and railways are well-developed. Almost every city is connected by air as well. Chicago’s O’Hare airport is the world’s third busiest airport.

The St. Lawrence Waterway has contributed greatly to the economic growth and prosperity of the Great Lakes region. Large sea-going vessels can travel almost 1600 km into the continent’s interior through the St. Lawrence waterway.

Question 2. Why is Chicago known as a ‘Windy City’? 
Answer:

Chicago Known As A ‘Windy City’:-

The largest city in the Great Lakes region is Chicago, which is also known as the ‘Windy City. Chicago is situated on the southwest of Lake Michigan.

Air flows over the city at a speed of almost 17 km/h. Hence, Chicago is also known as the ‘Windy City.

Question 3. Find out the places in India where such Livestock ranching and food processing industries mutually exist together.
Answer:

Gujarat, in our country, is well-known for its agricultural as well as industrial development. Due to the scanty of rainfall, agriculture is not developed in some of the regions of Gujarat.

So, various types of grasses are grown here. On the basis of these grasslands, cattle rearing is practised in northern and western Gujarat (Sanand, Bhuj). India occupies the second position in cattle rearing all over the world.

Based on the milk, derived from cattle rearing, huge amount of dairy products like-processed milk, powdered milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt, icecream, chocolate etc. are produced here.

Question 4. Why are numerous lakes seen in the Canadian Shield region?
Answer:

Numerous Lakes Seen In The Canadian Shield Region:-

The Canadian Shield region is a remnant of the ancient landmass, Angaraland, which was composed of ancient igneous and metamorphic rocks. In Ice Age, this area was glacier-laden and the entire area was enveloped in snow and ice.

Later, huge blocks of ice started to move in the form of continental glaciers. The erosional action of these glaciers led to the formation of numerous big and small lakes.

Examples- Great Bear, Athabasca, Great Slave, Winnipeg, etc.

Question 5. Write about the fauna of the Canadian Shield region.
Answer:

Fauna Of The Canadian Shield Region:-

The coniferous forest of the Canadian Shield region are home to several creatures such as reindeer, beaver, wild cat, prairie dog, etc.

The areas that fall under the Tundra climate type have animals with long fur and hair, like deer, bears, wolves, furred dogs like huskies and numerous birds. The waters abound in beavers, seals, whales, etc.

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The average elevation of the Great Lakes region is about-

  1. 150m
  2. 180m
  3. 200m
  4. 250m

Answer: 2. 180m

Question 2. The main river of the Great Lakes region is the-

  1. Mississippi
  2. Colorado
  3. St. Lawrence
  4. McKenzie

Answer: 3. St. Lawrence

Question 3. The Churchill River empties into the-

  1. Atlantic Ocean
  2. Labrador Sea
  3. Hudson Bay
  4. Lake Winnipeg

Answer: 1. Atlantic Ocean

Question 4. In summer, the average temperature that prevails in the Great Lakes region is about-

  1. 10°C
  2. 23°C
  3. 16°C
  4. 32°C

Answer: 3. 16°C

Question 5. The largest steel factory in the Great Lakes region is in the city of-

  1. Buffalo
  2. Gary
  3. Chicago
  4. Milwaukee

Answer: 2. Gary

Question 6. The biggest centre of the iron and steel industry in North America is-

  1. Chicago-Gary
  2. Cleveland
  3. Duluth
  4. Toledo

Answer: 1. Chicago-Gary

Question 7. The main centre of the flour milling industry in the USA is the city of-

  1. Montreal
  2. Gary
  3. Buffalo
  4. Toronto

Answer: 3. Buffalo

Question 8. The ‘rubber capital of the world is-

  1. Buffalo
  2. Chicago
  3. Akron
  4. Detroit

Answer: 3. Akron

Question 9. Wisconsin is known as the-

  1. Breadbasket of the world
  2. Dairy capital
  3. Rubber Capital
  4. Granary of the world

Answer: 2. Dairy capital

Question 10. The city known as the ‘slaughter house of the world’ is-

  1. Buffalo
  2. Chicago
  3. Akron
  4. Thunder Bay

Answer: 2. Chicago

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Question 11. One of the significant ports in the Midwest USA handling large tonnage is

