WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women Students And Marginal People In 20th Century India Characteristics And Analyses

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women Students And Marginal People In 20th Century India Characteristics And Analyses Salient Points

1. Women’s movements, students’ movements, and Dalit movements occupy important places in the history of India. While the men were fastening their belts to join the struggle for freedom, the Indian women were not sitting idle either. They plunged themselves into the movements against the British for the attainment of independence.

2. During the Anti-Partition agitation which started in 1905, women boycotted British goods and began to use indigenous goods. Leaders like Sarala Devi, Kumudini Mitra, and Nirmala Sarkar gave a call to the women’s community to join the movement against the British.

3. During the Non-Cooperation Movement, women responded enthusiastically to the call of Gandhiji. They joined meetings and processions and boycotted foreign goods. They voluntarily courted arrest.

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Women like Basanti Devi, Urmila Devi, and Leela Roy, who were from respectable families, defied British authority as well. Along with Hindu women, Muslim women joined the movement.

4. When Mahatma Gandhi started the Civil Disobedience Movement, women got themselves involved in the movement. Picketing and open-air protest marked the uprising against the British.

The boycott of foreign goods and purchase of indigenous goods continued along with the presence of women supporters. Even middle and upper-class Muslim women participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement.

5. The participation of women in the Quit India Movement took different forms. They fought with true spirit and faced various tortures. The names of Aruna Asaf Ali, Sucheta Kripalani, and Usha Mehta deserve special mention here. In this context, mention might be made of Matangini Hazra, who with six thousand supporters, mostly women, attacked the Tamluk Police Station.

6. Women also played an important role in the armed revolutionary movements in India. Here mention may be made of Pritilata Waddedar, Bina Das, and Kalpana Joshi who sacrificed their lives for the cause of freedom.

7. Side by side with the women, the student community also played an important role. During the Anti-Partition agitation, students left their schools and colleges and plunged into the Anti-Partition Movement.

The National Council of Education was established with the objective of organizing an elaborate system of education on national lines and under national control.

8. During the Non-Cooperation Movement, students of Gandhiji came out of their classes and boycotted schools and colleges. They picketed in front of shops selling British goods. The student movement spread outside Bengal to provinces like Bombay, Punjab, Bihar, etc.

9. The day Gandhiji started his Dandi March (March 12, 1930), the students observed it as a special day. Students joined the meeting held by different leaders like Jyotindra Mohan Sengupta. Students of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar joined the movement.

10. Young students of different revolutionary organizations also joined the armed revolutionary movement. In connection, mention may be made of this Benoy, Badal, and Dinesh. These young students took to violence to fight against the British. The British officers, in a desperate attempt to suppress the attack, resorted to inhuman torture of the revolutionaries.

11. Another important movement that needs to be mentioned here is the Dalit or Namasudra movement. In the Bengali Hindu Society, the Namasudras were regarded as untouchables. Mention might be made of Harichand and Guruchand, the social reformers who worked for the upliftment of the namasudras. They were leaders of the ‘Matua’ movement.

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic A Women’s Movement In The Twentieth Century Analytical Answer Type Questions

Question 1 Explain the role of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer:

The role of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement:

Mahatma Gandhi started the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930 by conducting the historic Dandi March. Women’s historical involvement in this movement ushered a new chapter in the history of the freedom movement. During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came out of their homes to join the movement.

Sarojini Naidu, with the courage of a fighter, stormed the Darshana Salt Works. Consequently, the British Government arrested her. Women participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed in front of the shops selling foreign cloth and liquor. The boycott of foreign goods and purchase of Indian products continued along with the presence of women supporters to boost up the movement.

Many were arrested. In Bengal the nationalistic enthusiasm among women was memorable. Basanti Devi, Urmila Devi, Lila Nag, and Sarala Devi joined the movement. In Bengal, different organizations of women cropped up Women Satyagraha Committee and Nari Satyagraha Samity.

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The participation of Muslim women was significant. Even middle and upper-class Muslim women were active in the movement. Among them, mention might be made of Daulatunnisa Khatun, Razia Khatun, Halima Khatun, Rokeya Begum, etc. The police oppression assaulting and tormenting of the women nationalists during this movement was indeed quite alarming.

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Question 2 Write a note on the Deepali Sangha.
Answer:

The Deepali Sangha:

In 1923, Lila Nag, a freedom fighter and a crusader for women’s education established the Deepali Sangha, an association for women.

Its main objectives were to-
[1] Enhance women’s education,
[2] Liberate women from the clutches of evil social customs,
[3] Create a feminist consciousness,
[4] Arouse women’s political and social awareness,
[5] Develop women in all fields of life. It became a center for initiating various activities by women and its branches were established in different parts of Dacca. Within a short time, Lila Nag started a high school for girls in Dacca under the auspices of Deepali Sangha.

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Its units were opened at almost every place and members were taught drill, parade, sword fighting, and lathi wielding. It instilled revolutionary political ideas in the minds of the members of the Deepali Sangha.

