WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 Geography And Environment Chapter 4 Waste Management

Chapter 4 Waste Management Short Explanatory Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the different kinds of waste produced in households.

Many kinds of waste are produced in households.

They are classified mainly into three types—

1. Solid wastes:

Solid wastes can be subdivided into two types-

  1. Biodegradable solid wastes: Wastes like food leftovers, vegetable peels, old clothes, old newspapers, old calendars or used tea leaves that can be decomposed by microorganisms are biodegradable.
  2. Non-biodegradable solid wastes: Obsolete televisions, damaged mobile phones, broken cameras, broken utensils, broken glass items and damaged plastic furniture are some of the non-biodegradable solid wastes that cannot be decomposed by microorganisms.

2. Liquid wastes: Used water in bathrooms and kitchens, water disposed of after washing clothes and liquids of other types that are no more necessary are called liquid wastes.

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3. Gaseous wastes: Smoke coming out of kitchen chimneys, fuel wood, incense sticks and perfume sprays, and CFCs emitted by various electrical appliances like refrigerators and air conditioners are some of the gaseous wastes.


WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management solid wastes

WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management liquid wastes

WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management Geseous water


Question 2. What kind of waste is seen on the streets?

Various kinds of waste are seen on the streets of both rural and urban areas-

1. Some citizens have a tendency of throwing litter on the streets from their windows or verandahs. This spreads litter all over the streets.

2. The municipality and corporation dump the solid wastes collected from the urban centres besides the roads before they are finally disposed of or treated. This causes the spread of bad odour.

WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management people dumping wastes on the street

3. Litter and garbage are seen in parks, markets and street corners. Flies and insects sitting on them may cause infectious diseases.

4. Sometimes the sewage lines may get blocked and the open drains may overflow. Sewage water will then flood the roads and cause unhealthy conditions.

5. The factories and mills around the cities emit smoke throughout the day. This causes suffocation when we travel through those areas.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Question Answer

Question 3. Discuss the types of waste found in schools.

Various types of waste are produced in schools.

1. Solid wastes: Both biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes can be found in schools.

  1. Biodegradable: Food leftovers, pieces of paper, chalk, the dust of chalk, etc., are the biodegradable wastes produced in schools.
  2. Non-biodegradable: Refills of pens, plastics, water bottles, wrappers of cakes and candies and broken scales and sharpeners are some of the non-biodegradable wastes found in schools.

2. Liquid wastes: Liquid wastes include water disposed of toilets and wash basins.

Question 4. Discuss the various sources of waste.

Wastes can be generated from many sources.

1. Household wastes: These wastes are generated due to daily work in households, like cooking, gardening and cleaning.

WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management Different sources of waste

2. Industrial wastes: These wastes are produced by big and small industries.

3. Agricultural wastes: This includes items produced during and after agricultural activities. Examples—Husks, hay, and roots of harvested crops.

4. Urban wastes: Such wastes are generated in urban areas. Examples—Obsolete computers, damaged mobiles, furniture and old-fashioned clothes.

5. Organic wastes: This includes wastes coming from biotic materials like agricultural wastes, food leftovers, old jute bags, etc.

6. Medical wastes: Used in injection syringes, bandages, cotton, tablet foils and catheters are some of the medical or hospital wastes.

7. Mining wastes: The wastes produced during mining activities are called mining wastes.

8. Radioactive wastes: Wastes produced in atomic research centres are called radioactive wastes.
about medical waste.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Question Answer

Question 5. Discuss Medical waste.

Medical waste:

The wastes produced in hospitals, nursing homes, pathological laboratories and health centres are called medical wastes. They can be both infectious and non-infectious.

1. Infectious medical wastes: About 10-12% of medical wastes are infectious. They include-

  1. Used needles, syringes, knives, scissors, blades, catheters, etc.
  2. pathological and surgical wastes,
  3. used kinds of cotton, bandages, amputated body parts, plasters, etc.
  4. Medicines used in treatment.

2. Non-infectious wastes: About 90% of medical waste are non-infectious. They include-

  1. Plastic packets, plates, packets of medicines,
  2. Leftover food of patients,
  3. Office wastes, used and old papers, and foils of medicines.

Question 6. Discuss the solid wastes found in the environment.

The wastes that lie in a solid state in the environment are called solid wastes.

Some of the solid wastes found in the environment are-

1. Household wastes: Household solid wastes include vegetable peels, food leftovers, plastic packets, old clothes, discarded blankets, dry flowers, old calenders, broken utensils, old shoes, old newspapers, broken glass and many more things.

2. Industrial wastes: The solid wastes coming from industries include discarded types of machinery, used plastic items, tyres, tubes, fly ash, chemical wastes, mineral wastes, etc.

3. Agricultural wastes: Solid wastes from agricultural activities include husk, sugarcane fibre, hay, wooden pieces, jute stems, animal wastes, dung, etc.

4. Pathological wastes: Pathological and medical wastes include used syringes, needles, knives, scissors, cotton, bandages, etc.

Question 7. Discuss the sources of liquid waste in the environment.

The waste materials that exist in the liquid state in the environment are called liquid wastes.

The different sources of liquid wastes found in the environment are-

1. Household wastes: Water used for washing utensils and clothes, used water coming out of bathrooms and toilets, detergent water and the water left after wiping and mopping are some of the liquid wastes generated in households.

2. Industrial wastes: Water left after cleaning instruments, washing of ores and minerals, hot water from boilers, and water saturated with chemicals and oils are some of the liquid wastes that come out of industries.

3. Agricultural wastes: The fertilisers and insecticides used in agriculture are washed away by rainwater and added to the rivers or nearby waterbodies. This leads to the production of liquid wastes from agriculture.

Question 8. Discuss the gaseous wastes in the environment.

The gaseous wastes in the environment

The gaseous materials coming out of the chimneys of factories, vehicles, research centres, power plants, households and other places which are harmful to the environment are called gaseous wastes.

They include carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), nitrogen oxide, oxides of sulphur, carbon monoxide, etc. These gaseous wastes result in global warming and the greenhouse effect. They are also responsible for environmental and climatic changes.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Question Answer

Question 9. Discuss the toxic wastes in the environment.

The toxic wastes in the environment

The toxic wastes produced in the environment are very harmful and may even result in loss of life. These wastes can be divided into three types-

1. Chemical Wastes: The floor cleaning liquids, rat and pest killing chemicals, and insecticides which are harmful chemicals, that degrade environmental quality when disposed of in the environment.

2. Radioactive Wastes: The radioactive wastes emit harmful radiations that can result in cell damage and genetic disorders in animals, plants and human beings. They are emitted from X-rays, atomic energy centres and atomic explosions.

3. Medical wastes: Catheters, used needles, syringes, scissors, amputated body parts, and used cotton and bandages are some of the medical wastes. They are highly infectious and may cause harm.

Question 10. What is the nature of urban waste?

The nature of urban waste

Wastes are produced every day in rural and urban areas. Large urban regions and metropolitan cities produce much more waste than smaller towns. Cities like Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai produce about 3000-5000 metric tons of waste every day.

This includes items like leaves of trees, straws, vegetable peels, burnt charcoal, broken glass and metal utensils, old paper, old clothes, stones, leather, plastic items, bones, ash, thermocol, bulbs and lights, electronic goods, food leftovers, carry bags, etc.

Question 11. What are biodegradable wastes?

Biodegradable wastes

Biodegradable wastes are those that can be decomposed or broken up into simple components by microorganisms like bacteria.

The simple components can be easily absorbed by the soil. This helps to increase soil fertility. Some biodegradable wastes found around us are-vegetable peels, dry leaves and flowers, weeds removed from gardens, green coconut shells, old newspapers, books, old clothes, etc.

Question 12. What are non-biodegradable wastes? How do they affect the environment?

