WBBSE Class 10 History Chapter 6 Peasant Working Class And Left Movement In 20th Century Long Answer Questions

Chapter 6 Peasant Movement In India Topic A Peasant Movements And The Leftists

Question 1 Give a brief account of the peasant participation in the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Answer:

The participation of peasants in the Non- Cooperation Movement can be discussed as follows-

[1] The Non-Cooperation Movement was started by Gandhi in 1920 and a large number of peasants joined this movement. The programme of the Congress for no rent campaign stirred the peasants.

[2] The peasants of Midnapore in Bengal started the no-rent campaign under the leadership of Birendranath Sashmal.

[3] The peasants of Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and the Deccan stopped payment of rents and chowkidar tax.

[4] In Awadh, peasant struggle became popular as well. As the movement spread, in 1921, the houses of Talukdars and merchants were attacked. Bazars were looted and grain stores were taken over.

[5] The exploited Moplahs of the Malabar region organised armed resistance against the oppressive landlords and Moneylenders.

[6] In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerilla movement spread under the leadership of A S Raju. The rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on warfare for achieving swaraj.

[7] Rajasthan became an important centre of the Non-Cooperation Movement. Vijay Singh and Manikyalal Verma organised a violent peasant rebellion. As a result, the Haridas was forced to give some concessions to the peasants.

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[8] The peasants during the Non-Cooperation Movement were supported by Indian National Congress leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Madan Mohan Malaviya, Vallabhbhai Patel and others. The movement of the peasantry became an important part of the Indian national movement.

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Question 2 Give an account of peasant participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer:

The participation of peasants in the Civil Disobedience Movement can be discussed as follows-

[1] The Civil Disobedience Movement, started by Mahatma Gandhi in 1930, is a landmark in the history of the freedom movement in India. The peasants took part in this movement raised their voices in protest against the oppressive British rules. They refused to pay revenue and Chowkidari taxes.

The peasants who lost their lands during the economic depression of 1929, organised themselves to get back their lost lands. The poorer peasantry was not just interested in the lowering of revenue demand, they also wanted unpaid rents to be remitted. They joined various radical movements, often led by the socialists and the communists.

[2] In the United Province, the peasants started a no-rent campaign and refused to pay rent to the zamindars. The no-rent campaign of the peasants was supported by the UP Congress Committee.

[3] Rich peasant communities like the Patidar of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh participated actively in the movement.

[4] In Bihar, Swami Sahajanand organised a Kisan Sabha to protect the rights of the peasants.

[5] In Monghyr the peasants started several movements against zamindari oppression. In 1931, under the leadership of Kalika Prasad, the peasants started agitation against the illegal eviction by the zamindars.

[6] The peasant movement in Mymensingh also deserves special mention. Here, the peasants were organised by the youth organisation called Young Comrade League. This was also the movement of the zamindars.

[7] It is interesting to note that the movements of the peasants were supported by the Muslim League.

Question 3 What was the nature of peasant participation in the Quit India Movement?
Answer:

The participation of peasants in the Quit India Movement can be discussed as follows-
[1] The participation of the peasants during the Quit India Movement was spontaneous, total and widespread. The participation of the peasants gave the movement a popular turn.

[2] The main centre of the peasant movement lay in eastern India where agricultural production showed signs of decline.

[3] The Bihar Kisan Sabha acted as the brain of the Bihar movement. The participation of the peasants was so intense that British officials described the region around Saran in Bihar as a ‘notoriously criminal district’.

[4] There was also the participation of peasants of Talcher in Orissa.

[5] Peasant rebellion also broke out in East Khandesh and Satara in Maharashtra and in the Baruch district of Gujarat.

[6] In Azamgarh, the crowds besieged police stations spurred by the belief that swaraj had been attained. Once that faith had been rudely shattered by British repression, the peasant upsurge melted away in the absence of concrete to their more programme geared toward immediate needs.

[7] The rich peasants in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and the Thanjavur delta in Tamil Nadu kept away from the movement.

[8] In rural Bengal, the Quit India Movement was fuelled by peasant resentment against the new war taxes and forced rice export.

[9] The Muslim peasants of Birbhum and Dinajpur enthusiastically joined the movement.

