WBBSE Class 8 History Chapter 2 Hyderbad Ayodhya And Bengal And The Battle Of Plassey Long Answer Questions

Chapter 2 Rise Of Regional Powers Topic A Rise Of Regional Powers Hyderbad Ayodhya And Bengal And The Battle Of Plassey Long Answer Questions

Question 1. Discuss in detail the causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire.

Mughal Empire Introduction:

The decline of the Mughal empire began with Aurangzeb’s death in 1707. After going through continuous wear and tear in the next fifty years the empire now became confined to Delhi, Agra, and their neighboring areas.

Then for a long time, it continued to exist in name only and the emperors were merely nominal heads.

Causes for the downfall of the Mughal Empire-

1. Jagirdari crisis:

Towards the end of the Mughal rule, the number of Mansabdars increased but the amount of land did not. Since the Jagirdars were unable to obtain

a product that was equivalent to their remuneration, they did not maintain the required number of soldiers and horses. So an administrative crisis arose which hastened the fall of the empire.

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2. Conflict among courtiers:

The Mughal aristocrats were divided into three groupsIrani, Turani, and Hindustani. The conflict among them became so acute during the rule of the weak later Mughals that it shook the foundation of the government.

3. Erroneous policy of Aurangzeb:

Aurangzeb kept himself engaged in wars during a major period of his reign and thus drained the wealth, power, and energy of the kingdom.

His erroneous Rajput policy, Deccan policy, and orthodox religious policy brought about the downfall of the Mughal empire.

4. Peasant unrest:

The immense pressure created on the peasants as a result of the economic crisis made them desperate and they rose in rebellion. The Jat rebellion (1669),

the Satnami revolt (1672), and other Sikh revolts were the results of the financial crisis and Aurangzeb’s religious policies. Continuous peasant rebellions led to the decline of the Mughal empire.

5 Rise ofregional powers:

Many independent kingdoms arose taking advantage of the internal weakness of the Mughal empire.

Some of these kingdoms were Hyderabad under Nizam ulmulk, Ayodhya under Sadat Khan, and Bengal under Murshid Quli Khan.

Though they verbally owed loyalty to the emperor, their attitude and behavior helped in the rise of separatist tendencies.

6. Foreign invasions:

The invasion of Nadir Shah gave a death blow to the Mughal empire which was already weakened by an internal crisis. Nadir Shah invaded India in 1739 created a massacre and plundered enormous wealth.

Question 2. Discuss briefly the tribal revolts that took place in the frontier during Aurangzeb’s reign.

Aurangzeb’s Reign Introduction:

During the reign of Aurangzeb, the tribals living on the Northwest frontier became rebellious and created chaos. Aurangzeb tried to subjugate them by using money and power.

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Tribal Revolts In The Frontier During Aurganzeb’s Reign-

1. Bhagu revolt:

The people of the Yusufjai tribe attacked the Mughal officers under the leadership of Bhagu in 1667. They were cruelly suppressed by the Mughal general Amin Khan.

2. Revolt of Akmal Khan:

The Afridi tribe created much disturbance under the leadership of Akmal Khan in 1672. It is said that they killed 10,000 Mughal soldiers, imprisoned 20,000, and plundered wealth of about rupees 2 crore.

3. Revolt of Kushhal Khan:

The Khatak tribes joined the revolt of the Afridis under the leadership of Kushhal Khan. Many people who were attracted by the brilliant and charismatic personality of Kushhal Khan, joined the revolt.

However, the Mughal general Aghar Khan bribed the poor people and created dissension among them. This weakened the revolt.

Aurangzeb’s reign Results:

  1. Aurangzeb failed to get the supply of forces from the Afghan tribes during his war with the Rajputs.
  2. Besides, much of the wealth of the Mughal treasury was drained due to these frontier wars.
  3. Since Aurangzeb was busy with these frontier revolts the separatists in different areas increased their power.