Non-biodegradable wastes

The wastes that cannot be decomposed by microorganisms are called non-biodegradable wastes.

They can be divided into three types-

1. Poisonous wastes: Chemical products, paints, bulbs, tubes, spray cans, insecticides, lead batteries and medicine bottles are some of the poisonous non-biodegradable wastes.

2. Recyclable wastes: Items like plastic goods, broken glass utensils, polythene packets or electric wires can be recycled and reused. Hence, they are called recyclable non-blodeRradable wastes.

3. Solid wastes: Hospital wastes like used syringes, saline bottles, used plasters, household wastes like old shoes, and obsolete electronic p.oods are some of the solid wastes that are non-bio-dep, readable.

Effects on the environment: The non-biodegradable wastes remain in the environment for a long time and may cause harm. They may spread infectious diseases and block the drainage and sewage systems.

But nowadays, these wastes are sorted and items made of plastic, glass and metal are recycled. This helps to reduce the amount of waste deposited in the environment.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Question Answer

Question 13. Discuss the effects of hospital waste disposal on human health.

The effects of hospital waste disposal on human health

The wastes disposed of in hospitals, medical centres, health homes or dispensaries may be infectious and cause numerous health hazards for human beings.

The dumping of such wastes in open dustbins or streets causes air pollution of huge proportions. Rats, flies, moles and other insects sit on the wastes and tend to carry germs and spread diseases.

The common diseases caused this way are-

  1. Worms,
  2. Lung diseases,
  3. Tetanus,
  4. Hepatitis B,
  5. Peptic Ulcer,
  6. Skin diseases,
  7. Stomach problems,
  8. Jaundice,
  9. Eye diseases,
  10. Typhoid.

Question 14. What do you mean by ‘open dumping’?

Open dumping

The wastes collected from urban areas are dumped in some open lowlands on the outskirts of these regions. This method of disposing of the waste is called ‘open dumping’.

This process does not require much planning and does not involve any huge expenditure. Sometimes, these wastes are set on fire to reduce their bulk.

But there are some disadvantages of open dumping—

  1. The garbage and wastes get washed away by rainwater and flow into the nearby waterbodies polluting them.
  2. The garbage and pollutants lie open on the ground and spread a very bad odour.
  3. They attract rats, moles, flies and insects which carry the dirt with them and spread diseases.
  4. Burning of these wastes causes air pollution.

WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management Open Dumping

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Question Answer

Question 15. How does waste disposal result in water pollution?

Waste disposal is one of the main reasons for water pollution. Many people have a tendency of disposing of household wastes in ponds, lakes and rivers nearby.

Industrial wastes are also disposed of in rivers and oceans in many cases. Rainwater also washes down wastes disposed on the ground into water bodies. All these lead to the contamination of water and subsequently, result in high levels of pollution.

Water pollution is very harmful to aquatic plants and animals and may lead to the extinction of some species. The balance of the aquatic ecosystem is also disturbed as many species lose their reproductive capabilities, while some die early.

Question 16. Discuss the disadvantages of ‘ocean dumping’.

The system of disposing of wastes in oceans is known as ocean dumping.

The disadvantages of ocean dumping are—

1. Oil leakage or oily products deliberately disposed of in oceans create a layer of oil on the ocean water. This disables the oceanic animals from breathing and may cause their death. The layer of oil also prevents sunlight from penetrating into the water.

This hampers the process of photosynthesis of oceanic plants and reduces the growth of plankton and corals.

2. The poisonous wastes disposed of in oceans are consumed by fish and other oceanic animals. This poisons the fish and when we consume those fishes, the harmful chemicals spread in our bodies and cause health problems.

3. The wastes disposed of in the oceans reduce the oxygen content of the water. This affects marine animals like seals, dolphins, sharks and fish and may cause their death.

4. Small items like bottle caps, machine parts and other choking items cause death when marine animals confuse them with food materials.

Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 17. How does waste disposal cause soil pollution?

Waste disposal is one of the main causes of soil pollution.

The various causes are as follows—

1. The detergents, pesticides and chemical fertilisers disposed of in the soil tend to degrade the quality and fertility of the soil. They also tend to the quality and fertility of the soil. They also tend to kill useful bacteria and small animals and insects present in the soil.

2. Compounds of lead molybdenum and other poisonous elements reduce the quality and fertility of the soil and cause high levels of soil pollution.

3. Non-biodegradable items like plastic, polythene and broken glass change the soil’s character.

4. Atomic explosions and wastes coming from atomic research centres damage the fertility of soil permanently. The damage may be of such a scale that the soil remains poisonous for thousands of years.

5. Acid rain as a result of smoke emitted by vehicles and industries directly reaches the soil and releases toxic substances the soil and thus polluting it.

Question 18. What are safe pesticides?

Safe pesticides

The use of pesticides is very common in agriculture for the protection of crops. Some pesticides are very harmful and may cause side effects.

But recently, the use of organic and environment-friendly pesticides has been popularised. These are called safe pesticides. Example—Neem oil. This does not cause pollution of soil, air or water.

Question 19. ‘Wastes are the source of resources’- Explain.

‘Wastes are the source of resources’

Wastes can be converted into resources if are properly used and utilised. In the present day, wastes are being treated by new technologies and are being put to valuable use.

Example— The fly ash coming from the thermal power plants is being used for making bricks, building roads, and filling lowlands; biotic wastes are being used to produce biotic fertilisers, fuel gas and electricity.

Such recycling and reusing of wastes into productive items reduce the pressure on the existing natural resources. Hence, it is rightly said that- ‘Wastes are the source of resources’.

Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 20. Name some harmful chemical wastes.

Some of the harmful chemical wastes are-

  1. Benzidine: Used in paint factories.
  2. DDT: Used as a pesticide.
  3. Mercury: Used in many industries.
  4. Lead: Used in many industries.

Question 21. How is the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river being polluted?

The river Ganga is considered the lifeline of India. The last 600 km stretch of the river flowing through West Bengal till the river mouth in the Bay of Bengal is known as the Bhagirathi- Hooghly.

This part of the river Ganga is the most polluted due to the following reasons—

  1. The numerous factories located on the banks of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river discharge their solid, liquid and poisonous wastes directly into the river.
  2. Pesticides, chemical fertilisers, biotic wastes and eroded soil are washed by rainwater and accumulated in the river.
  3. Disposal of dry flowers, plastics and other household wastes, dead bodies of animals and immersion of idols pollute the river.
  4. The garbage collected from the adjacent urban areas is often directly disposed of into the river.
  5. Leakage of fuel, burnt motor oil and lubricants from water vessels (boats, ships, etc.) also cause a lot of pollution in the river.
  6. Ash from burning ghats is often dumped into the river which causes high levels of pollution.

Question 22. What kind of environmental problems may arise from the pollution of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river?

The environmental problems that may arise from the pollution of the Bhagirathi- Hooghly river are-

  1. Expenses of purifying the river water to make it drinkable will increase manifolds.
  2. The polluted water used for agriculture will pollute the soil and harm the crops.
  3. Aquatic animals like fishes, crabs and insects as well as aquatic plants will die in the polluted water.
  4. Deposition of wastes in the river bed will decrease the depth of the river and increase the chances of flood in the adjacent areas.
  5. The load of wastes in the river will result in the collapse of the river banks, causing a loss of huge areas of agricultural fields.
  6. Wastes also hamper navigation and movement of water transport.

Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 23. What do you mean by hazardous waste?

Hazardous waste

The chemical wastes that may cause harm to both the plant and animal kingdoms are called dangerous wastes.

Generally, they are combustible, highly reactive, poisonous or radioactive. They are usually generated in oil- refineries, metal extraction industries, chemical factories and atomic energy centres.