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Question 3 Discuss the nature of women’s participation in the armed revolutionary movement.
Answer:

The nature of women’s participation in the armed revolutionary movement:

The failure of the policy of ‘Prayer and Petition’ disappointed a section of the national leaders who made a strong demand for more vigorous political agitation against the British and this gave rise to an armed revolutionary movement in which women also took part.

Many women maintained close contact with secret revolutionary organizations like the Anusilan Samity, Yugantar, Bengal Volunteers, etc. Some of them were associated with Deepali Sangha, an association for women that instilled revolutionary political ideals in the minds of its members.

Sometimes women provided shelter to the revolutionaries and acted as messengers to different secret organizations. They were sometimes entrusted with the work of carrying explosives. In the beginning women like Swarnakumari Devi, Sarojini Naidu, Indumati Devi, and Sarala Devi were associated with different revolutionary works.

Later on the nature of the participation of women changed and they fought against the British with guns in their hands like Pritilata Waddedar, Bina Das, etc. Thus women were either directly or indirectly connected with the armed revolutionary movement and sacrificed their lives for the cause of freedom.

Question 4 What was the role of Pritilata Waddedar in the armed revolutionary movement?
Answer:

The role of Pritilata Waddedar in the armed revolutionary movement:

Pritilata Waddedar (‘Waddedar was a title conferred to an ancestor of the family who originally had the surname Dasgupta.) was a Bengali revolutionary who became a martyr for the liberation of the motherland. She associated herself with a secret women’s revolutionary organization known as Deepali Sangha in Dacca.

Surya Sen selected Pritilata to lead his plan along with a team to attack the Pahartali European Club. She went to Kotuwali seaside for arms training and chalking out plans to organize a guerilla attack on the Club (September 24, 1932) which had a signboard that read “Dogs and Indians are not allowed”.

Pritilata succeeded in attacking the European Club but she and the other revolutionaries were chased by the police, which resulted in a direct fight between the revolutionaries and the police. Many of the revolutionaries escaped, but Pritilata was fatally wounded and there was no way of escape from the British and she was caught. To avoid getting arrested, Pritilata consumed potassium cyanide and committed suicide. Her martyrdom is remembered with honor and respect.

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Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic A Women’s Movement In The Twentieth Century Mark True Or False

Question 1. The Swadeshi Movement was basically a middle-class agitation.
Answer: True

Question 2. The womenfolk did not participate in the Anti-Partition agitation.
Answer: False

Question 3. Mrs. Annie Besant became the President of the Indian National Congress in 1926.
Answer: False

Question 4. Lower caste Hindus and Muslims did not join the Anti-Partition Movement.
Answer: True

Question 5. Usha Mehta was arrested by the British police on the charge of sedition.
Answer: True

Question 6. Pritilata Waddedar made an attempt on the life of Stanley Jackson.
Answer: False

Question 7. Pritilata Waddedar committed suicide.
Answer: True

Question 8. Kalpana Datta took part in Dynamite Conspiracy.
Answer: True

Question 9. Kalpana Datta was a member of the Indian Republican Army, Chittagong Branch.
Answer: True

Question 10. Pritilata Waddedar was a member of Deepali Sangha.
Answer: True

Question 11. In Bengal, Nandita Kripalani played an important role in the Quit India Movement.
Answer: False

Question 12. Tamralipta Jatiya Sarkar was formed in Birbhum during the Quit India Movement.
Answer: False

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Question 13. Deepali Sangha was founded by Kalpana Datta.
Answer: False

Question 14. One of the leaders of the armed revolutionary movement in Bengal was Basanti Devi.
Answer: False

Question 15. ‘Lakshmi Bhandar’ was founded by Basanti Devi.
Answer: False

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic A Women’s Movement In The Twentieth Century Fill In The Blanks

1. The journal ‘Antahpur’ was edited by Hemanta Kumari Chowdhury (Hemanta Kumari Chowdhury /Basanti Debi/ Ava Maity).
2. In Khulna a large number of women attended a meeting addressed by Kaliprasanna (Kaliprasanna/Kalikrishna/Guruprasanna) and broke their glass bangles symbolizing the boycott of foreign goods.
3. Urmila Debi was a close political associate of Basanti Debi (Basanti Debi/Sarojini Naidu/Ava Maity).
4. Sarojini Naidu became the Congress President in 1926 (1921/1926/1923).
5. The President of the Bengal Provincial Congress in 1921 was Basanti Debi (Annie Besant/ Basanti Debi/BR Ambedkar).
6. The Home Rule League was founded by Annie Besant (Annie Besant/BR Ambedkar/ Basanti Debi) in 1916.
7. ‘Voice of Freedom’, a radio transmitter, was set up by Usha Mehta (Usha Mehta/Ava Maity/ Kalpana Datta).
8. The paper ‘Jaysree’ was published in 1930 (1930/1933/1903).
9. One objective of Deepali Sangha was to create self-awareness (to create self-awareness/spread Gandhism/to spread women’s education).
10. Pritilata Waddedar attacked the Assam Bengal Railway European Club at Chittagong (Chittagong/Mymensingh/Khulna).

