WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 Geography And Environment Chapter 5 India Physical Environment

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 2 Physiography Of India Long Answer Type Questions

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

Question 1. Classify the physiographic divisions of India and describe any one of them, OR, Describe the northern mountainous region of India. OR, Describe the physiography of the northern mountains of India.
Answer:

India can be divided into five parts according to the physiography of the land.

They are—

  1. The Northern Mountains,
  2. The Northern Plains,
  3. The Peninsular Plateau,
  4. The coastal plains,
  5. The islands.

The Northern Mountains: The northern mountains are broadly classified into two parts—

  1. The Himalayan Mountainous region and
  2. The Purvanchal or the North-Eastern Mountainous region.

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The Himalayan Mountainous Region: The Himalayas are the highest mountain ranges in the world. They stretch from Nanga Parbat in Kashmir in the west to Namcha Barwa peak in Tibet in the east for about 2414km. According to geographical characteristics, the Himalayas can be divided into three zones from west to east.

  1. Western Himalayas,
  2. Central Himalayas and
  3. Eastern Himalayas.

The Western Himalayas: The stretch of the Himalayas from Nanga Parbat in the west to river Kali in the Indo-Nepal border is known as the Western Himalayas. This region can be classified into four mountain ranges.

  1. The Outer Himalayas or the Siwalik is the southernmost range, whose average height is 600-1500m.
  2. The Himachal Himalayas or the Lesser Himalayas lie north of the Siwalik range. It comprises the Pir Panjal, Dhauladhar, Nag Tibba, and Mussourie ranges. The average height of the region is 1500 – 4500m. The valleys of Doon, Marhi, and Kangra are seen in between the ranges.
  3. North of the Himachal lies the Greater Himalayas or the Himadri. The average altitude of this region is about 6000 m. The famous peaks of Nanga Parbat (8126m), Kamet (7756m), Nanda Devi (7816m), Kedarnath (6940m), Chaukhamba (7138m), etc. lie here. The famous Kashmir Valley lies here between the Pir Panjal and the Greater Himalayas.
  4. The northernmost part of the mountainous region is the Trans or Tethys Himalayas. This comprises mainly the Zanskar, Ladakh, and Karakoram ranges. The average altitude of this region is more than 6000 m.
  5. The Godwin Austen peak (K2) of the Karakoram range is the highest peak in India and the second-highest peak in the world (8611m). Other peaks are Gasherbrum I (8068m), Gasherbrum II (8035m), Broad Peak (8047 m), etc.
  6. The longest glacier in India, Siachen (76km) lies in the Karakoram range. Other glaciers are Biafo, Baltoro, etc.

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

2. The Central Himalayas: The Central Himalayas totally lie in Nepal, where it is known as the Mahabharat Lekh.

  1. The Siwalik lies at the southern margin along with Churia and Dundua hills as the Outer Himalayas.
  2. The Himadri Himalayas lie in the northernmost part. World-famous peaks like Mt. Everest, Annapurna, Dhaulagiri, etc. are present here.
  3. Other attractions of this region are Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys; Suraj Tal, Phewa Tal, and other lakes, glaciers like Lhotse and Ganesh; mountain passes like Tipta La, Umbak, etc.

3. The Eastern Himalayas: The Eastern Himalayas lies between the eastern border of Nepal in the west and the eastern border of Arunachal Pradesh in the east.

  1.  The southernmost range or part of the Siwalik range comprises the Dafla, Miri, Abor, and Mishmi hills of Arunachal Pradesh.
  2. The Central Himalayas are seen as dissected or broken ranges in this region. The Sandakphu peak (3636m) of the Singalila range is the highest peak in the region.
  3. The Himadri Himalayas form the northernmost range of the Himalayas. The high peaks of the Himadri are visible over here. E.g.—Mt. Kanchenjunga (8598m). Other mountains present here are Namcha Barwa in China border and Kula Kangri in Bhutan.
  4. Other geographical attractions present here are Nathu La pass; Valleys of Chumbi, Paro, Punakha, Haa, etc.; lakes like Tsango; Zemu glacier from where the river Tista originates.

The Purvsnchal or the Morth-eastern Mountainous Region:

  1. In the northeast Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, and Tripura, several hills and ranges are present. They are 1800-4000m high on average. E.g.—Patkai, Naga, Lushai, Barail, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, etc. This hilly and mountainous region is known as Purvanchal.
  2. The highest peak of the Purvanchal is the Daphabum of the Mishmi hills in Arunachal Pradesh.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map-1

 

Question 2. Discuss the causes of the formation of the Himalayan mountains with diagrams.
Answer:

The formation of the Himalayan mountains can be explained with the help of two theories—

  1. The Geosyncline theory,
  2. The Plate Tectonic theory.

1. The Geosyndine Theory:

  1. The Tethys Sea (a shallow sea) existed in the region where the Himalayas have been formed today about 6.5-7 crores years ago.
  2. The Laurasia in the north and the Gondwanaland in the south were two ancient landmasses lying on either side of the Tethys Sea.
  3. The Tethys Sea started getting filled up with huge amounts of silt that was brought down by the numerous rivers flowing through the Laurasia and Gondwanaland.
  4. In the Tertiary Age, due to orogenic movements, the Gondwanaland and Laurasia started moving towards each other. This compressed the sediments accumulated in the Tethys Sea.
  5. The sedimentary rocks formed due to high silt depositions in the sea were folded under high pressure. These folds gradually started rising due to more and more pressure and formed the Himalayan mountains.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment mountains of the himalayan mountains

 

2. The Plate Tectonic Theory:

1. According to the Plate Tectonic Theory, the earth’s crust is made up of 7 major and 20 minor plates. Out of these plates, the Himalayan range has been formed due to the collision of the Indian and the Eurasian plates.

2. The Indian plate and the Eurasian plates are converging plates, i.e., they move towards each other. Out of them, the Indian plate moves with greater speed than the Eurasian plate.

3. This caused a great collision between the two plates. Due to this collision, the comparatively heavier Indian plate subducted below the Eurasian plate near the boundary.

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4. The sediments already compacted into rocks in the Tethys Sea were compressed hard and thrown into folds. This gradually gave rise to the Himalayan mountains. The Eurasian plate, which lies over the Indian plate also rose in height and gave rise to the Tibetan plateau.

5. The movement of the plates is still going on. The Indian plate moves northwards by 5.4cm every year. Thus, the compression of the sedimentary rocks is still going on and the Himalayan mountains are still gaining height. Hence, they are called new or young fold mountains.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment formation of the himalayan mountains

 

Question 3. Name the mountain ranges that form the Himalayan mountainous region. Describe the mountain ranges briefly. OR, Describe the parallel ranges that form the Himalayan mountains. OR, Describe the mountain ranges lying from north to south in the Himalayas.

Answer:

The Himalayan mountains can be divided into four parallel ranges from north to south.

They are—

  1. The Trans or Tethys Himalayas,
  2. The Himadri or the Greater Himalayas,
  3. The Himachal or the Lesser Himalayas,
  4. The Siwaliks or the Outer Himalayas.

1. The Trans or Tethys Himalayas:

  1. This is the northernmost range of the Himalayas and it gradually meets the Tibetan plateau.
  2. This range was formed about 70 million years ago after the first earth movements.
  3. This is about 225 km wide in the center and 1000 km long and the average height is about 6000m.
  4. The Karakoram range, Ladakh range, and Zanskar-Deosai range form the main ranges of this region. The highest peak of this region is K2 or Godwin Austen (8611m) in the Karakoram range.
  5. The Trans Himalayas lying in India have been heavily eroded and converted into a huge plateau region.
  6. The Trans or Tethys Himalayas lie only in Jammu and Kashmir state in India.

2. The Himadri or Greater Himalayas:

  1. The Himadri Himalayas have formed about 70 million years ago when the Tethys Himalayas were formed.
  2. This region lies south of the Tethys Himalayas. It is about 50km wide and the average height is about 6000 m. Most of the v time the region remains snow-covered. Hence, it is named Himadri.
  3. The important peaks present here are—Mt. Everest (8848 m, the highest peak of the world), Kanchenjunga (8598 m), Dhaulagiri (8167 m), Nanga Parbat (8126 m), Annapurna (8078 m), Nanda Devi (7816 m), etc. This range is formed of very old sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

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3. The Himachal or Lesser Himalayas:

  1. The Himachal Himalayas have formed about 20 million years ago due to the second earth’s movements. This lies south of the Himadri and north of the Siwalik ranges.
  2. The range is about 3700-4500 m high and 60-80 km wide. Pir Panjal, Dhauladhar, Nag Tibba, and Mussourie ranges are present here. The famous peaks present here are Kedarnath (7188 m), Chaukhamba (7138 m), and Trishul  (7120 m).
  3. Many valleys are present here such as Kullu Valley, Kangra Valley, Rampur Valley, etc. The river valleys of the Himachal region are deep and with steep walls.

4. The Siwalik or Outer Himalayas:

  1. The Siwalik was formed by the last severe earth movements that occurred about 70 lakh years ago.
  2. The average height of the range is about 600,1500 m and the width is about 10 -50 km.
  3. The hills of Mussourie, Jammu, Dafla, Miri, Abor, and Mishmi are present here.
  4. This range is separated from the Lesser Himalayas or the Himachal by a number of structural valleys or doors and gorges.

Question 4. Give a brief account of the physiography of the Western Himalayas of India.
Answer:

The Western Himalayas:

Location: The Western Himalayas lie between Nanga Parbat in Jammu and Kashmir in the west and the river Kali on the western border of Nepal in the east.

This can be further subdivided into three regions—

  1. Kashmir Himalayas,
  2. Himachal or Punjab Himalayas and
  3. Kumaon Himalayas.

1. Kashmir Himalayas:

  1. This part lies in Jammu and Kashmir.
  2. The ranges of Pir Panjal, Jammu, and Poonch lie in this region. The mountains are mostly made up of sandstone and shale.
  3. Numerous valleys are present here. For example—Kashmir Valley, Udhampur doon, etc.
  4. The Pir Panjal range separates the Kashmir Valley from the rest of the country. The valley can be reached only through the Banihal and the Pir Panjal passes.
  5. Numerous glacial lakes are present in this region. E.g.—Dal, Wular, Anchar, Nageen, etc.
  6. The Greater Himalayas lie to the east and north of the Kashmir Valley.
  7. The highest peak of India, Godwin Austen or K2 (8611 m) lies in this region in the Karakoram range. Other peaks present are Hidden Peak, Broad Peak, etc.
  8. The longest glacier in India, Siachen (75 km) also lies here.
  9. The Ladakh range lies south of the Karakoram range, east of which lies the Ladakh plateau. The average height of the region is about 4300 m.
  10. The Zanskar range lying south of the Ladakh range is separated from each other by the Indus Valley.
  11. Zoji La and Banihal are important passes of the Kashmir Himalayas.

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2. Himachal or Punjab Himalayas:

  1. The part of the Himalayas lying in Himachal Pradesh is known as the Himachal Himalayas.
  2. The northern part comprises the Himadri Himalayas which are about 5000-6000 m high.
  3. South of the Himadri lies the ranges of Dhauladhar, Pir Panjal, Zanskar, Nag Tibba, and Mussourie. The peaks of the Pir Panjal range remain snow-covered throughout the year. The average height of the region is 1500-4000 m.
  4. The Siwalik range forms the southernmost part of this region. The average height of this region is 600-1500 m.
  5. A number of valleys are present here, e.g. Lahul, Spiti, Kullu, Kangra, etc.

3. Garhwal and Kumaon Himalayas:

  1. The part of the Himalayas lying in the state of Uttarakhand is known as Garhwal and Kumaon Himalayas.
  2. Famous peaks like Nanda Devi (7816 m), Gangotri (6614 m), Kedarnath (7188 m), Kamet (7756 m), Trishul (7120 m), etc., lie in this region. These peaks belong to the Lesser or Middle Himalayas.
  3. The Siwalik lies to the south of this region. Numerous valleys or doors are present here, e.g. Dehradun. Several lakes are present east of Nag Tibba and Mussourie hilly regions. E.g.—Nainital, Bheemtal, Sattal, etc.
  4. The Gangotri and Yamunotri glaciers give rise to the Ganga and Yamuna rivers respectively.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment physiography of the western himalayas of the western himalays

 

 

Question 5. Describe the physiography of the Eastern Himalayas in brief.
Answer:

The Eastern Himalayas:

Location: The Eastern Himalayas extend from the eastern margin of Nepal near the Singalila range in the west to the eastern margin of Arunachal Pradesh.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment physiography map- eastern himalays

 

This region is further sub-divided into three parts—

  1. Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalayas,
  2. Bhutan Himalayas and
  3. Arunachal Himalayas.

Class 10 Geography West Bengal Board

1. SikkinvDarjeeing Himalayas:

  1. This part of the mountains extends from the Singalila range in the Nepal-Sikkim and West Bengal in the west to the Donkia hills of Sikkim in the east.
  2. The second-highest peak in India and the third-highest peak in the world, Mt. Kanchenjunga lies at the western margin of the Singalila range in the Eastern Himalayas.
  3. The famous passes of Nathu La, Jelep La, Goecha La, and Donghkha La lie in this region.
  4. Other peaks present here are Sandakphu (3636 m), Phalut (3595 m), and Sabangram (3543 m). The famous lakes of Mirik (in Darjeeling) and Chhangu, Gurudongmar, and Khecheopalri (in Sikkim) are also present here.