[10] The peasants in the Central Province were actively involved in the revolt.

[11] Peasants from all strata of society were at the heart of the movement. These programs concentrated their offensive on symbols of authority and there was complete absence of violence against Zamindars.

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Question 4 Write a note on the All India Kisan Sabha.
Answer:

All India Kisan Sabha:

The worldwide economic depression of 1929 began after the stock market crash in October 1929. The impact of the Great Depression on India was felt especially in the agricultural sector. The peasant of India suffered badly.

[1] Foundation: The backbone of the peasants was broken due to the extreme economic crisis. Agricultural prices fell due to which peasants could not sell their produce. The torture of the landlords and the moneylenders continued as before.

The moneylenders and the landlords were opposed by the peasants, who were in turn backed by the Congress. The All India Kisan Congress was founded in 1936 in order to ventilate the grievances of the peasants which later became the All India Kisan Sabha.

[2] Leaders: Swami Sahajanand Saraswati was elected President and N G Ranga was the general secretary. Jawaharlal Nehru was associated with the foundation of the Kisan Sabha and other members included Jayaprakash Narayan, Ram Manohar Lohia, Kamal Sarkar, Sudhin Pramanik and others.

[3] Demands: The Kisan Sabha focused mainly on the grievances of the peasants vis-a-vis the zamindars, moneylenders, traders and the government.

The demands of the All India Kisan Sabha were as follows-
[1] Reduction of land revenue by 50%,
[2] Decrease in agricultural debts and interests,
[3] Feudal dues to be totally withdrawn,
[4] Legal protection for payment of minimum wage to agricultural labourers,
[5] Full occupancy rights to all tenants,
[6] Recognition of peasant union,
[7] Restoration of customary forest rights.

[4] Conclusion: The Kisan Sabha could not achieve much success and failed to give justice. Some steps were taken by the government to improve the condition of the peasants, but they were not enough. However, the peasants became politically conscious and later their movement merged into the nationalist movement and strengthened the freedom struggle of India.

Question 5 Give an account of the peasant movements of the 20th century.
Answer:

The peasant movements of the 20th century:

There was a direct impact of national politics on the peasant movements of the 20th century. During this period, the peasantry actively participated in several nationalist movements that took place.

[1] During the Anti-Partition Movement (1905): Due to the lack of any initiative of the Congress leaders, the peasantry did not participate in the Anti-Partition Movement of 1905. According to Sumit Sarkar, the participation of the peasantry was missing due to the lack of a proper plan of action for the benefit of the peasantry.

[2] During the Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-22): The peasantry participated actively in the Non- Cooperation Movement at the call of Gandhiji.

[1] Bengal: In Midnapore, Comilla, Rajshahi, Bogura, Rangpur, Birbhum, Dinajpur, Bankura etc., in Bengal, the peasantry participated in the Non- Cooperation Movement.
[2] Bihar: In the areas of Bhagalpur, Muzaffarpur, Purnea, Munger, Darbhanga, Madhubani, Sitamadi, etc.,. the peasantry not only participated in the movement but also stopped paying taxes to the zamindars and entered into conflict with the police.
[3] United Provinces: In the United Provinces (present Uttar Pradesh), Baba Ramchandra gave leadership to the peasants, and built up a strong movement. This movement of the peasants in the United Provinces was known as Eka Movement.
[4] Other Provinces: Peasantry from areas of Guntur (Andhra), Punjab and parts of Orissa participated in the Non- Cooperation Movement. Under the leadership of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the peasantry of Gujarat started the Bardoli Satyagraha Movement.

[3] During the Civil Disobedience Movement: The peasantry of several provinces actively participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34).

[1] United Provinces: In the areas of Rae Bareily, Agra, Barabanki, Lucknow, etc., due to the huge participation of the peasantry, the Civil Disobedience Movement became a true mass movement.
[2] Bihar: Under the leadership of Swami Sahajanand, Jadunandan Sharma and others, the Kisan Sabha was formed in Bihar. The Kisan Sabha was instrumental for the participation of the peasantry in the national movement.
[3] Bengal: In the areas of Kanthi, Mahishadal, Arambagh, Tripura, Srihatta, etc., the peasantry joined the Civil Disobedience Movement.
[4] Gujarat: The peasantry of Surat, Bardoli, Kheda, etc., joined the movement.
[5] Other Provinces: In Kerala, the peasantry led by Kelappan, and in Andhra by Bal Ramakrishna, stopped payment of taxes. Even in Punjab, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh the peasants stopped paying irrigation tax and began a movement for decreasing the colonial tax.