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic A Women’s Movement In The Twentieth Century Choose The Best Explanation

Question 1 The women of Bengal joined the armed revolution movement
1. On their own without any encouragement from outside.
2. Because revolutionary secret societies encouraged the participation of women.
3. Because their male relatives encouraged them to join the armed struggle.

Answer: 2. Because revolutionary secret societies encouraged the participation of women.

Question 2 Deepali Sangha was organized to
1. Arouse revolutionary ideas and self-reliance among women.
2. To protest prevailing superstitions’ beliefs.
3. To join the movement.

Answer: 1. Arouse revolutionary ideas and self-reliance among women.

Question 3 In a meeting addressed by Kaliprasanna in Khulna the women broke their glass bangles
1. As a protest against foreign rule.
2. To protest against the Partition of Bengal.
3. As a symbol of boycotting British goods.

Answer: 3. As a symbol of boycotting British goods.

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Question 4 ‘Voice of Freedom’ a radio transmitter was set up by Usha Mehta to
1. Circulate information about the freedom struggle among the people.
2. Propagate the cause of nationalism.
3. Circulate the news of revolutionary activities.

Answer: 1. Circulate the information of freedom struggle among the people.

Question 5 Sarala Devi Chaudhurani established Laxmi Bhandar
1. To sell foreign goods.
2. To help the women revolutionaries.
3. To sell swadeshi goods.

Answer: 3. To sell swadeshi goods.

Question 6 Women of India first took part in national movement during anti-partition agitation
1. Because they were influenced by Gandhiji.
2. Because they were influenced by the revolutionary ideas of Aurobindo Ghosh.
3. Because they wanted to boycott British goods.

Answer: 3. Because they wanted to boycott British goods.

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic B Students Movement In The Twentieth Century Analytical Answer Type Questions

Answer in 7 to 8 sentences

Question 1 What was the role of students in the Anti-Partition Movement?
Answer:

The role of students in the Anti-Partition Movement:

Bengal was partitioned in 1905 during the Viceroyalty of Lord Curzon. Anti-Partition Movement started, against this Partition of Bengal, in which students took an active part. They boycotted schools and colleges and organized picketing of shops selling foreign goods.

This drew upon them the wrath and violence of the British Raj. The British Government passed the infamous Carlyle Circular, prohibiting the students from joining the agitation. The students of Bengal took up the challenge. The action of the authorities led to a movement among the students to boycott Calcutta University.

At a conference attended by eminent personalities, the National Council of Education was founded with the objective of organizing an elaborate education system on national lines and under national control. Satish Chandra Mukherjee established the Dawn Society (1905).

The society functioned as a training ground for the youths and a nursery of patriotism. Many Muslim students joined the national education movement and acted as volunteers in the national schools. However, it should also be noticed that many Muslim students, in the hope of getting jobs in government offices, supported the Partition of Bengal.

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Question 2 What was the role of Anushilan Samity in the revolutionary movement in Bengal?
Answer:

The role of Anushilan Samity in the revolutionary movement in Bengal:

A number of secret revolutionary associations grew up in Bengal at the beginning of 20th century. One of the notable associations was Anushilan Samity.

[1] Foundation: Anushilan Samity was an armed revolutionary organization of Bengal founded on the revolutionary ideals of Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Satish Chandra Bose founded the association at 12, Madan Mitra Lane in Calcutta on March 24, 1902, with the help of a lawyer, Pramathanath Mitra.

[2] Members: A number of contemporary revolutionaries of Bengal were members of this organization. Some of them were Aurobindo Ghosh, Barindra Kumar Ghosh, Chittaranjan Das, Sashibhushan Roychowdhury, Jatindra Nath Bandyopadhyay, etc.

[3] Activities: The prime objective of the Anushilan Samity was to attain freedom through armed revolution. So the members were trained in ‘lathi khela’, exercises, etc., along with training in bomb manufacturing and using of firearms. Here, plots were also made to kill tyrant British officials.

[4] Branches: The activities of Anushilan Samity increased manifold when the Anti-Partition Movement started in 1905. So, branches of this association grew up in Dacca, Mymensingh, Comilla, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Chittagong, and other districts. The Dacca Anushilan Samity (1906) became very powerful under the initiative of Pulin Behari Das.

Question 3 Write a note on the armed revolutionary movement in Bengal during the First World War.
Answer:

The armed revolutionary movement in Bengal during the First World War:

Towards the end of the Anti-Partition Movement in 1905, the armed revolutionary movement in Bengal began to raise its head and remained in motion till the First World War.

[1] Establishment of secret revolutionary societies: Some secret revolutionary societies grew up in different parts of Bengal since the time of the Anti-Partition Movement. Some of these societies like Anushilan Samity, Jugantar Samity, Mukti Sangha, Brati Samity, Sadhana Samity, Suhrid Samity, etc. inspired revolutionary ideals among the students.

[2] Bomb factory at Maniktala: Hemchandra Kanungo went abroad to receive political and military training. He returned in 1908 and set up a factory to manufacture bombs at Maniktala.