The different types of dangerous wastes are—

  1. Heavy metals: Lead, zinc, arsenic, etc.
  2. Petrochemical products: Grease, gasoline, lubricating oils.
  3. Artificial organic compounds: DDT, aldrin.
  4. Acids: Hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulphide.
  5. Biotic elements: Bacteria, plant toxins.
  6. Radioactive elements: Radium, uranium.

Question 24. Discuss the effects of Waste disposal on the environment.

The various effects of waste disposal on the environment are-

1. Visual pollution: Dumping of garbage and wastes here and there pollutes the place and looks displeasing. This causes light pollution.

2. Effect of poisonous wastes: Poisonous wastes coming from factories pollute the water, soil as well as air. They damage the ecosystem and cause various diseases in plants and animals.

3. Reduction of soil fertility: The wastes coming from households, agriculture, hospitals and industries disposed of in the soil cause pollution and reduce the fertility of the soil.

4. Effect on water: Wastes disposed of in waterbodies pollute the water and cause life risks to aquatic plants and animals. Their reproductive capabilities are also reduced.

5. Effect on air: Mixing of gaseous wastes in the air cause air pollution. This increases the air temperature gradually and adds up to the causes of global warming. Open dumping of wastes also produces a foul smell.

6. Destruction of biodiversity: Poisonous and harmful wastes cause the destruction of biodiversity of wetlands, forests and water bodies.

7. Effect on human beings: Solid wastes are responsible for diseases like typhoid, jaundice, diarrhoea, skin diseases, lung diseases, etc.

Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 25. What are the sources of solid waste?

The various sources of solid wastes are-

1. Households: Food leftovers, packets of spices, vegetable peels, old newspapers, plastic containers, glass bottles, old beddings, clothes, broken electronic devices, fans, shoes, etc., are wastes generated in households.

2. Agriculture: Wastes generated from agriculture include husks of grains, the fibre of sugarcane, jute, animal dung, dry leaves, DDT, containers of pesticides, and empty bags of fertilisers and seeds.

3. Industries: Industrial wastes include discarded metallic items, fly ash from thermal power plants, sludge, packing boxes, harmful chemicals and gases.

4. Hospitals: Hospitals and medical centres generate wastes like medicine bottles, tablet foils, syringes, blades, scissors, used cotton and bandages and amputated body parts.

Question 26. What kind of problems may arise from different sources of waste?

The various kinds of problems arising from various sources of waste are—

1. Medical wastes: Infectious diseases like tetanus, diarrhoea, hepatitis and skin diseases, AIDS, lung diseases and worm-related problems may occur even in the slightest contact with contaminated medical wastes.

2. Agriculture: Agricultural wastes cause the destruction of the ecosystem of both soil and water. Plastics and containers disposed of in the soil pollute it and hamper plant growth. Worms, dysentery, lung diseases, and stomach problems may occur.

3. Industries: Industrial wastes disposed in rivers or on the ground cause water and soil pollution. They cause many health problems and diseases.

4. Construction: Cement, sand, paints and varnishes used in construction works cause soil pollution. They reduce soil fertility. They also cause several lung and stomach diseases.

5. Radioactive wastes: Radioactive wastes are the most harmful wastes of all. They pollute the soil and water. They may cause genetic diseases in both plants and animals as they emit radiation.

Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 27. Name some diseases caused by solid waste.

Solid wastes may cause diseases like typhoid, dysentery, diarrhoea, skin diseases and other work-related diseases. The people directly involved with the collection and disposal of solid wastes are more prone to these diseases.

Question 28. What kind of waste is plastic? What environmental hazards does it cause?

Plastic is a solid non-biodegradable product. It cannot be decomposed and remains in the soil for a very long time. It causes soil and water pollution.

It blocks the sewage lines and causes water logging after heavy rainfall. It causes tremendous air pollution when burnt.

Question 29. List the problems caused by the dumping of wastes openly.

The problems caused by dumping wastes openly are—

  1. Rats, moles, flies and insects sit on the garbage and wastes dumped openly, thereby spreading diseases.
  2. Open garbage and wastes spread bad odour and cause air pollution.
  3. Burning of these wastes also causes air pollution.
  4. The dump yards also occupy a lot of space, which can be put to other uses.

Question 30. List the wastes generated from construction works.

The wastes generated from construction works are bricks, wood, stones, sand, cement, plastic, pieces of iron, ceramic tiles, fittings, containers of paints and used brushes.

Presently, a large portion of air, water and soil pollution is caused by the wastes coming from construction works.


WBBSE Sloutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management Wastes generated through constructional work


Question 31. Discuss the problems created by construction waste.

The problems created by construction waste

The wastes generated from construction works, for Example— bricks, stones, cement and sand, lead to lung and stomach diseases of labourers directly involved with the work.

Apart from that, the spreading of such wastes into the soil reduces soil fertility and hampers plant growth. The suspended particles of waste in the air cause air pollution.

Question 32. How do industrial wastes cause harm?

Industrial wastes disposed of in rivers and waterbodies pollute the water, causing harm to aquatic plants and animals.

The ecosystems are destroyed and the ecological balance of the environment is disturbed. The wastes disposed on the ground cause severe soil pollution.

Soil fertility is reduced remarkably. The soil may become unfit for agriculture. Gaseous wastes from industries pollute the air.

Question 33. Differentiate between liquid wastes and solid wastes.

The differences between liquid wastes and solid wastes are-


Point of difference Liquid wastes Solid wastes
Nature Exist in a liquid state under normal environmental conditions. Exist in a solid state under normal environmental conditions.
Source Hot water from thermal power plants, industrial wastes, sewage water, etc. Kitchen, household, industries, etc.


Question 34. Differentiate between poisonous and Non-poisonous wastes.

The differences between poisonous and Non-poisonous wastes are-


Point of difference Poisonous wastes  Non-poisonous wastes
Concept Such wastes cause harm or even the death of plants and animals. Such wastes are usually harmless, rather may even be environment-friendly.
Mature They are non-biodegradable. They are generally biodegradable.
Examples Polymer, polythene, radioactive wastes. Vegetable peels, husks of grains, wood, and paper.


Question 34. Differentiate between biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes.

The differences between biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes are-


Point of difference Biodegradable wastes Non-biodegradable wastes
Concept Can be decomposed by various bacteria, viruses and other microbes. Cannot be decomposed by any bacteria, virus or other microbes.
Stability Such wastes easily get absorbed in nature. Such wastes are not absorbed in nature.
Types A single type of waste. May be classified into three types— poisonous wastes, recyclable wastes and solid wastes.
Examples Dry flowers, leaves, vegetable peels, and food leftovers. Spray cans, expired medicines, and medical wastes.


Question 36. How should waste be managed in households?

Wastes may be managed in households in different ways in order to maintain hygiene and reduce the volume of waste produced.

1. Reducing the amount of waste produced: The basic idea of waste management is producing less amount of waste. If the number of waste produced can be decreased, then hygiene and environmental quality will be maintained automatically.

2. Reuse: Some wastes generated in households may be reused. E.g.—used or empty bottles and jars may be used as flower vases, and old clothes may be used as rugs.

3. Recycling: Some wastes may be recycled and put to a different use, thus reducing the number of wastes generated. E.g.—old newspapers may be sold off, to be converted into pulp for making fresh paper, used tea leaves and vegetable peels may be used for preparing biotic fertilisers for gardening.

4. Use of modern substitutes: Using modern and convenient consumer goods help to reduce the levels of waste produced in households. E.g.—The use of liquid detergents for washing clothes produces a lesser amount of liquid waste, and the use of tissue paper reduces the amount of wastewater coming from water basins.

Question 37. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the landfilling methods.

The method of landfilling has many advantages as well as disadvantages.


