WBBSE Madhyamika Model Question Paper 2023 History Set 4

WBBSE Madhyamika Model Question Paper History Group A

Question 1 World Environment Day is observed on-
1. 18th January
2. 24th February
3. 8th March
4. 5th June

Answer: 4. 5th June

Question 2 Indians learned about the use of the potato from-
1. The Portuguese
2. The English
3. The Mughals
4. The Dutch

Answer: 1. The Portuguese

Question 3 The first official Education Commission (Hunter Commission) was formed in-
1. 1872 AD
2. 1882 AD
3. 1878 AD
4. 1890 AD

Answer: 2. 1882 AD

Question 4 Debendranath Tagore joined the Brahmo Samaj in-
1. 1830 AD
2. 1833 AD
3. 1843 AD
4. 1850 AD

Answer: 2. 1833 AD

Question 5 The Renaissance in Bengal was-
1. Individual centered
2. Institution centered
3. Calcutta based
4. Village-based

Answer: 3. Calcutta based

Question 6 The beneficiaries of the Second Forest Law (1878) were-
1. Tribal communities
2. The British Government
3. The merchant class
4. Both the British Government and the tribal communities

Answer: 2. The British Government

Question 7 The word ‘hool’ denoted-
1. God
2. Freedom
3. Weapons
4. Revolt

Answer: 4. Revolt

Question 8 The main objective of the Queen’s Proclamation (1858) was-
1. To gain the obedience of the Indian people
2. To give the British the right of the monopoly of trade in India
3. To grant the right of self-determination to the Indian subjects
4. To release the Indian prisoners of the Great Revolt of 1857

Answer: 1. To gain the obedience of the Indian people

Question 9 The President of the Landholders’ Society was-
1. Raja Radhakanta Deb
2. Prasanna Kumar
3. Tagore Raja Rammohan Roy
4. Dwarka Nath Tagore

Answer: 1. Raja Radhakanta Deb

Question 10 The secretary of the Hindu Mela was-
1. Nabagopal Mitra
2. Gaganendranath Tagore
3. Rajnarain Bose
4. Gaganendranath Tagore

Answer: 2. Gaganendranath Tagore

Question 11 The year in which the first Bengali book was printed was-
1. 1556 AD
2. 1785 AD
3. 1778 AD
4. 1800 AD

Answer: 3. 1778 AD

Question 12 The first Principal of Bengal Technical Institute was-
1. Aurobindo Ghosh
2. Satish Chandra Bose
3. Jogesh Chandra Ghosh
4. Pramatha Nath Bose

Answer: 4. Pramatha Nath Bose

Question 13 The person known as ‘Deshapran’ was-
1. Satish Chandra Samanta
2. Aswini Kumar Dutta
3. Birendra Nath Sasmal
4. Jatindra Mohan Sengupta

Answer: 3. Birendra Nath Sasmal

Question 14 The Moplah Revolt (1921) took place in-
1. The Malabar coast
2. The Konkan coast
3. The Godavari basin
4. The Telengana region

Answer: 1. The Malabar coast

Question 15 The Meerut Conspiracy Case (1929) was instituted against-
1. The Indian National Congress
2. The revolutionaries
3. Trade union leaders
4. Peasant leaders

Answer: 3. Trade union leaders

Question 16 Nari Satyagraha Samiti was founded during-
1. The Anti-Partition Movement in Bengal
2. The Non-Cooperation Movement
3. The Civil Disobedience Movement
4. The Quit India Movement

Answer: 3. The Civil Disobedience Movement

Question 17 The person known as ‘Master-da’ was-
1. Sachindra Prasad Bose
2. Surya Sen
3. Krishna Kumar Mitra
4. Hem Chandra Ghosh

Answer: 1. Sachindra Prasad Bose

Question 18 The Self-Respect Movement in Madras was started by-
1. Ramaswami Naicker
2. Narayan Guru’
3. Bhim Rao Ambedkar
4. Gandhiji

Answer: 1. Ramaswami Naicker

Question 19 The largest Princely State in India on the eve of Independence was-
1. Kashmir
2. Hyderabad
3. Junagadh
4. Jaipur

Answer: 2. Hyderabad

Question 20 The reorganized state of Kerala was situated in-
1. The Godavari basin
2. Southern Orissa
3. The Kathiawad peninsula
4. The Malabar coast

Answer: 4. The Malabar coast

WBBSE Madhyamika Model Question Paper History Group B

Answer any sixteen questions, taking at least one from each sentence:

Answer each of the following questions in one

Question 1 What is the name of the autobiography of Bipin Chandra Pal?
Answer:

The name of the autobiography of Bipin Chandra Pal is Known as ‘Sattar Batsar’.

