WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Climatic Regions Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region

Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Account for the features of the climate of the Mediterranean region.
Answer:

Eatures Of The Climate Of The Mediterranean Region:-

Mediterranean climate prevails between 30° and 40° North and South latitudes in the western margins of the continents. The features of the Mediterranean climatic region are as follows-

1. Wet winters:

Moist westerlies from the seas blow over the region in winter and hence bring rain to the region.

2. Dry summers:

In summer, due to the northern journey of the sun (apparent), all the pressure belts shift to the north and so the westerlies cannot influence the region. It comes under the influence of the dry northeast trade winds.

3. Scarcity of rainfall:

Though rainfall occurs in winter, its amount is not sufficient. It is only 25cm-150 cm on an average annually. Rainfall gradually decreases when it goes towards interior from the cost. As rainfall occurs in winter, this region is called as ‘Country of winter rainfall.

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4. Mild summer and winter:

The region, with its coastal location within the temperate zone, has both mild summers and winters. Summer temperature remains between 21°C and 27°C and winter temperature varies between 5°C and 10°C on an average. The annual range of temperature is 17°C.

5. Sunny climate and cloudless sky:

This region gets a lot of sunshine for most of the year due to no cloud cover.

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6. Low pressure in winter and high pressure in summer:

Sub-tropical high-pressure belt exists over this region in summer and so air pressure remains high at that time. Again, in winter, due to shifting of the pressure belts, the air pressure becomes low.

So, summers are marked by high pressure and winters by low pressure.

7. Winds:

Due to the shifting of the pressure belts, dry trade winds blow during summer and moist westerlies blow during winter.

Question 2. How will you identify the flora of the Mediterranean climate?
Answer:

Identification Of Flora Of The Mediterranean Climate:-

The flora of an area is closely linked with the climate of that area. The flora of the Mediterranean climatic type is not an exception.

Some of the major plants of the Mediterranean climatic area are cork, oak, olive, pine, far, cedar, eucalyptus, rosewood, beech, curry, maple, laurel, rosemary and lavender.

The ways of identifying the flora of the Mediterranean climate are

Since the summers here are warm and dry, the plants and trees have long roots.

  1. Due to the occurrence of dry summers, the trees have thick barks and woody stems.
  2. The leaves are broad and waxy so as to prevent the loss of moisture.
  3. The trees in these areas bear juicy fruits.
  4. These trees are not very high. Olive is the most commonly found tree of this region.
  5. Coniferous trees like pine, fir, cedar, etc., grow in the areas where snowfall occurs during winter.

Question 3. Discuss the influence of the Mediterra- mean climate on the economic activities of the inhabitants of the region.
Answer:

The Mediterranean climatic region has the following characteristics

  1. Wet winter and dry summer,
  2. The average annual rainfall is 25 cm-150 cm,
  3. Temperate condition prevails throughout the year,
  4. Sunny, bright weather. These have, in turn, influenced the economic activities of the inhabitants of this region.

1. Agriculture:

Agriculture is the main occupation of this region with the following features-

Varieties of fruits grow here:

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The winter. rain and dry, sunny summer promotes the growth of different types of fruits like grapes, olive, apple, pear, peach, orange, pomelo, fig, walnut, apricot and different types of citrus fruits. So, the region is called the ‘Fruit Basket of the World’.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Diffferent types of friuts

Food items and other crops:

This region produces food grains like wheat (both in spring and winter), rice, maize and barley; vegetables like cabbage, tomato, peas, carrot, radish, etc., and also fibre crops like flax and cotton.

2. Abundance of minerals:

Iron ore is obtained from Algeria, Spain and Serbia; Natural gas is obtained from Algeria, Tunisia and Libya; Bauxite is obtained from southern France and Serbia; Mineral oil is obtained from California; Bauxite obtained from France; Marble and Sulphur are obtained from Italy and Gold is obtained from South Africa.

The abundance of minerals has helped in the development of mineral-based industries in this region.

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3. Fishing:

Fishes like sardine, tuna, herring and mackerel are caught here. California is called the sardine capital of the world.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Diffferent types of Fishes

4. Development of other industries:

Huge production of fruits has led to the development of the fruit processing industry (fruit preservation and making of jam, and jelly), wine-making, extraction of oil from olive (for soap, olive oil, perfume, etc.), orchard-based industry, flour industry, etc.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Film industry

The sunny climate, clear sky and beautiful natural environment has helped in the growth of the tourism industry, and film-making industry. Among other industries of this region mention might be made of-

  1. Engineering industry and
  2. Aluminium industry.

5. Progress in trade and commerce:

Oranges from Spain, California, and Israel, Olives from Italy and grapes from France, Italy and California are all exported to foreign countries.

Italian olive oil, champagne from France, and squash from California are also exported in sufficient quantities.

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Question 4. Write a note on the Tundra climate.
Answer:

Tundra Climate:-

Tundra climate is noticed in the northern parts of Asia, Europe and North America in the northern hemisphere and also in several parts of Antarctica in the southern hemisphere. Its characteristics are as follows

1. Extremely cold, prolonged winters:

Winter lasts for about 8-9 months in the Tundra region, with biting cold and profuse snowfall. The ground gets entirely covered with a thick layer of snow and the temperature drops much below 0°C.