Aurangzeb’s reign Significance: Aurangzeb had to send his army to suppress the frontier revolts and this brought much relief to Shivaji while carrying out his campaigns against the Mughals.

Question 3. Discuss the rise of Bengal as a provincial power.

The Rise Of Bengal As A Provincial Power:-


After the death of rapidly Aurangzeb the Mughal Empire proceeded toward its downfall. The weak and inefficient rulers failed to keep the empire integrated and conduct the administration smoothly.

So chaos reigned everywhere and a number of regional powers arose.

Rise Of Independent KinG doms-

1. Subah of Bengal:

The Mughals had established their power in Bengal after defeating Daud Khan (the last Karrani Sultan) during the reign of Akbar. Since then Bengal was ruled by the Subedars appointed by the Mughal emperor.

2. Murshid Quli Khan as the Diwan of Bengal:

Aurangzeb sent Murshid Quli Khan, who had already attained much reputation as the Diwan of Berar in the Deccan, as the Diwan of Hyderabad, and then the Diwan of Bengal.

He was given the title of Murshid Quli for his achievements as the Diwan of Bengal.

During this time Azim-us-Shaan, Aurangzeb’s grandson, was the subedar of Bengal. However, the weakness of the Subedar helped Murshid Quli Khan to show his genius.

3 Murshid Quli Khan as the Subedar of Bengal:

After Aurangzeb’s death, the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah first transferred Murshid Quli Khan to Deccan but after two years he appointed him again as the Diwan of Bengal.

Afterward, emperor Faruksiyar appointed him as the Subedar of Bengal.

Murshid Quli Khan showed ceremonious loyalty to the Mughal emperor and sent him regular taxes. However, in practice, he ruled over Bengal independently.

He founded an independent kingdom of Bengal taking advantage of the chaos prevailing in the Mughal empire.

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Question 4. Discuss the emergence of Hyderabad as a regional power.

The Emergence Of Hyderabad As A Regional Power:-


The decay of the Mughal empire began with the death of Aurangzeb. As a result, a number of regional or provincial powers arose in different parts of India.

Though they owed allegiance to the Mughal emperor they were practically independent. One such independent kingdom was Hyderabad.

Emergence Of Independent Hyderabad-

1. Rise of the Nizam:

The Turanis were an important elite group in the Mughal court. Mir Qamaruddin Khan Siddiqui was a member of this group during Aurangzeb’s time and was conferred the title of Chin Qilich Khan by the emperor.

He was also given the titles of Nizam-ul-Mulk and Asaf Jha by Emperor Faruksiyar and Emperor Muhammad Shah respectively.

He maintained a cordial relationship with all these emperors and started ruling over Hyderabad independently.


Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 2 Rise Of Regional Powers Chin Qilich Khan


2. Defeat of Mubariz Khan:

The provincial Mughal ruler Mubariz Khan was appointed in Hyderabad almost as an independent ruler. He proceeded against the Nizam in 1724 by the order of emperor Muhammad Shah.

Mubariz Khan was killed and the Mughal army was routed out in the battle of Shakar-kheda. So Muhammad Shah accepted the Nizam as the ruler of the Deccan by a treaty.

3. Foundation of the Kingdom of Hyderabad:

Though the foundation of the independent kingdom of Hyderabad was laid under Nizam he never declared his independence officially.

The coins were circulated in the name of the Mughal emperor and the Khutba was also read in his name. So the Mughal emperor was never disturbed by the existence of Hyderabad.

In the meantime, the Nizam got an opportunity to lay the foundation of an independent kingdom.

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4. Emergence of independent Hyderabad:

The administration of Hyderabad was formally based on the Mughal structure but the substantial modification was done internally.

These changes included making the Jagirs hereditary, appointing new officials, decentralization of administrative power, and so on.

In this way, Hyderabad began to emerge as an independent kingdom under Nizam.

Question 5. Discuss the emergence of Ayodhya as a regional power.