Question 2 Who was the first Indian Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University?
Answer:

The first India Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University was Gurudas Banerjee.

Question 3 In which year was the ‘Indigo Commission’ formed?
Answer:

The Indigo Commission was formed in the year 1860.

Question 4 Who wrote ‘Barna Parichay’?
Answer:

Barna Parichay:

‘Barna Parichay’ was written by Pandit Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar.

WBBSE Madhyamika Model Question Paper History Identify Which Of The Following Is ‘True’ or ‘False’

Question 1 The book ‘Nadiya Kahini’ belongs to Urban History.
Answer: False

Question 2 Baba Ram Chandra was a leader of Brahmo Samaj.
Answer: False

Question 3 Subhas Chandra Bose founded the Forward Bloc.
Answer: True

Question 4 ‘Lakshmi Bhandar’ was founded by Basanti Devi.
Answer: False

WBBSE Madhyamika Model Question Paper History Match Column A with Column B

Column 1 Column 2
(1) Thomas Babington Macaulay (A) Landholders society
(2) Keshab chandra sen (B) Bartaman Bharat
(3) Raja radhakanta Deb (C) Western education
(4) Swami Vivekananda (D) Nababidhan


Answer: 1-C,2-D,3-A,4-B

Question 1 On the given outline map of India, locate and label the following places:

1 A center of the Wahabi Movement in Bengal-Barasat

Answer:

WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 History outline map of India 1

2 A center of the Indigo Revolt-Jessore- Nadia

Answer:

WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 History outline map of India 1

3 One of the centers of the Great Revolt (1857)-Meerut

Answer:

WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 History outline map of India 2

4 The reorganized state (1960) of Maharashtra

Answer:

WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 History outline map of India 3

Select the correct interpretation of the following statements:

Question 1 Statement: Halhead wrote his Bengali Grammar to teach the Bengali language to British officials.

Interpretation 1: As British officials in India liked the Bengali language and literature.

Interpretation 2: As knowledge of the Bengali language was essential for their promotion.

Interpretation 3: As it was essential for the. British officials to know the Bengali language in order to carry out commerce and administration in this country.

Answer:
Interpretation 3:
As it was essential for the. British officials to know the Bengali language in order to carry out commerce and administration in this country.

Question 2 Statement: The Bardoli Satyagraha was instituted in 1928 AD

Interpretation 1: It was a movement of the poor landless agricultural laborers against the exploitation of the rich landed peasantry.

Interpretation 2: It was a movement against the increased revenue demand of the Government by the rich landed peasantry.

Interpretation 3: It was a joint movement of both the rich landed peasantry and the landless agricultural laborers against the revenue hike by the Government.

Answer:
Interpretation 2: It was a movement against the increased revenue demand of the Government by the rich landed peasantry.

Question 3 Statement: Bhogeshwari Phukonani was killed in police firing during the Quit India Movement (1942).

Interpretation 1: Bhogeshwari Phukonani was killed in an armed encounter with the police.

Interpretation 2: The fugitive Bhogeshwari Phukonani was shot dead by the police when she refused to surrender.

Interpretation 3: Bhogeshwari Phukonani was shot dead by the police while trying to hoist the national flag at the police station in the Nowgong District of Assam.

Answer: Interpretation 3: Bhogeshwari Phukonani was shot dead by the police while trying to hoist the national flag at the police station in the Nowgong District of Assam.

Question 4 Statement: Gandhiji began a fast unto death in protest against the provision of a separate electorate for the Depressed Classes granted in the Communal Award (1932).