[3] Attempt to murder Kingsford: In 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki hurled a bomb to kill the tyrant British judge Kingsford but by mistake, Mrs. Kennedy and her daughter were in the blast. Then Prafulla Chaki shot himself and Khudiram was caught and hanged on August 11, 1908.

[4] Conspiracy case: Barindra Kumar Ghosh, and Ullaskar Dutta were deported in the Alipore Bomb Case trial (1908). Apart from these, many revolutionaries were punished in the Dacca Conspiracy Case (1910), Howrah Conspiracy Case (1910) and Barishal Conspiracy Case (1912-13).

[5] Battle of Buribalam: Jatindra Nath Mukhopadhyay (Baghajatin) went to Orissa to collect firearms brought from Germany. There he was injured at police firing in the battle of Buribalam in Baleshwar and died a little later.

Question 4 Write a note on Lahore Conspiracy Case.
Answer:

Lahore Conspiracy Case:

The armed revolutionary movement against British rule spread over wide areas before the First World War. When the World War began (1914), Rashbehari Bose planned a military coup against the British government in India, with the help of the members of the Gadar Party.

[1] Initiation of the case: The day of the coup under the leadership of Rasbehari Bose was fixed on February 21, 1950. However, a member of the Gadar Party named Kripal Singh betrayed the plan. Several revolutionaries were arrested and the Lahore Conspiracy Case (1950) was filed against them.

[2] Accused: 291 revolutionaries were accused in the Lahore Conspiracy Case (1950). Some of them were Rashbehari Bose, Vishnuganesh Pingle, Bhai Paramanand, Kartar Singh, Harnam Singh, etc.

[3] Verdict: The court gave different verdicts for the accused revolutionaries. Kartar Singh, Vishnuganesh Pingle, Harnam Singh and some others were hanged, 114 were sentenced to life imprisonment and 93 were given prison sentences of varying terms. 42 of them were acquitted. The chief accused Rashbehari Bose escaped to Japan by sea route under the pseudonym of P N Tagore.

Question 5 Why are the revolutionaries Benoy- Badal-Dinesh remembered? or, Give an account of the Writers’ Building attack. or, What do you know about Corridor Warfare?
Answer:

The revolutionaries Benoy- Badal-Dinesh:

The daring attack on the Writers’ Building by three youths – Benoy Bose, Badal Gupta, and Dinesh Gupta, who came from three adjoining villages of Dacca is a scintillating episode in the history of armed revolutionary struggle in Bengal as well as in India. After killing the tyrant police inspector Lowman (1930) Benoy, Badal, Dinesh attacked the Writer’s Building within a few days.

[1] The Attack: Benoy-Badal-Dinesh, the three members of the Bengal Volunteers attacked the Writers’ Building in Calcutta on December 8, 1930. They fired indiscriminately and killed the notorious jailor N G Simpson.

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[2] Corridor warfare: The security force of the Writers’ Building and the huge police force from Lalbazar immediately started a counterattack against the revolutionaries. Intense exchange of bullets took place on the corridor of the building and so this episode is remembered in history as ‘Corridor Warfare (1930)’.

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[3] Defeat: Benoy-Badal-Dinesh fought valiantly in spite of intense attack from the government forces. Dinesh fought bravely ignoring injury on the back but they fell into a crisis as they ran short of ammunition.

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[4] Consequence: Badal swallowed potassium cyanide to avoid arrest. Benoy and Dinesh tried to shoot themselves and were wounded. Benoy died in the hospital. Dinesh was cured and hanged in 1931. They had, in fact, conquered death for the sake of liberating their beloved motherland.

Question 6 Write a note about the Gadar party.
Answer:

The Gadar party:

The word ‘Gadar’ means revolution. The Gadar Party has made an invaluable contribution to the history of the anti-British revolutionary movement.

[1] Foundation: Lala Har Dayal founded the Gadar Party in San Francisco (USA) in 1913 with the help of NRI Sohan Singh Bhakta. 15000 NRIs from different communities became members of the Indian Gadar Party. Sohan Singh Bhakna was the first president of the party and Mohammad Barkatullah and Lala Har Dayal was the Vice President and Secretary respectively.

[2] Journal: The Gadar party published a journal named ‘Gadar’ on November 1, 1913. This journal helped to spread revolutionary ideas in different languages such as Hindi, English, Gujarati, Urdu, etc.

[3] Spread of the revolution: When the First World War (1914) began, the Gadar Party took the opportunity of putting their plan of uprooting British rule into action with the help of revolutionary activities in India. So, many party members from USA and Canada started returning to India.

[4] Attempt for a coup: Rashbehari Bose planned a coup against the British Government on February 21, 1905, with the help of the members of the Gadar Party. However the plan failed since one Kripal Singh betrayed the plan.

[5] Conspiracy case: The US government declared Lala Hardayal an anarchist and brought him to trial. So he left the USA and went to Switzerland. The Hindu conspiracy case was filed against the Gadar party in 1914.

[6] Ban on the party: After the trial, the government banned the Gadar party. The members of the Gadar Party were mostly deported. Most of the members in USA could not return to India during the reign of the British.