  1. The wastes remain covered with a layer of soil. Hence, there is less chance of spreading diseases by germs and microbes.
  2. The wastes being covered, produce no bad odour or cause air pollution.
  3. There is no chance of the wastes catching fire, as they are covered with soil.
  4. The decomposition of the wastes produces several gases that can be easily collected without spreading them in the air.


  1. Rainwater percolates through the wastes in the landfill and causes severe soil pollution.
  2. Rainwater percolating through the wastes dissolves numerous pollutants and became polluted. This polluted water leaking out of landfills is known as
  3. ‘leachate’. The leachate may flow into rivers, ponds and lakes and cause severe water pollution. It can also percolate deep into the underground and pollute the groundwater.

Question 38. How are wastes reduced by burning?

Burning is an easy and popular method of reducing the volume of waste. This is generally practised in industrial regions or in places where there is a lack of space for dumping.

While burning, things like molten glass and metals may be extracted. In the case of petrochemical industries, the tar and the sticky and boggy petroleum wastes may be burnt to produce heat.

This may help to generate electricity. But burning in the open air causes air pollution. Huge amounts of fly ash, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulphide thus produced, degrade environmental quality.

Question 39. Describe the method of sanitary landfilling.

The method of sanitary landfilling

Sanitary landfilling is an important method of managing solid waste. The biodegradable materials are separated from the waste and spread over the specific land.

This layer of biotic waste is about 2m high. A 20-25 cm thick layer of soil is spread over this layer. This way, alternate layers of wastes and soil are arranged a number of times.

In the end, a thick layer of soil (about lm) is spread to cover the whole dump, so that rats and moles cannot enter easily. The bacteria present in the soil help in the chemical decomposition of the biotic wastes.

Gases like methane, carbon dioxide and ammonia are released beneath the layer of soil. Within 4-6 months, the total waste is decomposed into harmless compounds.

Question 40. What is a manure pit?

Manure pit:

In the rural areas in India, there is a lack of proper waste disposal systems. People have a tendency of throwing garbage here and there, which causes a lot of environmental pollution.

To solve this problem, the method of waste management by ‘manure pits’ is used nowadays.


WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management Manure Pit


In this method, a deep ditch or pit is dug in the ground. Garbages like vegetable peels, wasted food, cow dung and other household wastes are thrown into the pit every day and covered with a thin layer of soil.

Once the pit gets completely filled up, it is permanently covered with soil. Within 5-6 months, the wastes are decomposed into manure. This manure is used as fertiliser in agriculture.

Question 41. How is the method of ‘composting’ useful?

Composting is a method of converting biotic wastes into humus with the help of microorganisms.

The carbon dioxide, water and heat produced while decomposing biotic wastes into compost help to destroy the larva of flies, harmful bacteria and weeds.

The biotic fertilisers thus produced are rich in nitrogen and phosphate, which is good for the growth of plants.


WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management Composting


Question 42. Describe incineration as a modem method of burning harmful wastes.

Burning harmful wastes openly in the environment causes severe pollution and degradation of the environment.

Hence, modern methods such as incineration are being put into practice to manage these wastes. This is an expensive method, but relatively friendly to the environment.

The tremendous heat produced while burning the wastes in incinerators (furnaces) is often put to other uses.

This helps to reduce the per capita expense. But this method does not fully succeed in burning all the waste materials. Some portions of the waste remain unburned. These are collected later, disposed of by landfilling or emptied into the oceans.

Question 43. How Can water be disposed of by industries or purified?

The water disposed of by industries and sewage pipes of towns and cities is saturated with acids, chemicals and other abiotic materials.

This water must be treated chemically and purified before disposal in order to control environmental pollution.

Several plants have been set up that help to remove the harmful materials from this water and reduce the level of pollutants in it.

Question 44. How is water made germ free in the process of purification?

The microorganisms like bacteria, viruses and other germs live in water with the help of the oxygen dissolved in it.

If the level of oxygen in the water can be reduced and a deficiency of oxygen can be created, then the water can be made germ free.

Question 45. What are the different plans or programmes taken up in the Ganga Action Plan?

The first phase of the Ganga Action Plan began in 1985 and the second phase was started in stages between 1993-96.

The important programmes taken up in the plan are as follows—

  1. During the first phase, steps were taken to purify the sewage water of 25 Class I cities in India.
  2. Steps have been taken to ensure that polluted and contaminated water is not disposed of directly into the Ganga.
  3. Measures have been taken to ensure the perennial flow of water in the river Ganga. Steps have been taken to improve water quality to acceptable standards and prevent pollution load from reaching the river. In the second phase of the plan, river cleaning was extended to other rivers as well.
  4. The growth of brickfields and such allied factories has been restricted along the banks of the river.
  5. Steps have been taken to ensure that no industry lying on the banks of the river disposes of its solid and liquid wastes directly into the river.

Question 46. What is the necessity of keeping the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river pollution free?

The Bhagirathi-Hooghly river must be kept pollution free for the following reasons-

1. Depth of the river: The solid wastes dumped into the river Bhagirathi-Hooghly gets accumulated on the river bed, thereby reducing the depth of the river. This is one of the major causes of floods on its adjacent banks.

If the disposal of such wastes can be controlled, the depth of the river can be maintained. This may help to control floods.

2. Ecosystem: Pollution of water causes harm to the aquatic ecosystem. As a result, many species of plants and animals may get extinct.

If the pollution of water in this river can be controlled, the aquatic plants and animals can also survive and the balance of the ecosystem can also be maintained.

3. Drinking water: A huge number of people residing along the banks of the Bhagirathi- Hooghly river use the water for drinking. If the water can be made pollution-free, people can get safe and pure drinking water from this river.

4. Soil pollution: The polluted water of river used in agriculture lead to soil pollution indirectly. If the level of pollution of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river can be controlled, soil pollution will be controlled automatically. This will help in better crop production.

5. Agriculture and Irrigation: If pollution of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river can be controlled, the water can be safely used for irrigation and agriculture, dams can be constructed where necessary and the water can be put to various uses.


WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management Pollution on the banks of Bhagirathi-Hoogly


Question 47. What is the significance of the Ganga Action Plan with respect to the environment?

The significance of the Ganga Action Plan with respect to the environment

The Ganga is the most important river in India. About 32% of the total water resource of India comes from the Ganga and its tributaries.

More than 40% of India’s population resides along the banks of the Ganga and its catchment area.

The water of the Ganga is important for agriculture, irrigation, industries, navigation, household works as well as drinking.

It helps to maintain a large portion of the aquatic ecosystem. Hence, maintenance of the river and its catchment area is very significant with respect to the environment.

Plans and programmes like the ‘Ganga Action Plan’ have been taken up to stop the degradation of the river water and bring about the development of the whole catchment area.

Question 48. How can waste or discarded water be purified?

Wastewater coming from households, industries, farms or other places can be purified by certain processes. These are—

1. Primary Purification: The first step towards the purification of wastewater is the removal of floating and suspended materials with the help of a strainer. Then j the strained water is passed through several layers of pebbles, stones and sand to filter the impurities.

2. Secondary purification with the help of a biotic medium: In this phase, the; Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) of water is reduced with the help of an organic medium.

In this process, the reaction of organic medium with the polluted water produces a; lot of sludge that floats over the water. This is removed to purify the water.

3. Final stage of purification: In this phase, the water is transferred into a huge ‘ reservoir for a few weeks. During this time, the nitrogen, phosphorus and other harmful compounds are removed and the water is finally purified.

Question 49. What are the various methods of removing solid wastes?

The solid wastes are managed and removed in the following ways—

1. Open Dumping: The solid wastes collected from towns and cities are dumped in an open space outside the town. This is a primitive method of disposing of solid wastes and this causes too much pollution.

