WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the latitudinal and longitudinal extent and topographic characteristics of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the Murray-Darling basin:

The latitudinal and longitudinal location of the Murray-Darling basin are as follows-

1. Latitudinal extent: The Murray-Darling basin extends from 24°S to 39° latitude.

2. Longitudinal extent: It extends from almost 138°E to 149°E longitude.

The Murray-Darling basin covers almost 20 per-cent of the total area of Australia. It is situated in the southeastern part of Australia.

This basin is bounded by the Great Dividing Range in the north, east and southeast, the Grey Range in the west and the Gulf of St. Vincent and the Encounter Bay in the southwest.

Topographic characteristics of the Murray- Darling basin:

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This basin is a low plainland. Over a long period Murray-Darling deposited sediments and formed this plainland. The average elevation of the basin varies from 100-200 metres.

The basin gradually rises to the east and the west from the middle. The basin is surrounded on three sides by the Eastern Highlands and the Central Lowlands and on one side by the sea.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Location of the Murray Darling basin

Question 2. Give an account of the drainage of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Drainage Of The Murray-Darling Basin:-

The Murray is the longest river (2589 km) in Australia and the Darling (1163 km) is its tributary. The region through which these two rivers flow is called the Murray-Darling basin.

The Murray originates from the Australian Alps while the Darling originates from the New England Range. These two rivers converge near the city of Wentworth and flow southwest into Encounter Bay.

The Murray is a snow-fed river and hence carries large volumes of water throughout the year. The Murrumbidgee is also an important tributary of the Murray.

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The Lachlan, an intermittent river, part of the Murrumbidgee catchment also flows through this basin. Some notable tributaries of the Darling are Paroo, Warrego and Barron. The Murray-Darling Basin is one of the largest basins in the world.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Draingage of the Murray Darling basin

Question 3. Describe the climate and natural vegetation of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

The climate of the Murray-Darling Basin:

Most of the regions in the Murray- Darling basin experience the temperate type of climate. However, the coastal areas in the south experience a Mediterranean type of climate.

The average summer temperature is around 25°C and the average winter temperature is around 20°C. Since the basin is located in the rainshadow region of the Great Dividing Range, it receives rainfall of around 50 to cm-75 cm annually.

The natural vegetation of the Murray-Darling Basin:

Extensive grasslands have grown here due to the temperate climate and low rainfall. These grasslands are known as the Downs. Deciduous trees like oak, poplar, birch, etc. are seen in a few places.

Mediterranean vegetation can be seen in the Adelaide area. Coniferous forests are also common in the higher regions of the Great Dividing Range.

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Question 4. Discuss the agriculture and cattle rearing in the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Agriculture of the Murray-Darling Basin:

The Murray-Darling basin is the richest agricultural region in Australia. This region supplies food crops to the entire continent. The notable crops of this region are wheat, barley, maize, oat, rye, etc.

Modern machinery are used in agricultural practice. Fruits like apples, grapes, peaches, lemons, oranges, pears, etc., are grown in the Mediterranean region in the south.

Cattle rearing in the Murray-Darling Basin:

The Downs grassland is well known for cattle rearing due to the growth of tall grasses. Good breeds of sheep like Merino, Lincoln, Marsh, etc. is reared here. Merino breed is known for its excellent wool quality.

Cattle rearing is prevalent in Queensland in the north and New South Wales in the southeast. The cattle-rearing farms are very large in area and the farmers are known as Jackaos. Meat and dairy products in huge quantities are procured from cattle.

This region also produces large quantities of wool. Australia occupies the first position in wool production and fifth position in beef production in the world.

Australia’s economic development and foreign exchange earnings are highly dependent on its cattle rearing and wool export.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Agriculture and cattle rearing of the Murray Darling basin

Question 5. Discuss the mineral resources and industries of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Mineral resources of the Murray-Darling Basin:

The Murray-Darling basin, being a plainland, is not rich in mineral resources. However, certain mineral resources like silver, zinc, lead, gold, copper, tin, etc. are obtained from the border regions of the basin.