Bhutan Himalayas:

  1. The part of the Himalayas lying in Bhutan is called the Bhutan Himalayas. Locally, this is known as Masang Kidu.
  2. The Kula Kangri (7553m) and Chomolhari (7326m) peaks lie in this section of the Himalayas.

3. Arunachal Himalayas:

  1. The part of the Himalayas lying in Arunachal Pradesh is called the Arunachal Himalayas.
  2. The three parallel ranges of the Himalayas, i.e., the Siwalik, Himachal, and Himadri are noticed in the Arunachal Himalayas.
  3. The Namcha Barwa peak (7756m) is located to the northeast of Arunachal Pradesh on the Tibet Border.
  4. The Tsang Po gorge lies east of this peak.
  5. The passes like Tulang La, Bum La, Thag La, Yonggyap, etc., connect Arunachal Pradesh with Tibet and Bhutan by Bomdila pass.

Question 6. Describe the mountainous region of the northeastern part of India.
Answer:

The North-eastern Mountains Region of India or the Purvanchal

Location: The low hills of the Eastern Himalayas lying in the north-eastern of India and the different hills that run from this region towards the south (dissected branches of the Eastern Himalayas) are together known as the north-eastern mountainous region of India or the Purvanchal.

This spreads over the southern region of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and the Caehar district of Assam. region meets the Meghalaya plateau in the west.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map- western himalyas

 

Physiographic Features:

1. The Patkai and Mishmi ranges of Arunachal Pradesh run north to south. The Dapha Bum peak of the Mishmi hills is the highest peak in this region.

2. The Patkai range meets the Barail range in Nagaland towards the south. The Barail range runs eastwards and meets the Kohima and Naga hills.

The highest peak of Kohima hills is Japvo (2995 m) and that of Naga hills is Saramati (3826 m). A part of the Barail range passes through the Caehar district of Assam and meets the Meghalaya plateau. Garo, Khasi, and Jaintia are important hills of the Meghalaya plateau.

3. The altitude of the hills decreases in the south of Nagaland. The Imphal Valley has been formed in such low-altitude areas of Manipur, where the beautiful lake called Loktak is present.

Class 10 Geography West Bengal Board

4. The low hills of Manipur meet the Lushai or Mizo hills of Mizoram. Phawngpui (2157 m) is the highest peak of the Lushai hills.

5. In Tripura, six parallel ranges of low hills are seen lying parallel to the Lushai hills. These are locally known as ‘Tang’. Amongst these, the Jampui Tang is the highest, of which, Bething Sib (960 m) is the highest peak. The hills of northeast India run further south through Chittagong of Bangladesh and enter Myanmar as Arakan Yoma.

Question 7. Discuss the role of the Himalayas on human life in India.
Answer:

The Himalayas play a very important role in human life in India.

1. Climate: The Himalayas trap the southwest monsoon winds and force them to shed their moisture in the form of rainfall. They also block the cold Siberian winds from entering the country, thus protecting North India from severe cold.

2. Natural frontier: The Himalayas act as a natural barrier and have been protecting the country from foreign invasions.

3. Source of rivers: The Himalayan ranges have given rise to numerous perennial rivers such as the Ganga, Yamuna, Tista and many others. These rivers provide water for agriculture, industries, and drinking purposes. In this way, the Himalayan rivers form the very basis of life for the whole of North India.

4. Fertile soil: The Himalayan rivers have brought down enormous quantities of fertile alluvium. This is deposited in the Great Plains of North India which forms the basis of the agricultural prosperity of the region.

5. Generation of hydel power: The swift-flowing Himalayan rivers such as the Indus, Ganga, Yamuna, Sutlej, and Tista are harnessed for hydel power generation. The hydel power generated from the Himalayan rivers is utilized in irrigation, agriculture, industries, and transport system thereby facilitating the growth of the Indian economy.

6. Pastoral land and forests: The Himalayas provide rich pastures for grazing animals. The tribal people such as Gujjar and Gaddi rear animals in the Himalayan pastures. The Himalayan forests are rich in biodiversity and provide medicinal plants, fuel woods, and raw materials for forest-based industries.

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7. Agriculture: Tea, and many fruits such as apples, cherries, pears, peaches, and mulberries grow in the Himalayan region. Himachal Pradesh is called the apple state of India because it produces three-fourths of the total national production. Famous Dehradun rice is cultivated in the Himalayas as well.

8. Minerals: The Himalayan mountains are important sources of coal, natural gas, copper, chromite, lead and zinc magnesite, limestone, and many other minerals. Anthracite coal in India is only mined in the Kashmir Himalayas. These minerals provide raw materials for various industries.

9. Tourism: Snow-capped peaks, picturesque lakes, scenic beauty of the natural landscape, healthy environment, and pleasant climate attract large numbers of domestic and foreign tourists to the Himalayas. Tourism provides employment to the large number of people living in this region. Srinagar, Shimla, Kullu, Manali, Nainital, Darjeeling, and Gangtok are some of the notable tourist centers in the Himalayas.

10. Pilgrimage: The Himalayan region is studded with a large number of sacred shrines like the Amarnath, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Vaishno Devi, and many others. These places are visited by a large number of pilgrims to pay their reverence to those shrines.

Question 8. Describe the physiography of the Kashmir Valley and the Himachal
Answer:

1. Kashmir Himalayas:

  1. This part lies in Jammu and Kashmir.
  2. The ranges of Pir Panjal, Jammu, and Poonch lie in this region. The mountains are mostly made up of sandstone and shale.
  3. Numerous valleys are present here. For example—Kashmir Valley, Udhampur doon, etc.
  4. The Pir Panjal range separates the Kashmir Valley from the rest of the country. The valley can be reached only through the Banihal and the Pir Panjal passes.
  5. Numerous glacial lakes are present in this region. E.g.—Dal, Wular, Anchar, Nageen, etc.
  6. The Greater Himalayas lie to the east and north of the Kashmir Valley.
  7. The highest peak of India, Godwin Austen or K2 (8611 m) lies in this region in the Karakoram range. Other peaks present are Hidden Peak, Broad Peak, etc. The longest glacier in India, Siachen (75 km) also lies here.
  8. The Ladakh range lies south of the Karakoram range, east of which lies the Ladakh plateau. The average height of the region is about 4300 m.
  9. The Zanskar range lying south of the Ladakh range is separated from each other by the Indus Valley.
  10. Zoji La and Banihal are important passes of the Kashmir Himalayas.

2. Himachal or Punjab Himalayas:

  1. The part of the Himalayas lying in Himachal Pradesh is known as the Himachal Himalayas.
  2. The northern part comprises the Himadri Himalayas which are about 5000-6000 m high.
  3. South of the Himadri lies the ranges of Dhauladhar, Pir Panjal, Zanskar, Nag Tibba, and Mussourie. The peaks of the Pir Panjal range remain snow-covered throughout the year. The average height of the region is 1500-4000 m.
  4. The Siwalik range forms the southernmost part of this region. The average height of this region is 600-1500 m.
  5. A number of valleys are present here, e.g. Lahul, Spiti, Kullu, Kangra, etc.

Question 9. Represent the physiographic divisions of India on a map of India.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map- Physigraphic divisions of india

 

Question 10. Discuss the importance of the Himadri Himalayas with respect to physiography.
Answer:

The Himalayan range can be divided into four parallel ranges from south to north—

  1. Siwalik range or the Outer Himalayas,
  2. Himachal or the Lesser Himalayas,
  3. Himadri or the Greater Himalayas,
  4. Trans or the Tethys Himalayas.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer WBBSE

1. Climate: The Himadri Himalayas are about 6000m high and on average 120-190km wide. It stands like a high wall along the northern margin of the country. This prevents the severely cold winds from Central Asia from entering the country. This also prevents the moisture-laden southwest monsoon winds from leaving the country. Thus, it also controls the climate of India.

2. Glaciers and perennial rivers: The high altitude and volume of snow have given rise to numerous glaciers. E.g.—Gangotri, Yamunotri, Zemu, etc. These glaciers give rise to numerous rivers. The rivers remain perennial as they receive snowmelt water as well as rainfall. E.g.—Ganga, Yamuna, and their numerous tributaries. They are useful for hydel power generation, irrigation, etc.

3. Communication: A number of mountain passes are present in the Himadri Himalayas which help in connecting the northern and southern regions of the mountains. E.g.— Barlacha La, Shipki La, Zoji La.

4. Fertile Soil: The rivers rising in the Himadri Himalayas bring down huge amounts of silt and then spread them all over the northern plains. This makes the region very fertile and suitable for agriculture.

5. Tourism: The natural beauty of the Himadri Himalayas attract a large number of tourists and trekkers from India and abroad. This helps to boost the economy.

6. Defense: The Himadri Himalayas stand along the northern border of India like a natural barrier. This protects the land from foreign invasion from the north.

7. Others: The Himadri Himalayas also play an important role in the development of the timber industry, paper industry, handicrafts, cottage industries, etc.

Question 11. Discuss the location and physiography of the Gangetic plains of India.
Answer:

Location: The huge Gangetic plains are bounded by the Himalayan mountains in the north, the river Yamuna in the west, the mouth of the river Ganga in the southeast, and the peninsular plateau in the south. The plain spreads over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal over an area of about 3 lakh 75 thousand sq. km.

Physiography of the Gangetic plains: The Gangetic plains can be subdivided into three parts according to geographical features.

1. Upper Ganga Plain:

  1. The region spreads from the Yamuna river in the v/est to the confluence of rivers Yamuna and Ganga in Allahabad in the east.
  2. The average height of the region is about 220m in the west to 100m in the east.
  3. The land slopes from northwest to southeast. Thin stretches of Babar and terai regions lie in the northern part of this stretch.
  4. The regions composed of old alluvium are called Bangar and that composed of new alluvium are called khadar.

2. Middle Ganga Plain:

  1. The region extends from Allahabad in the west to the Rajmahal hills in the east. Landforms like floodplains, natural levees, oxbow lakes, etc. are seen here.
  2. The height of the region decreases towards the east to about 35m.
  3. The region covers the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh and the western part of Bihar.
  4. The rocky and pebbly region lying at the foothills of the Siwalik is known as Babar.
  5. South of the Babar region lies the terai region made up of pebbles, gravel, sand, silt, and clay particles.

3. Lower Ganga Plains: The region extends from the Rajmahal hills in the v/est to the mouth of the river Bhagirathi-Hooghly in the east.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer WBBSE

This region is further sub-divided into three parts—

  1. North Bengal plain (formed by the silt deposition of the rivers Ganga-Padma and their tributaries rising in the silt deposition of the tributaries of Ganga the Himalayas),
  2. Rarh region (formed by rising in the Chotanagpur plateau),
  3. Delta

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map- Physiography of the gangetic plains

 

Question 12. Describe the location and physiography of the Rajasthan plain in brief. How can the region be Jibber subdivided?
Answer:

Location: The southwestern part of the northern plain of India is known as the Rajasthan plain. This region extends between the south of the Punjab plain and west of the Aravalli range. It occupies the western part of Rajasthan and is known as the Thar desert.

Characteristics:

  1. The average height of this totally sand-covered region is 350m in the east near the foothills of the Aravallis and 150m in the west near the Pakistan border.
  2. A number of seif dunes and barkhans are present here.
  3. A number of small saltwater lakes called hands or playas are present here (E.g.—Didwana, Kuchaman, Pachpadra). Large salt lakes are also seen here (E.g.—Sambhar).
  4. Some small residual hills are seen near Jaisalmer.
  5. Many shifting dunes or drains are seen here.
  6. Luni is the main river of this region.
  7. Small springs are seen in some regions which give rise to oases.
  8. Lake Sambhar is the largest lake (salt water) on the Rajasthan plain.

Classification of the Rajasthan Plain: Physiographically, the Rajasthan plain can be classified into five parts—

Physiographic divisions  Location 
Marusthali The westernmost part of the Rajasthan plain composed of sand, rocks, dunes, drains, etc. is called Marusthali.
Bagar The semi-desert region lying east of Marusthali in the basin of river Luni is called Bagar. Several playas are seen here.
Rohi The fertile floodplains formed by the small streams coming from the Aravalli range, east of the Bagar region is called Rohi.
Thali The region north of river Luni composed of fixed sand dunes are called Thali.
Bhangar The old silt region lying south of the Punjab plain along the border of Marusthali is called Bhangar.

 

Question 13. Discuss briefly the Punjab plain and the Brahmaputra valley,
Answer:

Punjab Plain:

Extent: The western part of the northern plain of India is known as the Punjab plain. The region extends from west of river Yamuna and includes a big region of Pakistan. Delhi, Punjab, and Haryana lie within this region.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer WBBSE

Characteristics:

1. The plain has been formed by the silt deposition of the tributaries of the river Indus-namely, Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, and Chenab. The region adjacent to the rivers formed of new alluvium is called ‘bet’ and the region beyond the ‘bet’ formed of old alluvium is called ‘bar’.