  1. Duluth
  2. Cleveland
  3. Gary
  4. Buffalo

Answer: 1. Duluth

Question 12. The city near Lake Erie is-

  1. Milwaukee
  2. Chicago
  3. Duluth
  4. Toledo

Answer: 4. Toledo

Question 13. The total number of shields on the earth’s surface is-

  1. 10
  2. 11
  3. 12
  4. 13

Answer: 2. 11

Question 14. The Canadian Shield region is a-

  1. Mountainous region
  2. Hill
  3. Plateau
  4. Plainland

Answer: 3. Plateau

Question 15. Canadian Shield was formed by the erosion of-

  1. River
  2. Wind
  3. Glacier
  4. Wave

Answer: 3. Glacier

Question 16. The largest lake in the Canadian Shield area is-

  1. Great Bear
  2. Winnipeg
  3. Great Slave
  4. Athabasca

Answer: 1. Great Bear

Question 17. Most of the rivers that flow through the Canadian Shield are-

  1. North flowing
  2. West flowing
  3. South flowing
  4. East flowing

Answer: 1. North flowing

Question 18. The largest mining city in Canada is-

  1. Sudbury
  2. Quebec
  3. Thunder Bay
  4. Thompson

Answer: 1. Sudbury

Question 19. The capital of Canada is-

  1. Vancouver
  2. Detroit
  3. Ottawa
  4. Montreal

Answer: 3. Ottawa

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. The river _________ in North America is an important waterway of the Great Lakes region.
Answer: St. Lawrence

Question 2. The _________ river connects the five Great Lakes.
Answer: St. Lawrence

Question 3. Niagara Falls is situated on the St. Lawrence River between Lake _________ and Lake _________.
Answer: Erie, Ontario

Question 4. The canal that joins Lakes Superior and Huron is _________.
Answer: St. Marie

Question 5. In the middle of Niagara Falls, there is an island named _________.
Answer: Goat Island

Question 6. The largest iron ore mine in the world is the _________ Range in the Great Lakes region.
Answer: Mesabi

Question 7. _________, a suburb of Chicago, is the world’s largest centre of the steel industry.
Answer: Gary

Question 8. _________ in the USA is the world’s largest meat exporting city.
Answer: Chicago

Question 9. _________ to the south of Lake Michigan is the world’s largest rail junction.
Answer: Chicago

Question 10. Chicago’s _________ airport is the world’s busiest airport.
Answer: O’Hare

Question 11. _________ is known as the Windy City.
Answer: Chicago

Question 12. The Canadian Shield is a remnant of the ancient _________ landmass.
Answer: Angaraland

Question 13. The parts of the shield region that are now glacier covered have _________ type of soil.
Answer: Moraine

Question 14. _________ is surrounded on three sides by the Canadian Shield region.
Answer: Hudson Bay

Question 15. The coniferous forests of the Canadian Shield have _________ type of acidic soil.
Answer: Podsol

Question 16. The world’s largest nickel mine is in the Canadian city of _________.
Answer: Sudbury

Question 17. The second largest gold mine in the world is in _________.
Answer: Timinis

Question 18. The two main tunnels of the Canadian Shield region are the Alaska Highway and the _________ Highway.
Answer: Mckenzie

Question 19. Eskimos and _________ are two of the tribes native to the Canadian Shield region.
Answer: Red Indians

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 20. The city of Montreal is situated on the banks of the river _________.
Answer: St. Lawrence

Question 21. Grand Bank is a notable _________..
Answer: Fishing centre

Question 22. _________ is the largest fjord-indented island in the Canadian Shield region and the fifth-largest in the world.
Answer: Baffin

Write True Or False

Question 1. Niagara Falls is on the Colorado River.
Answer: False

Question 2. The world’s largest iron mine is located in the city of Vermilion.
Answer: False