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The city of Broken Hill is famous for silver mining and is called the ‘Silver City’. The town of Cobber is famous for copper mining. Coal in small quantities is found in Adelaide. Apart from this, coal is also found in some regions of the Blue Mountains.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Mineral resources of the Murray Darling basin

Industries of the Murray-Darling Basin:

The Murray-Darling basin lacks in mineral deposits and thus the metal-based industries have not flourished. The industries that have developed in this region based on agricultural and animal resources include-food processing, meat, dairy, wool, textile, flour, bakery, etc.

Besides this, engineering and chemical industries have been set up in this region. Adelaide is the main trade and industrial centre of the Murray-Darling basin. The other major centres include Broken Hill and Mildura.

Question 6. Give an account of the population and the cities of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Population And The Cities Of The Murray-Darling Basin:-

The Murray-Darling. the basin has a moderate population density in comparison to the overall low population density of Australia. The basin is rich in mineral resources like silver, zinc, lead, gold, tin, etc.

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Many industries namely engineering, food processing, chemical, wool, fruit-based liquor, dairy, etc. have developed in this river basin. All these results in the moderate population density of the region.

The major cities of this region are-

1. Canberra: Canberra is the capital territory of Australia. It is also an important administrative and commercial hub of Australia.

2. Mildura: It is an important industrial hub.

3. Adelaide: It is an important trade and industrial hub of the basin area.

4. Broken Hill: It is an important centre for silver mining and is thus known as the ‘Silver City. Other notable cities of the region are Cobber, Swan Hill, Griffith, Berry, etc.

The development of industries and agriculture have led to maximum population growth in this region.

Question 7. Give reasons for the development of sheep rearing in Australia. Or, Which factors contribute to the development of animal rearing in Australia?
Answer:

Reasons For The Development Of Sheep Rearing In Australia:-

Australia ranks first in wool production. Breeds such as Merino, Lincoln, Marsh, etc. are reared here. Merino breed yields the best quality wool.

Australia’s economic development and foreign exchange earnings are highly dependent on its sheep rearing and export of wool. The factors leading to such well-developed sheep rearing and livestock herding in Australia are as follows-

1. Extensive grasslands:

The Downs cover the southeastern part of the country and is highly suitable for cattle rearing.

2. Large area of land:

Not much land is used for agricultural purposes due to low population density. Hence, the grasslands are utilised for cattle rearing.

3. Adequate water supply:

Rivers and numerous artesian wells provide an adequate supply of water for the cattle.

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4. Substantial rainfall:

The region receives substantial rainfall which facilitates the growth of grasses suitable for cattle rearing.

5. High-quality fleece:

Merino sheep are mainly reared in order to get the best quality fleece from them. Arrangements of high-quality animal food and veterinary facilities are done for the cattle.

6. High demand:

Wool made from the fleece obtained from the sheep of this region has high demand in the international market.

7. Other animal products:

Apart from wool the industries of dairy, meat processing and canning are quite developed in these regions. These factors also help the sheep-rearing industry to develop.

Question 8. Most agricultural practices in Oceania are carried out only in the Murray- Darling river basin. Why do you think agriculture has developed the most in this region?
Answer: The continent of Oceania is made up of about 10,000 islands. Agriculture has developed the most in the Murray-Darling basin due to the following reasons-

1. Topography:

The Murray-Darling basin is a fertile plainland. Thus it is easier to carry out agricultural practices using modern machinery over here.

2. Fertile soil:

Since this basin is made up of the silt deposited by the rivers Murray, and Darling and their numerous tributaries, the soil is very fertile here.

3. Irrigation:

About 85% of the total irrigated land of Australia lies in the Murray-Darling basin. Hence, in spite of scanty rainfall, agriculture has developed well in this region due to the existence of reservoirs, artesian wells, canals and wells.

4. Developed farming processes:

Modern technology is used for farming in the Murray-Darling basin and hence agricultural productivity is very high. Besides this, the temperate climate, the use of high-quality seeds and fertilisers have made this basin one of the most agriculturally developed regions of the world.

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Briefly write about the Downs.
Answer:

Downs:-

The temperate grassland in Australia is called the Downs. It is the most famous cattle-rearing region of the southern hemisphere.

