WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Describe the natural vegetation as well as the wildlife of the Selva forest of the Amazon river basin.”
Answer:

Natural Vegetation As Well As The Wildlife Of The Selva Forest Of The Amazon River Basin:-

Selva, the evergreen forest lies on both sides of the equator covering mainly the major portion of the Amazon Basin.

Natural Vegetation:

The characteristics of the natural vegetation of the Selva forest of the Amazon River basin are discussed below-

  1. The trees of these dense forests have big and round leaves that remain green throughout the year. Hence, these forests are also called equatorial evergreen forests.
  2. Trees like ironwood, rosewood, Brazil nut, rubber, palm, bamboo, etc. grow here.
  3. Different species of trees are seen here and most of them are about 40m-50m tall.
  4. Due to the dense growth of trees, bushes and creepers, the forest is impenetrable and sunlight cannot reach the lower layers. Hence, the parts near the ground remain dark even during the day. Moreover, the branches and leaves entangle with each other in the upper layers and form a canopy. For that reason, the Selva is also called the ‘Land of Eternal Twilight’.
  5. The forest environment is unhealthy and is full of poisonous insects, which makes it impossible to collect forest resources.
  6. The trees of this forest yield hardwood.

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WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region The Selva foreset of Amazon

 

Wildlife:

The characteristics of the fauna of the Selva forest of the Amazon River basin are discussed below-

The dense forest of the Selva is home to different types of animals. However, the presence of shrubs and bushes, wet soil and a moist environment have led to the growth of impenetrable forests with dense undergrowth.

So, the animals in this forest have adapted accordingly and mainly inhabit the upper layer of the canopy in the forest. For example, different types of monkeys, chimpanzees, etc., are found in large numbers.

Apart from these, leeches, carnivorous ants, Anaconda snakes, poisonous flies, vampire bats, etc., are found in this forest. The famous, large Rhea bird, is also found here.

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The waters of this region is home to the alligators, Piranha and Pirarucu fish.

Question 2 Give an account of the characteristic features of the Selva forest in the Amazon River basin.
Answer:

Characteristic Features Of The Selva Forest In The Amazon River Basin:-

The world’s largest tropical evergreen rainforest, the Selva, has developed along the Amazon River basin. This forest occupies almost 60 per cent of Brazil, 13 per cent of Peru, 10 per cent of Colombia and extensive areas of Venezuela, Guiana, Bolivia etc.

Characteristics of the trees in the Selva forest:

1. Evergreen:

This forest is made up of tall. evergreen trees with big leaves and shrubs and bushes.

2. Fast growth:

Heavy rainfall and a warm climate lead to the fast growth of the trees.

3. Very tall:

According to height, trees of this forest can be divided into 4 layers-

  1. Emergent Layer,
  2. Canopy Layer,
  3. Intermediate Layer And
  4. Lower Layer Or Undergrowth.

4. Dense growth of creepers:

Orchids and creepers grow on the branches of trees due to the dark and humid environment of the forest.

5. Land of Eternal Twilight:

Branches of tall trees entangle with each other and form a canopy in the upper layer of the forest. This prevents sunlight from reaching the lower layers of the forest.

Hence, the lower layers remain dark even during the day and the region seems to have eternal twilight. So, it is known as the ‘Land of Eternal Twilight’.

6. Abundance of different species:

Trees of different species grow in this forest simultaneously. About 300 species of trees are found in every 2sq.km area.

7. Hardwood:

The trunks of the trees are very strong and thick and yield very hard wood.

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Most important trees:

The main trees that grow in this region-

  1. Rubber,
  2. Rosewood,
  3. Ironwood,
  4. Brazil nut,
  5. Palm,
  6. Bamboo, etc.

Question 3. The Amazon River basin is industrially not developed. Why?
Answer:

The Amazon River basin is industrially not developed:-

The Amazon River basin is industrially not developed because of the following reasons-

1. Adverse climate:

The hot and humid climate that prevails in the Amazon River basin is very unhealthy and uncomfortable.

2. Poisonous insects:

The dense and impenetrable Selva forest in this region is not only unsuitable for habitation but is also home to a large number of poisonous insects.

3. Poor communication:

The communication system has not developed here due to the dense forest.

4. Lack of infrastructure:

Due to unfavourable conditions, there has been no infrastructural development.

5. Lack of skilled labour:

Skilled labour is un-available due to the scarce population in the region.

6. Lack of raw materials:

Industries have not developed here due to the lack of agricultural raw materials and mineral resources.

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7. Lack of education and capital:

The inhabitants of this region are extremely poor and illiterate and hence no economic development takes place here. This also results in lack of capital. There has been no development in the field of science and technology as well.