The minimum temperature in winter remains between -20°C and -40°C. This region has a continuous night for about six months and Aurora Borealis (northern hemisphere) and Aurora Australis (southern hemisphere) are visible at that time.

2. Short, cool summers:

The duration of summer in this region is only 2-3 months or even less. The sun is visible all through the summer, but due to its location near the horizon, the area receives very slanted/oblique rays.

As a result, summer temperature ranges from 0°C-10°C on an average. Hence, summers are cool.

3. Low rainfall but excessive snowfall:

The Tundra region receives very low rainfall, about 25 cm a year on an average. Temperate cyclones in summer bring this rain. But snowfall in this region is long-lasting and excessive.

Snow particles accumulate to form dry snow and cause blizzards (or snowstorms). Due to the absence of vegetation cover, cold and strong winds blow unobstructed over the Tundra region.

Question 5. Discuss in brief the natural vegetation and animal life in the Tundra region.
Answer:

The natural vegetation of Tundra:

Snow melts for a short period in summer and during that time moss, lichen, sedge and other small shrubs with colourful flowers grow here. These are called ‘grass tundra.

In the southern part, which remains free from snow for a longer period, willow, birch, alder, juniper, etc., grow. These are called ‘bush tundra.

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WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Natural vegetation of the Tundra region

Animal life in the Tundra:

The animal life in the Tundra region is discussed below- The animals of the Tundra, which live on land have thick fur, thick skin and a thick layer of fat under the skin to protect themselves from severe cold.

  1. The animals generally found here are-polar bears, reindeer, caribou, polar fox, lemming (a kind of rat), sable (a furry animal, black in colour), hare, musk deer, etc.
  2. Besides these, innumerable insects are born in the meltwater and varieties of migratory birds come here to feed on those.
  3. Penguins are found in Antarctica, the Tundra region in the South Pole.
  4. Seals, walruses, whales and different types of fishes are found in the cold waters of the Tundra region.

Question 6. How does the natural environment of the Tundra region influence the lifestyle of the inhabitants?
Answer:

Natural Environment Of The Tundra Region Influence The Lifestyle Of The Inhabitants:-

The Tundra region is completely different from the other climatic regions of the world for its unique climate and physiography.

The natural environment of the Tundra region:

Winter persists for about 8-9 months with a temperature of around -20°C to -40°C. Heavy snowfall and occasional blizzards are also common.

Sun remains almost invisible in the sky at that time and sometimes for 2-3 hours Aurora (Aurora Borealis in the northern hemisphere and Aurora Australis in the southern hemisphere) is seen here.

Summer temperature remains about 10°C on an average and lasts for only 2-3 months. During this time, the sun is never seen to set, but its rays are always oblique or slanted and thus produce less heat.

So, moss, lichen and sedge-like shrubs and bush vegetation can grow here.

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Influence of natural environment on the lifestyle of the people of the Tundra region:

People of this region live in the very unfavourable climatic and physical conditions and so the population is sparse here. The people are mostly nomadic and usually settle in the coastal regions.

They are mostly wanderers with herds of reindeer and cannot practise any kind of cultivation. They usually hunt caribou, hare, reindeer, arctic fox, polar bear, seal, fish and various species of birds to obtain food.

Their summer residences are leather tents called topic and in winter they live in igloos, a type of snow house. Seal fat is used for lighting their lamps and they use umiaks (big boats) and kayaks (smaller ones) for fishing and hunting.

They use the skin of animals for clothing and bones for weapons. They stitch their leather dresses with needles made of bones. They use sledges, drawn by dogs (huskies) or reindeer.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Natives of the tundra religon

Question 7. Discuss the recent changes in the lifestyle of the people of the Tundra region.
Answer:

Recent Changes In The Lifestyle Of The People Of The Tundra Region:-

Eskimos were hunters and gatherers previously, but of late, with the help of advanced technology and government aid, their living conditions have improved.

Some of these improvements are

  1. They practise greenhouse cultivation.
  2. They live in nylon tents or even brick houses now, instead of igloos and topics.
  3. They have electricity in their homes now.
  4. They use harpoons and rifles for hunting at present, instead of spears, bows and arrows.
  5. They use speedboats driven by diesel, instead of kayaks.
  6. Mineral oil, iron ore, coal, and gold have been recently found here giving a boost to industries. Roads and railways are being constructed for better transportation services. A railway network from Murmansk port of Siberia to Saint Petersburg has been established.
  7. They use needles made of steel instead of bone needles that were used previously.
  8. Inhabitants of this region import tea, coffee, and tobacco against fleece and feathers of animals.

In spite of the unfavourable conditions of life in the Tundra region, the people there are progressing with time.