2. The average height of the plain is 200-240m.

3. Five doabs are seen in this region.

They are—

  1. Bist-Jalandhar doab,
  2. Bari doab,
  3. Rechna doab,
  4. Chal Jech doab and
  5. Sind-Sagar doab.

4. The high domes formed by silt deposition in Punjab are called ‘haya’ Plains of the Brahmaputra Basin or The Brahmaputra Valley

Extent: The 640km long and 90-100km wide Brahmaputra Valley extends from Sadia in the east to Dhubri in the west. It covers an area of 56 thousand sq. km. The Assam plain lies within the Brahmaputra Valley

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment maps location of the punjab plain

Characteristics:

  1. The plain is bounded by mountains in the north, east, and south. The land slopes from the east to the west.
  2. The height of the land is about 130m in the east and 30m in the west.
  3. The plain has been formed by the silt deposited by the river Brahmaputra and its tributaries.
  4. The river Brahmaputra gives rise to numerous sand bars in its course of flow through the plains. The largest river bar in India, Majuli lies here. The Majuli island now occupies an area of 614 sq. km.

Question 14. Describe the physiography of the northern plain of India.
Answer:

The physiography of the northern plain of India

The plain lying between the Himalayan mountains in the north, and the peninsular plateau in the south, formed of silt deposited by the rivers Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra and their numerous tributaries is called the northern plain of India.

The plain can be broadly subdivided into four parts—

  1. Rajasthan Plain,
  2. Punjab Plain
  3. Ganga Plain and
  4. Assam Plain or the Brahmaputra Valley.

1. Rajasthan Plain:

  1. This region lies west of the Aravalli range in central and western Rajasthan. The region is dry and sandy. This is known as the Thar desert, which extends into Pakistan. The westernmost part of the Thar desert is known as Marusthali.
  2. The rocky region of Marusthali is known as hamada. Several shallow salt lakes have been formed in between parallel seif dunes due to the blowing away of sand and forming of depressions. These are called hands.
  3. The eastern part of the plain is comparatively less sandy and forms small grasslands. This is known as a bar. The river Luni flows through this region.
  4. East of the bar, numerous small streams come down from the Aravalli range and deposit silt on either bank. Floodplains formed this way are called roshi.
  5. Few low residual hills are also seen near Jaisalmer.
  6. A few saltwater lakes are present in the lowland areas of the Thar desert. They are locally known as rann. Lake Sambhar is the largest lake in this region.
  7. Some oases are seen in the desert where dates, palms, and grasses grow.

2. Punjab Plain:

  1. This region stretches the northeast of the Rajasthan plain in the west and the river Yamuna in the east. This includes Punjab, Haryana, and Delhi.
  2. This fertile plain has been formed by the deposits of silt from the river Indus and its tributaries, namely Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, and Chenab.
  3. The average height of the region is 200-240m.
  4. The eroded regions of the Aravalli range surround the plain in the south, north, and northeast.

3. Ganga plain:

  1. This region spreads over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal, extending from the river Yamuna in the west to the Ganga delta in the east. The region has been formed by silt deposited by the river Ganga and its numerous tributaries.
  2. Floodplains, natural levees, oxbow lakes, etc. are seen in the Ganga plain.
  3. The slope of the land is from the west to the east and southeast.
  4. The region formed of old silt is called bhangra and that formed of new silt is called khadar.
  5. The rocky, pebbly, and gravelly region lying at the foothills of the Himalayas is called baba.
  6. South of the baby lies the densely forested region of Terai, composed of rocks, pebbles, sand, silt, and clay. The Ganga delta has been formed at the mouth of the river near the Bay of Bengal.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer WBBSE

The Ganga plain can be subdivided into three parts—

  1. Upper Ganga Plain (lying mainly in Uttar Pradesh),
  2. Middle Ganga Plain (lying in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh and the western part of Bihar),
  3. Lower Ganga Plain (in the whole of West Bengal except Darjeeling mountainous region and the western uplands).

4. Brahmaputra Valley:

  1. This 700 km long and 80 km wide plain has been formed along both banks of the river Brahmaputra in Assam.
  2. The slope of the land is from east to west. The river Brahmaputra flows here in a braided channel.
  3. A number of river bars have been formed in this region. Majuli is the largest river bar formed here, which is also the largest river bar in India.

Question 15. Discuss briefly the mountain ranges of the Deccan plateau region.
Answer:

The mountain ranges situated on the Deccan plateau region are as follows—

1. Satpura-Mahadeo-Maikal ranges:

  1. These mountain ranges lie south of the river Narmada and stretch from west to east. The highest peak of the Satpura range is Dhupgarh (1350 m).
  2. Limestone caves are present in the Mahadeo hills.
  3. The highest peak of the Maikal range is Amarkantak (1057 m).
  4. The Satpura is a horst or a block mountain and the rivers Narmada and Tapti flow through two grabens or rift valleys.

2. Ajanta hills: The Ajanta hills lie south of the Satpura range and stretch from the west to the east. This hilly region has been highly dissected due to erosion.

3.Western Ghats or Sahyadri:

  1. The Western Ghats lie along the western margin of the Deccan plateau. It extends for a length of 1600 km and the average height is 1200 m and runs north-south.
  2. The western slope of the mountains is very steep and the eastern slope comes down step by step and meets the Deccan plateau.
  3. The important peaks are Agasthyakoodam (1868 km), Kalsubai, Mahabaleswar, Salhar, etc.
  4. Two important passes or gaps present in this region are Thalghat near Nashik and Bhorghat near Pune.
  5. Annamalai, Palni hills, Cardamom hills, Elumalai, and Agasthyamalai form the southern portion of the Western Ghats. This southern part of the Western Ghats is made of granite and gneiss rocks. Hence, they form round or dome-shaped hills. The Anamudi peak (2695m) of the Anamalai range is the highest peak in southern India.

4. Nilgiri:

  1. The Nilgiri mountains meet the Western Ghats in the south. The highest peak of the Nilgiri is Doddabetta (2637 m).
  2. The Palghat gap lies to the south of the Nilgiri mountains.
  3. The mountain ranges are covered with dense forests.

5. Eastern Ghats:

  1. These mountains run from north to south along the eastern margin of the Deccan plateau.
  2. The range is highly dissected and the average height is only 600m.
  3. The Eastern Ghats comprise the Kolli Malai, Velikonda, Palkonda, Shevaroy, Pachaimalai, Javadi, etc. hills.
  4. The region lying between the Godavari and Mahanadi rivers is quite high. Here, Kondhan and Khondmal are the two prominent hills. Mahendragiri (1501 m) peak of the Eastern Ghats is situated in this region.
  5. Jindhagada (1690 m) is the highest peak of the Eastern Ghats and is situated in Andhra Pradesh.

Question 16. Compare the Eastern and Western Coastal Plains of India.
Answer:

Comparisons between the Eastern and Western Coastal Plains of India are as follows—

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer WBBSE

Point of companies  Eastern Coastal Plains Western Coastal Plains
Location Lies along the Bay of Bengal. Lies along the Arabian sea.
Height The average height of this coastal plain is low. The average height from the mean sea level is more.
Width Lies along the Bengal. The width of the Western coastal plain varies between 10 and 25 km.
Dunes Sand dunes are present throughout the coast. Sand dunes are present only in the southern part of the coastal plain.
Nature of Coast The coast is continuous. Only the southern portion is broken. Hence, number of ports is less. The coast is broken throughout. Hence, the number of ports is more.
Rivers Rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, etc. flow through this plain and have wide mouths. Rivers Netravati, Sharavathi, Periyar, etc. flow through this region. They have small and narrow mouths.
Delta The rivers form large deltas. The rivers do not form deltas except a small delta in the mouth of river Netravati.
Lakes and Lagoons Numerous lakes and lagoons are present along the coast. E.g.—Chilka, Kolleru, Pulicat, etc. Lakes and lagoons are present only in the southern portions like Vembanad, Asthamudi, etc.
Fertility The fertile soil is used for agriculture all along the coastal plain. The soil is less fertile (except in the Konkan and Malabar regions). Hence, agriculture is not much developed.
Rainfall Receives moderate rainfall. Receives heavy rainfall.
Industry The Eastern Coastal Plains are heavily industrialized. Industrial development is seen in only one or two places.
Transport System The flat and wide coastal plains help in the development of the transport system. The coastal plains being narrow don’t have a highly developed transportation system.

Geography Project Class 10 WBBSE

Question 17. Discuss the location and physiography of the Deccan plateau in brief.
Answer:

Location: The Deccan plateau lies over the vast stretches of Peninsular India in the south. It is bounded by the Vindhya range in the north, Kanyakumari in the south, Eastern Ghats in the east (Malayadri), and Western Ghats in the west (Sahyadri). The plateaus of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu comprise the Deccan plateau.

Physiography of the Deccan Plateau:

  1. The Deccan plateau is a part of the oldest landmass or the shield region of the world.
  2. The region is formed of old granite, gneiss, and other igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  3.  The region has been eroded for millions of years. Hence, some areas have been lowered to peneplains and some regions have been dissected to form mesas and buttes.
  4. The slope of the land is from west to east. The southern portion is higher than the northern portion.
  5. The northwestern part is known as the Deccan Trap. Trap means steps or staircases. The Maharashtra plateau lying in this region is flat-topped, with steep slopes broken into stairs, thus forming a trap.
  6. The flat, low region of the Karnataka plateau lying south of the Deccan Trap is known as Maidan. The hilly region lying west of the Maidan is known as Malnad.

7. This triangular plateau region is surrounded by—

  1. The Satpura-Mahadeo- Maikal-Ajanta hills in the north,
  2. The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) in the west,
  3. The Eastern Ghats (Malayadri) in the east.

8. The Anaimalai hills lie in the southern part of the Deccan plateau. The Anamudi peak (2695m) of this range is the highest peak in southern India.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map Locationb and physiography of decan plateau

Question 18. Describe the western coastal plain of India.
Answer:

Location:

  1. The Western Coastal Plains lie along the western margins of India and spreads from Rann of Kachchh in the north to Kanyakumari in the south.
  2. The Western Ghats lie to the east and the Arabian sea lies to the west of these coastal plains. The coastal plains are 10-25 km in width.
  3. This coast is narrower than the Eastern Coastal plains.
  4. The plains taper from the north to the south.
  5. No deltas are formed, except for a small and narrow delta of river Netravati.

Geography Project Class 10 WBBSE

Physiography: The Western coastal plains can be sub-divided into four parts—

1. Gujarat Coastal Plain:

  1. This is the northernmost part of the Western Coastal plains.
  2. This region extends from the Rann of Kachchh in the north to the borders of Maharashtra in the south.
  3. A large region of shallow salt marshes lies in the Kachchh region, known as the Rann. The western part is known as the Great Rann and the eastern part is known as the Little Rann.
  4. The Kathiawar peninsula is quite wide and the central region is high. There are two mountains found here, namely, Gir and Girnar.
  5. The rivers Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapti, etc., deposit a huge amount of silt on the continental shelf of the Kathiawar peninsula.
  6. This is increasing the height of the shelf and extending the coastal plains westwards.

2. Konkan Coastal Plain:

  1. This region extends from the border of Maharashtra with Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. It is about 500km long.
  2. The plains are narrow and broken. Most of the region is rocky.
  3. The coastal region comprises a variety of landscapes like wetlands, sand beaches, sea bars or banks, low hills made of lava, etc.

3. Karnataka Coastal Plain:

  1. This region extends from the south of Goa in the north to the south of Mangalore in the south.
  2. This coastal line is about 225 km long.
  3. The coastal plain is quite narrow but becomes a little wider beyond Mangalore in the south.
  4.  Sandy beaches are found in some regions, while the Western Ghats directly meet the sea at some places near the coast.
  5. The only delta of the Western.
  6. The coastal plain lies at the mouth of the Netravati river.
  7. Some typical landforms found here are small sand dunes, clayey lowlands, small lagoons, narrow river valleys, and low plateaus of laterite at the foothills of the Western Ghats.

4. Malabar Coastal Plain:

  1. This coastal plain extends from the south of Mangalore in the north to Kanyakumari in the south. It is about 500km long.
  2. This region is wider (about 25 km) as compared to the Konkan and Karnataka coastal plains.
  3. A number of sand dunes, wetlands, lakes, and lagoons are present here. The shallow wetlands are known as ‘backwaters’ in this region. The lagoons are known as ‘kayaks’. E.g.— Vembanad kayal near Kochi, Asthamudi Kayal near Kollam.WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map Physiography of the western coastal plains

Question 19. Describe the physiography of the old plateau region of India.
Answer:

The old plateau region of India can be divided into two parts—

  1. The main plateau and
  2. The dissected plateau.

1. The Main Plateau: The main plateau is bounded by the Vindhya, Satpura, Mahadeo, and Maikal ranges in the north, the Sahyadri in the west, the Malayadri in the east, and the Nilgiri and Anaimalai hills in the south. This part of the old plateau (known as the Deccan plateau) lies in the peninsular part of India.

Geography Project Class 10 WBBSE

Characteristics:

  1. The Maharashtra plateau lying in the north-western part is a lava plateau that descends on the sides like steps or stairs. This region is also called the Deccan Trap,
  2. The part of the plateau lying in Karnataka, made up of granite and gneiss rocks, is known as the Karnataka plateau. The hilly area adjacent to the Western Ghats in this part is known as the Malnad and the lower plains on the eastern side are known as Maidan.
  3. The northeastern part of the old plateau is known as the Chotanagpur plateau. The highest part of this region is the ‘Pat’ region (average height 1100 m). The Parasnath (highest peak), Dalma and Rajmahal hills lie here. This region is highly rich in mineral resources,
  4. The Malwa, Bundelkhand, and Rewa plateaus are present along the north-western and northern margins of the old plateau region,
  5. Chhattisgarh region, Dandakaranya, and Tamil Nadu plateaus lie to the east and southeast of this region.