Question 4. Describe the topography and the rivers of the Pampas region.
Answer:

Topography of the Pampas region:

Topographic characteristics of the Pampas region are as follows-

  1. The word ‘Pampas’ originates from the Spanish word Pampa meaning ‘uninterrupted stretch of plainland’.
  2. The Pampas is basically a type of plain land that has formed as a result of the deposition of silt, sand and clay by rivers and loess soil deposits by aeolian action. The layer of silt in this region is fertile and very deep.
  3. The Pampas region is somewhat undulating due to the scattered presence of hillocks and ridges. For example, two hills called the Sierra de Tandil and the Sierra de La Ventana are located in Buenos Aires. These are made of granite, gneiss and quartzite rocks. These are extended parts of the Brazilian Highlands.
  4. The Pampa’s region slopes from west to east because its western part is comparatively higher than its eastern part since it has the Andes in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east.

Rivers of the Pampas region:

The main rivers of the Pampas region are the Parana and Paraguay. These rivers originate from the Brazilian Highlands and pass through the Pampas. Both rivers merge with Uruguay, near the capital of Argentina, Buenos Aires.

During their lower course, they flow as the La Plata and finally flow into the Atlantic Ocean. The estuary of La plata is known as Rio-de-la- Plata.

The other notable rivers of the Pampas are Cuarto, Tercero, Salado, Colorado and Saladillo. Most of these rivers are the tributaries of the Parana-Uruguay.

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Question 5. Describe the climate and the natural vegetation of the Pampas region.
Answer:

Climatic characteristics of the Pampas region:

The climatic characteristics of the Pampas region are discussed below-

1. Seasons:

A warm temperate climate prevails in the Pampas region. The region. experiences summer from November to January and winter from March to June because of its location in the southern hemisphere. Winters are longer than summers in the Pampas region.

2. Temperature:

The average temperature in January (summer) ranges between 22°C- 24°C and the average temperature in July (winter) ranges between 8°C-10°C.

3. Rainfall:

The Pampas region receives very little rainfall throughout the year (about 50 cm-100 cm). The humid Pampas in the east receive more rainfall than the dry Pampas in the west. Though maximum rainfall occurs in the summer season.

4. Snowfall:

Snowfall is a rare phenomenon in this region. It does not occur each year and if it occurs, lasts for only a few days. Generally, frost arrives with the onset of autumn (April-May) and ends by spring (mid-September).

The natural vegetation of the Pampas:

Vast stretches of grasslands have developed in the Pampas region as a result of the temperate climate and scanty annual rainfall. The eastern part of the Pampas region receives more rainfall.

This results in the growth of tall grasses in this region (almost 1 metre in height). The hilly regions of the east-central part have some scattered growth of temperate mixed forests with trees like eucalyptus, poplar, hopper, etc.

To the north of the Pampas, along the Parana- Paraguay river basin, the grasslands of Gran Chaco have grown. These grasslands consist of shrubs and bushes as well as deciduous trees.

A type of tree called the Yerba Mate is found in the Parana River basin. It is used to make a beverage somewhat like tea. At present most of this grassland has been destroyed for transportation and agricultural purpose.

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Question 6. Discuss the various characteristics of agriculture and livestock rearing of the Pampas region.
Answer:

Agriculture of the Pampas region:

Agriculture of the Pampas region is characterised by the following features-

1. Agricultural system:

The Pampas region is highly suitable for agriculture due to the cool climate, scanty rainfall, undulating plainland, fertile soil, etc. Hence, it is one of the most well-developed agricultural regions in the world.

In the Pampas, agriculture is practised using modern scientific methods.

2. Crops:

This region yields large amounts of wheat (wheat is grown on th of the total agricultural land). About 60% of the total wheat is grown for international trade. Hence, the Pampas region is called the ‘Granary of South America’.

The other crops that grow here include corn, barley, maize, oilseed, cotton, tobacco, soybean, sugarcane, and different types of fruits and vegetables.

Grapes are also grown in the western part of Argentina and the southern part of Uruguay. Moreover, alfalfa grass is grown here as fodder.

Livestock rearing of the Pampas region:

Livestock rearing of the Pampas region is characterised by the following features-

1. System of livestock rearing:

Commercial livestock rearing is practised in the Pampas region. The system used for livestock rearing here is the most developed in South America.

Cattle is reared in large numbers in the eastern and central parts because of the abundant growth of tall grasses. More sheep are reared in the western and southern parts. because of the cool climate and less rainfall.