The Emergence Of Ayodhya As A Regional Power:-


After Aurangzeb’s death, the Mughal empire began to disintegrate. As a result, the central administration became slack. A number of independent kingdoms arose in different parts of the country taking advantage of the situation.

Ayodhya was one such kingdom to assert its independence.


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Rise Of Independent Ayodhya

1. Role of Sadat Khan:

Sadat Khan was appointed the Subedar of Ayodhya by the Mughal emperor.

Sadat Khan first suppressed the revolts of the local rulers and clan chiefs of Ayodhya ruthlessly and introduced a benevolent system of administration.

He treated the Hindus, who formed the majority, genially and appointed them to high posts. He also made the post of the Nawab hereditary. Moreover, he expanded his kingdom by adding Varanasi and Allahabad to it.

So he turned Ayodhya into almost an independent kingdom before his death.

2. Role of SafdarJung:

Sadat Khan maintained a cordial relationship with the Mughal emperor by virtue of which he placed his son-in-law Safdar Jung as the administrator of Ayodhya. Safdar Jung became the ruler after the death of Sadat Khan.

He suppressed the rebellious Ruphela Zamindar and the Pathans and established peace in his kingdom. He also introduced a secular type of administration in Ayodhya.

Though he owed allegiance to the Mughal ruler, he ruled over Ayodhya independently. Like Sadat Khan he also remained involved in court politics but, at the same time, established Ayodhya as an independent kingdom.

Question 6. Give an account of the background and outcome of granting data to the British East India Company.

Background And Outcome Of Granting Data To The British East India Company:-


The Mughal emperor Faruksiyar gave the British East India Company the right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa in lieu of an annual payment of rupees three thousand. This was called dastak.Background of receiving data

Background Of Receiving Dastak

The British East India Company also made its chief trading center in Bengal in 1651 like other


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European trading companies. They received zamindari rights over the three villages of Kolkata, Sutanuti, and Gobindapur after prospering in their trade.

In order to gain more facilities they sent a delegation to emperor Faruksiyar in 1715 under the leadership of John Surman. Consequently, Faruksiyar issued his Firman (a royal decree) by which

the company received data on the right to free trade in Bengal in lieu of an annual payment of rupees three thousand in 1717.

Results Of Receiving Dastak-

1. Government recognition:

The facilities which the Company had so long been enjoying in the trade now came to be recognized by the government.

2. Enjoying additional facilities: The Company now began to enjoy some additional facilities. One such facility was that the chairman of

the English trading center could grant permission or data for free trade to his nominated business representative. On presenting this document no English ship would be checked by the officers of the Nawab.

3. Advancement of commercial competition:

In comparison to other European trading companies, the English Company progressed greatly in trade by virtue of the data.

Again, the native traders were unable to compete with the English Company since they could not carry on tax-free trade.

So they were adversely affected while the English Company made much headway.

Question 7. What do you know, about Clive’s conspiracy over the throne of Bengal?

CIives’s Conspiracy

The first party to conspiracy-The British: The relationship between the British Company and Nawab Siraj Abdullah was never very cordial. The Company realized that Siraj aimed at uprooting the British power in India.

So, under the leadership of Clive, they targeted Siraj as their chief enemy and regarded it as their foremost duty to overthrow him.


Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 2 Rise Of Regional Powers Robert Clive


The second party to the conspiracy-Relatives and officers of the Nawab:

The conspiracy of Plassey was mainly a creation of the nobles of Murshidabad.

When Siraj asked Jagat Seth to help him to suppress Shaukat Jung, the ruler of Purnia he refused and threatened Jagat Seth that he would convert him.

Again, Rai Durlabh and Mir Jafar were removed from the posts of Diwan and Bakshi respectively and they were offended by Siraj. Moreover, Siraj was young and not farsighted.

His rudeness offended his relatives who joined hands with the royal officials and the Seths to depose him and place Mir Jafar on the throne.

Clive took the opportunity and tried to remove the mortal enemy of the Company through a plot.