Question 7 Write a note on the activities of the Indian revolutionaries in Germany.
Answer:

The activities of the Indian revolutionaries in Germany:

In the first half of the twentieth century, the Indians residing in Germany initiated several revolutionary activities there.

[1] Formation of the Berlin Committee: A revolutionary organization named the Berlin Committee was formed in 1914 in Germany, in order to aid the revolutionary activities in India. Some of the significant members of this group were Bhupendranath Dutta, Birendranath Chattopadhyay, Mahendrapratap, etc. The main objective of this organization was to collect monetary funds in order to support the revolutionaries in India.

[2] Activities of the Berlin Committee:

The Berlin Committee took part in several revolutionary activities:
[1] A revolutionary uprising was arranged in Iran under the initiative of the Berlin Committee.
[2] Representatives of the Berlin Committee met the Russian Communist leader Lenin in 1919.
[3] Sheikh Muhammad Hasan, Maulana Abdullah, and several others organized protests against British rule in India from Kabul.

[3] Formation of the Indian Independence Committee: The Indian revolutionaries in Germany formed the German Union of Friendly India in 1914. Later, when a link was formed between this party and the American Gadar Party, the former came to be known as the Indian Independence Committee (1915).

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Question 8 What was the Alipore Bomb Case?
Answer:

The Alipore Bomb Case:

The police carried out a massive search and investigation in the context of the death of Mrs. Kennedy and her daughter Ms. Kennedy, who were killed at Muzaffarpur by the bomb thrown by Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki.

[1] The arrest of revolutionaries: Police carried on a thorough search at the garden house in Muraripukur, which was the center of secret activities and found the weapons as well as ingredients for making bombs. So, they arrested 47 revolutionaries including Aurobindo Ghosh and his brother Barindra Kumar Ghosh on suspicion.

[2] Beginning of the trial: The arrested revolutionaries were brought to trial in the Alipore session court on May 21, 1908, and this case came to be known as the famous Alipore Bomb Case. It was the first conspiracy case brought against the Indian revolutionaries by the British government.

[3] Judges: The judge who was involved in this case was PC Beachcroft, who was Aurobindo’s classmate. There were two more Indian judges-Lathuni Prasad and Janki Prasad.

[4] Verdict: The verdict of the case came out on May 6, 1909. According to the verdict, Barindra Kumar Ghosh and Ullaskar Dutta were sentenced to death but were later on sentenced to deportation for life due to various appeals. Hemchandra Kanungo, Avinash Bhattacharya, Indu Bhushan Roy and others were sentenced to deportation for different terms. Only Aurobindo Ghosh was acquitted.

Question 9 Describe the students’ movement in India during the phase of the Quit India Movement or August Movement (1942).
Answer:

The students’ movement in India during the phase of the Quit India Movement or August Movement (1942):

Different circumstances led the National Congress to start the Quit India Movement under the leadership of Mahatama Gandhi. The students spontaneously joined the movement everywhere in India.

[1] Lack of proper leadership and organization: As soon as the Quit India Movement was launched, the students started their agitation in their own ways. They participated in large numbers in movements in Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa, and other provinces. However, they lacked efficient leadership and proper organization.

[2] Movements in Uttar Pradesh: The students of Allahabad University and Benaras Hindu University held on vigorous campaigns in support of the movements and inspired the common people to join them. However, they got involved in destructive activities in the course of the campaigns. The students of Benaras had practically paralysed the administrative machinery for five days.

[3] Movement in south India: In south India, the students carried out continuous strikes and five students were killed by police firing on the banks of Godavari.

[4] Movement in other states: The clash between the students and the army, which followed an event of hoisting the National Flag in Bihar, caused the death of seven students. The movement gained momentum in Bengal and the students of Calcutta and Midnapore participated enthusiastically in it. In Gujarat, an association of school students called ‘Vanar Sena’ grew up.

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic B Students Movement In The Twentieth Century Mark True Or False

Question 1. Gandhiji first announced the plan of Non- Cooperation in November 1919.
Answer: True

Question 2. The Civil Disobedience Movement was inaugurated by Gandhiji with the famous Dandi March from Dandi to Sabarmati Ashram.
Answer: False

Question 3. Benoy Kumar Basu, a medical student attacked Lowman and he was killed (1930).
Answer: True

Question 4. A large number of students in Calcutta demonstrated before the Prince of Wales who was on a visit.
Answer: True

Question 5. The ‘Bande Mataram’ slogan was banned in East Bengal by the Lyon Circular.
Answer: True

Question 6. Jamia Milia Islamia was a national institute.
Answer: True

Question 7. Gandhiji came to Calcutta on January 23, 1921, to inaugurate the National College.
Answer: True

Question 8. Abhinaba Bharat was renamed Mitra Mela in 1904.
Answer: False

Question 9. Ganesh Ghosh and Ananta Singh were two associates of Surya Sen in the Chittagong Armoury Raid.
Answer: True

Question 10. Surya Sen was hanged to death.
Answer: True

Question 11. Captain Rashid Ali was an officer in the Indian National Army.
Answer: True