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WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Changes in lifestyle of the tundra region

Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Give the location of the Mediterranean climatic region.
Answer:

Location Of The Mediterranean Climatic Region:-

The Mediterranean climatic region is experienced on the western margins of the continents lying between 30° and 40° North and South latitudes. 16 countries around the Mediterranean Sea occupy the most important position in this climatic belt.

Italy, Portugal, Spain and southern parts of France, Greece, Albania, and Former Yugoslavia in Europe; Turkey, Lebanon, Israel and Syria in Asia; the northern part of Egypt, Morocco, Libya, Algeria and Tunisia in Africa lie within this climatic region.

Though the Mediterranean coastal lands occupy the most important position, the Californian coast of the USA, central Chile in South America, Cape Town in South Africa, southwestern and south-eastern coast of Australia are also within this climatic region. This climatic region is within the warm temperate zone.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Distribution of the Mediterranean climatic region

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Question 2. Why does the Mediterranean climatic region receive rainfall in winter?
Answer:

Mediterranean Climatic Region Receive Rainfall In Winter:-

The Mediterranean climatic region receives rainfall in winter due to the following reasons-

  1. As a consequence of the apparent southward journey of the sun in winter, the pressure belts shift towards the South Pole. As a result, in winter, the onshore southwest westerlies bring rain from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean region.
  2. The pressure belts shift poleward in winter. Due to this, the Mediterranean climatic region becomes a meeting place of dry, cold polar winds and warm, moist westerlies from the tropics. In this way, temperate cyclones originate and cause rainfall in winter in the region. This rainfall is called ‘frontal rain’.

Question 3. Discuss the natural vegetation of the Mediterranean climatic region.
Answer:

Natural Vegetation Of The Mediterranean Climatic Region:-

The vegetation of an area is closely linked with the climate of that area. Since the summers here are warm and dry, the plants and trees have long roots, thick barks and woody stems.

Leaves are broad and waxy so as to prevent the loss of moisture. Three types of vegetation mainly grow here-

  1. Coniferous vegetation: Pine, Fir, Ceder.
  2. Evergreen vegetation: Oak, Cork, Eucalyptus, Rosewood.
  3. Shrub-type vegetation: Maple, Laurel, Lavender, Rosemary, Matarrelli.

Olive is the most commonly found tree of this region. Hence, it is known as the signature tree. Besides these, many types of shrubs and bushes are found in this region like- California-Chaparral; Italy-Macchia; Chile-Maqui.

Question 4. Why is the Mediterranean region known as the ‘Fruit Basket of the World’?
Answer:

Mediterranean Region Known As The ‘Fruit Basket Of The World’:-

Huge quantity of fruits consumed all over the world is produced in the Mediterranean region. Winter rains and sunny, dry climate in summer significantly promote the production of citrus fruits and nuts significantly.

Due to bright and abundant sunny weather in summer, the fruits grow juicy flesh all around the seeds within, to protect them from the heat.

Some of the most important fruits that are grown here are olive, apple, plum, peach, fig, orange, grape and pear. The production of fruits is so high in this region that it is called the ‘Fruit Basket of the World’.

Olive trees are seen in the maximum number in this region. It is known as the signature tree of this region.

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Question 5. In the Mediterranean region, moist westerlies give rain in winter over the same latitude. In summer dry trade winds do not give any rain. Air pressure belts shift with the northerly and southerly annual apparent movement of the sun- What is the cause-effect relation with this and the above subject?
Answer:

The Mediterranean region receives rainfall in winter, whereas the same latitude in summer experiences dryness. There is a cause-effect relationship between this fact and the shifting of air pressure belts.

With the southward journey of the sun in winter, the pressure belts shift towards the South Pole. As a consequence, the southwest westerly wind blows over the Mediterranean region.

This wind comes from the Atlantic Ocean and causes rainfall in this region. On the other hand, in summer, the sun moves towards the North Pole and the whole air pressure belts shift towards the North Pole.

Then, the Mediterranean region comes under the northeast trade wind. This wind blows from the land towards the sea. This is a dry wind. That is why the summer in the Mediterranean region experiences dryness.

Question 6. Differentiate between Monsoon climate and Mediterranean climate.
Answer:

The differences between the Monsoon climate and the Mediterranean climate are

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Monsoon and Mediterranean climates

 

Question 7. Give the location of the Tundra climatic region.
Answer:

Location Of The Tundra Climatic Region:-

The Tundra climatic region lies roughly between 60° and 75° (approx.) North latitudes. The northern parts of Russia, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland and Siberia in Asia in the northern hemisphere experience this type of climate.

Besides these, the eastern and western coastal areas of Greenland, the northern part of Canada and Alaska in the USA lie in this region.

The southern part of South America and the Falkland Islands in the southern hemisphere are also included in this region. The coastal strip of Antarctica is also influenced by this climate as well.

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WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Distribution of the Tundra climatic region

Question 8. How is Aurora produced in the polar region?
Answer:

Aurora Produced In The Polar Region:-

When polar regions have a continuous night for six months (from 23 September to 21 March in the North Pole and from 21 March to 23 September in the South Pole), the night sky has a faint light like a rainbow.