Plenty of fodder grasses (example-alfalfa) are grown in the fertile pastures with the aim of rearing livestock. Hybrid animals of high quality are fed corn and other nutritious food.

The pasture farms are locally called ‘Estancia. The slaughterhouses of this region have well-developed cold storage facilities and are called ‘frigorific’.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Agriculture and Cattle rearing in the Pampas region

2. Centres of cattle rearing:

The regions which have more groundwater, have fertile pastures and so, animal husbandry farms develop there in larger numbers. The notable cattle-rearing centres are Rozario, Cordoba and Buenos Aires. About 40% of sheep is reared in Buenos Aires province.

3. Animal products:

A large amounts of meat, fur, leather, milk and dairy products (powdered milk, butter, clarified butter cheese, cream, etc.) from this region are exported to other parts of the world. Argentina ranks first in the world in terms of beef export.

Besides the meat, beef extract, beef fat, bone powder, etc., are also produced here. The city of Cordoba is famous for dairy products.

Question 7. Describe the population distribution, cities, mineral resources and industries of the Pampas region.
Answer:

Population distribution and the cities of the Pampas:

The vast stretch of the Pampas grasslands is suitable for animal grazing and cattle rearing. Hence, the region is very scarcely populated. This region is home to a tribe of nomadic horsemen and cowhands engaged in cattle rearing.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region The main cities of pampas region

 

They are called the Gauchos. However, at present, most of the inhabitants of this region are descendants of the Spanish. Although this region itself is not much populated, its adjoining cities are quite densely populated.

Such cities are-Buenos Aires, La Plata, Bahia Blanca, Rosario, Cordoba, Mar del Plata, Santa Fe and Montevideo.

Mineral resources of the Pampas:

The Pampas region, made up of alluvial soil, is not rich in minerals. However, small amounts of copper ore, manganese, etc., are present in the northern hilly regions of the Pampas.

A small amount of copper ore is obtained from the southern part of Uruguay. Besides these, coal, zinc, lead, limestone and natural gas are also found here.

Industries of the Pampas:

The Pampas region is famous for its well-developed cattle rearing. This has led to the development of various industries that depend on products acquired from animals, such as-

  1. Milk industry (butter, cheese, powdered milk, etc., Are made from milk),
  2. Meat industry,
  3. Leather industry and
  4. Fur industry.

The most important centres of these industries are Buenos Aires, La Plata, Cordoba, Montevideo, etc. Flour, sugar and bakery industries have also developed here, based on agricultural raw materials.

The other notable industries that have developed in these centres are-

Engineering,

  1. Chemical,
  2. Garment trading,
  3. Food processing and
  4. Mineral oil refining.
  5. At present, Argentina is the largest beef exporter in the world.

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Short Analytical Type Questions

Question 1. Write a short note on the Pampas region or, Discuss the temperate grasslands of South America.
Answer:

Pampas Region:-

Pampas is a Spanish word meaning extensive plainlands. The South American temperate grasslands, situated in eastern Argentina, are known as Pampas. The total area of this region is about 7.5 lakh sq. km.

It extends from the foothills of the Andes in the west to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in the east. Being situated in the cool temperate climate (average summer temperature-22°C-24°C, average winter temperature-8°C-10°C And annual average rainfall-50 cm-100 cm), short grasses have grown in this region.

Alfalfa, Stipa, and pampas grass are the dominant grass species of this region. This region is a notable cattle-rearing field and wheat-producing area. Buenos Aires and many other cities are located in the Pampas region.

Question 2. Briefly discuss the location of the Pampas region and the area occupied by it.
Answer:

Location Of The Pampas Region And The Area Occupied By It:-

The Pampas is surrounded by the Gran Chaco plains and the Brazilian Highlands in the north and the temperate Patagonian Desert in the south. To its east lies, the Atlantic Ocean and to the west lies the Andes Mountain range.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Latitudinal location of the Pampas

 

Coordinates:

From 30°S to 38°S latitude and from 54°W to 65°W longitude, the Pampas has grown in the north-eastern parts of Argentina and along the banks of the river La Plata that passes through the south-west of Uruguay.

Area:

The Pampas covers 7.5 lakh sq. km of area. This grassland is 1/4th of Argentina in terms of area.

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Question 3. Give an account of the humid Pampas and the dry Pampas.
Answer:

Humid Pampas And The Dry Pampas:-

The word ‘Pampas’ has originated from the Spanish word Pampa, meaning ‘uninterrupted extensive plainland’. The vast grassland that surrounds the capital of Argentina, Buenos Aires, in a half-moon shape, is called the Pampas.