Tall grasses grow in the southeastern region of Australia because it receives sufficient rainfall for the grasses to grow. In a few places oak, poplar, birch, etc. deciduous trees are seen.

Hence, livestock is reared in large numbers in Queensland, parts of Victoria, New South Wales, etc. These regions are famous for the rearing of Merino sheep which yield high-quality fur.

Question 2. Describe the irrigation system of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer:

Irrigation System Of The Murray-Darling Basin:-

The Murray-Darling basin is a favourable region for agriculture. However, due to insufficient rainfall for agriculture, the region needs irrigation. Most of Australia’s irrigated land is in the Murray-Darling basin.

In this region, irrigation can be done in the two following ways-

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  1. Irrigation through the canal, and
  2. Irrigation through an artesian well. The Murray-Darling River carries water throughout the year, which is used for irrigation purposes. Water for irrigation is obtained from the reservoir of the Hume Dam on the Murray and the reservoir of the Burrinjuck Dam on the Murrumbidgee.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Thehume dam

Question 3. Why is the Murray-Darling Basin rich in agriculture?
Answer:

Murray-Darling Basin Rich In Agriculture:-

The factors that resulted in the development of agriculture in the Murray- Darling basin are as follows-

  1. Presence of extensive plains;
  2. A fertile and deep layers of silt deposited by the rivers;
  3. The temperate climate and adequate rainfall;
  4. Well-developed irrigation system;
  5. A sufficient supply of water;
  6. Use of modern machinery and technologylogically developed methods of agriculture;
  7. Use of large amounts of organic fertilisers and pesticides;
  8. Well-developed crop exporting facilities;
  9. Less population pressure, etc.

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Why is Broken Hill called the ‘Silver City’?
Answer:

Broken Hill called the ‘Silver City’:-

The Murray-Darling basin is not rich in. mineral resources. However, Broken Hill in the west margin of the basin is famous for silver mining. Hence, the city is called the ‘Silver City’.

Broken Hill was listed on the National Heritage List in 2015 and remains Australia’s longest-running mining town.

Question 2. Why is Adelaide an important city?
Answer:

Adelaide Is An Important City:-

Adelaide is the capital of the state of South Australia. It is situated along the Gulf of St. Vincent. Adelaide is an important port, trade and industrial centre of South Australia.

The city was established in the year 1836. It is the fifth largest city in Australia and also the fifth most populous city of Australia.

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Question 3. What is Riverina?
Answer:

Riverina:-

The agricultural land in New South Wales that lies between the rivers Murray and the Murrumbidgee is called the Riverina. This region is famous for wheat cultivation. Sheep rearing is also done extensively in the Riverina region.

Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The Murray-Darling Basin is situated in-

  1. South-eastern Australia
  2. North-western Australia
  3. South-western Australia
  4. North-eastern Australia

Answer: 1. South-eastern Australia

Question 2. The main tributary of the Murray River is-

  1. Paroo
  2. Barwon
  3. Darling
  4. Namoi

Answer: 3. Darling

Question 3. A major part of the land area in Murray- the Darling Basin is mainly used for-

  1. Grazing
  2. Mining
  3. Fishery
  4. Forestry

Answer: 1. Grazing

Question 4. Murray-Darling Basin is basically a-

  1. Mountain Range
  2. Plateau Region
  3. Coastal Area
  4. Low Plainland

Answer: 4. Low Plainland

Question 5. The combined flow of Murray and Darling empties into the-

  1. Arafura Sea
  2. Gulf of St. Vincent
  3. Encounter Bay
  4. Spencer gulf

Answer: 3. Encounter Bay

Question 6. The length of the Darling River is (in km)-

  1. 1143
  2. 1153
  3. 1163
  4. 1173

Answer: 3. 1163

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Question 7. The climate of the Murray-Darling Basin is-