The Dissected Plateau: The Meghalaya plateau is a dissected plateau that was once a part of the peninsular plateau of India.

Characteristics:

  1. The Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, and Mikir hills lie in this region. The Shillong peak (1966 m) is the highest peak in this region,
  2. This is a dissected part of the Deccan plateau,
  3. The average height of the region is around 900 m.
  4. The Meghalaya plateau is surrounded by the Shillong peak and hilly region in the north, Mikir hills in the northeast, Khasi and Jaintia hills in the central part, and the Cherrapunji plateau in the south.

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Short Explanatory Answer Type Questions

 

Question 1. Discuss the relationship between the physical environment and human life in India.
Answer:

The relationship between the physical environment and human life in India

India is a land of diverse physical environment and variety, which plays an important role in the life of people. The influence of the physical environment on India and the life of the people are as follows-

1. The Himalayas lying at the northern margin of the country prevents the cold polar winds coming from Siberia from entering the land. It also prevents the southwest monsoon winds from escaping outside the country. Thus, the mountains control the climate of the country to a great extent.

2. The Himalayas in the north and the three seas and oceans in the east, west, and south provide natural boundaries and protect the country from foreign invasions.

3. The passes in the mountain ranges help to conduct trade between India and other countries.

4. The tropical climate of the country makes its economy agro-based.

5. The fertile soils found in most parts of India help to grow crops like rice, wheat, jute, tea, coffee, spices, cotton, etc. Sufficient rainfall, numerous rivers, availability of mineral and forest resources, etc. help in the economic development of the country.

6. The plains are not only suitable for agriculture, but they also favor the growth of industries, railways, roadways, and other economic activities.

Question 2. Describe the southernmost range of the Himalayan mountains.
Answer:

The southernmost range of the Himalayan mountains

The southernmost range of the Himalayan mountains is known as the Outer Himalayas or the Siwalik. After the formation of the Tethys, Himadri, and Himachal Himalayas, a severe orogenic movement about 30 lakh years ago gave impetus to the mountain-building process. After this, an ice age started.

The mountains of the Himalayas were severely eroded by the large glaciers in the ice age, and the eroded materials accumulated at the foothills. Another orogenic movement occurred about 1 million years ago when the Tethys, Himadri and

Himachal Himalayas rose in height considerably and the rock debris accumulated and compacted near the foothills rose as the Siwalik range. The Siwalik range is 600-1500m high and 10-50km wide approximately. The southern slope of this range is steep and the northern slope is gentle. The Jammu hills are part of the Siwalik range.

Question 3. Write a short account of the Ladakh range arid the Ladakh plateau.
Answer:

Ladakh Range: The Ladakh range lies to the north of the Greater Himalayas or the Himadri in Kashmir. It is often regarded as a southern extension of the Karakoram range. This is about 370km long and stretches between the Indus and Shyok river valleys.

The Ladakh range has an average height of 6000m. During the rise of the Himalayas, the Ladakh range was also formed from the silt deposited in the Tethys Sea. The range has been severely eroded and lowered by the glaciers and has been highly dissected.

Ladakh Plateau: The Ladakh plateau lies in the northeast of the Ladakh range. The average height of the plateau is 4300m or more. This is the highest plateau in India.

Geography Project Class 10 WBBSE

Question 4. Describe the Karakoram ranged
Answer:

The Karakoram ranged

The Karakoram range is located in the northwestern part of Jammu and Kashmir. It was formed during the same age when the silt depositions of the Tethys Sea were giving rise to the Himalayan and Ladakh ranges.

The Karakoram range is about 500 km long. Some of the famous peaks present in this range are— K2 (King of Karakoram) or Godwin Austen (8611m high; the highest peak of India and the second highest peak of the world), Gasherbrum I or the Hidden Peak, Broad Peak, etc.

A number of glaciers are present in this range. Some of them are Siachen (76km long; the longest glacier of India), Hispar, Baltoro, Rimo, etc. The Karakoram range remains snow-covered throughout the year.

Question 5. Discuss the Importance of the northeastern mountainous region of India;
Answer:

The northeastern mountains of India comprise hills and ranges like Patkai, Naga, Barail, Lushai, Kohima, Mishmi, etc.

The importance of this region is—

Forest Resources: The forest covering this mountainous region is very rich with a lot of economic value.

Defense: The mountains provide defense and security to the northeastern border of the country from foreign invasions.

Hydroelectric Power: The rivers rising from the mountainous region are fast flowing and help in the generation of hydroelectric power.

Agriculture: The crops like tea, rubber, and spices are grown on the slopes of the mountains.

Tourism: The scenic beauty of the region attracts a large number of tourists and results in the economic development of the region.

Question 6. Differentiate between the Eastern and Western Himalayas.
Answer:

The differences between the Eastern and Western Himalayas are—

 

Point of difference  Eastern Himalayas Western Himalayas
Height and extent  The Eastern Himalayas are generally narrower than the western Himalayas are spread Himalayas and are spread over a a leser extent. The western Himalayas are extremely high and are spread over a greater extent.
Peaks glaciers It has a lesser number of peaks and glaciers. It has a greater number of very high peaks and a lesser number of glaciers.
Slope The Eastern Himalayas are generally narrower. The Western Himalayas are broader from south to north and are generally much wider.

 

Question 7. How have the northern plains been formed?
Answer:

The northern plains lie between the Himalayan mountains in the north and the peninsular plateau in the south. The causes of the formation of this region are—

A long trough existed in this region between the Himalayan mountains and the Peninsular plateau.
This trough was created during the rise of the Himalayas when the upper margin of the Peninsular plateau got lowered due to great pressure.

Later on, numerous rivers rising from the Himalayas as well as the plateau region brought down huge amounts of silt and deposited them in the trough, gradually forming the vast northern plains.

Question 8. How can the plains of the Ganga river basin be classified?
Answer:

The plains of the Ganga river basin can be classified into three parts with respect to the differences in landform, rainfall and temperature conditions.

They are—

  1. The Upper Ganga Plain,
  2. The Middle Ganga Plain and
  3. The Lower Ganga Plain.
Region Location
Upper Gangs Plain   This stretch extends from the Yamuna river in the west to the confluence of the river Yamuna and Ganga in Allahabad. Most of the plains of Uttar Pradesh lie in this region.
Middle Ganga Plain This stretch extends from Allahabad in the west to Rajmahal hills in the east. The plains on the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh and most of Bihar lay this region.
Lower Ganga Plain This stretch includes the Terai, Duars, and the rest of West Bengal except the northern mountainous region and the western upland region.

 

Question 9. Describe Marusthali of India.
Answer:

Marusthali of India

The region lying on the western side of the desert in Rajasthan is known as Marusthali. This is almost a rainless region composed of sand, rocks, and dunes.

Geography Project Class 10 WBBSE

Physical Characteristics:

  1. This sand-covered region is about 350m high in the east and 150m high in the west.
  2. Numerous seif and barkhan dunes are present here.
  3. Numerous small saltwater lakes or hands or playas are present here. E.g.- Didwana, Kuchman, Pachpadra, etc. Large saltwater
  4. lakes are also present here. E.g.—Sambhar.
  5. There are many shifting dunes or durians found here.
  6. Some low hills are seen near Jaisalmer.
  7. A few oases are seen in the vast stretches of sand.

Climate: The climate here is extreme, with an average temperature of 40°C and total annual rainfall of only 20cm. The sand radiates back heat very fast during the night and becomes very cold. Both diurnal and annual ranges of

Question 10. Discuss the role of the northern plains
Answer:

The role of the northern plains

The northern plains of India play an important role in the life of the people and in the economy.

1. Agriculture: The northern plains are very fertile except for a small region in Marusthali in the west. This region is extremely suitable for agriculture and crops like rice, jute, sugarcane, wheat, cotton, pulses, oilseeds, etc. grow here in abundance.

2. Industries: The availability of agricultural raw materials, a good transport system, a huge labor force due to the high population and other facilities have led to the development of several industries in this region. E.g.— Sugar, jute textile, cotton textile, engineering, chemical, leather, etc are some of the industries that have developed here.

3. Urbanisation: The plain landform, suitable climate, scope of employment and income, well-developed transport and communication system, etc., attract huge population and lead to the development of numerous towns and cities. The main urban centers of the northern plains are- Chandigarh, Amritsar, Delhi, Agra, Lucknow, Allahabad, Varanasi, Kolkata, Patna, etc.

4. Others: The plains helped in the development of transport and communication system, which in turn helped in the development of trade and commerce. The salt lakes in the western part of the plains help in the production of large amounts of salt.

Question 11. What do you mean by the highlands of east India? Describe the region.
Answer:

Highlands of east India

The Highlands of Eastern India: The highlands of Eastern India include the Chotangapur plateau of Jharkhand, the Baghelkhand plateau, the plains of the Mahanadi basin in Chhattisgarh, and Dandakaranya of Odisha.

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Physical Characteristics:

1. The highlands have been eroded heavily through the ages and have been lowered considerably. The average height of the highlands is 700m. Many places of the highlands have been lowered to form peneplains.

2. The highest region of the Chotanagpur plateau is the Pat region on the western side (above 1000m high). The Ranchi plateau lies east of the Pat region. The river Damodar flows between the Ranchi and the Hazaribag plateaus. The Rajmahal hills occupy the northeastern corner of the Chotanagpur plateau. Parasnath (1365m) is the highest peak of the Rajmahal hills.

3. The middle part or central part of the Mahanadi basin lying to the south of the Baghelkhand plateau is known as the Chhattisgarh basin.

4. South of the Chhattisgarh basin lies rugged and dissected hilly area of Dandakaranya. The highest place of this region is Koraput.

5. South of the Ranchi plateau lies the hilly region of Odisha, comprising hills of Sundargarh, Garhjat, Bamra, Kandhamal and Kondhan hills.

Question 12. Describe the location of the Rann of Kachchh region of India.
Answer:

Rann of Kachchh: The extensive salt marshes located in the Kachchh peninsula in Gujarat is known as the Rann of Kachchh.

Location: The Kachchh peninsula lies north of the Kathiawar peninsula. The northern and eastern side of the Kachchh peninsula is bordered by the Rann of Kachchh.

The larger portion of the Rann lying in the north is known as the Great Rann and the smaller portion in the south is known as the Little Rann. The Great Rann is bordered by the Arabian Sea and the Little Rann is bordered by the Gulf of Kachchh in the west.

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Question 13. Where Is the Rann of Kachchh S”* located? Describe Its landform.
Answer:

Location: The Rann of Kachchh lies in the state of Gujarat in western India.

Landform: The Rann of Kachchh is a shallow, salty marshland. The northern part is known as the Great Rann and the southern part is known as the Little Rann. The Rann extends over an area of about 7500 sq km. The Luni river flows along the north of the region.

A few low hills are present in this region. E.g.—Osam, Barda, etc. The region lies between a very hot desert on one side and the Arabian Sea on the other side. Previously, this region was submerged under the sea and it appeared to be a shallow extension of the Arabian Sea.

Presently, the region lies as a salty marshland during the rainy season but remains a dry, arid, treeless region covered in a white sheet of salt and sand during the dry summer season.

Question 14. What led to the formation of the Thar desert region of India?
Answer:

The causes for the formation of the Thar desert region in India are-

1. Location of the Aravalli Range: The Aravalli range lying east of the Thar desert runs along a north-south direction, parallel to the direction of the southwest monsoon winds. Hence, it fails to obstruct the moisture-laden monsoon winds thereby failing to cause rainfall in the Desert region.

2. Absence of water vapor: The heat in the western region of India during the summer makes the southwest monsoon winds hot as well as decreases the amount of water vapor they carry. Hence, whatever little water vapor is left, fails to cause sufficient rainfall.

3. Trade winds: The Thar desert lies in the region over which trade winds blow. Trade winds become warm and lose moisture as they blow from the tropical region to the equatorial region. Thus, they cause very little or no rainfall.
All these causes lead to the origin of the Thar desert region in Rajasthan.

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Question 15. Explain the Impact that the Thar Desert has on human habitation of that region.
Answer:

The Thar desert influences human life in that region in the following ways-

1. The climate in the desert region is dry, hot, and extreme. Thus, this region is very sparsely populated with very few human settlements.

2. The desert region of Rajasthan produces fireclay, gypsum, kaolin, and mineral oil. This may lead to the development of industries in this region.

3. The bar region of Rajasthan has been irrigated by the Rajasthan canal or the Indira Gandhi canal, which has helped in the development of agriculture in this region. Now the Thar desert region of Rajasthan is producing bajra, jowar, pulses, maize, sesame, and groundnuts.

4. solar energy and wind energy are also utilized in this desert region for producing electricity.

Question 16. List the characteristics of the Gangetic plains.
Answer:

The Gangetic plains have been formed in northern India, south of the Himalayan mountains by the deposition of silt brought down by the river Ganga and its numerous tributaries.