The eastern part of the Pampas receives a comparatively higher amount of rainfall which helps in the growth of tall grasses. Therefore, this region is referred to as the humid Pampas.

The western part of the grassland is situated in the interior part of the continent, away from the sea. So, it receives less amount of rainfall, which leads to the growth of short grasses.

Hence, the western part is referred to as the dry Pampas. The Pampas grassland is famous for cattle rearing and the system of cattle-rearing followed in this region is the best in South America.

Question 4. Give a physiographic description of the Pampas grassland.
Answer:

Physiographic Description Of The Pampas Grassland:-

In terms of physical features, the Pampas is a plainland.

Origin:

For many years, loess and sediments have been carried from the western highlands and accumulated over the ancient rock strata to form this deep silt-layered region.

Characteristics:

  1. The region slopes from west to east.
  2. The layer of silt in this region is fertile and deep.
  3. Although the region is a plainland, it is undulating in many areas (Uruguay).
  4. There are some low hills in the southeastern parts of the region (Sierra del Tandil, Sierra de La Ventana).

Question 5. Differentiate between the tropical and temperate grasslands of South America.
Answer: The differences between the tropical and the temperate grasslands of South America are as follows-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Differences between Tropical and Temperate grassland

 

Question 6. Differentiate between wild rubber and natural rubber.
Answer: The differences between wild rubber and natural rubber are discussed below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Differences between Wild and Natural rubber

 

Question 7. Write a short note on Buenos Aires.
Answer:

Buenos Aires:-

Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina. The characteristic features of the city are as follows-

  1. It is situated on the estuary of the river La Plata and ranks as the second-largest metropolitan area in South America.
  2. Buenos Aires is considered to be the most important city and port in the southern hemisphere. It is also the primary centre of educational and cultural development in Argentina.
  3. Some of the important industries of the region are cotton textile, flour, meat, leather products, food-processing, tobacco, etc.
  4. Goods imported include coal, cotton garments and industrial machinery while goods exported are wheat, corn, meat, leather and fur.
  5. Buenos Aires is called the Paris of South America because the city is culturally rich and has one of the world’s busiest live theatre industries.

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Why is the Selva forest referred to as the ‘Lungs of the World’?
Answer:

Selva Forest Referred To As The ‘Lungs Of The World’

Selva is the largest tropical forest in the world. It occupies an area of almost 55 lac sq. km which accounts for 60 per cent of Brazil’s total land area.

The Selva provides 20 per cent of the world’s oxygen and hence, this vast tropical forest is referred to as the ‘Lungs of the World’.

Question 2. What is Estancia?
Answer:

Estancia:-

The Pampas grassland in South America is famous for livestock rearing. Since the eastern parts of the Pampas receive more rainfall than other regions, the grasses that grow here are taller in size.

This makes the region highly suitable for livestock rearing. These vast stretches of grazing lands in the Pampas are locally called Estancia.

Question 3. The Pampas region is called the ‘Granary of South America’. Why?
Answer:

The Pampas region is called the ‘Granary of South America’:-

The gentle and cool climate, sufficient rainfall, availability of chernozem soil, extensive plainland, etc., enhance the agriculture of the Pampas. In this region, highly developed farming methods are used to grow different types of crops.

A large amount of wheat is produced here and exported to different parts of the world. Hence, the Pampas region is called the ‘Granary of South America’.

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Option

Question 1. The dense equatorial forest in the Amazon River basin is known as-

  1. Savanna
  2. Selva
  3. Campos
  4. Mediterranean forest

Answer: 2. Selva

Question 2. The highest concentration of Selva forest is seen in-

  1. Peru
  2. Argentina
  3. Brazil
  4. Paraguay

Answer: 2. Brazil

Question 3. Piranha is a type of-

  1. Fly
  2. Spider
  3. Tree
  4. Fish

Answer: 4. Fish

Question 4. The literal meaning of ‘Pampas’ is-

  1. Extensive Desert
  2. Extensive Plainland
  3. Highlands
  4. Waterbody

Answer: 2. Extensive Plainland

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 5. Pampas region is basically a-