Question 12. The Second Round Table Conference was held in 1930.
Answer: False

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic B Students Movement In The Twentieth Century Fill In The Blanks

1. The President of the Calcutta Students’ Association was Prafulla Chandra Ray (Prafulla Chandra Ray/Birendranath Mal/Pulin Sen).
2. Bharatiya Vidyalaya was established in Maharashtra by Aurobinda Ghosh (Aurobinda Ghosh/ Lajpat Rai/Prafulla Chandra Ray).
3. Anti-Circular Society was organized by Sachindra Prasad Basu (Kaliprasanna Basu/Hariprasanna Basu/ Sachindra Prasad Basu).
4. An association called Chapekar Club was established by Damodar Hari Chapekar and Balkrishna Hari Chapekar (Damodar Hari Chapekar and Balkrishna Hari Chapekar/ Prafulla Chandra Ray and Bidhan Chandra Ray/Damodar Savarkar and Vinayak Savarkar).
5. The Indian Republican Army was formed by Surya Sen (Subhas Chandra/Chittaranjan Das/ Surya Sen).
6. Benoy-Badal-Dinesh, the members of the Bengal Volunteers, were involved in killing Colonel Simpson (Colonel Simpson/Stanley Jackson/Dinesh Gupta).
7. Surya Sen (Prafulla Chaki/Ganesh Ghosh/Surya Sen) was known as ‘Master’.

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic B Students Movement In The Twentieth Century Choose The Best Explanation

Question 1 The Non-Cooperation Movement was called off by Gandhiji because
1. Gandhiji was not supported by other leaders.
2. Of the Chauri Chaura incident.
3. Of the lack of enthusiastic response from Indian womenfolk.

Answer: 2. Of the Chauri Chaura incident.

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Question 2 On February 11, 1946, a massive agitation by the students was organized in Calcutta in order
1. To protest against the arrest of Shah Nawaz Khan.
2. To protest against the Partition of Bengal.
3. To release captain Rashid Ali from prison.

Answer: 3. To release captain Rashid Ali from prison.

Question 3 Bhogeshwari Phukonani was killed in police firing during the Quit India Movement (1942).
1. Bhogeshwari Phukonani was killed in an armed encounter with the police.
2. The fugitive Bhogeshwari Phukonani was shot dead by the police when she refused to surrender.
3. Bhogeshwari Phukonani was shot dead by the police while trying to hoist the national flag at the police station in the Nowgong District of Assam.

Answer: 3. Bhogeshwari Phukonani was shot dead by the police while trying to hoist the national flag at the police station in the Nowgong District of Assam.

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic C Dalit Politics And Movement In The Twentieth Century Analytical Answer Type Questions

Question 1 Who were the ‘Namasudras’? What was their position in society?
Answer:

The ‘Namasudras’:

‘Namasudra’ is an Indian ‘varna’ community which was earlier known as ‘chandala’. They lived outside the four-tier system and thus were outcastes. Namasudras mainly lived in the eastern districts of Dacca, Bakerganj, Faridpur, Mymensingh, Jessore and Khulna.

When these districts were ceded to East Pakistan during the partition of India, the inhabitants were forced to migrate across the new territorial boundary to the states of West Bengal. In the Bengali Hindu Society, the namasudras were regarded as untouchables.

They had no religious rights. They were forbidden by caste Hindus to enter places of worship, to draw water from public wells or to wear shoes in presence of caste Hindus. They were made to dispose of dead animals, dig village graves and even use separate tea cups in tea stalls due to their caste status.

They were relegated to the most menial tasks of manual scavengers, leather workers, street sweepers, and cobblers. Children were sold to pay off debts to upper-caste creditors. Children and women had to work as agricultural laborers. They suffered from severe economic crises as well. They were barely able to feed their families properly.

Question 2 Who is called the ‘Matua’? What were the primary aims of the ‘Matua’ movement?
Answer:

‘Matua’:

Harichand Thakur was a social reformer of Bengal. He was a devoted Vaishnav. He preached the love-devotion theory of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. His philosophy was ‘Matuaism’ and his followers are called Matua. The meaning of Matua is ‘remain in joy’-those who remain delighted by chanting God’s name or ‘Harinam’.

Some others are of the opinion that ‘Matua’ means those who have consent. Those who have faith in god, respect in Guru affection towards God and who chant the name of God. Fruitfulness, love, and chastity are the three main pillars of Matuaism.

The aims of the movement started by Harichand were-
[1] Upliftment of the downtrodden,
[2] Attain- ment of peace of mind,
[3] Eradication of inequalities in society.

Class 10 History Wbbse

Question 3 Who announced the Communal Award and where? What were the provisions of the Communal Award? How did Gandhiji react to it?
Answer:

Communal Award:

The Communal Award was announced by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. By the second half of 1932, the Civil Disobedience Movement was petering out. To weaken the movement further, Ramsay MacDonald on August 17, 1932, announced the Communal Award in Provincial Legislature.

Provisions were made for a separate communal electorate for Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Europeans, and Anglo-Indians and also divided the Hindu voters into two categories, viz.