Secret agreement:

Clive made a secret agreement with Mir Jafar, Manikchand, Jagat Seth, Yar Latif, Rai Durlabh, Umichand, and other influential persons. The agreement contained that

After deposing Siraj Mir Jafar would become the Nawab

In lieu of the favor, the English Company would get sole power and maximum commercial facilities in Bengal and adjoining areas.

Question 8. Discuss the causes of the Battle of Plassey.


The relationship Reasons for conflict between Siraj and the company deteriorated considerably and this culminated in the battle of Plassey.

Reasons For Conflict Between Siraj And The Company-

1. Defiance of the Nawab:

When Siraj became the Nawab, the Dutch, the French, and the Zamindars of Bengal showed their respect by sending him gifts but the British Company did not show any such respect and this offended Siraj.

2. Misuse of data:

The British East India Company got data on the right to free trade by virtue of Faruksiyar’s Firman. The company officials used data for personal business defying Nawab’s orders and depriving him of his due taxes.

3. Assisting the conspiracy:

Many royal officers and relatives could not accept Siraj as the Nawab and entered into a competition to usurp power. Clive utilized this internal conflict to build up a conspiracy against Siraj.


Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 2 Rise Of Regional Powers Siraj ud-daullah


4. Insulting Siraj’s messenger:

Krishnadas amassed 53 lakh rupees of the dead Nawab of Dhaka and sought shelter at the English headquarters in Kolkata. When Siraj learned about it he sent his messenger Narayan Das asking

the British Company to hand over Krishna Das to him but Governor Drek insulted Narayan Das and drove him away.

5. Fortification of Kolkata:

During Siraj’s reign, the French and the English began to build forts in Chandannagar and Calcutta respectively. Siraj ordered them to stop the fortification. The French obeyed but the English did not.

Question 9. Discuss the Black Hole Tragedy briefly.

Black Hole Tragedy


Siraj was highly enraged when the English neither handed over Krishna Das, the son of Rajballav, the Diwan of Dhaka nor stopped the construction of Fort William. Therefore, Siraj occupied Fort William on 20th June 1756.

Governor Drek, the English general, and other English lords managed to escape but many of them were captured by Siraj.

Account of Holwell:

According to Holwell, a British official, Siraj occupied Fort William and imprisoned 146 English people in a room, 18 ft long and 14ft and 10 inches wide, for an entire night. About 123 of them died of suffocation.


Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 2 Rise Of Regional Powers Holwell Monument


Imaginary tale:

Subsequently, it proved that the event was a piece of Holwell’s imagination. There was no possibility of 146 British people staying at the fort then, and it was also not possible to accommodate

So many people in such a small room. Maybe a few people were imprisoned there.


There is much controversy among historians and scholars regarding this incident. Jadunath Sarkar thinks that there were about 60-70 English people rather than 146. Again, the Nawab had nothing to do with the incident.

If happened due to the negligence of the officials. According to Akshay Kumar Maitra, the list of names of dead Englishmen given by Holwell was not true because most of them had either died earlier or lived on after the incident.

Anne Besant made an interesting comment on this incident “Geometry has proved that the arithmetical sum was wrong”.

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Question 10. What was the significance of the Battle of Plassey?


The Battle of Plassey which took place between Siraj ud-daullah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, and the British forces under Robert Clive had far-reaching effects.

According to historian Maleson, “No other battle had a such widespread, conspicuous, and permanent effect as the Battle of Plassey”.

Significance Of The Battle Of Plassey-

1. Establishment of Company’s authority over Bengal:

After gaining victory in the Battle of Plassey the British East India Company established its political authority over Bengal. Now they aimed at establishing their superiority all over India.

2. Establishment of authority over India:

Through the consolidation of power over Bengal the British government tried to establish its superiority over the whole of India. They utilized the resources of Bengal to bring other regions of India under colonial rule.