Interpretation 1: Gandhiji was opposed to the electoral rights of the Depressed Classes.

Interpretation 2: Gandhiji began his fast to oppose the attempt to create a division within the Hindu Community.

Interpretation 3: Gandhiji began his fast of protest at the direction of the Indian National Congress.

Answer: Interpretation 2: Gandhiji began his fast to oppose the attempt to create a division within the Hindu Community.

WBBSE Madhyamika Model Question Paper History Group C

Answer the following questions in two or three sentences only (any eleven):

Question 1 What are the limitations of government documents as sources of modern Indian history?
Answer:

The limitations of government documents as sources of modern Indian history:

It will perhaps not be correct for scholars to assume that the documents and reports contain all relevant information on the subject. Nor will it be proper to accept the facts mentioned in the reports as accurate in all respects. These sources should be checked. There might be biased or exaggerated views.

This becomes particularly true when dealing with modern Indian history where the British account is very often vastly different from how Indians of the time have written about it. Thus, all the facts narrated in these documents are not to be accepted at face value but are to be corroborated by other independent sources.

Question 2 What is meant by autobiography and memoir?
Answer:

Autobiography and memoir:

The life history of an individual, written by himself, is called an autobiography. Memory is an account of an individual’s life and experience. It is a piece of writing based on the writer’s personal knowledge and experiences.

Question 3 What was the principal objective of the Christian missionaries in introducing western education in India?
Answer:

The principal objective of the Christian missionaries in introducing western education in India:

The role of the Christian missionaries was very significant in the spread of western education in India. The principal objective of the Christian missionaries in introducing western education was to spread Christianity among the people of India.

The missionaries thought that western education would destroy the faith of the Indians in their own religion and lead them to embrace Christianity.

Question 4 What is meant by ‘Nababidhan’?
Answer:

Nababidhan:

Keshab Chandra Sen was a great social reformer of 19th-century Bengal. He came under the influence of Ramakrishna Paramhansa. He established a syncretic school of spiritualism called the ‘Nababidhan’ or New Dispensation which attempted to incorporate the best principles of Christianity within the framework of Hindu thought.

This syncretic religious philosophy promoted fraternity and love and also chastised the evils that persisted in society. It enunciated the ideology that ‘God is conscience’.

Question 5 What was the significance of the Chuar Revolt (1798-1799)?
Answer:

The significance of the Chuar Revolt (1798-1799):

At the initial phases of British rule in India, a tribe named ‘Chuar’ inhabited the northwestern part of the present Midnapore district and the southwestern part of the Bankura district. They rose against British rule during the second phase of the eighteenth century.

The importance of the results of this revolt can be discussed as follows-

[1] Acts of cruelty and torture: To subjugate the Chuar Revolt, the British government initiated acts of cruelty and torture against the Chuar tribe. They killed Rani Shiromoni and arrested Durjan Singh.

[2] One of the early revolts and rebellions: The Chuar Revolt was one of the early movements against British rule. The revolt initiated by the illiterate and so-called backward Chuars paved way for the revolts that took place in the next century.

[3] Unity among the peasants and zamindars: The Chuar Revolt was not a revolt against the Indian zamindars. It was a revolt that witnessed the unity between the zamindars and the peasants.

[4] Formation of ‘Jungalmahal’: To impose strict restrictions against the Chuar tribe, the British government changed the law and order. A separate district named Jungalmahal’ was established surrounding the city of Bishnupur, to control the Chukars.

Question 6 Was the Farazi Rebellion simply a religious movement?
Answer:

Farazi Rebellion simply a religious movement:

The Faeazi Rebellion started as an Islamic revivalist movement but ultimately it turned into an anti-imperialist as well as anti-British struggle aiming at the restoration of Mohammedan power in India. It was a part of the freedom movement of India and the rebels aimed at ousting the British from India.

Question 7 With what objective was the Landholders’ Society founded?
Answer:

The Landholders Society was established on November 12, 1938. It was actually a political association

[1] Its principal aim was to protect the interests of the Landlords and Zamindars.
[2] Rajendra Lal Mitra, one of the leaders of the society, spoke for the protection of the rights of the riots as well. Such Associations came to be established in later years.