The characteristics of this plain are-

1. Size: The plain is spread over an area of 3,57,000 sq. km.
2. Depth: The depth of the Gangetic plain is about 6000-8000m in the north. The depth of the plain is lesser in the south.
3. Soil: The Gangetic plain is made up of old alluvium in some places and new alluvium in others. The old alluvium region is known as bhangra and the new alluvium region is known as khadar. the region is made up of rocks, stones, pebbles, gravel, and silt.

The rivers which lose their way in the Babar region often emerge once again in the Terai region. Thus, wetlands have been formed in many parts of this region. The rivers of this region are flood-prone in the rainy season. The moist soil of the Terai region supports dense forests.

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

4. Landform: The general landform of the region is monotonously flatland. Oxbow lakes, natural levees, flood plains, etc. dot the region.

Question 17. How did the terai region form?
Answer:

The Terai region lies at the foothills of the Himalayas, just south of the Babar region. This region. Thus, wetlands have been formed in many parts of this region. The rivers of this region are flood-prone in the rainy season. The moist soil of the Terai region supports dense forests.

Question 18. Differentiate between the peninsulas of Kachch and Kathiawar.
Answer:

The differences between the peninsulas of Kachchh and Kathiawar are—

Point of difference Kachchh peninsula Kathiawar peninsula
Location Lies north of the Gulf of Kachchh. Bounded by the Gulf of Kachchh in the north, the Gulf of Khambat in the east and southeast, and the Arabian sea in the west and south.
Formation Formed mostly of sandstone. Formed mostly of lava and igneous rocks.
Marshlands The famous Rann of Kachchh lies in this region. No such marshlands or rann are present in this region.

 

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Question 19. Differentiate between bhangra and khadar.
Answer:

The differences between bhangra and khadar are—

Point of difference  Bhangar  Khadar
Nature  Made up of old alluvium.  Made up of new alluvium.
Fertility It is old, hence fertility is less. It is new, hence fertility is more.
Flooding The bhangra region lies above the floodplain. Hence, it does not get flooded every year. The khadar region is a low-lying area next to a river. Hence, it is prone to flood every year during the monsoon season.
Soil Erosion The old alluvium soil is much eroded as the region is older in age. The new alluvium soil is renewed every year by floods.

 

Question 21. Describe the Meghalaya plateau.
Answer:

Meghalaya plateau

The Meghalaya plateau lies in Meghalaya, south of Assam. This is a very old landform that was originally a part of the Chotanagpur plateau.

Due to the earth’s movements, the land was separated from the Chotanagpur plateau millions of years ago. The lowland thus created in between was later filled up with silt and formed the Ganga delta.

The famous hills present in the Meghalaya plateau are—Mikir hills in the east, Garo hills in the west, and Khasi and Jaintia hills in the central part.

The Shillong- Cherrapunji region lying in the central part is the highest region of the plateau (average height 1500 m). The Shillong peak (1966 m) is the highest peak present here. Several limestone caves are found in this region.

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Question 22. Describe the Karnataka plateau.
Answer:

Karnataka plateau

The part of the Deccan plateau lying in Karnataka is known as the Karnataka plateau. This region is mainly composed of granite and gneiss rocks.

The average height of this region is about 600-900 m. The Karnataka plateau can be divided into two parts—

1. Malnad: Malnad means a hilly region in the Kannada language. The region lying east of the Western Ghats, stretching from the northwest to the southeast is known as the maenad. This is the highest part of the plateau. The hills present here are dome-shaped. The Bababudan hills are famous over here. The soil present here is generally reddish in color.

2. Maidan: The comparatively lower region lying east of the malnad is known as maidan. This is a gently undulating land, mostly covered with reddish soil.

Question 23. What do you mean by Deccan Trap? OR, Write a short note on the lava plateau of the Deccan region
Answer:

Deccan Trap

The north-western part of the Deccan plateau is known as the Deccan trap or the Lava plateau. ‘Trap’ means steps or staircases. The whole plateau region recedes in height step by step from the west to the east.

The Deccan trap was formed about 60-130 million years ago when molten magma came out through the fissures on the land surface and spread like a sheet over the surface layer by layer.

The lava was basic or alkaline, hence remaining hot for a longer time, which helped the molten material to spread for longer distances, rather than forming high peaks. Thus, the small hills formed in the process have flat tops. The Deccan Trap has been heavily eroded and dissected by numerous rivers flowing through the region.

Question 24. Discuss the importance of the coastal plains of India.
Answer:

The importance of the coastal plains of India

India has a long coastline and hence has a long stretch of coastal plains. Although the coastal plains are narrow, they have much importance.

1. Agriculture: The fertile soils of the coastal plains are used for growing rice, sugarcane, coconut, beetle nut, and various spices.

2. Trade: The ports of Mumbai, Chennai, Mormugao, Kochi, Vishakhapatnam, etc. all lie in the coastal regions of India. The coastal plains play an important role in trade and commerce through these ports.

3. Resouces:

  1. The northern part of the western coast is important for the production of salt from the salty waters of the sea.
  2. Mineral oil or petroleum reserves are present on the continental shelves of both the eastern and western coasts. Oil is extracted from these reserves at various points (E.g.— Bombay High).
  3. Minerals like ilmenite, monazite, etc. are mined on the Malabar coast.

4. Others:

  1. The coastal areas are densely populated due to favorable and moderate climatic conditions.
  2. Big metropolitan cities like Mumbai and Chennai have developed on the coastal plains.
  3. The flat topography has helped in the development of the transport system and other facilities in this region.

Question 25. Describe the location and topography of the highlands in Central India.
Answer:

Location: The region lying between the Aravalli range in the west, river Narmada and the Deccan plateau in the south, the eastern highlands of India in the east, and the northern plain in the north, is known as the highlands of Central India. Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, etc. comprise these highlands.

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Physical or Topographical Characteristics:

  1. The highlands are bounded by the Aravalli range in the west. The Aravallis are the oldest mountains in India and have been lowered by heavy erosion. Guru Shikhar (1722 m) and Mt. Abu (1158 m) are two important peaks of the Aravallis.
  2. The Rajasthan plateau lies to the east of the Aravalli range. This is a peneplain region, which has been formed by heavy erosion. South of this lies the rocky region of the highlands.
  3. The main mountain range of the central highlands is the Vindhya range. It is about 1200 km long and extends in an east-west direction. The average height of the range is 550 m. The highest peak of the Vindhya range is Sadbhawna Shikhar (752 m). The river Chambal rises from this range.
  4. South of the Vindhya range lies the Narmada river, which flows through a rift valley in some places and an open valley in others.
  5. North of the Vindhya range lies the Malwa plateau, and to the northeast lies the Bundelkhand uplands. These plateaus have been heavily dissected by rivers like Mahl, and Narmada, and numerous small streams to form a ‘Mesa’ landform.
  6. The eastern part of the Vindhya range is known as the Rewn plateau.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map- Physigraphic melhalya plaeateau

Question 26. Discuss the impact of the peninsular plateau on human life in India.
Answer:

The impact of the peninsular plateau on human life in India is as follows—

  1. The peninsular plateau region is rich in mineral resources like iron ore, coal, limestone, copper, manganese, etc. Mining of these resources leads to industrial development.
  2. The river valleys and fertile lands of the region produce various crops like rice (river valleys of Krishna, Godavari, Kaveri, and Khandesh plain), groundnuts (Maidan in Karnataka), onions, and sugarcane (plains of Maharashtra), oranges (Nagpur), grapes (Maidan of Karnataka). A huge amount of cotton is produced in the regur soil region.
  3. The mineral and agricultural resources give rise to numerous industries.
  4. The rivers of the plateau region are used for irrigation and the generation of hydroelectric power.
  5. The plateau region is rich in forest resources.
  6. The beautiful landscape and environment have led to the growth of numerous tourist spots, for e.g.—Mt. Abu in the Aravalli range, Netarhat in the Chotanagpur plateau, Panchmari in the Mahadeo hills, Ooty in Tamil Nadu, Munnar in Kerala, etc.

Question 27. Classify the coastal plains of India.
Answer:

The coastal plains of India are classified into two parts—

  1. The Eastern Coastal plains and
  2. The Western Coastal plains.

1. The Eastern Coastal Plains: This region is further sub-divided into two parts—

  1. The Northern Circars coast and
  2. Coromandel coast.

The eastern coastal plains can be classified according to the states into three parts—

  1. Odisha coastal plain,
  2. Andhra coastal plain and
  3. Tamil Nadu coastal plain.

2. The Western Coastal Plains: This is further sub-divided into four parts—

  1. Gujarat coastal plain,
  2. Konkan coastal plain,
  3. Karnataka coastal plain and
  4. Malabar coastal plain.

Question 28. Classify the coastal plains of India and describe the landforms of any one region.
Answer:

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Classification: The Indian coastal plains can be classified broadly into two parts—

  1. The Eastern coastal plains and
  2. The Western coastal plains.

The Eastern Coastal Plains:

Location: The eastern coastal plains extend from the mouth of the river Subarnarekha in the north to Kanyakumari in the south. It is about 1500 km long and 100 km wide on average.

Characteristic Features:

  1. The eastern coastal plains are wider than the western coastal plains. The deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri rivers form about one-fourth of the whole region.
  2. A number of sand dunes, lagoons, and wetlands are seen here. The dunes are generally 1-4 km long and about 60-65 m high.
  3. The formation of spits in this region leads to the formation of lagoons, which are joined with the sea by a narrow strait of water.
  4. E.g.—Chilka in Odisha, Kolleru and Pulicat in Andhra Pradesh, etc.
  5. Some highlands and low hills are also present in the eastern coastal plains.

Question 29. Discuss briefly the Islands of India.
Answer:

The Islands of India

The Islands of India are divided Into two parts according to their location—

  1. Islands of the Day of Bengal and
  2. Islands of the Arabian sea.

1. Islands of the Bay of Bengal: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the main Islands of the Bay of Bengal. These Islands arc basically the risen parts of a submerged mountain range.

Thus some hills and peaks are seen In different parts of the islands. The average height of these hills is 400-500 m. The highest peak of the islands is Saddle peak (732 m). Mt. Harriet of South Andaman island is a famous peak.

There are two active volcanoes present here, namely, Barren and Narcondam. The Barren had erupted several times and the last eruption occurred in 2017.

Apart from the Andaman and Nicobar islands, other islands on the Bay of Bengal are Wheeler and Stork islands near the Odisha coast, Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh, and Pamban island near the Coromandel coast.

2. Islands of the Arabian sea: The islands of the Arabian sea are Amindivi, Laccadive, Minicoy, etc. They are together known as the Lakshadweep islands.

The islands have been formed by the deposition of the shells of coral polyps. Hence, they are called coral islands. The other islands of the Arabian sea are—Diu (Kathiawar coast), Salsette (Maharashtra), Vypin, and Willingdon (Kerala), etc.

Question 30. Mention the geographical importance of the islands in India.
Answer:

The geographical importance of the islands in India

The islands of India are geographically very important.

1. Timber Industry: The dense forests of the islands help in the development of the timber industry.

2. Cottage Industries: Small and cottage industries like a match sticks, plywood, conch shells, coir items, shell items, etc. develop In the Islands.

3. Fishing: Being located in the seas, fishing is a popular occupation of the island Inhabitants. The fish caught is either sold or consumed by the inhabitants themselves.

4. Tourism: The scenic beauty of the islands and the surrounding sea attract tourists from India as well as from abroad. This helps in the economic development of the islands.

5. Ports: Islands are ideal places for port activity. Several ports have been developed in the islands which favor the export and import of goods.

Question 31. Classify the plains of the Western Coast of India.
Answer:

The coastal plains of western India can be classified into four parts—

1. Gujarat Coastal Plain: This lies between the Kachchh and Kathiawar peninsulas of Gujarat in the north and the northern margins of Maharashtra in the south.

2. Konkan Coastal Plain: This is a narrow and broken coast lying between the northern margin of Maharashtra in the north and Goa in the south.

3. Karnataka Coastal Plain: This is also a narrow and broken coastal plain stretching between southern Goa in the north and the northern border of Kerala in the south.

4. Malabar Coastal Plain: This lies between the northern border of Kerala in the north and Kanyakumari in the south.
Classify the Eastern Coastal plains.

Question 32. Classify the Eastern coastal plains.
Answer:

The Eastern Coastal plains can be classified into two parts—

1. The Northern Circars coast extending from the mouth of the Subarnarekha river in the north to the delta of the Krishna river
in the south.
2. The Coromandel coast extends from the delta of the Krishna river in the north to Kanyakumari in the south.

The Eastern Coast can also be classified according to states—

  1. Odisha coastal plain,
  2. Andhra coastal plain and
  3. Tamil Nadu coastal plain.

Question 33. Describe the Konkan plain.
Answer:

Konkan plain

The Konkan Coastal plain lies in the Western Coastal plains of India. It stretches from the northern margins of Maharashtra in the north to Goa in the south.

The coastal plain is about 500 km long, only 50-80 km wide, and broken, and rocky. Some parts of the plain is sandy and composed of limestone. This coastal plain has sea cliffs, shoals, reefs, and islands in the Arabian Sea.

Question 34. Describe the plains of the Malabar coast.
Answer:

The plains of the Malabar coast

The southern part of the Western Coastal plains along the Arabian Sea in Kerala is known as the Malabar coast. It stretches between the south of Mangalore in the north and Kanyakumari in the south.