[1] The caste Hindu or Varna Hindus and
[2] The depressed or backward class Hindus.

WEESE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 7 Movements Organised by Women Ramsay MacDonald

Gandhiji resented this division of the Hindus into two artificial classes. As a mark of protest, he undertook a fast unto death on September 20, 1932.

The result was the Poona Pact of September 25, 1932, by which the Communal Award was modified. By this pact, 148 seats were reserved for the untouchables in the provincial legislatures. It provided that election to these seats was to be through joint electorates.

Question 4 Write a note on the identity and rights of the Dalits in India in the early 20th century.
Answer:

The identity and rights of the Dalits in India in the early 20th century:

Since ancient times, the upper classes of Indian society have always enjoyed adequate rights and dignity. On the contrary, the Dalits were always deprived of most of their basic rights and dignity.

[1] Identity: The first census in India, which took place during British rule (1911), divided the Hindus on the basis of birth and social dignity. Due to this, several classes of the lower stratum-Mahar, Nadar, Chamar, Harijan, Namasudra, Ijhava-were categorized as ‘Dalits’. According to the first census, 13 percent of the Hindus were untouchables in Indian society.

[2] Rights: Though the upper-class Hindus enjoyed adequate rights, the rights of the Dalits were severely restricted. These Dalit Hindus thus became victims of exploitation, torture, and contempt of the upper classes. They were restricted from entering temples and using the same ponds and water sources as the upper-class Hindus.

They were even discriminated against in educational institutions and were not allowed in social gatherings. In the 20th century, under the leadership of Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, the Dalits in India organized several movements demanding their rights.

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic C Dalit Politics And Movement In The Twentieth Century Mark True Or False

Question 1. During British rule, the census of India started in 1872.
Answer: True

Question 2. Congress leader E V Ramaswami Naicker left Congress and joined the Dalit Movement.
Answer: True

Question 3. In 1928, Mahatma Gandhi placed the demand for a separate electorate before the Simon Commission for the Dalits.
Answer: False

Question 4. In 1911, the name ‘Chandal’ began to be used instead of Namasudra.
Answer: False

Question 5. Parramatta Ranjan Thakur and Jogendra Nath Mondal were leaders of the Namasudra Movement.
Answer: True

Question 6. Guruchand Thakur introduced the Matua religion among the Namasudras of Bengal.
Answer: False

Question 7. The Dalit movement was under the joint leadership of Gandhiji and Dr. Ambedkar.
Answer: False

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic C Dalit Politics And Movement In The Twentieth Century Fill In The Blanks

1. Harichand Thakur launched the Namasudra Movement in 1872 (1827/1872/1878).
2. The Bhakti Movement in Bengal was started by Sri Chaitanya (Sri Chaitanya/Guru Nanak/Harichand Thakur).
3. In 1907, a delegation about the plight of the Namasudras met the governor of Bengal and Assam under the leadership of Guruchand Thakur (Guruchand Thakur/Harichand Thakur/ Babasaheb Ambedkar).
4. The religious Guru of the Matias was Harichand Thakur (Harichand Thakur/Jogendranath Mondal/ BR Ambedkar).
5. According to Morley-Minto Reforms, 28 (28/22/21) seats were reserved for the Dalits in the Madras Legislative Council.

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic C Dalit Politics And Movement In The Twentieth Century Choose The Best Explanation

Question 1 In the Franchise Committee of 1919, for the implementation of the Montague- Chelmsford Reforms Dr. BR Ambedkar argued
1. In favor of communal representation for the Dalits.
2. In favor of a separate Muslim State.
3. In favor of giving political safeguards to the Muslims.

Answer: 1. In favor of communal representation for the Dalits.

Question 2 Since ancient times, the Hindu Dalit community fell victim to several acts of violence, exploitation etc.
1. The Dalits suffered at the hands of lower-class Hindus.
2. The Nankana movement did not support the Dalits.
3. Several welfare organizations carried out active movements demanding proper rights for the Dalits.

Answer: 3. Several welfare organizations carried out active movements demanding proper rights for the Dalits.

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Topic D Miscellaneous

Match The Columns

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Anti-Partiton Agitation (A) 1942
(2) Non-Cooperation Movement (B) 1934
(3) Civil Disobedience Movement (C) 1920
(4) Quit India Movement (D) 1905

Answer: 1-D,2-C,3-B,4-A

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Carlyle (A) Zamindar of Gauripur
(2) Brajendra Kishori Roy Chowdhury (B) Home Rule League
(3) Annie Besant (C) Voice of Freedom
(4) Usha Mehta (D) Education Secretary

Answer: 1-D,2-A,3-B,4-C

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Dandi (A) Uttar Pradesh
(2) Chauri Chaura (B) Present Bangladesh
(3) Colaba (C) Gujarat
(4) Mymensingh (D) Maharashtra

Answer: 1-C,2-A,3-D,4-B

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Sarala Devi Chaudhurani (A) Dacca
(2) Ashalata Sen (B) Barisal
(3) Manorama Basu (C) Maharashtra
(4) Jotiba Phule (D) Punjab