Question 8 What was the contribution of the novel ‘Anandamath’ to the rise of national awakening in the 19th century?
Answer:

The contribution of the novel ‘Anandamath’ to the rise of national awakening in the 19th century:

Bankim Chandra in his novel ‘Anandamath’ upheld patriotism as the highest political virtue. The famous song ‘Bande Mataram’ which features in his novel ‘Anandamath’, became the national hymn. The concept of Bharatmata emerged from the ‘Anandamath’. It inspired the Indians to sacrifice their lives for the emancipation of their motherland.

Question 9 What was the impact of the development of the printing press on the cultural life of Bengal?
Answer:

The impact of the development of the printing press on the cultural life of Bengal:

Before the invention of the printing press, education was confined to the upper class of society. But after the development of the printing press, printed books were available to the common people at low prices. This helped in the spread of mass education in Bengal. Various works of translation were published by the Serampore Press and thus Bengali literature could reach the common people.

Question 10 Why was the colonial system of education defective?
Answer:

The colonial system of education was defective in the following ways:

[1] The colonial system of education was confined to a limited section of Indian society. People who lived in the villages were deprived of the benefit of western education.
[2] The colonial system of education neglected women’s education and could not attract the Muslim community.
[3] The greatest defect was that it was neglected. the education of the people at the elementary stage.

Question 11 What were the causes of the Moplah? Revolt (1921)?
Answer:

The exploited Muslim peasants of the Malabar coast of south India were known as Moplahs.

The causes of the Moplah Rebellion were as follows-

[1] In 1921 the rebellion began as a reaction against a heavy-handed crackdown on the Khilafat movement by the British authorities.
[2] The root cause of the rebellion was the oppression and exploitation of the ‘Nambudiri’ and Nair Hindu Brahmin landlords.
[3] The land tenure system in Malabar was quite unfavorable to the Moplah tenants, there was complete insecurity of tenure. The Moplah could be ejected from their lands without any appropriate notice.
[4] Another cause of the rebellion was the ever-increasing land rent of the British and the question of tenancy rights.

Question 12 With what objective was the Congress Socialist Party founded?
Answer:

In 1934 the Congress Socialist Party was formed under the chairmanship of Narendra Dev in Patna. Sampurnanand, the UP Congress leader, drew up a manifesto of the Congress Socialist Party which wanted a reconstruction of the Indian society and economy on the basis of socialism.

The objective of the party was:

[1] Development of the economic life of the country to be planned by the state,
[2] Redistribution of land among the peasants,
[3] The organization of Cooperative societies for production and distribution,
[4] The organization of workers and peasants for their economic development,
[5] The socialization of key industries and
[6] Carrying on the movement for the achievement of independence and socialism.

Question 13 Why did the women of Bengal, observe Arandhan (non-cooking) on 16th October 1905?
Answer:

Bengal was partitioned in 1905 by Lord Curzon. Women of Bengal resisted the plan of partition to pressurize the British Government to repeal the partition. On the day of partition (16 October 1905) they observed ‘Arandhan’ day (non-cooking) as a mark of protest against the partition.

Question 14 Why is Nanibala Devi remembered?
Answer:

Nanibala Devi was a female revolutionary. She was a member of the Jugantar Party. She gave shelter to the underground revolutionaries in Chandannagore. She posed as the wife of Ramchandra Majumdar, a freedom fighter, and leaked information to imprisoned revolutionaries.

To escape from the eyes of the police she escaped to Peshwar. Her acts inspired the women of Midnapore to take up arms against the British and fire at them.

Question 15 Why is Sardar Patel called ‘The Iron Man of India’?
Answer:

Sardar Patel called ‘The Iron Man of India’:

When the British left India there were hundreds of princely states in India. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, who took the responsibility of integrating these princely states, persuaded almost every princely state to accede to India. All the states of free India except Kashmir, Hyderabad, and Junagadh immediately joined the Indian Union.

In the case of Kashmir, Hyderabad, and Junagadh where Patel’s appeal went unheard he did not hesitate to annex those states by force. His commitment to national integration was total and uncompromising, earning him the sobriquet of the ‘Iron Man of India’.