It is about 500 km long and 25 km wide. The presence of lagoons, backwaters, spits, etc. is a significant characteristic of the Malabar coast. The famous lagoons and backwaters of this coastal plain are Vembanad, Asthamudi, etc.

Question 35. Which region is known as the Northern Circars coast?
Answer:

The northern part of the Eastern Coastal plains of India lying along the Bay of Bengal is known as the Northern Circars coast.

It stretches from the mouth of the river Subarnarekha in the north to the delta of the river Krishna in the south. It includes the whole of the Odisha coast and the northern part of the Andhra coast.

The famous lagoon Chilka and Kolleru lake are located here. The deltas of the rivers Godavari and Krishna also lie here.

Question 36. Where is the Coromandel coast located?
Answer:

The southern part of the Eastern Coastal plains of India is known as the Coromandel coast. It stretches from the Krishna delta in the north to Kanyakumari in the south. This plain lying along the Bay of Bengal includes the southern part of the Andhra coastal plain and the whole of the Tamil Nadu coastal plain.

Question 37. Why is the western coast more broken as compared to the eastern coast?
Answer:

The western coastal region of India has been formed due to earth movements when the western part of the Western Ghats was raised and submerged several times.

Thus, the coast is narrow and broken. The eastern coast, on the other hand, has been formed by the deposition of materials brought down by rivers. Thus, it is continuous, gentle and gradually meets the sea.

Water Resources Class 10 Map WBBSE

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Short Answer Type Questions

 

Question 1. In how many parts can India be divided according to relief?
Answer:

India can be divided into five parts according to relief—

  1. The Northern Mountains,
  2. The Northern Plains,
  3. The Peninsular Plateau region,
  4. The Coastal Plains and
  5. The Islands.

Question 2. Name three lakes and three passes in the Himalayan range.
Answer:

Lakes:

  1. Nainital in Kumaon Himalayas,
  2. Dal and
  3. Wular in Kashmir valley.

Passes:

  1. Banihal pass in Jammu and Kashmir,
  2. Baralacha La in Himachal Pradesh and
  3. Nathu La pass in Sikkim.

Question 3. When were the Himalayas formed?
Answer:

According to the geological calendar, the formation of the Himalayas started in the Tertiary Age, i.e., about 60-70 million years ago. The Himalayas is still rising. That is why they are called the new fold mountains.

Question 4. Classify the Himalayan mountains.
Answer:

The Himalayas can be classified according to length as well as according to width.

1. Classification according to the length:

  1. Western Himalayas,
  2. Central Himalayas and
  3. Eastern Himalayas.

2. Classification according to width:

  1. Trans or Tethys Himalayas,
  2. Greater Himalayas or Himadri Himalayas,
  3. Lesser Himalayas or Himachal Himalayas and
  4. Outer Himalayas or Siwalik Himalayas.

Question 5. What do you mean by Purvanchal?
Answer:

Purvanchal:

The hilly and mountainous region in the northeastern states of India is called the Purvanchal. These hills and mountain ranges are spread over Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, etc.

The most notable ranges found here are Patkai hills, Barail range, Naga hills, Lushai hills, Mishmi hills, Garo hills, Khasi hills, Jaintia hills, etc.

Question 6. What is a doon?
Answer:

Doon

In the Western Himalayas, the asymmetrical, longitudinal synclinical valley between the Lesser or Himachal Himalayas and the Outer or Siwalik Himalayas is known as the ‘doon’. It extends over a length of 34 km and the average width is 20 km. It is an almost plain land, E.g.—Dehradun (Uttarakhand), Udhampur (Jammu and Kashmir).

Question 7. Which place is known as the ‘Paradise on Earth’?
Answer:

The Kashmir Valley is known as the ‘Paradise on Earth’ because of the magnificent natural beauty found there.

Question 8. Name the highest plateau and longest glacier in India.
Answer:

  1. Highest plateau: Ladakh plateau is the highest plateau of India.
  2. Longest glacier: Siachen glacier in the Karakoram range.

Question 9. Name the highest mountain peak and the highest waterfall in India.
Answer:

Highest mountain peak: Mt. Godwin Austen or K2 (8611m) of the Karakoram range.
Highest waterfall: Kunchikal waterfalls (455m) on the river Varahi in Karnataka.

Question 10. Name some mountain ranges and hills of the Purvanchal.
Answer:

Some of the mountain ranges of the Purvanchal are Patkai hills, Lushai hills, Garo hills, Khasi hills, Jaintia hills, Mishmi hills, Barail range, Naga hills, etc.

Water Resources Class 10 Map WBBSE

Question 11. Name an old fold mountain and a new fold mountain of India.
Answer:

  1. Old fold mountain: Aravalli range in western India.
  2. New fold mountain: Himalayan range in northern India.

Question 12. Name two passes in the Himalayan mountains.
Answer:

The two passes in the Himalayan mountains are—

  1. Nathu La pass in Sikkim in the Eastern Himalayas,
  2. Banihal passes in Jammu and Kashmir in the Western Himalayas.

Question 13. Name a mountain pass of the Himalayas and the Western Ghats.
Answer:

  1. Himalayas: Nathu La passes in Sikkim in the Eastern Himalayas.
  2. Western Ghats: Thalghat gap near Nashik in Maharashtra.

Question 14. Name two peaks that mark the eastern and western limits of the Himalayan mountain.
Answer:

  1. Eastern limit: Namcha Barwa (7782m).
  2. Western limit: Nanga Parbat (8126 m).

Question 15. What is Aksai Chin’?
Answer:

Aksai Chin

Aksai Chin is the region (area 37,244 km2) located in the north-eastern margin of Jammu and Kashmir at the border of China. This is an intermontane plateau located to the northeast of the Karakoram range.

The average height of the region is 5000 m, but some parts of it are as high as 6000m or more. Aksai Chin is now occupied by China. This is a politically disputed land.

Question 16. What are the Soda plains?
Answer:

Soda plains:

The northeastern corner of Jammu and Kashmir is known as the Soda plains. This region lies to the northeast of the Karakoram range and is a part of Aksai Chin. Physiographically, it is a highland, whose surface is a gently undulating land, lacking surface irregularities.

Question 17. Where are the Siwalik mountains located?
Answer:

The southernmost or outer ranges of the Himalayas are known as the Siwalik mountains. They run from the western part of Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. The Siwalik mountains are the lowermost range of the Himalayas. South of the Siwalik lies the great northern plains of India.

Question 18. Name the different ranges in the Kashmir Himalayas.
Answer:

The Kashmir Himalayas can be divided into eight west-to-east trending ranges from south to north.

They are—

  1. Siwalik,
  2. Pir Panjal,
  3. Himadri Himalayas,
  4. Zanskar,
  5. Deosai,
  6. Masherbrum,
  7. Ladakh and
  8. Karakoram.

Question 19. What is the Trans-Himalayan region?
Answer:

The region lying between the northern part of the Himadri Himalayas and the Tibetan plateau is known as the Trans or Tethys Himalayan region.

Water Resources Class 10 Map WBBSE

The mountain ranges of Deosai, Masherbrum, Zanskar, Ladakh, and Karakoram, and the Ladakh plateau and the Indus Valley lie in this region.

Question 20. Name the oldest mountain and the highest peak in India.
Answer:

The oldest mountain in India is the Aravalli range. The highest peak of India is Mt. K2 (8611m) or Godwin Austen in the Karakoram range.

Question 21. What is Karewa?
Answer:

Karewa

It is an intermontane valley fill, comprising unconsolidated gravel and mud of glacial origin. Karewa is found in the form of terraces above the plain of Jhelum and its tributaries at a height of 100-200m and is locally known as ‘Karewa’ or ‘Vudr’. The river Jhelum flows through the Karewa. This soil is good for the cultivation of saffron.

Question 22. Why are the Northern plains of India known as the storehouse of food grains?
Answer:

The Northern plains are very fertile and suitable for agriculture. A large number of crops are grown in this region, for example—rice, jute, sugarcane, wheat, cotton, pulses, oilseeds, etc. Thus, it is known as the storehouse of food grains in India.

Question 23. What are durians?
Answer:

Durians

The moving or shifting sand dunes of the Thar desert are known as durians. In the desert, speedy winds force the sand dunes to move from one place to another along the direction of the wind.

Question 24. What is the Rann of Kachchh?
Answer:

Rann of Kachchh

In Gujarat, in the peninsula of Kachchh, the shallow salty marshes are known as the Rann.

The Rann of Kachchh is subdivided into two parts—

  1. The Great Rann and
  2. The Little Rann.

Question 25. Why is Marusthali called so?
Answer: The name ‘Marusthali’ comes from the words ‘Maru’ meaning dead and ‘thali’ meaning land. Thus, Marusthali means ‘land of the dead’. In Rajasthan, the western part of the Thar desert is almost treeless and lifeless and has no habitation. Thus, it is called Marusthali.

Question 26. What is khadar and bhangar?
Answer:

The plain created by the new alluvium deposited along the banks of the river Ganga and its tributaries is known as khadar. The plan was created a little away from the khadar region, composed of old alluvium known as a banger. The khadar region is more fertile than the banger region.

Question 27. What is Babar?
Answer:

Babar:

The northern part of the Gangetic plain is known as Babar. This lies at the foothills of the Himalayas. The region is made up of rocks, stones, pebbles, gravels, etc. brought down by the numerous rivers coming from the Himalayas. This region is highly porous where many small streams percolate down and lose their way.

Question 28. What is roshi?
Answer:

Roshi:

Concept: The region lying to the west of the bar region in the desert of Rajasthan is known as roti.

Formation: A number of small rivers or streams rise in the Aravalli range and flow westwards through the desert region. The streams remain dry most of the time in the year but get flooded during the rainy season. The plain thus created by the flooding of these streams is known as roti.

Water Resources Class 10 Map WBBSE

Question 29. What is agar?
Answer:

Agar:

The region lying east of the desert region of Rajasthan at the foothills of the Aravalli range is known as agar. This is a narrow region lying between the desert and the plains composed of little sand. Most of the bar region remains covered with grass. Some parts of the bag are used for agriculture.

Question 30. What is dhand?
Answer:

Dhand:

The salt lakes found in the desert region of Rajasthan between two parallel sand dunes are called hands. They are shallow and have large depositions of salt and remain dry for most of the time in the year.

Question 31. What is hamada?
Answer:

Hamada

The hamada is the rocky region lying west of the roshi region of the Thar desert. It is made up of soft rocks and sand. This region is very infertile and unsuitable for agriculture.

Question 32. What is ‘malnad’?
Answer:

Malnad:

‘Malnad’ means a hilly region in the Kannada language. The hilly region about 100km wide lying west of the Karnataka plateau adjacent to the Western Ghats is known as Malnad.

Question 33. What are backwaters?
Answer:

Backwaters:

The numerous lagoons present on the Malabar coast of Kerala are known as backwaters. They are also known as ‘Kayals’. E.g.—Vembanad, Ashtamudi, etc.

Question 34. What do you mean by the highlands of eastern India?
Answer:

Highlands of eastern India:

The highlands of eastern India comprise the Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand, the Odisha Highland and the Dandakaranya plateau of Odisha.

Question 35. Name some hills in India formed of basalt rocks.
Answer:

The hills of Anantagiri, Pavagadh, Dalma, Rajmahal, etc. are formed of basalt rocks.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 WBBSE

Question 36. Name a volcanic mountain in India.
Answer:

A volcanic mountain in India is Narcondam, found in the Andaman and Nicobar islands.

Question 37. Name a lava plateau and a coral island in India.
Answer:

A lava plateau of India is the Deccan Trap or the Maharashtra plateau. A coral island in India is Lakshadweep.

Question 38. Name two mountain passes in southern India. OR, Naim’s two mountain passes of the Western Ghats.
Answer:

Two mountain passes of southern India are—

  1. Thalghat near Nashik,
  2. Bhorghnt near Pune. Both of them lie in the Western Ghats.

Question 39. Give the location of the Eastern Ghats. Name a river flowing through this region.
Answer:

Location: The Eastern Ghats lie between the Deccan plateau in the west and the eastern coastal plains in the east, parallel to the eastern coastline of India. It stretches from the river basin of the Mahanadi in the northeast to the southernmost part of Tamil Nadu in the south.

River: The river Godavari flows through the Eastern Ghats.

Question 40. What is a Kayal?
Answer:

Kayal:

The lagoons and wetlands found on the Malabar coast of Kerala are locally known as Kayals. Since historic times, the Malabar coast has been raised and submerged several times during the earth’s movements.

This has led to the formation of depressions that have got filled up with seawater and formed lagoons or Kayals. The Kayals play an important role in the inland water transport system. Example— Vembanad, Ashtamudi.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 WBBSE

Question 41. What is a ‘Tal’T
Answer:

‘Tal’T

The word ‘Tal’ is derived from the Hindi word talaq (talaq) meaning lake. In the Kumaon range of the Himalayas, numerous depressions have been formed due to the erosional activities of glaciers. These depressions got filled with the snowmelt water of the glaciers and formed lakes or ‘tall’. E.g.—Nainital, Sattal, Bheemtal, etc.

Question 42. What is Chilka? Where is it located?
Answer:

Chilka:

Chilka is a lagoon lying on the eastern coast of India in Odisha. It Is connected to the Bay of Bengal on one side and surrounded by land on all the other sides.