This is called Aurora or polar light. Aurora appears in the sky for just 2-3 hours. The charged particles released from the sun mix with various gases of the Ionosphere to produce a light called polar illumination.

This light is reflected on white ice and creates a brilliant illumination. It is called Aurora Borealis in the North polar region and Aurora Australis in the South polar region.

Question 9. Write a short note on Eskimos.
Answer:

Eskimos:-

Eskimos live in the southern part of Greenland, in the coastal region and some parts of Alaska in North America and the northernmost part of the Canadian Shield. The word ‘Eskimo’ means ‘raw flesh eater.

Due to the derogatory meaning of the term ‘Eskimo’, the natives prefer to address themselves as Inuits. They struggle hard and live under adverse natural conditions.

During the short summer (2-3 months), they collect and store food for the whole year. Their abode during summer is tupic, a leather tent of seal’s skin. In winter, they live in a dome-shaped house made up of snow called an igloo.

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WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Eskimo

 

For transportation purposes, they use wheelless sledges. They hunt bears, arctic foxes, reindeer, etc for livelihood. They use a type of boat called a kayak, made of seal skin, for hunting fish and seals.

Reindeer is their chief source of food as well as a mode of transportation. They get milk, and meat and use the skin of the reindeer. Milk of reindeer and berry fruits are their favourite food.

They use the skin of animals in making their clothing and bones for weapons. Lately, they have been making use of certain modern technologies for a better and easier way of living.

Question 10. Differentiate between the Mediterranean climate and the Tundra climate.
Answer:

The differences between the Mediterranean climate and the Tundra climate are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Differentiate between Mediterranean and Tundra climate

 

Question 11. Differentiate between the inhabitants of the Equatorial climatic region and those of the Tundra region.
Answer:

The differences between the inhabitants of the Equatorial region and the Tundra region are-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Differentiate between Inhabitants

 

Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Why is the Mediterranean climatic region economically developed?
Answer:

Mediterranean Climatic Region Economically Developed:-

This region is world-famous for growing fruits and nuts. Wine-making from fruits, extraction of olive oil and making squash, jam, jelly and pickles from various fruits are done here.

Fishing and cultivation of food crops are also practised here. Due to the enjoyable climate, film and industries have flourished here. So, this climatic region is said to be the most economically developed region in the world.

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Question 2. Why is the Mediterranean climate the most favourable climate for recreational activities in the world?
Answer:

Mediterranean Climate The Most Favourable Climate For Recreational Activities In The World:-

In this region, the temperature difference between summer and winter and also days and nights is large. Cloudless, clear and bright skies and sunny weather during the day make it the most enjoyable climate.

Hence, film industries, theatres and other forms of entertainment have developed here. Thus, this region draws a large number of tourists from all over the world.

Question 3. Why has the film industry flourished in the Mediterranean region?
Answer:

Film Industry Flourished In The Mediterranean Region:-

The Mediterranean region, which includes Italy and France in southern Europe and world-famous Hollywood in California, USA is famous for its flourishing film industry.

This is because the sunny weather of this region in summer helps in the shooting of films. Sunshine and beautiful sceneries have given the region a well-developed tourism industry as well.

Question 4. What is the significance of the name ‘Tundra”?
Answer:

Significance Of The Name ‘Tundra’:-

The northernmost parts of Asia, Europe and North America in the northern hemisphere remain snow-covered throughout the year. As a result, no tall trees can grow there.

During the short summers, when the ice melts, mosses, lichens, algae, etc., grow there. From the name of the algae, this region is named “Tundra.

Question 5. What are Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis?
Answer:

Aurora Borealis And Aurora Australis:-

During winter, the night sky prevails for a continuous six months at both the Poles. In that time, a faint, colourful light like a rainbow appears in the sky for 2-3 hours.

It is called the light of the Poles or ‘Aurora’. It is called Aurora Borealis in the North polar region and Aurora Australis in the South polar region.

Question 6. The midnight sun is visible in Norway. Why?
Answer:

The midnight sun is visible in Norway:-

The sun is visible at midnight at Hammerfest port (70°30′ North), Norway in summer because the North Pole tilts towards the sun for six months (from March 21 to September 23) and the sun is almost vertically overhead on the Tropic of Cancer during this time.

It is for this reason that the area has long days of 20-22 hours in this period, although the sun remains a little towards the horizon all the time.

Question 7. Why are animals with thick fur found in the tundra climatic region?
Answer:

Animals With Thick Fur Found In The Tundra Climatic Region:-

To protect themselves from the extremely cold climatic conditions of the tundra region, animals are naturally provided with thick, long hair fur on their bodies.

This thick blanket-like fur does not allow cold to enter from outside and also prevents body heat from being discharged easily. The layer of air between the body and the fur also gives further protection from cold, making the animals perfectly suited to the environment.

Question 8. What is an igloo?
Answer:

Igloo:-

The round-shaped houses of Eskimos that are made of ice are called ‘Igloos. In the leeward side of the mountains, where biting cold winds cannot enter, Eskimos build their winter homes.