  1. Tropical
  2. Equatorial
  3. Temperate
  4. Tundra

Answer: 3. Temperate

Question 8. The primary economic activity of the Murray-Darling Basin is-

  1. Mining
  2. Agriculture
  3. Engineering
  4. Tourism

Answer: 2. Agriculture

Question 9. Merino, Lincoln and Marsh of Murray- Darling basin are examples of –

  1. Tree species
  2. Obreeds of cow
  3. Mining centres
  4. Breeds of sheep

Answer: 4. Breeds of sheep

Question 10. Cobber is primarily known for-

  1. Forests
  2. Copper
  3. Cotton
  4. Gold

Answer: 2. Copper

Question 11. The waterfall on the Murray River is called the-

  1. Murray falls
  2. Gibraltar falls
  3. Jim Jim falls
  4. Apsley falls

Answer: 1. Murray falls

Question 12. The reservoir on the Murray River is-

  1. Balloki
  2. Maithon
  3. Burrinjuck
  4. Hume

Answer: 4. Hume

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. The Murray-Darling occupies about __________ per cent of the total area of Australia.
Answer: 20

Question 2. The Darling River originates from the __________ mountain range.
Answer: New England

Question 3. __________ in the Murray-Darling River basin experiences a Mediterranean climate.
Answer: Adelaide

Question 4. __________ is a rolling grassland found in the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer: Downs

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Question 5. __________ is known as the ‘Silver City’.
Answer: Broken Hill

Question 6. The city of Adelaide in Australia is situated on the banks of the river __________.
Answer: Torrens

Question 7. Australia’s __________ dam has been built on the Murrumbidgee River.
Answer: Burrinjuck

Question 8. The capital of South Australia is __________.
Answer: Adelaide

Question 9. The capital of Victoria is __________.
Answer: Melbourne

Write True Or False

Question 1. The Murray River originates in the Great Dividing Range.
Answer: True

Question 2. The Burrinjuck Dam has been built on the Murray River.
Answer: False

Question 3. The Murray-Darling basin is the most fertile region of Australia.
Answer: True

Question 4. The Murray-Darling Basin drains major parts of Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland.
Answer: True

Question 5. Merino breed of sheep provides the worst quality wool in the world.
Answer: False

Question 6. The Murray-Darling Basin is Australia’s most important agricultural region.
Answer: True

Question 7. The food products industry has not well flourished in the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer: False

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Match The Columns

1.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Match the columns

Answer: 1. D, 2. E, 3. B, 4. C, 5. A

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Name the mountain range lying to the north and east of the Murray-Darling Basin.
Answer: Great Dividing Range.

Question 2. What is the average elevation of the Murray-Darling basin?
Answer: 100 metre-200 metres.

Question 3. Where does the Murray River originate?
Answer: The Australian Alps.

Question 4. Find out the natural slope of the Murray-Darling basin. (Clue- Follow the river course.)
Answer: The basin slopes from the northeast to the southwest.

Question 5. Where does the Darling River originate?
Answer: The New England mountain range.

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Question 6. Where do the Murray-Darling River flow into?
Answer: Encounter Bay.

Question 7. Near which city do the Murray and the Darling Rivers converge?
Answer: Wentworth City.

Question 8. What is the vast Australian grassland in the Murray-Darling basin called?
Answer: Downs.

Question 9. In which city of the Murray-Darling basin is Mediterranean-type vegetation found?
Answer: Adelaide.

Question 10. What are the farmers of the cattle rearing farms in Australia called?
Answer: Jackaos.

Question 11. Name some food crops of the Murray- Darling basin.
Answer: Wheat, maize, barley, oat, rye, etc.

Question 12. Which is the best wool-producing breed of sheep?
Answer: Merino.

Question 13. Follow the course of the river Murray and arrange these accordingly. Wentworth City, Australian Alps, Encounter Bay, Murrumbidgee.
Answer: Australian Alps – Murrumbidgee – Went- worth city Encounter Bay.

Question 14. Name the bay situated in the southern part of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer: The Great Australian Bight.

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Conceptual Questions And Answers

Who am I?