[4] During the Quit India Movement: During the Quit India Movement, there was an uproar in the country to throw out the British from India. The peasantry too participated in this movement.

[1] Bihar: In the areas of Munger, Bhagalpur, Muzaffarpur, Purnea, and the Santhal Parganas of Bihar, the peasantry rose in revolt against the British. Almost 80 per cent of the police stations in Bihar were captured by the people.
[2] Bengal: In the district of Midnapore, under the subdivision of Tamluk, police station areas like those of Patashpur, Khejuri, Dinajpur, Balurghat etc., the revolting peasantry stopped payment of taxes to the zamindars.
[3] Gujarat: In areas like Surat, Khandesh, Brooch, etc., the peasantry began guerilla attacks.
[4] Orissa: At Talcher in Orissa, the peasants established the Chashi-Molla Raj and strengthened the movement. Even though the peasant movement was powerful in the 20th century, the peasantry did not participate in the movements all over the country.

One of the major causes of the non-participation of the peasants in several areas was that majority of the movements were led by Congress. The main grievance against the Congress was that most of the zamindars were supporters of the Congress.

Chapter 6 Peasant Movement In India Topic B Working Class Movement And The Leftists

Question 1 When and how was the Communist Party of India formed?
Answer:

The Communist Party of India:

The Communist Party of India was first set up at Tashkent in erstwhile Soviet Russia in October 1920, by Manabendra Nath Roy and his comrade Abani Mukherjee. In the next year (1921), this party was recognised by the Communist International led by Lenin.

In 1922 some youths, dedicated to communist ideas and some leaders of the Trade Union Movement established communist organisations in Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Lahore and some other parts of India. Muzaffar Ahmad was the leader of the leftist organisation in Calcutta and S A Dange and Nadkarni in Bombay.

The British government was alarmed at the rapid popularity of socialist thoughts. As a result, communist leaders like S A Dange, Muzaffar Ahmad, and Nalini Gupta were arrested on charges of treason. They were brought to trial under the Kanpur Conspiracy Case in 1924.

However, in the very next year (1925), a conference was summoned in Kanpur, where communist workers from different parts of India assembled and it was decided that an undivided All-India Communist Party should be formed. In accordance with the decision of the conference, The ‘Communist Party of India’ emerged in 1925.

Trade unions are associations of workers and are formed with the intention of protecting the workers against exploitation of employers and also to improve the condition of workers. The Industrial Revolution in England and in other countries and the introduction of the factory system of production were greatly responsible for the emergence of trade unions.

Communism is a type of government as well as an economic system. In a communist system, individual people do not own land, factories or machinery. Instead, the government or the whole community owns these things. Everyone is supposed to share the wealth that they create.

Question 2 Discuss the growth of Communist activities within the Congress.
Answer:

The growth of Communist activities within the Congress:

After the establishment of the Communist Party of India, it had a very strong influence over the working class of India. When the British Government could not control the communists, it banned the Communist Party of India and began the Meerut Conspiracy Case and arrested several communist leaders. After the Communist Party was banned, the remaining leaders began to operate from within the Congress.

[1] Communist leadership within Congress: When the British Indian Government banned the Communist Party in 1938 the communist leaders who had not been arrested, began to function from within the Congress or the Congress Socialist Party and continued their work. This was responsible for strengthening the communist hold within Congress.

[2] Formation of the Congress Socialist Party: The Congress Socialist Party was formed under the initiative of Acharya Narayan Dev and Jayaprakash Narayan. The Congress Socialist party was opened within the Congress as a left-wing organisation of Congress. Jayaprakash Narayan, popularly known as JP, was the president of the Congress Socialist Party.