Question 43. Describe the Malnad.
Answer:

Malnad

The western part of the Karnataka plateau is known as the Malnad. It lies to the east of the Western Ghats. The region slopes from the northwest to the southeast. The hills in this region are dome-shaped. The entire region is mostly made up of granite and gneiss rocks.

Question 44. Where is the Meghalaya plateau located? Name the hills found here.
Answer:

The Meghalaya plateau is situated in Meghalaya in the northeastern part of India.

The hills found here are—

  1. Garo,
  2. Khasi and
  3. Jaintia, spreading from west to east.

Question 45. What is this?
Answer:

The western coastal region of India is not covered with too many sand dunes or sandy regions. But some small sand dunes are present on the Malabar coast. These are known are terms.

Question 46. What is the importance of the islands of India?
Answer:

The importance of the islands of India are—

  1. Food crops, spices, etc. are cultivated on the islands.
  2. Tourism has developed on all the islands due to scenic beauty. This helps in economic development.
  3. The islands are the centers of the collection of various resources obtained from the sea.
  4. The islands are also the centers of fishing and related occupations on a large scale.

Question 47. Name two physiographic divisions of the Karnataka Plateau.
Answer:

The two physiographic divisions of Karnataka Plateau are—Malnad and Maidan.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 WBBSE

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Multiple Choice Type Questions

Write The Correct Answer From the Alternatives

Question 1. The oldest fold mountain of India is the—

  1. Aravalli
  2. Vindhya
  3. Nilgiri
  4. Himalayas

Answer: 1. Aravalli

Question 2. Which of the following is an important pass in the Eastern Himalayas?

  1. Zoji La
  2. Nathu La
  3. Khardung La
  4. Shipki La

Answer: 2. Nathu La

Question 3. Which of the following is known as ‘the Crown of the World’?

  1. Karakoram
  2. Mt. Everest
  3. Pamir Plateau
  4. Kanchenjunga

Answer: 2. Mt. Everest

Question 4. The Siachen glacier lies in the—

  1. Karakoram range
  2. Pir Panjal range
  3. Zanskar range
  4. Ladakh range

Answer: 1. Karakoram range

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 WBBSE

Question 5. Patkai range lies in—

  1. Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Nagaland
  3. Arunachal Pradesh
  4. Himachal Pradesh

Answer: 2. Nagaland

Question 6. Kula Kangri is the highest peak in the Himalayas.

  1. Darjeeling
  2. Bhutan
  3. Kumaon
  4. Kashmir

Answer: 2. Bhutan

Question 7. The second highest mountain pass in the world is—

  1. Karakoram
  2. LachulungLa
  3. Tanglang La
  4. Nathu La

Answer: 1. Karakoram

Question 8. The hot spring of Manikaran in the Himalayas lies in—

  1. Uttarakhand
  2. Sikkim
  3. Himachal Pradesh
  4. Kashmir

Answer: 3. Himachal Pradesh

Question 9. The Kashmir Valley is situated between the ranges—

  1. Zanskar and Ladakh
  2. Pir Panjal and Greater Himalayas
  3. Karakoram and Ladakh
  4. Dhuladhar and Nag Tibba

Answer: 1. Pir Panjal and Greater Himalayas

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 WBBSE

Question 10. Two famous lakes in the Kashmir Valley are—

  1. Mirik-Changu
  2. Nainital-Sattal
  3. Dal-Wular
  4. Sambhar-Dhebar

Answer: 3. Dal-Wular

Question 11. The highest peak in India is—

  1. Mt. Everest
  2. Kanchenjunga
  3. K2
  4. Nanda Devi

Answer: 3. K2

Question 12. The highest peak of the Arunachal Himalayas is—

  1. Sandakphu
  2. Gorichen
  3. Nanga Parbat
  4. Annapurna

Answer: 2. Gorichen

Question 13. The river that flows between the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges is—

  1. Ganga
  2. Subtle
  3. Beas
  4. Indus

Answer: 4. Indus

Question 14. The Garo hills of Meghalaya are—

  1. Residual hills
  2. Fold mountains
  3. Block mountains
  4. Volcanic mountains

Answer: 1. Residual hills

Question 15. The river rising from the Kumaon Himalayas is—

  1. Ganga
  2. Indus
  3. Brahmaputra
  4. Krishna

Answer: 1. Ganga

Question 16. The northern margin of India is marked by the—

  1. Zanskar
  2. Ladakh
  3. Aravalli
  4. Karakoram

Answer: 4. Karakoram

Question 17. Mt. Everest is known in Nepal.

  1. Tethys
  2. Chomolungma
  3. Sagarmatha
  4. Akash Sakha

Answer: 3. Sagarmatha

Question 18. The longest tunnel in India is—

  1. Bhutan tunnel
  2. Pir Panjal tunnel
  3. Rohtang tunnel
  4. Jawahar tunnel

Answer: 3. Jawahar tunnel

Question 19. The Valley lies between the Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges.

  1. Kullu
  2. Kangra
  3. Spiti
  4. Dehradun

Answer: 1. Kullu

Question 20. The highest part of Garo hills is—

  1. Saramati
  2. Dapha Bum
  3. Nokrek
  4. Anamudi

Answer: 3. Nokrek

Question 21. ‘La’ means—

  1. River
  2. Glacier
  3. Pass
  4. Lake

Answer: 3. Pass

Question 22. The plains formed at the foothills of the Siwalik by the deposition of pebbles and small boulders are known as—

  1. Khadar
  2. Bhabar
  3. Bhangar
  4. Bet

Answer: 2. Bhabar

Question 23. The Ganga Plain formed of new alluvium is called—

  1. Bhabar
  2. Khadar
  3. Haor
  4. Bet

Answer: 2. Khadar

Question 24. The Imphal Valley is located in—

  1. Assam
  2. Manipur
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Mizoram

Answer: 2. Manipur

Question 25. The lakes surrounded by sand dunes in Rajasthan are called—

  1. Dhand
  2. Dhrian
  3. Rann
  4. Ponds

Answer: 1. Dhand

Question 26. The highest peak of the Aravalli is—

  1. Trimbak
  2. Mt. Abu
  3. Dhupgarh
  4. Guru Shikhar

Answer: 2. Guru Shikhar

Question 27. The rocky part of the desert in Rajasthan is called—

  1. Hamada
  2. Bagar
  3. Rohi
  4. Dhand

Answer: 1. Hamada

Question 28. The inland river of India, Luni flows through—

  1. Gujarat
  2. Maharashtra
  3. Haryana
  4. Rajasthan

Answer: 4. Rajasthan

Question 29. The flood plains lying west of the Aravalli is called—

  1. Rohi
  2. Bagar
  3. Hamada
  4. Dhrian

Answer: 1. Rohi

Question 30. The river flowing through Marusthali is—

  1. Sabarmati
  2. Rohi
  3. Luni
  4. Shatranj

Answer: 3. Luni

Question 31. ‘Marusthali’ means—

  1. Hot Desert
  2. Sandy region
  3. Land of the dead
  4. Desert

Answer: 3. Land of the dead

Question 32. The highest part of the Girnar range is—

  1. Gorakhnath
  2. Saddle Peak
  3. Mt. Thullier
  4. Mt. Harriet

Answer: 1. Gorakhnath

Question 33. The low plateaus lying west of river Yamuna are called the—

  1. Rajasthan highlands
  2. Chotanagpur plateau
  3. Bundelkhand upland
  4. Malwa plateau

Answer: 3. Bundelkhand upland

Question 34. The highest peak of South India is—

  1. Doddabetta
  2. Mullayanagiri
  3. Anamudi
  4. Mukurthi

Answer: 3. Anamudi

Question 35. A mountain pass in the Western ghats is—

  1. Bhorghat
  2. Niti
  3. Malnad
  4. ZojiLa

Answer: 1. Bhorghat

Question 36. is a sweet water lake.

  1. Chilka
  2. Dal
  3. Sambhar
  4. Vembanad

Answer: 2. Dal

Question 37. The highest hill of the Chotanagpur plateau is—

  1. Rajmahal
  2. Parasnath
  3. Biharinath
  4. Ayodhya

Answer: 2. Parasnath

Question 38. The pass lying south of the Nilgiri is—

  1. Palghat
  2. Bhorghat
  3. Thalghat
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Palghat

Question 39. The Satpura is a mountain.

  1. Residual
  2. Volcanic
  3. Block
  4. Fold

Answer: 3. Block

Question 40. The word ‘Malnad’ means—

  1. Plateau
  2. Hilly region
  3. Plain
  4. Mountain

Answer: 2. Hilly region

Question 41. The lagoons of the western coast of India are known as—

  1. Tals
  2. Dhands
  3. Kayaks
  4. Ponds

Answer: 3. Kayals

Question 42. The highest peak of Andaman island is—

  1. Saddle peak
  2. Mt. Harriet
  3. Mt. Thullier
  4. Mt. Diavolo

Answer: 1. Saddle peak

Question 43. The largest saltwater lagoon in India is—

  1. Chilka
  2. Vembanad
  3. Kolleru
  4. Pulicat

Answer: 1. Chilka

Question 44. Kayals or lagoons are seen on the coast.

  1. Coromandel
  2. Northern Circars
  3. Malabar
  4. Konkan

Answer: 3. Malabar

Question 45. The Maharashtra plateau is made up of—

  1. Basalt
  2. Marble
  3. Granite
  4. Sandstone

Answer: 1. Basalt

Question 46. The Thalghat pass of the Western Ghats is located near—

  1. Mahabaleshwar
  2. Nashik
  3. Mumbai
  4. Pune

Answer: 2. Nashik

Question 47. The Eastern Ghats are also known as—

  1. Sahyadri
  2. Malayadri
  3. Coromandel
  4. Guru Shikhar

Answer: 2. Malayadri

Question 48. The Bababudan hills are located in—

  1. Telangana
  2. Andhra Pradesh
  3. Karnataka
  4. Kerala

Answer: 3. Karnataka

Question 49. The Vindhya range is a mountain.

  1. Volcanic
  2. Fold
  3. Block
  4. Residual

Answer: 3. Block

Question 50. The highest plateau of India is—

  1. Chotanagpur
  2. Deccan
  3. Ladakh
  4. Meghalaya

Answer: 3. Ladakh

Question 51. The plateau is a part of the Deccan plateau.

  1. Ladakh
  2. Meghalaya
  3. Malwa
  4. Vindhya

Answer: 1. Meghalaya

Question 52. The pass lies south of the Nilgiri mountains.

  1. Bhorghat
  2. Palghat
  3. Thalghat
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Palghat

Question 53. The highest part of the Satpura range is—

  1. Guru Shikhar
  2. Dhupgarh
  3. Agastya Mala
  4. Kalsubai

Answer: 2. Dhupgarh

Question 54. The low plateau lying to the north-east of the Karnataka plateau is called—

  1. Maidan
  2. Malnad
  3. Telangana
  4. Koraput

Answer: 1. Maidan

Question 55. Telangana plateau lies in—

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Telangana
  3. Andhra Pradesh
  4. Kerala

Answer: 2. Telangana

Question 56. The pass lying near the Cardamom hills is—

  1. Palghat
  2. Thalghat
  3. Amba Ghat
  4. Bhorghat

Answer: 1. Palghat

Question 57. The sand dunes of the Malabar coast are called—

  1. Barkhan
  2. main
  3. Dhand
  4. Seif dune

Answer: 3. Dhand

Question 58. Which of the following is a broken coast?