Question 16 Under what circumstances was the State Commission (1953) Reorganisation constituted?
Answer:

The State Reorganisation Commission (1953) was formed by Jawaharlal Nehru to formulate the policy of state reorganization in the determination of interstate borders. The commission consisted of Hon’ble Justice Fazal Ali (President) and two other members KM Panikkar and Hridaynath Kunzru.

WBBSE Madhyamika Model Question Paper History Group D

Answer the following questions in seven or eight sentences each.

Attempt one question from each Subgroup. Answer six questions in all:

Question 1 Why is Wood’s Despatch (1854) called the Magna Carta of the spread of education in India?
Answer:

Wood’s Despatch (1854) called the Magna Carta of the spread of education in India:

Several educational institutions were built in the period of Lord Bentinck. However, there was no parity among both educational and administrative patterns in these institutions. Under these circumstances, the President of the Board of Control, Sir Charles Wood, devised a plan to bring about parity among all institutions governed by the British. This plan is known as Wood’s Despatch (1854).

[1] Suggestions:

The suggestions offered by the Woods Despatch were:

[1] Division of each and every educational institution into 5 sets.
[2] Opening more primary and secondary schools in India. More colleges were also to be opened so as to give the students a chance to complete their studies in their homeland.
[3] Establishment of a university in each of the three Presidencies.
[4] Establishment of a separate education department.
[5] Appointment of an officer to govern the Higher Education departments.
[6] Begin the process of teacher training.
[7] Allow the use of one’s mother tongue in educational institutions.
[8] Increase teaching of English in higher education.
[9] Growth in female education.

[2] Bible of western education: Indian education system came to be built on the basis of western education institutions due to Wood’s Despatch.

Question 2 Explain Sri Ramakrishna’s ideas of Sarva Dharma Samanwaya (religious harmony).
Answer:

The concept of ‘Sarva Dharma Sama Bhava’ can be discussed as follows-

[1] Sarva Dharma Sama Bhava is an Indian concept embodying the equality of all religions. The concept was embraced by Ramkrishna Paramhansa.

[2] He recognized the difference among religions but realized that in spite of these differences, all religions lead to the same ultimate goal and hence they are all valid and true. By studying different religions, he came to the conclusion that all religions are essentially the same.

He believed that all paths led to the same goal. He saw God in everything and in everyone. It is like the Hindus, the Muslims, and the Christians calling the same substance by different names, for example, jaw, water, and pain, His famous doctrine was ‘Yato mata data path (i.e., as many opinions, as many ways).

Question 3 What was the attitude of the educated Bengali society towards the Great Revolt (1857)?
Answer:

The attitude of the educated Bengali society towards the Great Revolt (1857):

The educated Indians did not take an active part in the Revolt of 1857, rather, they went against it. Almost all the revolutions which succeeded in the world had the support and cooperation of the educated classes, who became the leaders of the revolution. However, it did not go along similar lines in the Revolt of 1857.

The educated Bengalis were afraid because their newly acquired services landed property, titles, honor, prestige-everything dependent on British supremacy. If the revolt became successful, they would lose everything. This was why educated Bengalis, with one or two honorable exceptions, competed with each other to prove their loyalty to the British and failed to respond even emotionally to the call of rebels.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chsapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Centres Of The Revolt Of 1857

Respect for the culture and civilization ushered in by British rule made the educated Bengalees side with the British in 1857. During the heydays of the sepoy revolt, the patriots according to Ram Gopal Ghosh, contemporary authority, sympathized with the British administration in India. The educated people and leaders of Bengal stood enamored.

It was natural for them to desire that the Revolt should end early so that there might be rapid undisturbed progress of British culture in the country. If the educated class did not respond to the Revolt, it was not because they were lacking in initiative.

The reason was that they were always progressive in outlook, looking forward and not reactionary, looking backward. The educated middle class was financially weak they were dependent on the foreign rule for their income.

The possibility of a return to the Early Stages of Collective Action: Characteristics and Analyses of anarchy and disorder prevailing immediately before the British rule induced them to render help to the British Government to ensure victory over the rebels.