[3] Aims and objectives of the Congress Socialist Party: The Congress Socialist Party was eager in invoking the growth of leftist ideals within the Congress itself. The main aim of the Congress Socialist Party was to unite the workers and peasants for the national movement under a single roof. The Congress Socialist Party forced the Congress leadership to think over the issues of workers and peasants and incorporate these in the Congress movements.

[4] Formation of Kisan Congress: Leftist sections within the Congress, the Congress Socialist Party and the Communists formed the All India Kisan Congress in the year 1936. N G Ranga was elected President of the Kisan Congress while Swami Sahajanand Saraswati was elected as its secretary.

[5] Young leadership: Young Congress leaders like Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru. were left-inclined leaders of Congress. According to them, along with the political freedom of the country, Congress and its leaders should also try to achieve economic and social freedom for the countrymen.

For this purpose, Subhash Chandra Bose even had the wish that they would be able to build India into a socialist country after freedom. According to him, British imperialism was the root cause behind the impoverished condition of the masses. He was responsible for the formation of the Forward Bloc in 1939. The growth of leftist ideals within Congress was not something which the rightist leaders could accept very easily.

Even when the socialist Subhash Bose became the Congress President in 1939, Gandhiji was not happy with his policies. This ultimately led to his suspension from Congress. Forward Bloc thus became a separate party under Bose’s leadership in 1940.

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Question 3 Give a brief account of leftist movements in India during the 1930s and 1940s.
Answer:

Leftist movements in India during the 1930s and 1940s:

‘Left’ and ‘Right’-these two words have some specific meanings. The persons or institutions who want revolutionary changes are called leftists. Those who are not in favour of any change and are content with the present government whatsoever it may be, are known as rightists.

Various reasons led to the rise of leftist movements in India-

[1] The underdeveloped economy of India and the increasing disparity between the rich and the poor proved conducive to the rise of leftism in India.
[2] Many leaders were dissatisfied with Mahatma Gandhi’s feeble policy against the British government. They began to dream of the freedom of India through the revolution of peasants and labourers, following the ideas of the Russian Revolution.

Thus under the initiative of the leaders who wanted revolutionary changes leftist movement played an important part during the 1930s and 1940s. There were two main leftist parties-The communist party and the socialist party in India. The Communist Party leaders like M N Roy, and SA Dange organised industrial workers and peasants.

In order to suppress Communist influence, the British government started the Meerut Conspiracy Case in 1929, which continued for three years and about 33 Communist leaders were arrested in the case.

The Meerut Conspiracy Case could not, however, weaken the Communist-led working-class movement. In February-March, 1930, the Communists led a strike on the GIP railway. There was also a successful strike of the carters against the ban on the transportation of goods during the afternoon under the leadership of the Communist leader Abdul Momin.

However, police repression weakened the Communists. In 1933 and 1934, there was a revival of the labour movement in India, which was associated with the activities of the communists. In 1934, a general strike was organised by the communists and consequently, in the same year, the Indian Communist Party was banned.

Repressions, however, failed to weaken the Communist movement. In 1936, the All India Kisan Sabha was formed with the objective of achieving complete freedom from economic exploitation. On September 3, 1939, when the Second World War began, the working class of Bombay was amongst the first in the world to organise an anti-war strike, in which more than 90,000 workers participated.

The leftist movements, however, could not make any progressive development. This is because, the basic themes of Leftism-‘class antagonism’ and ‘violence’- were alien to the Indian tradition. By 1947, the Communist Movement in India had lost whatever it had earned in the Indian political scenario.

Question 4 Give an account of the working class movements in India during the 20th century.
Answer:

The working class movements in India during the 20th century:

During the 20th century, several working-class movements began in India, alongside the national movement, and at times, the two movements merged with each other.

[1] During the Anti-Partition Movement: During the Anti-Partition Movement (1905) and the Swadeshi and Boycott movements that went on with it, the working class became. active participants of the movement. There were cases of labour unrest in several areas during the boycott of foreign goods.

The workers and labourers of several factories went on to boycott foreign goods. Even the workers of the Calcutta Tramways Company went on strike.

[2] During the Non-Cooperation Movement: During the Non-Cooperation Movement, there occurred about 450 labour strikes. Madras’s Presidency became an important centre of labour unrest. In Calcutta too, there were strikes and lockouts in factories and workshops.