Stones, animal skin and fur are the materials used in it. Compacted snow is also used as a material to insulate their houses. When the houses get covered with ice or snow, they look like upside-down bowls and are called igloos.

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WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Igloo

 

These do not have windows and one has to crawl through the low door to enter into it. Eskimos light up lamps with wicks of dry moss in seal fat lamps.

Question 9. What is a tupic?
Answer:

Tupic:-

The conical leather tents in which Eskimos live in summer by the seaside are called tupics. When ice melts away in the summer, they make these types of tents. They use wood, whalebone or horns of deer to make the structure of these tents.

These are then covered with stitched skins of fifty to sixty seals. Tupics are pressed on the ground with heavy stones so that they remain firmly attached to the ground.

Question 10. What is a kayak?
Answer:

Kayak:-

The word ‘kayak’ means the boat for men or hunters. In summer, in coastal regions of Greenland and Alaska varieties of fish are found, with an abundance of seals.

Seal skin is used to make kayaks, which are used for hunting fishes and seals during the summer months.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Kayak

 

Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The dry season in the Mediterranean region occurs in-

  1. Summer
  2. Autumn
  3. Winter
  4. Throughout the year

Answer: 1. Summer

Question 2. Rainfall occurs in the Mediterranean region during-

  1. Summer
  2. Winter
  3. Throughout the year
  4. Autumn

Answer: 2. Winter

Question 3. The Mediterranean region experiences winter rain chiefly due to the-

  1. Polar wind
  2. Monsoon winds
  3. Westerlies
  4. Trade winds

Answer: 3. Westerlies

Question 4. Local, hot wind Leveche blows over-

  1. Egypt
  2. Spain
  3. Italy
  4. Australia

Answer: 2. Spain

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Question 5. Among the following, the tree that grows in the Mediterranean region is-

  1. Rubber
  2. Cork
  3. Sal
  4. Mahogany

Answer: 2. Cork

Question 6. The density of the population in the Mediterranean region is-

  1. High
  2. Low
  3. Medium
  4. Very high

Answer: 3. Medium

Question 7. Winter in the tundra region continues for-

  1. Five months
  2. Eight months
  3. Four months
  4. Three months

Answer: 2. Eight months

Question 8. The midnight sun is visible in the-

  1. Monsoon climatic region
  2. Mediterranean climatic region
  3. Tundra climatic region
  4. Equatorial climatic region

Answer: 3. Tundra climatic region

Question 9. The predominant vegetation of the Tundra climatic region is-

  1. Trees
  2. Moss
  3. Grass
  4. Parasites

Answer: 2. Moss

Question 10. The only bird that can be found in the Tundra region of Antarctica is-

  1. Penguin
  2. Ostrich
  3. Kiwi
  4. Macaw

Answer: 1. Penguin

Question 11. The animal that is most abundantly found in the Tundra region is-

  1. Reindeer
  2. Elephant
  3. Jaguar
  4. Gorilla

Answer: 1. Reindeer

Question 12. Greenland in the Tundra region is inhabited by-

  1. Samoyeds
  2. Finns
  3. Eskimos
  4. Lapps

Answer: 3. Eskimos

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Question 13. North European countries within the Tundra region are inhabited by-

  1. Yakuts
  2. Samoyeds
  3. Eskimos
  4. Lapps

Answer: 4. Lapps

Question 14. The leather tents in which people of the Tundra region live in the summer are called-

  1. Igloo
  2. Kayak
  3. Tupic
  4. Sledge

Answer: 3. Tupic

Question 15. A boat made of seal’s skin leather is known as-

  1. Kayak
  2. Igloo
  3. Tupic
  4. Sledge

Answer: 1. Kayak

Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. ________ climate prevails in Greece.
Answer: Mediterranean

Question 2. The temperature of the Mediterranean climatic region is ________.
Answer: Mild/ moderate

Question 3. Dry ________ winds blow over the Mediterranean region.
Answer: North-east trade

Question 4. The Mediterranean climatic region is known as a region of ________ rainfall.
Answer: Winter.

Question 5. Olive trees are a part of the natural vegetation of the ________ climatic region and sandalwoods are common in the climatic region.
Answer: Mediterranean, Monsoon

Question 6. The Mediterranean climatic region is known as the ________ of the world.
Answer: Fruit basket

Question 7. The chief crop that grows in the Mediterranean region is ________.
Answer: Wheat

Question 8. Excellent wine is brewed from ________ in the Mediterranean region.
Answer: Grapes

Question 9. Tundra climatic region lies within the ________ zone.
Answer: Frigid/cold

Question 10. ________ climate is experienced in Greenland.
Answer: Tundra

Question 11. In winter, the Tundra region experiences strong ________.
Answer: Snowstorms/ blizzards

Question 12. The average temperature in the Tundra region in winter remains ________.
Answer: -20°C to -40°C

Question 13. Sometimes the Tundra climatic region experiences ________ cyclonic rainfall in small amounts.
Answer: Temperate