Question 4 Analyse the role of Surendranath Banerjee in the foundation and development of the Indian Association.
Answer:

The role of Surendranath Banerjee in the foundation and development of the Indian Association:

Under the initiative of Surendranath Bandopadhyay, Anandamohan Bose, Sivanath Sastri, Dwarkanath Ganguly, etc., the Indian Association, or Bharat Sabha was established in 1876. Through several activities, Surendranath Bandopadhyay soon became the most prominent person in the Bharat Sabha.

[1] Nationwide campaign: In order to establish the Bharat Sabha as a national body, Surendranath Bandopadhyay traveled to various places across the country and participated in several activities to create a favorable public opinion.

[2] Establishment of branches of the Bharat Sabha: Surendranath Bandopadhyay took the initiative of setting up several branches of Bharat Sabha across India and was successful in setting up branches at Lucknow, Meerut, Lahore, etc.

[3] Leadership in protest movements: Surendranath led several anti-British movements and popularised the Bharat Sabha among the Indian masses.

[1] He appealed for raising the minimum age limit for appearing in the ICS examination from 18 to 22 years.
[2] He led several movements against the Vernacular Press Act and the Arms Act (1878) by Lord Lytton.
[3] He also organized movements in support of the Ilbert Bill.
[4] He organized movements in order the protect the interests of the peasants.

[4] All India National Conference: Under the initiative of Surendranath Bandopadhyay, the All India National Conference was held in Calcutta in 1883.

[5] Inspiration for the establishment of the Congress: Dr. Amalesh Tripathi termed the All India National Conference as the forerunner of the Indian National Congress. This is because Allan Octavian Hume set up the Indian National Congress in 1885 after being inspired by the All India National Conference.

[6] Incorporation into the Congress: In 1885, when the Congress met for the second session in Calcutta, Surendranath and his followers joined it. Due to this, the power of Congress increased to a large extent.

Question 5 What was the attitude of the Indian National Congress towards the Bardoli Satyagraha?
Answer:

The attitude of the Indian National Congress towards the Bardoli Satyagraha:

In 1928, the peasants of Bardoli in the district of Surat in Gujarat started a no-tax campaign movement. The farmers were instructed by Vallabbhai Patel to remain completely non-violent. Many Indian members of the Legislative Councils of Bombay and across India resigned from their offices and expressed open support to the farmers.

Question 6 What was the role of the working class during the Anti-Partition Movement of Bengal?
Answer:

The role of the working class during the Anti-Partition Movement of Bengal:

The working class played an important role during the Anti-Partition Movement. The discontent of the workers was no doubt caused primarily by material grievances, like rising prices, conditions of work, low wages, long working hours, and ill-treatment by the white officials.

[1] Leaders: Labour discontent was given some political direction for the first time by a group of nationalist leaders among whom were eminent personalities such as Aswini Kumar Banerjee, Prabhat Kusum Roychowdhury, Apurba Kumar Ghose and Premtosh Bose, and several others.

[2] Role of the working class:

The Anti-Partition Movement produced a large number of industrial strikes-

[1] The earliest strike of the period was the one by the employees of Messrs Burn and Company which coincided with the adoption of the boycott resolution in August 1905.

[2] Around 1905, there cropped up a few labor organizations in Calcutta. One of them was the Printers Union and it was under the auspices of this union that the strike of the Government of India Press employees took place in September 1905.

In October 1905, under the leadership of Bipin Pal and Apurba Ghose, a socialist, the printers and compositors of the Bengal secretarial press went on strike.

[3] The mill hands of Ralli Brothers Jute Works went on strike on October 16, the day on which the partition of Bengal came into effect. Boycott in Indian Mill Hands Union at Budge Budge was organized in 1906 by A C Banerjee.

[4] In October 1905, the tram drivers and conductors of the Calcutta Tramway Company observed a token strike in support of ‘Swadeshi’.

[5] On the day of the partition, 11,000 carters remained off the streets. Twelve Jute factories, one Sugar Factory, one shell factory, one gun factory, and about 70 local Calcutta mills were closed.