There were cases of labour unrest in coal mines at Raniganj. Bombay, Bihar, Kanpur, Sholapur, Jamalpur and several other provinces also witnessed severe labour unrest.

[3] Civil Disobedience Movement: The working class came to the forefront of political movements during the Civil Disobedience Movement. Maharashtra, Bengal, Assam, and Madras were chief centres of strikes and labour unrest.

    • Maharashtra: Sholapur, Nagpur, and Bombay were centres of labour unrest. Railway employees and gangmen blocked railway lines.
    • Bengal: Several jute mills, transport sectors and industries were centres where the workers locked the factories and industries. On top of this, the iron and steel factory at Kulti and the coal mines at Raniganj were areas of labour unrest.
    • Other Areas: Karachi Port, Hirapur Iron and Steel Industry, Digboi Oil Refinery in Assam etc., were other centres of labour unrest.

[4] Quit India Movement: During the Quit India Movement, the Communist Party of India advised the working class to stay away from the Congress-led Quit India Movement. Despite this advice from the Communists, the working class participated in the Quit India Movement in large numbers.

There were a number of strikes in factories and workshops. Even though the working class participated in the Quit India Movement, the Communist Party of India had a greater influence over the working class than Congress. For this very reason, the colonial government banned the communist party in 1934.

Question 5 What was the role of the working class during the Anti-Partition Movement?
Answer:

The role of the working class during the Anti-Partition Movement:

The working class played an important role during the Anti-Partition Movement. The discontent of the workers was no doubt caused primarily by material grievances, like rising prices, conditions of work, low wages, long working hours and ill-treatment by the white officials.

[1] Leaders: Labour discontent was given some political direction for the first time by a group of nationalist leaders among whom were eminent personalities such as Aswini Kumar Banerjee, Prabhat Kusum Roychowdhury, Apurba Kumar Ghose and Premtosh Bose and several others.

[2] Role of the working class:

The Anti-Partition Movement produced a large number of industrial strikes-
[1] The earliest strike of the period was the one by the employees of Messrs Burn and Company which coincided with the adoption of the boycott resolution in August 1905.
[2] Around 1905, there cropped up a few labour organisations in Calcutta. One of them was the Printers Union and it was under the auspices of this union that the strike of the Government of India Press employees took place in September 1905. In October 1905, under the leadership of Bipin Pal and Apurba Ghose, a socialist, the printers and compositors of the Bengal secretarial press went on strike.
[3] The mill hands of Ralli Brothers Jute Works went on strike on October 16, the day on which the partition of Bengal came into effect. Boycott in Indian Mill Hands Union at Budge Budge was organised in 1906 by A C Banerjee.
[4] In October 1905, the tram drivers and conductors of the Calcutta Tramway Company observed a token strike in support of ‘Swadeshi’.
[5] On the day of the partition, 11,000 carters remained off the streets. Twelve Jute factories, one Sugar Factory, one shell factory, one gun factory and about 70 local Calcutta mills were closed.
[6] The Calcutta Telegraph employees were on strike in April 1908. These strikes reflected the growing political consciousness among the working class.

Question 6 Give an account of the participation of the working class during the Non- Cooperation Movement.
Answer:

The participation of the working class in the Non-Cooperation Movement can be discussed as follows-

[1] When Mahatma Gandhi started the Non- Cooperation Movement in 1920, the working class took an active part. Mills, factories and engineering workshops were centres of labour unrest. The participation of the working class in political strikes signalled their conscious involvement in the nationalist movement.

[2] The workers and labourers organised strikes in factories and mills owned by the British. In 1921, the workers organised about 321 strikes in which 6 lakh workers participated. In 1921, workers of the Assam Tea Gardens launched movements to support the Non-Cooperation Movement.

The tram company workers and the workers of the Municipal Corporation observed strikes. Swami Vishya Nanda and Swami Darshana Nanda organised strikes among coal mine workers of Raniganj and Jharia. The alarming number of strikes and protests became a serious threat to the British government.

[3] The Indian National Congress extended its support to the working-class movement. The Nagpur Session of Congress supported the working class movement and the labour organisations. There was a four-month-long strike at the white-owned Buckingham and Carnatic textile mill in 1921, which received full support from local Non-Cooperation leaders like Thiru Vi Ka.