  1. Plateau
  2. Grassland
  3. Desert
  4. Drainforest area

Answer: 2. Grassland

Question 6. The general slope of the Pampas region is from-

  1. North to south
  2. East to west
  3. West to east
  4. South to north

Answer: 3. West to east

Question 7. The type of climate prevailing in the Pampas grasslands is-

  1. Temperate type
  2. Warm desert type
  3. Mediterranean type
  4. Polar type

Answer: 1. Temperate type

Question 8. Alfalfa grass is seen in-

  1. Selva region
  2. Patagonian desert
  3. Atacama desert
  4. Pampas region

Answer: 4. Pampas region

Question 9. Grasslands in the Pampas region has developed due to-

  1. Scanty rainfall
  2. Sea breeze
  3. Abundant rainfall
  4. Fertile soil

Answer: 1. scanty rainfall

Question 10. The main commercial crop of the Pampas region is-

  1. Wheat
  2. Tea
  3. Jute
  4. Cocoa

Answer: 1. Wheat

Question 11. The huge grazing areas in the Pampas grasslands are called-

  1. Frigorifico
  2. Estero
  3. Estancia
  4. Gran Chaco

Answer: 3. Estancia

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 12. Cordoba is famous for-

  1. Meat
  2. Automobiles
  3. Dairy products
  4. Petrochemicals

Answer: 3. Dairy products

Question 13. The capital of Argentina is-

  1. Quito
  2. Brasilia
  3. Buenos Aires
  4. Rio de Janeiro

Answer: 3. Buenos Aires

Question 14. The city of Buenos Aires is located on the estuary of the river-

  1. Amazon
  2. La Plata
  3. Colorado
  4. Orinoco

Answer: 2. La Plata

Very Short Answer Type Questions Fill In The Blanks

Question 1. The Selva region is also known as ________.
Answer: Region of Eternal Twilight

Question 2. ________ is Amazon’s famous rubber-accumulating centre.
Answer: Manaus

Question 3. The grasslands in Argentina are called the ________.
Answer: Pampas

Question 4. The wind that blows across the Pampas region is called ________.
Answer: Pampero

Question 5. The Pampas grasslands are dominated by ________ soil.
Answer: Chernozem

Question 6. ________ region is known as the ‘Granary of South America.
Answer: Pampas

Question 7. ________, located in the foothills of the Andes, is a notable centre for cattle rearing.
Answer: Cordoba

Question 8. ________ ranks first in the world in terms of meat exports.
Answer: Argentina

WBBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 Question Answers

Question 9. The city that is situated in the northern coast of the La Plata River bay is ________
Answer: Montevideo

Question 10. The port of ________ in Pampas is most significant in terms of fur exports.
Answer: Bahia Blanca

 

Write True Or False

Question 1. The Pampas is rich in mineral resources.
Answer: False

Question 2. In terms of area, the Pampas region occupies around 7 lakh 50 thousand sq. km.
Answer: True

Question 3. Pampas in Argentina is a type of tropical grassland.
Answer: False

Question 4. The massive animal husbandry farms in the Pampas are called ‘frigorific’.
Answer: False

Question 5. Argentina is referred to as the ‘Coffee Pot of the World’.
Answer: False

Question 6. The extensive grazing lands in the Pampas are called Estancia.
Answer: True

Question 7. Gauchos are the people who live in a coffee fazenda.
Answer: False

Question 8. The frigorific is a slaughterhouse.
Answer: True

Question 9. Selva is the densest forest of the world.
Answer: True

Question 10. The general slope of the Pampas region is from east to west.
Answer: False

 

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Match The Columns

1.WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Match the columns

Answer: 1. D, 2. C, 3. A, 4. E, 5. B

 

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Which is the largest rainforest in the world?
Answer: The Amazon.

Question 2. Name a duty-free riverine port in the Amazon River basin.
Answer: Manaus.

Question 3. How much area does the Pampas region occupy?
Answer: 7.5 lakh sq. km.

Question 4. What is the average temperature in winter in the Pampas region?
Answer: 8°C-10°C.

Question 5. What are the large cattle farms known as in the Pampas region?
Answer: Estancia.

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Question 6. Give an example of an animal-based industry in the Pampas region.
Answer: Dairy industry.

Question 7. Give an example of an agro-based industry in the Pampas region.
Answer: Flour industry.

Question 8. What are the slaughterhouses of Argentina locally called?
Answer: Frigorifricos.

Question 9. Name the native inhabitants of the Pampas region.
Answer: Gaucho.

 

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Conceptual Questions And Answers

 

Who am I?