Question 14. ________ is visible at night in the Tundra.
Answer: Aurora

Question 15. The ground surface of the Tundra region is permanent ________.
Answer: Frozen

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Question 16. The scattered bushes in the Tundra is called ________.
Answer: Bush tundra

Question 17. During the short summer, the Tundra region grows ________ type of vegetation.
Answer: Moss

Question 18. Houses in the Tundra region made up of ice and snow, are called ________, and the mode of transport without wheels that is used there is called.
Answer: Igloo, sledge

Question 19. The main food of the inhabitants of the Tundra region are ________ and ________ of reindeer.
Answer: Flesh, milk

 

Write True Or False

Question 1. The Mediterranean climatic region receives rainfall in winter.
Answer: True

Question 2. The latitudinal extension of the Mediterranean climatic region is 50°-60° North and South of the equator.
Answer: False

Question 3. The main crops of the Mediterranean climatic region are wheat, maize, barley, etc.
Answer: True

Question 4. Coniferous forests are found in the Mediterranean climatic region.
Answer: False

Question 5. Northern Lights is also called Aurora Borealis.
Answer: True

Question 6. The term Eskimo means ‘raw flesh eater.
Answer: True

Question 7. California is within the Tundra climatic zone.
Answer: False

Question 8. The Eskimos live in Greenland.
Answer: True

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Match The Columns

1.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Match the columns

Answer: 1. C, 2. A, 3. D, 4. B

 

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Which area in North America experiences the Mediterranean type of climate?
Answer: California of USA.

Question 2. Name two Asian countries which experience a Mediterranean types of climate.
Answer: Syria and Israel.

Question 3. Which climatic region experiences rainfall in winter?
Answer: Mediterranean climatic region.

Question 4. Which climatic region is at the top in terms of socio-economic status?
Answer: Mediterranean climatic region.

Question 5. In which climatic region, the film-making industry has developed predominantly?
Answer: Mediterranean climatic region.

Question 6. In which climatic region are moss and lichen found?
Answer: Tundra climatic region.

Question 7. Write the name of the climatic region in which the sun is visible even at midnight.
Answer: Tundra region.

Question 8. Which type of climate prevails in the North and South polar regions?
Answer: Tundra type.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 8 Question Answer

Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Conceptual Questions And Answers

 

Who am I?

Question 1. I am a vast region with uniform temperature, rainfall and natural vegetation. Who am I?
Answer: Climatic region

Question 2. ‘I experience high temperatures, damp and moist climate with heavy rainfall throughout the year and so I am covered with thick forests.’- Who am I?
Answer: Equatorial climatic region

Question 3. I am an Aboriginal of the Zaire basin. I am very short and live on fruits and hunt animals in the forest for meat.’- Who am I?
Answer: Pygmy

Question 4. I experience a combination of seasonal winds that blow over me in summer and change their direction to the opposite during winter. My location is in the central part of south-east Asia.’- Who am I?
Answer: Monsoon climatic region

Question 5. ‘I move towards the northeast in summer after collecting abundant water vapour from the Indian Ocean. I mark the onset of the rainy season in India. I am a special wind. Who am I?
Answer: South-west monsoon wind

Question 6. ‘I have developed due to the sunny and beautiful weather conditions in the Mediterranean climatic region. I am the best centre of film-making in the world.’- Who am I?
Answer: Hollywood

 

Scrambled Words

1. GCIMOIL ATCERNI
2. D MAGSARACA
3. ERNEREVEG
4. SLVEA
5. NA FUA
6. NAGDREING
7. MP TERETAE
8. YULECAT PSU
9. LVADEREN
10. I UCT P

Answers:

1. CLIMATIC REGION
2. MADAGASCAR
3. EVERGREEN
4. SELVA
5. FAUNA
6. GARDENING
7. TEMPERATE
8. EUCALYPTUS
9. LAVENDER
10. TUPIC

 

Fill Up The Blanks In The Knowledge Hive

Question 1. Fill in the knowledge hive with information on natural vegetation of the Equatorial climatic region.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Fill in the blanks

Answers:

1. The trees of the forests in this region are evergreen in nature.
2. These trees grow up to 60 m in height.
3. Different species of trees (around 300) are found in these forests within just 2 sq.km of area.
4. Different types of creepers grow on forest floors.
5. The upper layers of the trees form a thick canopy.
6. The wood of the trees of these forests are very hard and heavy.