2. Sanitary landfill: In this method, the solid wastes are spread on open land and covered with soil. This is left for a few months. The bacteria present in the soil help to decompose the wastes and reduce their volume.

3. Manure Pit: In rural areas, the biotic wastes like vegetable peels, wasted food, leaves of trees and cow dung are disposed of in a deep pit and covered with soil. Within a few months, the waste is converted into biotic fertilisers that are very helpful for agriculture.

4. Compost: In this method, the biotic wastes, cow dung, etc. are converted into humus, which makes the soil fertile and helps in agriculture.

5. Burning: The wastes that are not biodegradable are usually reduced in volume by burning. But this method is not environment-friendly. Burning of plastics, polythene and other harmful solid wastes leads to too much pollution.

Question 50. Name some wastes that can be recycled.

Some wastes that can be recycled

The recycling of solid wastes helps to reduce the volume of wastes and also serves as useful materials for some or other purposes.

1. Fly ash: Fly ash produced in thermal power plants is used as a raw material while manufacturing cement. It is also used for filling up lowlands, constructing of roads, making bricks and building low dams across rivers.

2. Bagasse: The sugarcane fibre or bagasse discarded from sugar mills is used to produce pulp needed in the manufacturing of paper.

3. Glass: Broken glass is melted and reshaped to make various items like bottles, jars or show pieces.

4. Paper: Old newspapers, used copies and books, cardboard, etc. are used to prepare pulp to make fresh paper once again.

5. Plastic: Old plastic toys, broken chairs, and discarded containers can be melted to manufacture new plastic items.

6. Metals: Waste metals like iron, tin or aluminium containers, broken furniture, etc. are melted or remodelled into new items.

Question 51. How is power produced from waste materials?

One of the main objectives of waste management is to produce some useful things from the waste that may be used as a resource.

Waste materials help in generating power in the following ways—

1. Burning of biotic wastes: Husk of grains, the fibre of sugarcane, leaves and branches of trees, firewood and other biotic wastes may be burnt to produce heat. This heat can be used to generate power through advanced machines.

2. Pyrolysis: Pyrolysis is the heating of an organic material in the absence of oxygen. Because there is no oxygen, there is no chance of combustion. But the material decomposes into combustible gases and charcoal. These are used as fuels in different cases.

3. Producing combustible gas from organic wastes: Organic wastes like household wastes, agricultural wastes and leaves and branches of trees are processed through an instrument called a Gasifier to produce combustible gases.

4. Producing combustible gas through biochemical methods: Combustible gases can also be produced by biochemical methods. Bacteria is used for the decomposition of organic wastes, which produce methane gas. Presently, combustible gases are also produced in the landfill method of waste disposal.

Waste Management Project Class 10 WBBSE

Question 52. What do you know about ‘Swachh Bharat Avinyan’?

Swachh Bharat Avinyan

The ‘Swachh Bharat Avinyan’ is a mission taken up in India at the national level, whose basic aim is to build a clean country. Several cities have been brought under this project.

Commencement: The project was officially started on 2nd October 2014, by the Prime Minister of India Sri Narendra Modi. This is the biggest cleanliness project taken up in India so far, where more than 3 million government employees and students are taking part.

Objectives: The project was taken up with the objective of making India clean and tidy by the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi on 2nd October 2019.

The main steps taken up in the project are—

  1. Preventing open defecation.
  2. Turning the unhygienic toilets into hygienic ones.
  3. Preventing cleaning of garbage manually.
  4. Recycling and reusing of solid wastes collected from urban centres.
  5. Building healthy and waste-free environmental conditions and spreading awareness among the common men regarding cleanliness.
  6. Helping the related organisations in the total cleaning and processing of wastes collected from urban areas.

Question 53. Discuss the role of students in waste management.

The students may play a very important and significant role in waste management.

Waste Management Project Class 10 WBBSE

1. Producing less waste: Students can utilise their belongings like paper, pencils and pens to the maximum and produce fewer amounts of waste.

2. Keeping classrooms and households clean: The students can keep their classrooms and houses clean by not littering things here and there.

3. Helping in disposing of wastes: The students can help to dispose of wastes generated in school or house. They can also reuse certain wastes to make productive items. E.g.— empty cans can be used as pen stands.

Methods Of Waste Disposal Class 10 WBBSE

4. Discussions and debates: Discussions and debates can be arranged by eco clubs in schools and localities in order to spread awareness regarding waste disposal and its effects. Poster-making and drawing competitions related to waste management can also be arranged.

5. Creativity: Workshops can be arranged where students can be taught to make useful and attractive items using simple waste materials like old newspapers, cardboard boxes, empty bottles, etc.

Question 54. Discuss the methods of managing gaseous wastes, with the help of a scrubber.

The gaseous wastes are usually managed with the help of an instrument known as the scrubber.

The scrubber is used in two ways to remove pollutants and impurities from gases—

1. Wet Scrubbing: In this case, the poisonous gases coming out of the chimneys of industries are first brought in contact with a scrubbing liquid which helps to remove pollutants. Thus, the gas released after treatment will be free from harmful pollutants.

2. Dry scrubbing: In this case, the poisonous gases coming out of the chimneys of industries are directly passed through the scrubber.

The pollutants are destroyed in this process and the gases released from the scrubber are free from harmful pollutants. Usually, acidic gases are purified by the method of dry scrubbing.

Question 55. Why is it not suitable to bum solid wastes?

The burning of solid wastes produce harmful gases like sulphur dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. These gases cause immense air pollution and lead to global warming. Thus, it is not suitable to burn solid wastes

Methods Of Waste Disposal Class 10 WBBSE

Question 56. What happens if wastes are not disposed of in time?

Accumulation of wastes here and there leads to the multiplication of bacteria and germs and results in the spread of infectious diseases.

Heaps of waste look ugly and hamper the beauty and cleanliness of a place. Hence, it is very important to dispose of waste in proper places at regular intervals in order to prevent environmental degradation.

Question 57. What do you mean by waste management?

Waste management

Waste management refers to the reduction of the volume of waste, recycling and reusing them scientifically. Accumulation of wastes here and there looks ugly and untidy and spreads diseases.

Also, unless the wastes are managed, their volume will go on an increasing manifold in the environment with time, as wastes are produced in all spheres of life. Examples- Schools, offices, households, industries, power plants, agriculture, etc.

Question 58. How can waste water be purified and made germ free?

Polluted and impure water is made germ free with the help of ultraviolet rays and ozone gas. Chlorine gas also helps to remove germs from the water. In households, water is made pure and germ-free by boiling it.

Question 59. Discuss the method of garbage collection in the developed countries of the world.

In the developed countries of the world, garbage is not collected every day. Rather, large bins are left in the localities where garbage from households Is disposed of every day.

The garbage collecting van comes 3-d limes and the cleaning staff empties the large bins into the van. This Is how the cleanliness, hygiene and tidiness of the place are maintained.

Question 60. Why is the importance of fly ash Increasing day by day?

The ash generated in thermal power plants after burning coal is known as fly ash.

This is used in manufacturing cement, making bricks, filling up lowlands and building small dams across rivers. Thus, the importance of ash is increasing day by day.

Methods Of Waste Disposal Class 10 WBBSE

Question 61. Why are old papers considered resources?

Old papers are used in producing pulp, which is recycled to produce new and fresh paper. The pulp is also used to produce cardboard, newsprint, paper bags, handicrafts and even false ceilings.

Question 62. How can waste production be controlled at home?

Wastes are generated in every walk of life- in schools, colleges, offices, factories, industries, the agriculture sector, etc.

Waste management should start at home. Students may play a vital role in the disposal and management of waste.

The amount of waste produced can be controlled by preventing misuse of resources, The collected waste must be kept in a properly covered place, at home, so that files and mosquitoes cannot sit on them and spread diseases, fiery.