  1. Malabar
  2. Coromandel
  3. Northern Circars
  4. Konkan

Answer: 4. Konkan

Question 59. Andaman and Nicobar islands are—

  1. Coral islands
  2. Volcanic islands
  3. Continental islands
  4. Bay islands

Answer: 4. Bay islands

Question 60. The Barren Island is a—

  1. Coral island
  2. Volcanic island
  3. Active volcano
  4. Extinct volcano

Answer: 3. Active volcano

Question 61. The word ‘Malai’ means—

  1. Mountain pass
  2. Lake
  3. River
  4. Hill

Answer: 4. Hill

Question 62. The Lakshadweep is a—

  1. Coral island
  2. Volcanic island
  3. Continental island
  4. Sub-continental island

Answer: 1. Coral island

Question 63. Ria coast has been formed near—

  1. Gujarat coast
  2. Konkan coast
  3. Karnataka coast
  4. Coromandel coast

Answer: 3. Karnataka coast

Question 64. A waterfall in the Chotanagpur plateau is—

  1. Rajrappa
  2. Seven Sisters
  3. Jog
  4. Dhuandhar

Answer: 1. Rajrappa

Question 65. The number of islands in Lakshadweep is—

  1. 10
  2. 30
  3. 36
  4. 100

Answer: 3. 36

Question 66. An island in the Rann of Kachch is known as—

  1. Paccham
  2. Pat
  3. Mesa
  4. Butte

Answer: 1. Paccham

Question 67. The plain, which is formed along the foothills of Siwalik Himalaya by the deposition of small rock fragments is called—

  1. Khadar
  2. Bhangar
  3. Bhavar
  4. Bet

Answer: 3. Bhavar

Question 68. An example of one salt lake in India is—

  1. Pangong Lake
  2. Bhimtal
  3. Dal Lake
  4. Loktak Lake

Answer: 1. Pangong Lake

 

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment If The Statement Is True, Write True And Answer If False, Write False Against The Following

 

Question 1. The Himalayas are old-fold mountains.
Answer: False

Question 2. The Himalayas have risen from the Mediterranean Sea.
Answer: False

Question 3. The highest peak of the Himalayan mountain is Godwin Austen.
Answer: False

Question 4. Verinag is a hot spring in Jammu and Kashmir.
Answer: False

Question 5. Phalut is the highest peak of the Singalila range.
Answer: True

Question 6. The Siachen glacier lies in the Karakoram range.
Answer: True

Question 7. The Greater Himalayas are the highest ranges of the Himalayas.
Answer: True

Question 8. The highest mountain range lying in India is the Great Himalayas.
Answer: True

Question 9. The Kashmir Valley lies between the Pir Panjal range in the north and the Himgiri- Zanskar ranges in the south.
Answer: False

Question 10. The rivers Ganga and Yamuna rise from the Kumaon Himalayas.
Answer: True

Question 11. The highest peak of the Patkai range is Sabarmati.
Answer: False

Question 12. The highest peak in India is Mt. Everest.
Answer: False

Question 13. The Banihal pass connects Srinagar and Jammu.
Answer: True

Question 14. The Zoji La pass connects Kashmir and Leh.
Answer: True

Question 15. The Nathu La pass of Sikkim connects the state with Chumbi Valley in Tibet.
Answer: True

Question 16. Mt. Everest is known as the ‘crown of the earth’.
Answer: True

Question 17. The Nanga Parbat lies northwest of Jammu and Kashmir.
Answer: True

Question 18. The Himalayan range is made up of igneous rocks.
Answer: False

Question 19. The Burji La, Jelep La, and Nathu La passes are located in the Himadri Himalayas.
Answer: True

Question 20. The Himalayas are international mountain ranges.
Answer: True

Question 21. The Aravalli is a residual hill.
Answer: True

Question 22. The region formed of old alluvium in the Ganga plains is known as Bhabar.
Answer: False

Question 23. The Terai region lying in the northern part of West Bengal is known as duars.
Answer: True

Question 24. The salt marshes of Rajasthan are known as Rann.
Answer: False

Question 25. The Imphal Valley lying in central Mizoram is surrounded by hills.
Answer: False

Question 26. The grasslands in the river basin of Luni in Rajasthan are known as Rohi.
Answer: False

Question 27. The depth of silt in the Ganga plains increases from south to north.
Answer: True

Question 28. The Rann of Kachchh is the extension of the Bay of Bengal.
Answer: False

Question 29. Sambhar is a sweet water lake.
Answer: False

Question 30. The old silt region of the Ganga plain is known as bhangra.
Answer: True

Question 31. The plain stretching from Rajasthan to the Bay of Bengal is called the Indo-Gangetic plain.
Answer: True

Question 32. The Meghalaya plateau is a part of the Chotanagpur plateau.
Answer: True

Question 33. The highest peak of the Eastern Ghats is Kalsubai.
Answer: False

Question 34. Chilka is a saltwater lake.
Answer: True

Question 35. Narcondam is a volcanic island in India.
Answer: True

Question 36. Ladakh is the highest plateau in India.
Answer: True

Question 37. The highest peak of the Satpura range is Mt. Abu.
Answer: False

Question 38. The highest part of the Ranchi plateau is the Rajmahal hills.
Answer: False

Question 39. Vembanad is the largest Kayal in India.
Answer: True

Question 40. Sand dunes are seen all over the Western Coast.
Answer: False

Question 41. Barren is a volcano in the Andaman Islands.
Answer: True

Question 42. The Tamil Nadu and Andhra coastal regions are together known as the Andhra coast.
Answer: False

Question 43. The western coastal region of India was formed due to severe earth movements.
Answer: True

Question 44. The eastern coastal plains are wider than the western coastal plains.
Answer: True

Question 45. The Deccan plateau is an intermontane plateau.
Answer: False

Question 46. The Vembanad Kayal is the largest lagoon on the Malabar coast.
Answer: True

Question 47. Barren is an extinct volcano.
Answer: False

Question 48. The Shillong plateau lies in a rain shadow area.
Answer: True

Question 49. Vindhya is a block mountain range.
Answer: True

Question 50. The highest peak of the Western Ghats is Vavul Mala.
Answer: False

Question 51. Amarkantak is the highest peak of the Mahadeo hills.
Answer: False

Question 52. The lagoons of the Malabar coast are known as terms.
Answer: False

Question 53. The 10° Channel lies between the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands.
Answer: False

Question 54. The main crop grown in Lakshadweep is coconut.
Answer: True

Question 55. India and Sri Lanka are separated by the Palk Strait.
Answer: True

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment in the blanks with suitable words

Question 1. The region where the Himalayas exist was previously occupied by the_______ sea.
Answer: Tethys

Question 2. The Himalayas were formed during the_______ geological age.
Answer: Tertiary

Question 3. The highest point of the Singalila range is_______
Answer: Sandakphu

Question 4. The highest peak of the Himalayan mountain is_______
Answer: Mt. Everest

Question 5. The_______ range forms the boundary between West Bengal and Nepal.
Answer: Singalila

Question 6. The highest hill of Tripura is_______
Answer: Jampui

Question 7. The southernmost range of the Himalayas is _______
Answer: Siwalik

Question 8. The _______ peak lies in the northwestern part of the Himalayas.
Answer: Nanga Parbat

Question 9. The Karakoram range is also known as the _______
Answer: Krishnagiri

Question 10. The highest point of Kohima Hill is_______
Answer: Japfu

Question 11. The valley formed between the Siwalik and the Himachal Himalayas is known as _______
Answer: Doons

Question 12. The Himalayas extend from the _______ knot.
Answer: Pamir

Question 13. The Indus flows through the _______ Himalayas.
Answer: Kashmir

Question 14. The soil called Karewa found in the Kashmir Valley is famous for _______ cultivation.
Answer: saffron

Question 15. The Kanchenjunga lies in the state of _______ in India.
Answer: Sikkim

Question 16. In the eastern Himalayas, the sharp hair-pin bends are known as_______
Answer: syntaxial bends

Question 17. The only hot desert in India is located in _______
Answer: Rajasthan

Question 18. The western part of the Indian desert is known as _______
Answer: Marusthali

Question 19. The _______ island of river Brahmaputra is the largest river bar of India.
Answer: Majuli

Question 20. The only river of Marusthali is_______
Answer: Luni

Question 21. The land formed of new alluvium in the Punjab plains is called _______
Answer: Bet

Question 22. The central part of the _______river basin is known as the Chhattisgarh plains.
Answer: Mahanadi

Question 23. The salt marshes of Gujarat are locally known as _______
Answer: Rann

Question 24. The moving dunes of the Thar desert are known as _______
Answer: Dhrians

Question 25. The coast of Tamil Nadu is known as _______
Answer: Coromandel

Question 26. The _______ peak lies at the northeastern limit of the Himalayas.
Answer: Namcha Barwa

Question 27. The highest peak of the Maikal hills in central India is _______
Answer: Amarkantak

Question28. The right is a famous pass of the _______ mountains.
Answer: Western ghats

Question 29. The_______ lagoon lies on the Coromandel coast.
Answer: Pulicat

Question 30. The greatest height of the Nilgiris is _______.
Answer: 2637 m

Question 31. The _______ mountains do not run continuously.
Answer: Eastern Ghats

Question 32. The _______range and _______ hills lie in between the Narmada and Tapti rivers.
Answer: Satpura, Mahadeo

Question 33. The Western Ghats is a_______ mountain.
Answer: Block

Question 34. The Maharashtra plateau is known as the_______
Answer: Deccan trap

Question 35. The_______ lake lies in between the deltas of the rivers Krishna and Godavari.
Answer: Kolleru

Question 36. The_______valley lies between Vindhya and Satpura ranges.
Answer: Narmada

Question 37. The Bhorghat is located in the _______ mountains.
Answer: Western ghats

Question 38. The highest part of the Meghalaya plateau is _______
Answer: Shillong

Question 39. The Meghalaya plateau is a part of the _______ plateau.
Answer: Chotanagpur

Question 40. _______ is the highest part of Meghalaya
Answer: Shillong

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Which mountain pass connects Srinagar and Jammu?
Answer: Banihal Pass.

Question 2. What is the valley between Lesser Himalayas and the Siwalik range called?
Answer: Doon.

Question 3. Name two ranges of the Lesser Himalayas.
Answer: Pir Panjal and Mussourie.

Question 4. Which is the highest part of the Himadri Himalayas?
Answer: Mt. Everest.

Question 5. Which is the highest peak of the Himalayas located in India?
Answer: Kanchenjunga.

Question 6. Which mountain pass connects Kashmir Valley with Ladakh?
Answer: Zoji La Pass.

Question 7. From where does the Yamunotri glacier flow?
Answer: Garhwal-Kumaon Himalayas.

Question 8. Which mountain peak lies at the Nepal- Sikkim border?
Answer: Kanchenjunga.

Question 9. Name the highest mountain pass in the world.
Answer: Sia La (5589m).

Question 10. Name a cold desert in India.
Answer: Ladakh.

Question 11. Which is the highest plateau of India?
Answer: Ladakh.

Question 12. Where has been the highest bridge in the world constructed?
Answer: Between the Dras River and Suru River in Ladakh.

Question 13. Name the highest peak of the Purvachal Himalayas.
Answer: Dapha Bum.

Question 14. What was there previously where the Himalayas have formed now?
Answer: Tethys Sea.

Question 15. In which Union territory is Pangong Lake situated?
Answer: Jammu and Kashmir.

Question 16. In which state of India are Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, and Badrinath located?
Answer: Uttarakhand.

Question 17. What are the lakes in Kumaon Himalayas called?
Answer: Tal.

Question 18. Where is Karewa soil found in India?
Answer: Kashmir valley.

Question 19. Name the highest lake in India.
Answer: Tso Lhamo lake in Sikkim (5330m).

Question 20. What do you mean by ‘La’?
Answer: Mountain pass.

Question 21. Name the oldest mountain range of India. Aravalli.
Answer: What are the dry lakes of Rajasthan called? Dhands.

Question 23. Name the largest lake of the Thar desert.
Answer: Sambhar lake.

Question 24. Which mineral resource is found in the desert region of India?
Answer: Mineral oil.

Question 25. Name two mountain ranges in Gujarat.
Answer: Gir and Girnar.

Question 26. What do you mean by Rann?
Answer: Salt marshes found in the Kachchh peninsula of Gujarat.

Question 27. Name the highest peak of the Meghalaya plateau.
Answer: Shillong peak (1961 m).

Question 28. Name the highest peak of the Nilgiris.
Answer: Doddabetta (2637m).

Question 29. How far does the Malabar coast stretch?
Answer: From Goa to Kanyakumari.

Question 30. How far does the Coromandel coast extend?
Answer: From the mouth of the Krishna river to Kanyakumari.

Question 31. What does the Kannada word ‘Malnad’ mean?
Answer: Hilly region.

Question 32. Name two volcanic islands of the Andaman Islands.
Answer: Barren and Narcondam.

Question 33. Name the gap between the Nilgiri mountains and the Western Ghats.
Answer: Palghat.

Question 34. What are the lagoons of the Malabar coast called?
Answer: Kayals.

Question 35. Which is the highest peak of the Western Ghats?
Answer: Anamudi (2695m).

Question 36. Which is the highest peak of the Eastern Ghats?
Answer: Jindhagada(1690m) in Andhra Pradesh.

Question37. Name the plateau lying east of the Vindhya mountains.
Answer: Rewa.

Question 38. What are the low plains lying east of the Malnad called?
Answer: Maidan.

Question 39. Where is the Ria coast seen in India?
Answer: Karnataka coast.

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Match The Column With The Right Column

1.

Left Column Right Column
1. Gangotri A. Arunachal Himalayas
2. Dhauladhar B. Sikkim Himalayas
3. Kanchenjunga C. Kumaon Himalayas
4. Namcha Barwa D. Kashmir Himalayas
5. Pir Panjal E. Himachal Himalayas

Answer: 1-C,2-E,3-B,4-A,5-D

2.

Left Column Right Column
 1.  Zoji La  A.  Between Kullu and Lahul-Spiti
2. Rohtang Pass B.  Between Uttarakhand and Tibet
3.  Nathu La C. Between Srinagar and Leh
4.  Khardung La D.  Between Leh and Nubra Valley
5. Lipu-Lekh Pass E. Between Sikkim and Tibet

Answer: 1-C,2-A,3-E,4-D,5-B

3.

Left Column Right Column
1. Malabar coast A.  Chilka
2. Utkal coast B.  Pulicat
3. Coromandel coast C. Vembanad
4. Konkan coast D.  Koller
5.  Andhra coast E.  Sindhudurg

Answer: 1-C,2-A,3-B,4-E,5-D

4.

Left Column Right Column
1.  Malnad A. Lower region of Karnataka plateau
2.  Maidan B.  Fertile plain created by small rivers
3.  Terai C.  Porous, rocky, pebbly land at the foothills of the Siwaliks
4.  Rohi D. The waterlogged wetlands are a little far away from the foothills of Siwalik
5. Bhabar E. Higher region of Karnataka plateau

Answer: 1-E,2-A,3-D,4-B,5-C

 

 

 

 

WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 Geography and Environment

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