[6] The Calcutta Telegraph employees were on strike in April 1908. These strikes reflected the growing political consciousness among the working class.

Question 7 How was the state of Junagadh integrated into the Indian Union?
Answer:

The state of Junagadh integrated into the Indian Union:

At the time of the transfer of power, the British government left the Indian princely states free to join either India or Pakistan. The Nawab of Junagadh was Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III. He communicated to Pakistan his wish to accede, much to the displeasure of the majority of the people, who were Hindus.

When Pakistan accepted Nawab’s Instrument of Accession, the government of India was outraged. Sardar Patel believed that if Junagadh was permitted to go to Pakistan, it would further increase communal tension. He offered Pakistan time to reverse its acceptance of the accession and to hold a plebiscite in Junagadh.

Eventually, Sardar Patel ordered the forcible annexation of Junagadh. Unable to resist the attack, Nawab fled to Pakistan. A plebiscite was conducted in which 99.95% of people chose India over Pakistan.

Question 8 What steps did the Indian Government take to solve the refugee problem?
Answer:

Steps That Indian Government take to solve the refugee problem:

The teeming millions that came to India after the partition posed a threat to the newly formed Indian government. To cope with this problem, the Indian government took various steps. But these steps initiated debates from many corners.

The debates that took place are as follows-

[1] India’s grievances against Pakistan: India argued that Pakistan has forced a large number of Hindus and Sikhs to abandon their motherland (Pakistan) and come to India.

[2] Nehru-Liaquat Pact: To tackle the increasing refugee problem, Jawaharlal Nehru the Prime Minister of India, and Liaquat Ali Khan, the Prime Minister of Pakistan, signed a treaty in 1950 known as the ‘Nehru-Liaquat Pact’ or the ‘Delhi Pact’. But even this treaty could not deter the refugees from entering India.

[3] Exchange of property: The central government facilitated the exchange of property and people between the refugees of Punjab and West Pakistan, and there was an exchange of refugees between these two regions. However, no such facilities were given to the refugees of West Bengal, and thus they had to undergo various hardships for a long time.

[4] Aid and rehabilitation: Many historians are of the opinion that the central government was biased even while granting aid to the refugees of West Bengal and Punjab. While the refugees of Punjab received adequate aid, the refugees of West Bengal got insufficient funds and aid for rehabilitation.

[5] Rehabilitation in far-off places: Many Dalit refugees from West Bengal were sent off to distant places for rehabilitation like the Andamans and Dandakaranya, which cut them off from the Bengali language, culture, etc. The leftist parties of Bengal protested vehemently against this policy of rehabilitation by the central government.

WBBSE Madhyamika Model Question Paper History Group E

Answer any one question in fifteen or sixteen sentences:

Question 1 Give an idea of the various protests again t the practice of Sati in the first half of the 19th century. How did Rammohan Roy achieve success in the movement against Sati?
Answer:

The various protests again t the practice of Sati in the first half of the 19th century:

Meaning of Sati: Sati was one of the evil practices prevalent in Indian society. The ritual of dying on the funeral pyre of the deceased husband is known as Sati.

[1] Protests against the practice of Sati: There were various protests against the practice of Sati in the first half of the 19th century. Mrityunjay Vidyalankar protested against the Sati system. According to him, no sanction of Sati is mentioned in Hindu religious literature. The Christian missionaries also protested against the Sati system.

They published books and pamphlets against the cruel practice which helped to create anti-Sati public opinion. Two newspapers the ‘Friends of India’ and the ‘Samachar Darpan’ condemned and opposed Sati and wrote to the Governor-General against the practice of Sati.

[2] Campaign against Sati by Rammohan Roy: The great social reformer Raja Rammohan Roy spearheaded the campaign against Sati. From 1818 Rammohan attempted to form a public opinion against the evil practice of Sati. He published many booklets both in English and Bengali against Sati. He wrote articles in the journal ‘Sambad Kaumudi’ and helped to create anti-Sati public opinion.

He put forward his arguments for why Sati should be banned and appealed to the people to stop widow burning. He tried to prove that Hindu scriptures did not approve of this evil custom. He brought the evil custom of Sati into the open and exposed them for scrutiny.