These wastes should be disposed of in garbage collection vans or waste compressing machines. This is how waste products can be controlled at home.

Waste production can be controlled by managing the wastes already produced, by the methods of reducing and reusing.

Question 63. How are reduction wastes made?

The reduction of waste can be made in the following ways—

  1. The manufacture and use of different objects must be done in a controlled manner,
  2. Quality of living should be modified so as to curb one’s needs.
  3. One should avoid wasting things.
  4. Implementation of advanced technologies in factories so as to minimise waste generation.
  5. Used items can be recycled or reused.
  6. Buying good quality products so that they can last for a long time.
  7. Encouraging the use of biodegradable and eco-friendly products.
  8. Making people aware of the ill effects of waste generation.

Question 64. What are the methods of controlling gaseous waste material?

The gaseous wastes are usually managed with the help of an instrument known as the scrubber.

The scrubber is used in two ways to remove pollutants and impurities from gases—

  1. Wet Scrubbing: In this case, the poisonous gases coming out of the chimneys of industries are first brought in contact with a scrubbing liquid which helps to remove pollutants. Thus, the gas released after treatment will be free from harmful pollutants.
  2. Dry scrubbing: In this case, the poisonous gases coming out of the chimneys of industries are directly passed through the scrubber. The pollutants are destroyed in this process and the gases released from the scrubber are free from harmful pollutants. Usually, acidic gases are purified by the method of dry scrubbing.

Methods Of Waste Disposal Class 10 WBBSE

Chapter 4 Waste Management Short Answer Type Questions


Question 1. What do you mean by garbage?


The unnecessary items that we discard and dispose of every day is known as garbage. Examples—Vegetable peels, sugarcane fibre, agricultural wastes, etc.

Question 2. What do you mean by rubbish?


The combustible or non-combustible solid wastes left over after the use of the necessary items is called rubbish. Examples—Old newspapers, wood, rubber, metals, and glass.

Question 3. What are industrial wastes?

Industrial wastes

The waste materials produced in industries before, during and after the manufacturing and processing of products are called industrial wastes.

Example—Materials left behind during extraction of metals and minerals from ores, paints, chemicals, ash, etc. These wastes may cause harm if they directly come into the environment.

Methods Of Waste Disposal Class 10 WBBSE

Question 4. What are hospital or medical wastes?

Hospital or medical wastes

The wastes generated from hospitals or after medical treatments are called hospital or medical wastes.

Examples—Tablet foils, injection syringes, cotton, expired medicines, used bandages, test tubes, plasters and catheters. These wastes can be poisonous and may cause infections.

Question 5. What do you mean by open dumping?

Open dumping

The method of dumping wastes, usually urban wastes in open lowlands, away from residential areas is called open dumping. This is an easy and cheap method of disposing of waste as it does not incur a high cost.

Example—Dhapa region of Kolkata.

Question 6. What are biodegradable wastes?

Biodegradable wastes

Biodegradable wastes are those that can be degraded and absorbed back into nature with the help of the microorganisms present in the soil or water.

Example—Vegetables, leaves, flowers, and roots of harvested crops.

Question 7. What are non-biodegradable wastes?

Non-biodegradable wastes

The wastes that cannot be degraded or broken by the microorganisms present in the environment are called non-biodegradable wastes. They remain as it is after being discarded.

Examples—Plastic, glass, polythene, DDT. They are harmful to the environment.

Question 8. What are toxic wastes?

Toxic wastes

The non-biodegradable wastes that cause harm to the environment and biotic life are called toxic wastes.

Examples—are DDT, plastic, insecticides and medical wastes.

Question 9. What are non-poisonous wastes?

Non-poisonous wastes

The wastes that usually cause very little harm to living beings or have a nominal effect on the environment are called non-poisonous wastes. They are usually biodegradable.

Examples— Vegetable peels, leftover food or agricultural wastes.

Methods Of Waste Disposal Class 10 WBBSE

Question 10. What is bagasse?


Bagasse is the fibrous matter or dry pulp left after the crushing of sugarcanes and extraction of their juice. It is used as a biofuel and in the manufacturing of pulp for the paper industry.

The use of bagasse in the paper industry has considerably reduced the felling of trees for making pulp.

Question 11. What do you mean by environment-friendly waste?

Environment-friendly waste

The wastes that do not cause any harm to the environment are called environment-friendly wastes.

Examples— Tin, iron, steel, jute, and paper.

Question 12. What are the causes of the high rate of pollution of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river?

The causes of the high rate of pollution of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river

The numerous factories and mills along the banks of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river dispose of their solid and liquid wastes in the river itself.

Immersion of idols, washing and bathing, leakage of mineral oil and motor oil from water vessels and wastes from the Haldia Petrochemicals Industry add to the high rate of pollution of the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river.

Question 13. Write two bad effects of solid wastes on the environment.

Two bad effects of solid wastes on the environment are—

  1. Solid wastes lying in the soil for a long time cause soil and also water pollution if washed down to the nearby water bodies. This may cause harm to plants and animals.
  2. Solid wastes like plastics or thermocouples may block the sewage lines and cause waterlogging.

Question 14. Why is pollution caused by waste also called ‘third pollution’?

In the present world, pollution caused by waste disposal is very high, just after water and air pollution. Hence, it is also called the ‘third pollution’.

Question 15. What kind of health hazards are caused by radioactive wastes?

Radioactive wastes may cause health hazards like the destruction of cells, cancer in different body parts and damage to the foetus. They may cause various kinds of harm if they remain in the environment for a long time.

Question 16. What do you mean by liquid waste?

Liquid waste

The liquid materials that have no more use and cannot be recycled and reused, rather they cause harm called liquid wastes. They can be both poisonous and non-poisonous.

Examples— Sewage water, liquid fat oil used in households and industries, and water filled with chemicals disposed of in factories.

Question 17. What do you mean by solid urban waste?

Solid urban waste:

The solid wastes produced in municipal and corporate areas due to the process of urbanisation is called solid urban wastes.

Examples—Leftover food, vegetable peels, old newspapers, broken glass and obsolete furniture.

What Is Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 18. What do you mean by ‘ocean dumping’?

Ocean dumping

The process of dumping different kinds of wastes into oceans is known as ‘ocean dumping’.

For example—the USA is dumping about 2 crore tons of waste per year in the ocean, 300 km away from the coast, where the depth of water is about 1000 feet.

Countries like Iran, Japan and Hong Kong also practice ocean dumping. According to ocean conservancy, China, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam account for about 60% of the plastic waste dumped in oceans.


WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management Ocean dumping


Question 19. What do you mean by reuse of waste?

Reuse of waste

The method of using discarded or rejected materials for some other purpose by bringing about simple modifications in the product is called the reuse of waste.

E.g.— A rejected dress can be reused as a rug. An empty jar of jam can be reused as a flower vase.

Question 20. What do you mean by recycling?


The method of producing new things from old disposed of items is called recycling. This is a good method of reducing and contracting waste. This also helps in the conservation of natural resources.

E.g.—Manufacturing paper from old newspapers and rejected clothes, manufacturing of new glass bottles from broken glass items.

What Is Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 21. What is leachate?


The water coming out after washing of wastes by rainfall in landfilling method of waste management is called leachate. This water is highly contaminated and pollutes rivers, lakes, ponds and even groundwater.


WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management leachate


Question 22. Mention two benefits of waste management.

Two benefits of water management are—

Waste management helps in the reduction and control of air, water and soil pollution.

Proper management of waste help to prevent the spreading of infectious diseases and other health hazards.

Question 23. What is a scrubber?


The machine used to remove pollutants from liquid and gaseous wastes is called a scrubber.