Question 3. The main crops grown in the Great Lakes region are animal fodder.
Answer: False

Question 4. The Saskatchewan River discharges into Lake Winnipeg.
Answer: True

Question 5. Eskimos are found in Greenland.
Answer: True

Question 6. The Candian Shield region extends over almost 4.5 million sq.Km.
Answer: True

Question 7. The Niagara Falls is about 51 m high.
Answer: True

Question 8. Niagara Falls in North America is the world’s highest waterfall.
Answer: False

Question 9. Canada ranks first in the world in newsprint production.
Answer: True

Question 10. Chicago, the slaughter house of the world is situated on the banks of Lake Michigan.
Answer: True

Question 11. The Canadian taiga is the world’s largest taiga forest.
Answer: False

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Match The Columns

1. WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Match the Columns

Answer: 1. D, 2. E, 3. B, 4. A, 5. C

2.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Match the Columns.

Answer: 1. B, 2. A, 3. C, 4. E, 5. D

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Which is the second-largest lake in the world in terms of surface area?
Answer: Lake Superior.

Question 2. From which river did the Niagara Falls originate?
Answer: St. Lawrence.

Question 3. Where in the USA is the largest amount of iron ore found?
Answer: Mesabi.

Question 4. Which is the largest inland port in the world?
Answer: Chicago.

Question 5. Which is the oldest part of the continent of North America?
Answer: Canadian Shield region.

Question 6. What is the other name for the Canadian Shield?
Answer: Laurentian plateau.

Question 7. Name two lakes in the Canadian Shield region.
Answer: Great Bear and Great Slave.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Question 8. Which is the longest river of Canada?
Answer: McKenzie.

Question 9. Name the world’s largest nickel mine.
Answer: Sudbury.

Question 10. Which is the second-largest gold mine in the world?
Answer: Timinis.

Question 11. Which waterway is called the lifeline of Canada?
Answer: St. Lawrence Waterway.

Question 12. Which is the largest city in Canada?
Answer: Toronto.

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Conceptual Questions And Answers

Who am I?

Question 1. ‘I am the largest freshwater lake in the world and I am one of the five Great Lakes’. -Who am I?
Answer: Lake Superior

Question 2. ‘I am the long cover of grassland of the central plains of the USA.- Who am I?
Answer: Prairie

Question 3. I am the world’s largest car manufacturing factory, situated in Michigan, USA.’- Who am I?
Answer: Detroit

Question 4. I am the most famous flour-producing centre in the world and I am situated on the banks of the Erie Lake.’- Who am I?
Answer: Buffalo

Question 5. I am the most famous city in the world and I am the capital of the USA.- Who am I?
Answer: Washington DC

Scrambled Words

1. LUCHRICOSPHEMBUSTOR
2. ESVERIAMGOCCIPU
3. ONYRKWE
4. RISUOPER
5. LACHIAPPANA

Answers:

1. CHRISTOPHER
2. AMERIGO VESPUCCI
3. NEW YORK
4. SUPERIOR COLUMBUS
5. APPALACHIAN

Fill Up The Blanks In The Knowledge Hive

Question 1. Write what you know about the Mississippi- Missouri.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Fill the blanks

Answers:

1. This is the major river system in North America.
2. Originates in Lake Itasca.
3. The combined length of the Mississippi and the Missouri makes the river world’s fourth longest river.
4. Delta formed by this river where it discharges into the Gulf of Mexico resembles the shape of a bird’s foot.
5. Cities such as St. Louis and Minneapolis have come up beside it.

Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Grand Canyon Niagara Falls: Superior: Mariana Trench
Answer: 1. Mariana Trench (not in North America)

Question 2. Coast Range: Canadian Shield Alaska Range Brooks Range
Answer: 2. Canadian Shield (not a mountain range)

Correct The Following

Question 1. Mt. McKinley in the Coast Range is the highest peak in North America.
Answer: Alaska

Question 2. World’s biggest river valley project is being planned on the river Mississippi.
Answer: Tennessee

Question 3. Superior is the world’s fourth-largest lake.
Answer: second

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Crossword

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Crossword

CLUES

Down:

1. The second most populous city in North America.
3. Famous waterfall on the St. Lawrence River.

Across:

2. The largest freshwater lake in the world.
4. America’s ‘Dairyland’.
6. Largest car manufacturing centre in the USA.

Answers:

Down: 1. Buffalo, 3. Niagara
Across: 2. Superior, 4. Wisconsin, 5. Detroit

Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1. Why is North America called the ‘most prosperous continent’? Or, In spite of being a ‘New World’ why is North America known as the ‘most developed continent’?
Answer:

The reasons for North America’s prosperity are discussed below-

1. Agriculture:

Temperate climate abundance of plain, cultivable land facilitates the growth of crops such as wheat, maize, cotton, tobacco, etc.

2. Livestock:

The presence of vast grasslands ensures the rearing of cattle, sheep and pig. This leads to abundant production of milk products, meat, wool, leather, etc.

3. Mineral resources:

North America is rich in mineral resources such as coal, iron ore, mineral oil, copper, lead, zinc etc.

4. Industrial development:

The iron and steel industry, engineering industry, aluminium industry, copper industry, etc. are highly developed here. The presence of coniferous forests has helped in the growth of timber and paper industries.

Moreover, North America’s progress in the economic field has made it the ‘most developed continent. The Prairie region is known as the Bread Basket of the World’, Chicago is called the ‘Slaughterhouse of the World’, Wisconsin is known as ‘America’s Dairyland’ and Detroit is called the ‘Automobile Capital of the World’.

Question 2. What do you know about Minneapolis- Saint Paul?
Answer:

Minneapolis- Saint Paul:-

Minneapolis-Saint Paul, situated on both banks of the Mississippi River, are together known as the twin cities. The combined population of these two cities is about 6 million.

Minneapolis situated on the west bank of the Mississippi River is a notable city and the centre of flour milling, food processing and engineering industries.

This is a younger, more modern city with skyscrapers. The city of Saint Paul is located right across the river.

Question 3. Find out whether any region of your country is as developed as the Great Lakes region in terms of both agriculture and industry. Prepare a chart on the geographical features of that place.
Answer:

Gujarat, in our country, is well-known for its agricultural as well as industrial development.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

Chapter 9 Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Formative

Interpretation And Application

This segment will test whether the students have understood the topics. Analyse the relationship between the following pictures.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Forest and wood

Canada holds a remarkable position in wood (lumbering) and paper production. Extensive coniferous forests (like the pictures) grow all over the Canadian Shield region.

The timber of this forest is the main raw material of the wood and paper industry. This wood is soft in nature, thus transportation of logs becomes easier. Besides this paper and paper pulp production can be produced easily by this softwood.

So, the availability of raw materials contributes to the development of these industries. Canada holds the first position in newsprint production. Hence, there is a strong and direct connection between the coniferous forest and the wood or paper industry of Canada.

Empathy And Cooperation

This segment will determine the ability of students to work as a team. The students are to be divided into two groups A and B. Group A is to prepare a list of the industries and their centres in the Great Lakes regions. Group B is to prepare a list of the industries and their centres in the Canadian Shield.

Group A: List of industries and important industrial centres in the Great Lakes region

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Industrial centres in the Great Lakes region

Group B: List of industries and important industrial centres in the Canadian Shield

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Industrys In the Canadian Shield region

In the given map point out the following places

  1. Appalachian mountain,
  2. Superior Lake (Sample Question, WBBSE Textbook),
  3. Hudson Bay,
  4. Caribbean Sea,
  5. Newfoundland,
  6. Niagara falls,
  7. Mount Waddington,
  8. Colorado Plateau,
  9. Bering Strait,
  10. Canadian Shield

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 9 North America Topic B Great Lakes Region And Canadian Shield Region Map

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