Referring to ‘Satidaha Hindu Samriti Sastra’ he pointed out that a Hindu widow would live a life of abstinence. An anti-social vigilance party was organized by him whose duty was to keep watch on different burning ghats to prevent Sati. He visited different burning ghats of Calcutta and persuaded the widows not to commit Sati.

[3] Regulation XVII of 1829: The movement against Sati became popular. A petition signed by eminent people was sent to Lord William Bentinck for the prohibition of Sati. Lord William Bentinck passed Regulation XVII of 1829 and abolished Sati.

Question 2 Give a brief description of Rabindranath Tagore’s ideas on education and Santiniketan.
Answer:

Rabindranath Tagore’s ideas on education and Santiniketan:

According to Rabindranath Tagore, there must be three basic elements in any ideal method of teaching.

These are-

[1] Freedom,
[2] Creative self-expression, and
[3] Active communication with man and nature. His ideals of education materialized through his ashram school at Santiniketan. Rabindranath said, “At first started a school at Santiniketan and brought children here to let them move freely in the wide fields of this universe.

But gradually it came to my mind that existing differences between one man and another would have to be removed and man will have to be emancipated amidst all other men.” He wanted to harmonize and integrate Eastern and Western cultures at Visva-Bharati.

So he said, “the foundation of that relationship, which awaits discrimination all over the world, will be established here.” The Visva-Bharati University is pursuing its aim successfully to date. If we analyze Rabindranath’s ideals in education, it will be understood that his childhood experiences are the sources of his inspiration.

He had some bitter experiences in his childhood regarding studying at school and college. This made him sympathetic toward children. He brought together the educational ideals of the past and the present and educational philosophies of the East and the West in developing his system of education.

While explaining the aim and function of the Visva-Bharati University, he said that being strongly impressed by need and responsibility, he had formed the nucleus of an international university for the promotion of mutual understanding between the East and the West.

Rabindranath Tagore’s educational philosophy is, at the same time, a combination of scientific, psychological, and sociological trends. According to him, a student confined within the four walls of a classroom was nothing more than a bird in a cage.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chsapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Visva Bharati University

Question 3 Give a brief description of the Namasudra Movement in Bengal.
Answer:

Namasudra Movement in Bengal:

‘Namasudra’ is an Indian ‘varna’ community which was earlier known as ‘chandala’.

They lived outside the four-tier system and thus were outcastes:

[1] Causes of the Namasudra Movement: In Bengali Hindu society, the Namasudras were regarded as untouchables. They had no religious rights. They were forbidden by caste Hindus to enter places of worship to draw water from public wells or to wear shoes in presence of caste Hindus.

They were made to dispose of dead animals, dig village graves, and were relegated to the most menial tasks of manual scavengers, leather workers, street sweepers, and cobblers. They suffered from severe economic crises as well.

[2] The objective of the Namasudra Movement: The objective of the Namasudra Movement was to acquire special rights to strengthen the social and political position of the Namsaudra and attain perfect peace of mind.

[3] Beginning of the movement: The Namasudra Movement started in the 1870s when the chandalas of Bakarganj and Faridpur started a boycott of caste Hindus when their high caste neighbors refused to dine from a chandala headman. The Namasudras severed all sorts of social and economic relationships with the higher-caste Hindus.

[4] Matua Movement: Harichand Thakur, the leader of the Namasudras, started the Matua Movement, the aim of which was the upliftment of the downtrodden, attainment of peace of mind, and eradication of inequalities in society. After the death of Harichand the leadership of the Matua passed on to his son Guruchand who came to be known as the ‘Father of Namasudra Renaissance’.

He was successful in removing the disgraceful term ‘chandala’ which was then attributed to the Namasudras. Harisabhas were organized for the social upliftment of the Namasudras. He appealed for the employment of the Namasudras in government services.

[5] Namasudra Welfare Organisations: Various social welfare organizations like Bengal Namasudra Organisation, Namasudra Welfare Association, and Bengal Depressed Classes Organisation carried out active movements demanding proper rights for the Namasudras. The Namasudras were successful in wresting some social and political rights. After the partition of India, their movement slowed down.

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