Scrubbing can be of two types—

  1. Wet scrubbing and
  2. Dry scrubbing.

In wet scrubbing, the scrubbing liquid is sprayed into the disposed of gas in a spray chamber. Contact with the spray liquid removes the pollutants from the gas and controls pollution caused by particulate matter.

What Is Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE


WBBSE Solutions Geography And environment Chapter 4 Waste management scrubber


Question 24. How is the segregation of waste materials done? 

The main process of waste management is the segregation of waste materials. For this purpose, solid wastes (based on the interaction of the waste materials with the environment as well as nature)

Are divided into two types—

  1. Biodegradable waste and
  2. Non-biodegradable wastes.

Among the waste materials, biodegradable wastes are those that get degraded and absorbed back into nature with the help of the microorganisms present in soil or water.

For example, vegetables, leaves, flowers, roots of harvested crops, etc.

On the other hand, the wastes that do not get degraded or broken down by the microorganisms present in the environment and remain as it is after they are discarded are called non-biodegradable wastes. For example, plastic, glass, polythene, DDT, etc.

They are harmful to the environment. Segregation can be done according to the nature of wastes and afterwards, they are filtered, reused or recycled.

For this, in many developed countries, domestic wastes are segregated into biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes and are stored separately.

What Is Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Chapter 4 Waste Management Multiple Choice Type Questions

Write The Correct Answer From The Given Alternatives

Question 1. Water is made germ-free with the help of—

  1. Lime
  2. Oxygen
  3. Carbon dioxide
  4. Ozone

Answer: 4. Ozone

Question 2. A disease that can spread from medical waste is—

  1. Typhoid
  2. Heart diseases
  3. Nervous disorder
  4. Asthma

Answer: 1. Typhoid

Question 3. In rural areas, the demand for energy is met up by-

  1. LPG
  2. Carbon dioxide
  3. Biogas
  4. Electric oven

Answer: 3. Biogas

Question 4. Fly ash comes from—

  1. Saw Mills
  2. Atomic Energy Centres
  3. Thermal Power Plants
  4. Hydel Power Plants

Answer: 3. Thermal Power Plants

What Is Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 5. Mention one of the ways to free urban areas from generating waste—

  1. Ban the use of plastic
  2. Reduce the use of biotic wastes
  3. Improvement of the drainage system
  4. Improvement of the roads

Answer: 1. Ban the use of plastic

Question 6. The most poisonous wastes are generated by

  1. Radioactive materials
  2. Biotic wastes
  3. Fly ash
  4. Hydroelectric Power Plants

Answer: 1. Radioactive materials

Question 7. Gaseous wastes can cause—

  1. Asthma
  2. AIDS
  3. Anaemia
  4. Cancer

Answer: 1. Asthma

Question 8. Air pollution results from—

  1. Solid wastes
  2. Water drained out of industries
  3. Household wastes
  4. Radioactive wastes

Answer: 1. Solid wastes

Question 9. The most harmful waste among the following is—

  1. Plastic waste
  2. Wood waste
  3. Scrap metal
  4. Agricultural wastes

Answer: 1. Plastic waste

Question 10. Fly ash is used for making bricks and—

  1. Utensils of china clay
  2. Building chimneys of mills and factories
  3. Paving roads
  4. Making wash basins

Answer: 3. Paving roads

Question 11. The gas generated from biotic wastes is—

  1. Carbon dioxide
  2. LPG
  3. Biogas
  4. Nitrogen

Answer: 3. Biogas

Question 12. Which one of the following is not solid waste?

  1. Agricultural wastes
  2. Industrial wastes
  3. Construction wastes
  4. Sewage water

Answer: 4. Sewage water

Question 13. A good substitute for wood in making paper is—

  1. Old clothes
  2. Leaves
  3. Sugarcane fibre
  4. New plants

Answer: 3. Sugarcane fibre

Question 14. Which of the following diseases are caused by agricultural wastes?

  1. Plague
  2. Heart diseases
  3. Lung diseases
  4. Bone diseases

Answer: 1. Plague

What Is Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 15. Which of the following is agricultural waste?

  1. Tree trunk
  2. Sugarcane fibre
  3. Glass bottle
  4. Plastic sheets

Answer: 2. Sugarcane fibre

Question 16. An example of urban waste is—

  1. Aluminium cans
  2. Cow dung
  3. Jute fibre
  4. Husk

Answer: 1. Aluminium cans

Question 17. The highest amount of waste is generated in—

  1. Kolkata
  2. Mumbai
  3. Delhi
  4. Chennai

Answer: 1. Kolkata

Question 18. Which among the following is poisonous waste?

  1. Lead
  2. Vegetable peels
  3. Old newspapers
  4. Rotten potatoes

Answer: 2. Vegetable peels

Question 19. Which of the following is an environment-friendly waste?

  1. Jute bags
  2. Lead
  3. Glass bottles
  4. Plastic bottles

Answer: 1. Jute bags

Question 20. Which of the following is non-poisonous waste?

  1. Dry flowers
  2. Insecticides
  3. Mercury
  4. Plastic

Answer: 1. Dry flowers

What Is Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 21. Which of the following is an infectious medical waste?

  1. Rat kill
  2. Wasted food
  3. Catheter
  4. Obsolete computer

Answer: 3. Catheter

Question 22. Which among the following is recyclable waste?

  1. Plastic bottle
  2. Used syringes
  3. Concrete rubbish
  4. Sanitary towel

Answer: 1. Plastic bottle

Question 23. Which is the most polluted city among the following?

  1. New York
  2. Los Angeles
  3. London
  4. New Delhi

Answer: 4. New Delhi

Question 24. An example of medical waste is—

  1. Vegetable pulp
  2. Injection syringe
  3. Food packets
  4. Waste soap water

Answer: 2. Bricks

Question 25. Fly ash is used in making—

  1. Utensils
  2. Bricks
  3. Paper
  4. Fertilisers

Answer: 2. Bricks

Question 26. The most common way to manage solid wastes in rural areas is—

  1. Composting
  2. Burning
  3. Open dumping
  4. Manure pit

Answer: 4. Manure pit

What Is Waste Management Class 10 WBBSE

Question 27. The decomposition of wastes by landfill method is completed in about —

  1. 10-15 days
  2. 4 – 6 months
  3. 6 – 8 months
  4. 1 year

Answer: 2. 4 – 6 months

Question 28. Which among the following is recyclable waste?

  1. Glass
  2. Concrete
  3. E-wastes
  4. Fertilisers

Answer: 1. Glass

Question 29. Open dumping of wastes cause —

  1. Air pollution
  2. Water pollution
  3. Both air and water pollution
  4. None of them

Answer: 3. Both air and water pollution

Question 30. The following waste material is non-biodegradable by its nature—

  1. Plastic wastes
  2. Synthetic rubber wastes
  3. Aluminium sheet
  4. All are applicable

Answer: 4. All are applicable


Chapter 4 Waste Management If The Statement Is True, Write True And If False, Write False Against The Following


Question 1. Biogas is generated from organic wastes.
Answer: True

Question 2. LPG meets the demand for energy in rural areas.
Answer: False

Question 3. Wastes comprise various discarded materials.
Answer: True

Question 4. The necessary things that we discard are called wastes.
Answer: False

Question 5. Urbanisation leads to the generation of more toxic and hazardous wastes.
Answer: True

Question 6. Russia produces the maximum amount of waste per head.
Answer: False

Question 7. Soap water is an example of solid waste.
Answer: False

Question 8. Nitrogen dioxide is a gaseous waste.
Answer: True

Question 9. Gaseous wastes cause environmental degradation but no climatic changes.
Answer: False

Question 10. Gaseous wastes lead to the greenhouse effect.
Answer: True

Question 11. Urban waste is a collection of household wastes, industrial wastes, medical wastes and e-wastes.
Answer: True