Answer: 1-D,2-A,3-B,4-C

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Suhrid Samity (A) Mad town in Colaba district
(2) Venue of a Conference of Dalits (B) Dacca
(3) Bengal Volunteers (C) Calcutta
(4) Chhatri Sangha (D) Mymensingh

Answer: 1-D,2-A,3-B,4-C

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Dawn Society (A) Leela Nag(Roy)
(2) Anti-Circular Society (B) Pramathanath Mitra
(3) Anushilan Samiti (C) Sachindra Prasad Basu
(4) Deepali Sangha (D) Satish Chandra Mukherjee

Answer: 1-D,2-C,3-B,4-A

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Gandhi Budi (A) Surya Sen
(2) Master (B) Sudhin
(3) Bagha Jatin (C) Matangini Hazra
(4) Badal Bose (D) Jyotindranath Mukhopadhyay

Answer: 1-C,2-A,3-D,4-B

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Academic Association (A) 1928
(2) Students Association (B) 1936
(3) All India Students Federation (C) 1857
(4) Chhatri Sangha (D) 1827

Answer: 1-D,2-C,3-B,4-A

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Carlyle Circular (A) October 16, 1905
(2) Peddlar Circular (B) November 4, 1905
(3) Lyon Circular (C) October 21, 1905
(4) Anti-Circular (D) October 10, 1905

Answer: 1-D,2-C,3-A,4-B

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Dacca Anushilan samiti (A) Fadirpuri
(2) Brita Samiti (B) Dacca
(3) Mukti Sangha (C) Nasik
(4) Mitra Mela Society (D) Mymensingh

Answer: 1-D,2-A,3-B,4-C

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Dacca Anushilan Samity (A) Binayak Damodar Savakar
(2) Bengal Volunteers (B) Bina Das
(3) Abhinaba Bharat (C) Hemachandra Ghosh
(4) Chhatri Sangha (D) Pulin Behari Das

Answer: 1-D,2-C,3-A,4-B

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Anullah (A) Congress President
(2) Stevens (B) District Magistrate of Coomilla
(3) Sarojini Naidu (C) A Student Leader of Midnapore
(4) Gunadhar Hazra (D) Deputy Superintendent of Police

Answer: 1-B,2-D,3-A,4-C

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Morley-Minto reforms (A) 1935
(2) Vaikom Mandir satyagraha (B) 1934
(3) Klaram Mandir satyagraha (C) 1926
(4) All India Depressed Classes League (D) 1909

Answer: 1-D,2-C,3-B,4-A

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Jyotiba Phule (A) The Governor of Bengal
(2) Stanley Jackson (B) An officer of the Indian National Army
(3) Rashid Ali (C) Inspector of Prisoner
(4) Colonel Simpson (D) A Great social reformer of Maharashtra

Answer: 1-D,2-A,3-B,4-C

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Benoy-Badal-Dinesh (A) Matua Movement
(2) B R Ambedkar (B) Anti-Partition movement
(3) Guruchand Thakur (C) Dalit Movement
(4) Sarala Devi (D) Corridor Movement

Answer: 1-D,2-C,3-A,4-B

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Unnayani Sabha (A) 1927
(2) Simon Commission (B) 1912
(3) Bengal Namasudra Association (C) 1932
(4) Round table conference (D) 1902

Answer: 1-D,2-A,3-B,4-C

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Lahore Conspiracy Case (A) Jatindra Nath Mukhopadyay
(2) Battle of Buribalam (B) Rashbehari Bose
(3) Alipore Bomb Case (C) Khudiram Bose
(4) Muzaffarpur Bomb Case (D) Aurobindo Ghosh

Answer: 1-B,2-A,3-D,4-C

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Rani of Jhansi Regiment (A) Civil Disobedience Movement
(2) Matangini Hazra (B) Chittagong Armoury Raid
(3) Bina Das (C) Subhas Bose
(4) Prirlata Waddebar (D) Dipali Sangha

Answer: 1-C,2-A,3-D,4-B

Chapter 7 Movements Organised By Women In India Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1 Discuss the significance of Non- the Cooperation Movement.
Answer:

The significance of Non- the Cooperation Movement:

The Non-Cooperation Movement ended in failure to achieve its goal of establishing Swaraj but it has immense significance in the history of India’s freedom struggle.

[1] The movement under the able guidance of Mahatma Gandhi infused a new life into the Indian National Congress and augmented its organizational strength of the Congress.

[2] For the first time, Congress freed from the dominant middle class turned to the masses as a sheet anchor of their program and turned the national movement into a real mass movement.

[3] In the political field, this movement gave a new dimension to the national movement. The movement inspired the people with new confidence to fight for freedom. People had learned to defy the might of the British government and they lost the fear of prison.

National sentiment reached the villages in remote corners. Lajpat Rai observed that the passive resistance in India ‘has raised the political consciousness of the country by one big leap’.

[4] The movement contributed to an awakening of the masses to economic problems. People became aware of economic independence and began to feel that swaraj was the sovereign remedy for their ills. They realized the need for the development of Khadi and cottage industries.

WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 History

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