Question 1. I am a unique rock structure made up of red sandstone in the Western Plateau in Australia. I exhibit different colours during different times of the day.’-Who am I?
Answer: Ayers Rock

Question 2. ‘I am a type of well, discovered in France and situated in the folded rock layers.’- Who am I?
Answer: Artesian well

Question 3. ‘I am the highest dormant volcano in the world and I am located in Hawaii island.’- Who am I?
Answer: Mauna Loa

Question 4. ‘I am the deepest trench in the Pacific Ocean. I exceed Mt. Everest in terms of height (11034 metres).’-Who am I?
Answer: Mariana Trench

Scrambled Words

1. LYUSCAPTEU
2. NESMEIALA
3. NECROMISIA
4. TEANARSI LLWE
5. ENOKBRLLHI
6. EERRMUBIUMDG
7. RMIA ANARETCNH

Answers:

1. EUCALYPTUS
2. MELANESIA
3. MICRONESIA
4. ARTESIAN WELL
5. BROKEN HILL
6. MURRUMBIDGEE
7. MARIANA TRENCH

Fill Up The Blanks In The Knowledge Hive

Question 1. Fill in the knowledge hive with information on the Great Barrier Reef.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Great Barrier Reef

Answers:

1. It lies almost parallel to the east coast of Australia.
2. It is the longest coral reef in the world (almost 2000 km in length).
3. Corals are deposited at a distance of 80km-205km from Australia’s coast.
4. It creates an obstruction for ships.
5. It is a major attraction of the east Australian coast.

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Question 2. Fill in the blanks with the identifying characteristics of the given regions:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Characteristics

Answers:

1. Origin of the Darling River.
2. An important tributary of the Murray River.
3. Temperate grasslands of Australia, famous for agriculture and cattle rearing.
4. Capital and industrial city of South Australia.

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Answer With Reference To The Illustration

Question 1. As Oceania is an island continent so it is bordered by seas or oceans on all sides. See the map and write down in which direction which sea or ocean is located.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Oceania

Answers:

1. Pacific Ocean
2. Pacific Ocean
3. Southern Ocean
4. Indian Ocean

Question 2. Find out the natural slope of the Murray- Darling basin.

Clue: Follow the river course.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Location of the Murray Darling basin.

Answers:

1. Great Dividing Range,
2. Great Dividing Range
3. Gulf of St. Vincent and Encounter Bay
4. Grey Range

Question 3. Fill up the blanks in the concept map:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Went Worth City

Answers:

1. New England Range
2. Australian Alps
3. Encounter Bay

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Question 4. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Fill the blanks

Answers:

1. Equatorial
2. Oak
3. Tropical Arid and Semi-Arid
4. Birch

Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Solomon, Guam, New Guinea, Fiji
Answer: Guam (not a part of the Melanesia region)

Question 2. Bay of Bengal, Encounter Bay, Kimbe Bay, Carpentaria Bay
Answer: Bay of Bengal (not a bay in Oceania)

Question 3. Jarrah, Palm, Maple, Elm
Answer: Jarrah (a type of tree that grows in the Mediterranean mean climate)

Correct The Following

Question 1. In 1664, Abel Tasman landed on the east coast of Australia.
Answer: In 1770, James Cook

Question 2. The highest mountain peak in Oceania is Mount Kosciuszko.
Answer: Mount Wilhelm

Question 3. The largest coral reef in the world is Caroline.
Answer: Great Barrier Reef

Question 4. Eyre is the largest lake in New Zealand.
Answer: Taupo

Question 5. Copper is readily found in Broken Hill.
Answer: Cobber

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Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Crossword

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Crossword

 

Clues

Down:

1. The Rock is a famous red sandstone structure.
2. Barrier reef is the world’s longest coral reef.
4. Isolated island state to the south of Australia.

Across:

3. This tree originated in Oceania.
5. Longest river in Australia.

Answers:

Down: 1. AYERS, 2. GREAT, 3. TASMANIA

Across: 3. EUCALYPTUS, 5. MURRAY

Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1. Discuss the geographical importance of Oceania.
Answer: The geographical importance of Oceania is as follows-

1. Locational advantage:

Oceania is flanked by Asia on one side and the Americas on the other. So, its location is of great international importance because trade can be conducted easily among these continents.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Geographical location of oceania

2. Well-developed communication system:

Many ships anchor at the ports in Oceania during their journey from the south and south-eastern regions of Asia to America. Also, many flights travelling across the Pacific Ocean have transit halts in the airports of Oceania.