Question 1. ‘I am the world’s largest and the second longest river and I originate in the Nevado Mismi mountain peak in Peru.’-Who am I?
Answer: Amazon

Question 2. ‘I am the world’s densest evergreen forest and I am called the ‘Region of Eternal Twilight.-Who am I?
Answer: Selva

Question 3. ‘I am the highest mountain peak in South America and I am an extinct volcano.’- Who am I?
Answer: Aconcagua

Question 4. ‘I am the narrow canal that separates South America from North America and I was established in the year 1914.- Who am I?
Answer: Panama Canal

Question 5. ‘I am the capital of Argentina, situated at the mouth of La Plata.’-Who am I?
Answer: Buenos Aires

Question 6. ‘My scientific name is Hevea Brasiliensis and I am referred to as South America’s ‘black gold’.-Who am I?
Answer: Natural rubber

Question 7. ‘I am the capital of Brazil and I am the third most populous city of Brazil-Who am I?
Answer: Brasilia

 

Scrambled Words

1. NCAACO GUA
2. RACH BOIMZO
3. GROTOSSOMA
4. COGRCHAAN

Answers:

1. ACONCAGUA
2. CHIMBORAZO
3. MATO GROSSO
4. GRAN CHACO

 

Fill Up The Blanks In The Knowledge Hive

Question 1. The Amazon is the world’s largest river. Fill up the blanks in the knowledge hive with important features of the Amazon.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Fill the blanks

Answers:

1. It is South America’s longest and the world’s second-longest river.
2. The river originates in the Nevado Mismi mountain peak of the Andes.
3. It is the largest river in the world in terms of water discharge.
4. The river has more than 1000 tributaries.”
5. Some notable tributaries of this river are Madeira, Negro, Japura and Purus.
6. It provides more than 3200km of the navigable route from its mouth.
7. The river is 240km wide near the mouth.
8. The Amazon discharges about 209000 cubic metres of water per second.

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Question 2. Fill up the blanks in the knowledge hive with information on the Selva.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Fill in the blanks

Answers:

1. The trees in this forest are almost 50-60 metres tall.
2. Leaves of the trees remain green throughout the year. So, the forest is also called the equatorial evergreen forest.
3. The forest is called the ‘Region of Eternal Twilight”.
4. The Selva is dense and impenetrable.
5. Biological diversity is prevalent here.
6. About 10 per cent of the world’s living organisms are found in the Selva region..
7. It is home to almost 2.5lac insects and 4lac plant species.

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Answer With Reference To The Illustration

Question 1. Fill up the illustration with the different landforms of the Amazon Basin.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Amazon basin

Answers:

1. The Andes
2. Guiana Highland
3. Atlantic Ocean
4. Mato Grosso
5. Brazilian Highland

Question 2. Fill up the illustration with the course of the La Plata River.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Atlantic Ocean

Answers:

1. Mato Grosso
2. Brazilian Highland
3. Paraguay river
4. Parana River
5. La Plata River

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Strike The Odd One Out

Question 1. Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Aconcagua
Answer: Aconcagua (it is a mountain peak, not a country)

Question 2. Llanos, Peru, Gran Chaco, Pampas
Answer: Peru (it is a country, not a grassland)

Question 3. Orinoco, Purus, Xingu, Madeira
Answer: Orinoco (it is not a tributary of the Amazon)

 

Correct The Following

Question 1. The Himalayas is the longest mountain range in the world.
Answer: Andes

Question 2. The Paraguay River has formed by the convergence of the Parana and the Paraguay rivers.
Answer: Parana

Question 3. A delta has developed at the mouth of the river Amazon.
Answer: No delta

Question 4. Uruguay is the world’s largest meat-exporting country in South America.
Answer: Argentina

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Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Crossword

Solve the crossword with the clues given below:

Question 1.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Crossword

 

CLUES

Down:

1. Capital of Ecuador.
3. Largest river in South America.

Across:

2. Black gold’ of the Amazon River basin.
4. Highest peak in the Guiana Highlands.
5. The nomadic herdsmen of the Pampas.

Answers:

Down:

1. QUITO,
3. AMAZON

Across:

2. RUBBER,
4. RORAIMA,
5. GAUCHO

Question 2.

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Crossword.

 

CLUES

Down:

1. The world’s highest lake
2. Highest peak of South America
3. highest waterfall of the world

Across:

1. Desert on the western coastal plain
2. Main river of South America
3. Parana, Paraguay, Uruguay combined channel
4. Capital of Brazil

Answers:

Down:

1. Titicaca
2. Aconcagua
3. Angel

Across:

1. Atacama
2. Amazon
3. La Plata
4. Brasilia

 

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1. Discuss the geographical significance of South America.
Answer:

Geographical Significance Of South America:-

The continent of South America has immense geographical significance. These are discussed below-

1. Topographic diversity:

The continent of South America has the world’s longest mountain range, the Andes, in the west and the Brazilian Highlands in the northeast. The world’s largest river basin has developed in South America, that is the Amazon.

The world’s highest navigable lake, the Titicaca (3810 metres) and the world’s largest fluvial island called Marajo are also situated in this continent.