 

Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Answer With Reference To The Illustration

Question 1. Write the names of the regions that experience a Mediterranean type of climate.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Parts of Mediterranean coast

Answers:

1. California in North America
2. Chile in South America
3. Cape Town in South Africa
4. Southern and south-western regions of Australia

 

Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Equatorial rainforest: Tropical deciduous: Mediterranean forests: Mango orchard
Answer: 1. Mango orchard (it is not a forest in a specific climatic region)

Question 2. Rubber: Rosewood: Woodapple: Ironwood
Answer: Woodapple (it does not grow in the Equatorial evergreen forests)

Question 3. Pygmy: Yakut: Bantu: Semang
Answer: Yakut (they do not live in the Equatorial region)

Question 4. Lapp: Pygmy: Finn: Eskimo
Answer: Pygmy (they do not live in the Tundra region)

Question 5. Tupic: Igloo: Railway carriage: Sledge
Answer: Railway carriage (it is not operative in the Tundra region)

Question 6. Kolkata: Rome: Cape Town: Adelaide
Answer: Kolkata (it is the only city that lies within the Monsoon climatic region)

Question 7. Greenland: Brazil: Alaska: Siberia
Answer: Brazil (does not lie within the Tundra region)

 

Correct The Following

1. Tropical winter prevails in the tropical Monsoon climatic region.
2. The Polar climatic belt receives convectional rainfall almost every day.
3. The Mediterranean climatic region is the most densely populated region of the world.
4. Only the Equatorial climatic region receives rain in winter.
5. Agricultural practice is carried on in steel houses in the Polar climatic region.

Answers:

1. Equatorial
2. Equatorial
3. Monsoon
4. Mediterranean
5. green

 

Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Crossword

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Crossword

CLUES

Down:

1. This city in Italy has a Mediterranean type of climate.
3. Snowstorms in the Tundra region.
5. Fibrous crop is grown in tropical Monsoon climate.

Across:

2. Tent made from sealskin.
4. A type of deer found in the Tundra region.
6. Glass structures used for growing crops in the Tundra region.

Answers:

Down: 1. Naples, 3. Blizzard, 5. Jute
Across: 2. Tupic, 4. Reindeer, 6. Greenhouse

 

Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1. Write a short note on Pygmy.
Answer:

Pygmy:-

Pygmies live in the Congo or Zaire basin of the Equatorial climatic region. Bambuti, a group of Pygmies live in the forest of eastern Congo. They are very short in height, averaging only 137 cm.

They collect their food from the trees of the forests and cover themselves with barks of trees. Being broad-footed, the Pygmies are expert climbers. They live in groups and travel from one place to another in search of food.

Question 2. Write a short note on Bantu.
Answer:

Bantu:-

The Bantu groups mainly live in Central African countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Angola, Cameroon etc. Their lifestyle is a bit more developed than the Pygmies.

They practise shifting agriculture. They burn a portion of the forest and grow potato, maize, cassava, turnip, banana and yams in that cleared areas. Sometimes, they raise animals like goats and fowl.

They live on the outskirts of the forests. Sometimes, they employ Pygmies as labourers.

Question 3. Who are the Red Indians?
Answer:

Red Indians:-

Red Indians are the natives of the Selva forest of the upper Amazon basin, South America. They are mainly hunters and food gatherers.

Some groups practised primitive agricultural activities in the forest fringes. Red Indians wear light cotton dresses. They clear forest areas and build settlements there.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 6

Question 4. Write a short note on Semang.
Answer:

Semang:-

The Semangs are the inhabitants of the Malaya Peninsula, Asia. They stay in groups of about 30 people and carry poisonous arrows, bows and horns and other instruments for making noise while hunting.

They wear bark of trees and animal skins as clothes. They are nomadic by nature and live on tree-top stilt houses. At present, many of them work in rubber plantations.

Question 5. Discuss with examples how ocean currents can influence the climate of a place.
Answer:

Ocean Currents Can Influence The Climate Of A Place:-

There are two types of ocean currents, namely warm ocean currents and cold ocean currents. The temperature of a coastal area depends on the type of ocean current that flows there.

For example, the warm Kuroshio current passes by the eastern coast of Japan and as a result Japan enjoys a comparatively higher temperature and its coastal region remains free from snow throughout the year.

Question 6. How does distance from the sea regulate the climate of a place?
Answer:

Distance From The Sea Regulate The Climate Of A Place:-

Due to the phenomena of land and sea breezes, the temperature of the coastal margins is comparatively cooler than that of places situated far from the sea.

Again, the solid landmasses get quickly heated in summer while the water bodies take a longer time to get heated. Similarly, landmasses can discharge its heat more rapidly than the water bodies.

This is due to differences in the specific heat of the landmass and water body. Due to these reasons, places away from the sea experience extreme climatic conditions.

Question 7. How do the winds influence climate?
Answer:

Winds Influence Climate:-

Winds cause a difference in temperature of places. A wind blowing from the sea (onshore) brings a cooling effect on the land. Moreover, the planetary winds regulate the temperature of a place largely.

For example, in winter, polar winds from the northern polar region enter the continent of North America up to a great distance and so the central part of the USA experiences bitter cold and snowfall in winter.

Question 8. Discuss the influence of climate on the environment of a place.
Answer: Climate is of various types, depending on the latitudinal location and physical features of the land. Some regions are very hot, while some are very cold.

Again, some places might be very wet while others might be very dry. Moreover, some places receive rainfall during summer, while some get rainfall in winter.

For example, the Monsoon climatic regions, with wet summer and almost dry winter season, is covered with deciduous forests. On the other hand, in the Tundra region, it is extremely cold throughout the year and only mosses grow in a particular period.

Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Formative

Participation

This segment will indicate how much the students have actively participated and taken the initiative during the class.