3. Ideal for military outposts:

Many powerful nations have developed naval outposts in many of the islands of the continent.

For example, Hawaii is the naval outpost of the USA and Fiji is the naval outpost of Great Britain.

4. Famous centre of tourism:

Oceania consists of numerous beautiful islands that attract tourists from every part of the world.

For example, Waikiki Beach in Honolulu (Hawaii) is a very famous tourist destination. World’s largest coral reef, the Great Barrier Reef, is also situated in Oceania.

5. Rich in mineral resources:

Oceania is rich in gold, silver, lead, copper, tin, coal, etc. The city of Broken Hill is famous for silver mining and Cobber is famous for copper.

6. Rich in flora and fauna:

The types of natural vegetation and animals found in Oceania are quite diverse. It is the birthplace of Eucalyptus. Jarah, Karri, Palm, Ebony, Birch, Oak, Poplar, Blue gum, etc., are also found in Oceania.

Animals like a kangaroo, wallaby, platypus, koala and birds like emu and kiwi are found only on this continent.

7. Climatic characteristics:

The climate of Oceania varies according to region.

  1. The regions of Micronesia and Polynesia experience tropical climates, which is favourable for agriculture.
  2. Forest areas have developed in Melanesia due to its equatorial climate.
  3. The temperate climate in southern parts of Polynesia and in Australasia have led to the development of cattle rearing in these regions.
  4. The southern regions of New Zealand experience a cool temperate climate, which is favourable for agriculture and cattle rearing.

Question 2. Write about the important urban centres of the Murray-Darling basin.
Answer: The important urban centres of the Murray Darling Basin are as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Important Urban Centers of the Murray darling basin

 

Question 3. Give an account of the lakes in Oceania.
Answer: The lakes in Oceania are described as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin lakes in Oceania

 

Question 4. Discuss the transportation system of the Murray-Darling Basin.
Answer:

Transportation System Of The Murray-Darling Basin:-

The Murray-Darling Basin is developed in terms of roadways and railways. The Trans- Australian Railway serves a major source of connectivity between the eastern and western states of Australia.

Besides these, the rivers in the Murray-Darling Basin are harnessed as inland waterways.

Chapter 11 Topic B Murray Darling Basin Formative

Participation

This segment will indicate how much the students have actively participated and taken initiative during the class.

Question 1. Study the map properly with your friends and ask each other to find out about different cities and countries of Oceania.
Answer:

Countries of Oceania:

Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall, Nauru, Soloman, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, etc.

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Cities of Oceania:

Melbourne, Perth, Adelaide, Hamilton, Wellington, Sydney, Canberra, Christchurch, Napier, Auckland, Port Moresby, etc.

Question 2. Find out the islands of the four regions of Oceania and label them on the map with a pencil.
Answer:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Oceania Regional Division

Question 3. Collect pictures and information on the Great Barrier Reef.
Answer:

Information On The Great Barrier Reef:-

The Great Barrier Reef is a major attraction of the northeast Australian Coast. Corals are deposited at a distance of 80km-205 km from the coast.

The deposition of dead bodies of corals forms a wall beneath the sea which creates an obstruction for the ships and thus the name ‘Great Barrier Reef.’ The reef extends parallel to the coast for about 2000km.

Importance:

A wide diversity of organisms can be found in the Great Barrier Reef region. This Reef region protects the eastern coast of Australia from the effects of cyclones and tsunamis.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Great Barrier Reef.

Interpretation And Application

This segment will test whether the students have understood the topics, or whether they are just mugging up.