2. Isolated continent:

South America is encircled by seas and oceans on all sides. Although it is joined to North America by the Isthmus of Panama, the continent of South America remains separated from other landmasses.

3. Fourth largest continent:

In terms of area, South America is the fourth largest and in terms of population, it is the fifth largest continent in the world. The continent of South America is where the ancient Inca and the Maya civilisations had flourished.

4. Continent of the southern hemisphere:

About 85 per cent of South America lies to the south of the Equator. So, it is referred to as the continent of the southern hemisphere.

Class 8 Geography WBBSE

5. Location of the Selva:

The world’s densest evergreen forest, the Selva, has grown along the Amazon River basin in South America. The Selva is so dense that sunlight doesn’t reach the lower layers even during the day. Hence, Selva is also known as the ‘Land of Eternal Twilight’.

6. Population diversity:

South America is home not only to the indigenous people but also to foreigners.

7. Abundance of forest-based and agri- cultural raw materials:

The various agricultural crops of South America, namely, Argentina’s wheat; Brazil’s cocoa, sugarcane, coffee; Amazon region’s rubber, cotton, tobacco as well as different types of fruits grown in Chile, serve as raw materials for the industries of cotton, sugar, flour, coffee, etc.

The famous cattle-rearing regions in the grasslands of Pampas, Llanos and Campos, have influenced the growth of the meat, leather, fur and dairy industries. Argentina in South America is the world’s largest meat exporter.

8. Mineral resources contributing to industrial development:

Various types of mineral resources available in different parts of the continent have led to the development of industries like iron and steel, copper and oil refining.

Some of these resources include mineral oil from Venezuela and Ecuador, iron from Brazil and Chile, copper and silver from Peru, tin from Bolivia and bauxite from French Guiana.

9. Climatic diversity:

The continent of South America has different types of climates in different areas. These include hot and humid equatorial, tropical, temperate, maritime, arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean types.

The fact that both the Amazon basin and the Atacama Desert are parts of the same content is a proof of this diversity.

10. Scope for potential development:

The abundance of raw materials, fast-flowing rivers for generation of hydroelectricity, large population-all these advantages should be properly utilised for economic development so that South America emerges as a developed and affluent continent in time.

Question 2. Discuss the agricultural activities and forest resources of the Amazon River basin.
Answer:

Agricultural activities of the Amazon river basin:

Agriculture has not developed in this region because of the dense forest cover and excessively acidic soil. However, the coastal areas receive less rainfall than the other areas and so, these parts are less forested.

As a result, it is possible for the local inhabitants to reclaim patches of land from the forest and practise farming to some extent. The main crops that are grown here are-

  1. Beet,
  2. Sugarcane,
  3. Corn,
  4. Cotton,
  5. Rice,
  6. Tapioca,
  7. Manioc,
  8. Potato And
  9. Nut.

Wild rubber, called Hevea Brasiliensis which grows in forest regions has great economic value. However, nowadays, rubber, cocoa, and tobacco are being produced using modern techniques.

Some ancient tribes like Mura and Yanomami live within the forests of the Amazon river basin. They depend on gathering fruits and hunting for their livelihood.

The local method of shifting cultivation is used to produce corn, barley, millets, cassava, banana and few vegetables.

Forest resources of the Amazon river basin:

The Amazon River basin is rich in forest resources. However, it is not possible to utilise these resources due to lack of technological progress, poor transportation system, unhealthy environment and impenetrable forests.

The main yield of this forest is wild rubber, called Hevea Brasiliensis. At present, many rubber plantations have developed in this region under foreign proprietorship.

Rubber is referred to as the ‘black gold’ of the Amazon due to its economic importance. Brazil nut is also an important product of the Amazon region, as it acts as a raw material for the edible oil industry.

The shells of these nuts are used to make buttons and decorative items. Wood collected from the forest is used to make the decks of ships, railway sleepers and furniture.

Question 3. Describe the mineral resources, industry, population distribution and cities of the Amazon River basin.
Answer:

Mineral resources of the Amazon river basin:

The Amazon River basin is not rich in mineral resources. Some amounts of mineral oil, natural gas, manganese, tin, nickel, copper, bauxite and iron ore are found in this region. Silver and gold are also found in small amounts.

Industries of the Amazon river basin:

Industries have not developed in the Amazon River basin due to impenetrable forests, unhealthy environment, poor communication, insufficient raw materials, limited population, lack of capital and well-developed technology.

Very few nut and palm oil factories, rubber industries, small-scale wood industries and cement industries have developed here.

Population distribution of the Amazon river basin:

Very few people reside in the Amazon River basin-on an average, only 1 person lives per sq. km in this region. Some regions are completely uninhabited. Manaus, Belem and Iquitos are the most inhabited cities of the river basin.