In 1921, when the Prince of Wales visited India, the Congress, and responding to the call of the Congress, the working class boycotted the Prince of Wales and observed strikes throughout the whole of India.

[4] The British government, alarmed at the progress of the working class, adopted several repren-sive measures for the suppression of the movement and a large number of workers and leaders were arrested. After 1922, the working class movement, under the leadership of the nationalist leaders, slowly lost momentum and gradually slowed down.

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Question 7 Give an account of the participation of the working class during the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer:

The participation of the working class during the Civil Disobedience Movement:

The Civil Disobedience Movement, which started in 1930 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, is an important landmark in the history of India’s freedom struggle. The economic depression of 1929 badly affected all classes of people.

It was a period of industrial recession which caused unemployment and wage cut. The working class organised strikes in mills, and factories and they were vocal with the şlogan ‘Purna Swaraj’. The workers adopted some of the ideas of the Gandhian programme like the boycott of foreign goods as a part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions.

There was frequent industrial unrest in the Nagpur region. Thousands of workers in tin mines Chotanagpur region wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns. The Great Indian Peninsular Railwaymen’s Union called a strike in support of Gandhiji’s breach of the salt law.

The British government took repressive measures against the workers on strike The Indian National Congress declared July 6 (1930) as ‘Gandhi Day’ and on this day, about 50 thousand workers observed a strike.

When Gandhiji and all the national leaders were arrested, a large number of workers struck work in Sholapur, Igatpuri, Kanchi, Madras and West Bengal and they also clashed with the police in some cases.

Question 8 What role did the working class play during the Quit India Movement?
Answer:

The working class play during the Quit India Movement:

The Quit India Movement started in 1942 and gradually turned into an all-India anti-imperialist movement. The Communist Party decided to stay aloof from the movement. Though they did not support the movement, the participation of the workers in the movement was spontaneous, total and widespread.

[1] On August 9, 1942, when the leaders of the Quit India Movement including Gandhiji were arrested, workers in Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bombay, Nagpur, Ahmedabad, Jamshedpur etc., held long strikes.

[2] In Ahmadnagar, Poona and Ahmedabad, labour participation remained considerable for several months. The Gandhian influence had contributed to a cordial relationship between labourers and mill owners and they did not resent the absence of their Workers.

[3] In Bangalore, 30,000 workers held brief strikes under the leadership of Congress leader T Bhashyam.

[4] In Bombay, many mills were closed- largely by the Congress mill owners. [5] In Mysore, the workers in mills, mines and workshops actively supported the petty bourgeoisie masses who launched a series of attacks on the British Raj.

[6] In Madras, Coimbatore, Madurai and Tenali, the working classes supported the movement by observing strikes.

[7] The workers in Nagpur mills and in all the cities and towns of Central Province went on strike in support of the movement.

[8] In Calcutta, strikes and lockouts occurred in some industrial concerns. The New India Jute Press, Calcutta Port Trust, the Calcutta Tramways and some other engineering concerns of Calcutta went on strikes for long periods.

Question 9 Discuss the role of the leftists in the anti-colonial movement in 20th-century India.
Answer:

The role of the leftists in the anti-colonial movement in 20th-century India:

Leftists played an important role in the anti-colonial movement in 20th-century India.

[1] All India Workers’ and Peasants’ Party: In 1928 was formed All India Workers’ and Peasants’ Party. Under the initiative of the party several workers and peasant movements were organised against the oppression of the British on the working class.

[2] Meerut Conspiracy Case: The Communist Party leaders like M N Roy, SA Dange organised industrial workers and peasants. The activities of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Party alarmed the government. In order to suppress communist influence, the British government started the Meerut Conspiracy Case (1929). This was a clear case of attack on the communists who were arrested and put to jail.

[3] Communist Party banned: However, the remaining members of the Communist Party continued the struggle against the British. There were successful strikes under the communist leaders. Consequently, in 1934, the Communist Party of India was banned. But these repressions failed to weaken the communist movement. However, the leftist movements could not make any progressive development as the basic themes of ‘class antagonism’ and ‘violence’ were alien to the Indian tradition.

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