Question 1. Do you find some similarities between the climate and vegetation maps of Oceania? Write down the similarities.
Answer:

The similarities between the climate and vegetation maps of Oceania are-

  1. Evergreen forests grow in the Equatorial climatic region of Oceania due to high temperatures and heavy rainfall. This region includes the islands of Melanesia, Polynesia, Micronesia, etc.
  2. Deciduous trees grow in the Tropical monsoon region in the north and north-east part of Australia.
  3. A temperate type of climate influences the growth of temperate grasslands. This region includes the Murray-Darling Basin and Brisbane.
  4. In the low rainfall areas in northern Australia tropical tall grasses grow. This region is known as the Parkland Savanna.
  5. Cactus is common in the desert and semi-arid regions.
  6. The cities of Perth and Adelaide experience Mediterranean climate and thus similar vegetation is common.
  7. British type of climate found in south-east Australia, Tasmania And New Zealand. Here the common trees are Oak, poplar and elm.

Question 2. Oceania is characterised by climatic variations in different parts. Mention the reasons for this.
Answer:

Reasons for Oceania is characterised by climatic variations in different parts:-

The island countries of Oceania, such as Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, etc., are all located in the southern hemisphere. Hence these places experience summer from December to February and winter from June to August.

However, since the Tropic of Capricorn passes midway through Australia, the northern part of the country experiences a warm climate while the southern part experiences a temperate type of climate.

Being surrounded by seas and oceans, the coastal areas of the countries of Oceania have the moderate types of climate, while the interiors experience the extreme types of climate.

The southeast monsoon winds are obstructed by the Great Dividing Range and thus cause torrential rain in the eastern coast of Australia.

However, due to decreasing water vapour content, these winds do not cause rainfall in the interior or the western parts of Australia.

Thus arid and semi-arid climate prevails in these locations leading to the formation of deserts. Hence we can conclude, climatic variations are common in Oceania.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 3. You have noticed that climate and natural vegetation pattern has been reflected in a single map in the case of North America as well as South America in your textbook. But in the case of Oceania climate and natural vegetation have been reflected in different maps. Do you find any similarities between the two maps? Find and point out in different columns which weather pattern is suitable for which vegetation type. Where do you find similar climates and vegetation types in your country?
Answer: The climate and natural vegetation of a region are always interdependent. The type of climate hugely influences the type of vegetation of an area.

The following table emphasises on the relationship between the climate and natural vegetation of Oceania-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Climatic and natural vegetation of oceania

The vegetation types seen in the particular climatic types in Oceania have similar examples in India as well. The following table shows the vegetation that grows in particular climatic regions in our country-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Climatic regions in our country

Besides these, mangrove forest grows in humid sub-tropical monsoon climatic regions. Factors required for the growth of mangrove forests include coastal saline soil, tides and extremely humid conditions.

Aesthetics And Creativity

This segment will check the aesthetic sense and creativity of the students.

Question 1. You have read about the International Date Line while learning about longitudes in class VII. Now make a list of the islands of Oceania where the International Date Line has moved in a zigzag way.
Answer: The continent of Oceania is made of numerous small islands. These islands are situated on the Pacific Ocean in such a way that, in spite of being part of the same country, some of these lie on either side of the International Date Line.

As a result, the determination of local time is difficult in these countries. So, in order to maintain the same time in all the islands of a country, the International Date Line is drawn in a manner so that it lies on the sea and not on the land.

Thus, the line appears a zigzag. The names of some of such islands are-

  1. Gilbert Islands,
  2. Fiji Islands,
  3. Islands,
  4. Kermadac Islands,
  5. Chatham Islands, etc.

In The Given Map Point Out The Following Places

Question 1.

  1. The Great Dividing Range,
  2. Great Victoria Desert,
  3. Gulf of Carpentaria,
  4. Mount Kosciuszko,
  5. Mediterranean region,
  6. Murray river,
  7. Sydney,
  8. Broken Hill,
  9. Encounter Bay,
  10. Brisbane.
  11. Kimberley Plateau,
  12. Great Australian Bight

Answer:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Australia map

Question 2.

  1. Papua New Guinea,
  2. New Zealand,
  3. Canberra,
  4. New Caledonia Islands,
  5. Tasmania,
  6. Tonga Islands,
  7. Fiji Islands,
  8. Chatham Islands,
  9. Wellington,
  10. Great Sandy Desert,
  11. Mt. Cook.

Answer:

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 11 Oceania Topic B Murray Darling Basin Oceania map

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