The climate of a region is controlled by its latitudinal extent, altitude, proximity to the sea, ocean currents, wind movement, etc. With reference to these factors answer the following:

Question 1. Name some of the important climatic regions of the world.
Answer: Equatorial climatic region/Monsoon climatic region/Tundra climatic region/…

Question 2. Which natural and economic characteristics of a region are influenced by its climatic conditions?
Answer: Natural vegetation/Type of soil/Lifestyle of the people/…

Question 3. How does latitudinal extent influence climate? Give examples.
Answer: The Equatorial climatic region, being located near the equator, receives heavy rainfall throughout the year/the Tundra climatic region experiences extremely cold climate all the year round as it is located around the poles/…

Question 4. What are the characteristic features of the Monsoon type of climate?
Answer: Winds blow from opposite directions during winter and summer/summers are hot and humid but winters are dry/…

Question 2. See, some characteristics of the Mediterranean climate is just opposite to the Monsoon climate of our country. Compare the climate of the two types.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Two types of climates

Answer:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Two types of climates.

 

Question 3. Observe the plants and animals in your own surroundings. Write a report about the different characteristics and diversity of the natural environment. Prepare a survey report about the lifestyle (food, clothing, habitat, livelihood) of your neighbours.
Answer:

I am Titir Biswas. I am from Basirhat, North 24 Parganas. Different characteristics and diversity of the natural environment of my village are as follows-

1. Topography:

Basirhat is a perfect example of plain land? This area mainly belongs to the Ganga Delta region.

2. Drainage:

The rivers over here are tidal in nature and thus saline. Navigation in these rivers synced with the occurrence of tides.

3. Climate:

This area is dominated by the Monsoon climate. Summer, monsoon, autumn and winter are distinct seasons here.

4. Soil:

This area is made up of sediments deposited by the rivers. Hence, this area is advanced in agriculture.

5. Vegetation or Flora:

Deciduous vegetation like Mango, Jackfruit, coconut, Palash, Mahua, Sirish etc and Mangrove vegetation like Gewa, Keora, etc are found here.

6. Fauna:

Cow, goats, street dogs, monkeys, snakes, foxes, a huge amount of birds and fishes, etc., are found here.

Lifestyle:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Lifesytle

 

Interpretation And Application

This segment will test whether the students have understood the topics, or whether they are just mugging up.

Question 1. Write your own explanation about the cause-and-effect relationship between the elements of the physical and socio-economic environment of four specific climate region.
Answer:

The relationship among four important climatic regions in their physical and socio-economical environment is given in the next table-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Different types of climatic regions

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 6

Question 2. In your opinion which climatic regions are the most and the least socio-economically developed? Draw your opinion and cite the reason.
Answer:

The Mediterranean climatic region is the most developed region, and the Equatorial climatic region is the least developed one. This is because-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Mediterranena and Equatorial climatic

 

Question 3. Is there any effect of environment and climate on human lifestyle in your area?
Answer:

Effect Of Environment And Climate On Human Lifestyle In Your Area:-

Yes, the environment and climate affected the human lifestyle in my area. My homeland is located in the Duars region of Himalayas, which is formed by the silt deposition of different rivers. During summer, rain occurs here, mainly influenced by monsoon wind.

It is an agriculturally prosperous area of West Bengal. This region produces rice, mustard, vegetables, etc. For that reason, most of people choose agriculture as their occupation.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 6

Question 4. Collect photos of Equatorial rainforests and another major forest type in the world. Also, collect information about the biodiversity of these regions and make a collage.
Answer:

1. Biodiversity of Equatorial climatic region:

  1. Flora: Rubber, Rosewood, Brazil Nut, Ironwood, Cocoa, Bamboo, Palm, etc.
  2. Fauna: Macaw, Toucan, Golden Monkey, Gorilla, Frog, Anaconda, Cheetah, Orangutan, poisonous insects, etc.

2. Biodiversity of Monsoon climatic region:

  1. Flora: Sal, Sishu, Garjan, Teak, Palash, Mahua, Mango, etc.
  2. Fauna: Elephant, Cheetah, Deer, Wolf, Tiger, Lion, Rhinoceros, etc.

3. Biodiversity of the Mediterranean climatic region:

  1. Flora: Olive, Grapes, Rosemary, Pine, Oak, Maple, Lavender, etc.
  2. Fauna: Jaguar, Rabbit, Sheep, Goat, Mule, Donkey, etc.

4. Biodiversity of Tundra Climatic region:

  1. Flora: Moss, Lichen, shrub type Juniper, Alder, Birch, etc.
  2. Fauna: Whale, Polar fox, Polar bear, Caribou, Seal, Walmus, Fishes, Sledge dog, etc.

5. Biodiversity of Mangrove forest region:

  1. Flora: Sundari, Garan, Gewa, etc.
  2. Fauna: Crocodile, Tiger, Deer, Hyena, Snake, Monkey etc.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Topic B Mediterranean Climatic Region And Tundra Climatic Region Different types of climatic regions

 

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