Question 12. Clay cups are poisonous wastes.
Answer: False

Question 13. Medical wastes can be infectious.
Answer: True

Question 14. The sewage system of Kolkata is difficult to maintain as the land is a concave lowland.
Answer: True

Question 15. Fly ash is produced by atomic energy centres.
Answer: False

Question 16. DDT is harmful agricultural waste.
Answer: True

Question 17. Biotic wastes like vegetable peels may cause air pollution.
Answer: True

Question 18. Broken concrete is not a waste material.
Answer: False

Question 19. The Ganga is one of the most polluted rivers in the world.
Answer: True

Question 20. The textile industry is one of the greatest producers of radioactive waste.
Answer: False

Question 21. Wastes may cause severe harm to the environment unless they are managed properly.
Answer: True

Question 22. Wastes can be managed better with the development of technology.
Answer: True

Question 23. The people involved with garbage cleaning are less prone to infectious diseases.
Answer: False

Question 24. The reuse of waste helps to convert them into resources.
Answer: True

Question 25. Students may play an active role in waste management.
Answer: True

Question 26. The level of BOD in water can be reduced by controlling pollution of the water body.
Answer: True

Question 27. At times, in rural areas, burning is one of the methods of waste management.
Answer: True

Question 28. Compost is a biotic fertiliser produced from waste.
Answer: True

Question 29. Wastes are presently used for producing energy.
Answer: True

Question 30. Humus is formed due to the decomposition of waste in landfilling process.
Answer: False

Chapter 4 Waste Management Fill In The Blanks With Suitable Words


Question 1. ______wastes are used to produce fuel gas.
Answer: Biotic

Question 2. ______is used to make paper.
Answer: Sugarcane fibre

Question 3. A sharp medical waste is______
Answer: Surgical knife

Question 4. Motor oil is a ______ waste.
Answer: Liquid

Question 5. The atomic energy plants generate ______wastes.
Answer: Radioactive

Question 6. Catheter is a______ waste.
Answer: Medical

Question 7. The USA produces about ______ tons of waste per year.
Answer: 1750 lakh

Question 8. The animal remains is a ______ waste.
Answer: Biotic

Question 9. Making of watches may produce______ hazards.
Answer: Radiation

Question 10. Kolkata produces about ______ kg of waste per day per head.
Answer: 6.6kg

Question 11. A used CFL bulb is a ______waste.
Answer: Toxic

Question 12. Wastes are not always discarded, but sometimes ______also.
Answer: Recycled

Question 13. Fly ash is a______ waste.
Answer: Hazardous

Question 14. Vegetable peels and food leftovers are ______ wastes.
Answer: Households

Question 15. Sludge coming from iron and steel plants is an ______ waste.
Answer: Industrial

Question 16. The foils of tablets and capsules are______wastes.
Answer: Industrial

Question 17. Radium is a______ waste.
Answer: Medical

Question 18. Wastes coming from wood shavings are mostly ______.
Answer: Non-poisonous

Question 19. Wastes can be managed by reducing,______ and reusing.
Answer: Recycling

Question 20. Water coming out after washing wastes in landfill method is called ______.
Answer: Leachate

Question 21. On composting, biotic wastes are decomposed with the help of ______.
Answer: Microbes

Question 22. ______ are used to reduce air pollution.
Answer: Scrubbers

Question 23. The infectious disease spread through scrubbers in Norway is ______
Answer: Legionnaires

Question 24. The ‘Swachch Bharat Aviyan’ was launched on ______ in New Delhi.
Answer: 2nd October 2014

Question 25.The wastes which after decomposition mix air, water and soil are called ______
Answer: Biodegradable waste


Chapter 4 Waste Management Answer In One Or Two Words


Question 1. What kind of wastes are produced due to mining activities?
Answer: Solid, liquid and gaseous wastes.

Question 2. What is polluted water often referred to as?
Answer: Liquid waste.

Question 3. Name a gaseous waste.
Answer: Sulphur dioxide (S02).

Question 4. Name a poisonous chemical.
Answer: Rat-killing poison.

Question 5. What kind of waste are dry flowers?
Answer: Non-poisonous organic waste.

Question 6. Name some wastes produced by households.
Answer: Vegetable peels, old shoes, old newspapers.

Question 7. Name an infectious medical waste.
Answer: Catheter.

Question 8. How has the increase in gaseous wastes affected the climate?
Answer: Global warming.

Question 9. What kind of waste is an obsolete mobile phone?
Answer: Electronic waste.

Question 10. Name some diseases caused by unclean water.
Answer: Dysentery, diarrhoea.

Question 11. What is mostly found in the wastes dumped by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation?
Answer: Mud and ash.

Question 12. Name a radioactive waste generated from coal.
Answer: Uranium.

Question 13. What kind of waste causes tetanus?
Answer: Solid wastes.

Question 14. Which wastes tend to block the sewage system?
Answer: Solid wastes.

Question 16. Name a source of toxic waste.
Answer: Cement industry.

Question 17. When was ‘The Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rule’ passed in India?
Answer: 1989.

Question 18. Name a waste product related to mercury.
Answer: Broken or damaged thermometer.

Question 19. Name a field producing a huge amount of solid waste.
Answer: Construction-related items.

Question 20. Name a bio-medical waste.
Answer: Used injection syringe.

Question 21. Name an organochlorine waste.
Answer: DDT.

Question 22. Name an abiotic reusable waste.
Answer: Plastic bottle.

Question 23. Name the chief components of compost fertilisers.
Answer: Nitrogen and phosphate.

Question 24. What is biogas most commonly used for?
Answer: Cooking.

Question 25. What is the composition of biogas?
Answer: 20-35% of carbon dioxide and 50-85% of methane.

Question 26. Name a fuel gas produced from human and animal wastes.
Answer: Biogas.

Question 27. What is the anaerobic process of producing heat energy from wastes called?
Answer: Pyrolysis.

Question 28. Name a recyclable waste.
Answer: Broken glass.

Question 29. What is the main idea or target of waste management?
Answer: To reduce the number of waste and to control environmental pollution.

Question 30. Fly ash is used for the construction of roads. What kind of waste management is this?
Answer: Reuse method of waste management.

Question 31. What kind of bacteria is used for composting?
Answer: Anaerobic microbes or bacteria.

Question 32. Which is the most popular method of solid waste management?
Answer: Sanitary Landfill.

Question 33. When can waste be considered a resource?
Answer: When wastes can be recycled and reused.

Question 34. Name the most important substitute of wood in the manufacture of paper.
Answer: Sugarcane fibre.

Question 35. How much time does the decomposition of biotic wastes take in the landfill method?
Answer: 4-6 months.

Question 36. What are wastes generated from thermal power plants reused for?
Answer: Manufacturing cement. making bricks.

Question 37. What is the process of controlled burning of wastes called?
Answer: Incineration.

Question 38. Name a resource produced from biotic wastes.
Answer: Biotic fertilisers.

Question 39. Name one radioactive waste.
Answer: The remains of radioactive fuel used in nuclear reactors of nuclear power stations. such as— Caesium-137. Strontium-90.

Chapter 4 Waste Management Match The Left Column With The Right Column


Left Column Right Column
1. Solid waste A. Nitrogen dioxide
2. Liquid waste B. Clay pot
3. Gaseous waste C. Agricultural waste
4. Toxic waste D. Used syringe
5. Non-toxic waste E. Waste water from toilets

Answer: 1-C,2-E,3-A,4-D,5-B


Left Column Right Column
1. Biodegradable waste A. Bulb
2. Non-biodegradable waste B. Wrist watch industry
3. Radioactive waste C. Test tubes
4. Biomedical waste D. Water from septic tanks
5. Liquid waste E. Discarded newspaper

Answer: 1-E,2-A,3-B,4-C,5-D

WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 Geography and Environment


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