3. Authority over trade:

After winning the Battle of Plassey the Company started using data, i.e., the right to free trade. In this way, they established a monopoly over the trade and commerce of Bengal.

4. Drain of resources:

After the Battle of Massey the Company and its officials sent huge amounts of wealth and resources to England both legally and illegally. The historian Brooke Adams referred to this as the ‘Plassey plunder’.

5. Kingmakers:

The British now virtually became the kingmakers and appointed Mir Jafar, Mir Qasim, and Najm ud-daulah as Nawabs in exchange for a huge amount of money. The Nawabs now became mere puppets in the hands of the British.

6. Initiation of a new era:

The Indian society and civilization under British rule experienced a renaissance under the influence of Western education and a trend of thought. So the medieval period ended and the modern period set in.


Wbbse Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 2 Rise Of Regional Powers Battle of Plassey



The Company crossed the first step towards colonial rule through the Battle of Plassey. According to Tarachand, ‘The defeat of Plassey has made the weakness of India conspicuous.

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Question 11. Focus on the dispute over Plassey’s plunder.


The British East India Company sent huge wealth and resources from India to England after winning the Battle of Plassey.

They did not send these things in lieu of old, silver, or other commodities and so it was termed as ‘plunder’ by several scholars.

The historian Brooke Adams called this incident the ‘Plassey plunder’ or ‘Plassey loot’.

Dispute Over Plassey Plunder

Methods of Plassey Plunder: The Plassey Plunder took place in two ways. The first one was through Company officials and the second one was through the commercial, economic, and revenue policies of the Company.

Description of the plunder:

At this time the Company authority and the officials had dispatched rupees 50 crores to England. As a prior agreement, they got rupees one and a half crore by placing Mir Jafar on the throne of Bengal.

The chief hands behind the plunder, i.e., Robert Clive, Johnston Senior, and Sykes returned to England laden with wealth.

Difference of opinion:

There is a difference of opinion among historians regarding the exact amount of wealth and resources dispatched to England.

According to Holden Ferber, it was pounds 18 lacks between 1757-90, according to professor P. J. Marshal it was 5 lakh pounds annually and according to Dr. Amalesh Tripathi, it was 25-30 lakh rupees annually.


The Company met its administrative expenses from the wealth plundered from India.

They also built up a vast empire with the help of this wealth. Again, this wealth was used in fostering the Industrial Revolution and for the construction of modern England.

Question 12. Suppose you are a resident of Bengal during the reign of Siraj ud-daullah. Write a diary entry on your reaction to the defeat of Siraj in the Battle of Plassey.

July 3, 1757, The English East India Company came to India for trade purposes but their activities are no more confined to trade and commerce. They are eager to interfere in the politics of Bengal.

Siraj ud-daullah has succeeded Alivardi Khan as the Nawab. Now the members of the royal family are conspiring against Siraj.

Jagat Seth, Raj Ballabh, Rai Durlabh, Umichand, Mir Jafar, and Miran have joined hands with Robert Clive, the chief official of the Company.

I have heard that they want to place Mir Jafar on the throne of the Nawab. Most probably Siraj is aware of the plot but I do not understand why he is not taking any action to crush his opponents.

This passivity on his part has now led to the Battle of Plassey. Now Nawab’s 70,000 soldiers faced the 3,000 soldiers of the Company on 23rd June 1757.

Astonishingly Nawab’s chiefs like Mir Jafar, Rai Durlabh, and Yar Latif remained absolutely inactive in the war and gave no instructions to The army.

Only two of the chiefs Mir Madan and Mohanlal fought bravely and died in the battle.

The entire army disintegrated due to betrayal on the part of Mir Jafar. Siraj was defeated in the battle. Now the rule of the British has started in Bengal.

I have heard that Miran, the son of Mir Jafar, has killed Siraj. Mir Jafar’s greed for Nawab’s throne brought about the sunset of Bengal’s independence.

I think it will no more be possible to stop the advancement of British power in India in the forthcoming days.

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