The nomadic indigenous tribes like Jivaro, Ticuna, Yanomami, Tucano, etc. largely retain the ethnicity of the Amerindians (short for American Indians). Amerindians are the natives of this region.

Apart from them, the Seringueiros live on the banks of the Amazon.

Cities of the Amazon river basin:

The main port city of this region is Manaus. The city was once famous as a centre of rubber collection. The other two cities of the Amazon River basin where industry has developed are Belem and Iquitos.

Question 4. Discuss the reasons for the economic importance of the Rio-de- la-Plata estuary.
Answer:

Reasons For The Economic Importance Of The Rio-De- La-Plata Estuary:-

The funnel-shaped Rio-de-la-Plata estuary is situated on the Argentina-Uruguay border in the southeastern part of South America. The reasons for its economic importance are as follows-

  1. The mouth of this estuary is almost 220km wide which provides favourable natural environment for the development of a port. The ports of Montevideo, Buenos Aires, etc., have developed here, through which trade is conducted.
  2. This extensive bay protects South America from natural calamities caused by the sea. Hence, natural harbours and ship repairing centres have developed in this estuary.
  3. This estuary is used to export the large amounts of wheat grown in coastal climatic conditions, improvement in the Pampas region of Argentina.
  4. Pleasant agriculture and trade and better economic opportunities have led to high population growth along the banks of the estuary.

Question 5. Brazil is called the ‘Coffee Pot of the World-Explain.
Answer:

Brazil is called the ‘Coffee Pot of the World’:-

Brazil, situated in the eastern part of South America, is the world’s largest coffee producer. Huge coffee plantations have been developed on the vast stretches of land that extend from the north of Rio de Janeiro to Sao Paulo.

These plantations produce about 30 per cent of the world’s coffee. Hence, it is called the ‘Coffee pot of the world’. In the year 2016, Brazil produced 3.3 million tonnes of coffee.

The contributing factors are

  1. Brazil receives heavy rainfall (125 cm on. Average) which is favourable for coffee production,
  2. Sloping hilly areas favourable for water discharge are present,
  3. A favourable dry and bright sunny climate to dry coffee beans prevails here,
  4. Fertile, red, clayey soil, rich in iron, is found here, which is highly suitable for coffee production,
  5. The ports of sao paulo and Santos are in close proximity to the plantations, thereby facilitating trade.

 

Chapter 10 Topic B Selva And Pampas Formative

 

Participation

This segment will indicate how much the students have actively participated and taken initiative during the class.

South America is the world’s fourth-largest continent in terms of area. With reference to this answer the following questions-

Question 1. What is the shape of South America?
Answer: Like a triangle/the southern part of the continent is narrower than the northern part/…

Question 2. Name some of the countries situated in this continent.
Answer: Brazil/Argentina/Bolivia/Venezuela/…

Question 3. Name some characteristic features of this continent.
Answer: The world’s longest mountain range, the Andes, is in this continent./ The world’s largest river, the Amazon, flows through this continent. /….

Question 4. Which types of flora are found in South America?
Answer: The Pampas grasslands are found here./ Evergreen trees like rosewood and ironwood are also found here./…

Question 5. Name some primitive tribes of this continent.
Answer: Mura/Yanomami/Jivaro/…

 

Interpretation And Application

This segment will test whether the students have understood the topics, or whether they are just mugging up.

Question 1. Prepare a list of the hot and cold deserts from all over the world.
Answer: The list of hot and cold deserts from all over the world is tabulated below-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region List of the cold and hot deserts from all over the world

 

Aesthetics And Creativity

This segment will check the aesthetic sense and creativity of the students.

Question 1. Selva, the largest tropical rainforest in the world, does not have a timber industry like one in the Canadian Shield region. Provide a comparative study between the features of the two regions, discussing the reasons for this.
Answer: Different species of trees are found in the Selva. Still, the wood yielded from the trees of this forest has not led to the formation of any big timber industry. The reasons for this may be sighted as-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Industry and regions

 

In The Given Map Point Out The Following Places

  1. Amazon river,
  2. Lake Titicaca,
  3. Ojos del Salado,
  4. The Patagonian Desert,
  5. Iguazu waterfall,
  6. Pampas grassland,
  7. Strait of Magellan,
  8. Guiana Highland,
  9. Bolivian plateau,
  10. Cotopaxi Mountain.
  11. Aconcagua
  12. Atacama Desert

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 8 Geography Chapter 10 South America Topic B Selva And Pampas Region Map

 

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