WBBSE Class 10 History Chapter 5 Alternative Ideas And Initiatives From Mid 19th Century To The Early 20th Century Characteristics And Observations Long Answer Questions

Chapter 5 Alternative Ideas And Initiatives Characteristics And Observations Topic A Development Of Printing Press In Bengal

 Question 1. How did the printing press flourish in Bengal?

The printing press flourish in Bengal:

The newspapers were mainly responsible for the promotion of public opinion among the various sections of the Indian population. The first newspaper in India was started by James Augustus Hicky. Hicky’s newspaper was followed by some other newspapers like ‘The Bengal Hurkaru’, ‘The Calcutta Gazette’, ‘The India Gazette’, etc.

To the Serampore, Missionary goes the credit of bringing out the first Bengali. monthly, ‘Digdarshan’. It started in April 1818. A few days later ‘Samachar Darpan’ was published by Serampore Mission. J C Marshman was its editor. In June 1818, another weekly Bengali paper ‘Bengal Gazette’ started by Ganga Kishore Bhattacharya, made its appearance. Several other papers were published between 1821 and 1851.

Among these were ‘Sambad Kaumudi’ (1821) edited by Bhabanicharan Bandyopadhyay, ‘Samachar Chandrika’ (1822) also edited by Bhabanicharan, ‘Sambad Prabhakar (1831) started by Iswar Chandra Gupta, Jnananweshan’ (1831), edited by Dakshninarajan Mukhopadhyay, ‘Sambad Bhaskar (1839) run by Gourishankar Tarkabagish, ‘Education Gazette’ and ‘Saptahik Bartabaha (1856). These papers helped in spreading the news about the events occurring in the country and also helped the formation of public opinion among the masses in the country.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 5 Alternative Ideas Cover Pages Of Some Books And Magazines










The post-mutiny period saw the publication of several important newspapers both in Bengali and English. Among these, the most important were ‘Amrita Bazar Patrika’, ‘Indian Mirror’, and ‘Omprakash’. All of these were published from Calcutta. The ‘Hindoo Patriot’ brought to light the various grievances of the ryots and the peasants.

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Question 2 What is the contribution of William Carey and Serampore’s Mission to the spread of education?

The contribution of William Carey and Serampore’s Mission to the spread of education:

Before the arrival of William Carey and other missionaries, formal education was chiefly confined to the upper classes. Carey came to Bengal and set up a printing press in Serampore. Then under his initiative, the Serampore Mission played an important role in the spread of mass education in Bengal.

[1] Establishment of printing of press: William Carey set up a printing press in Serampore in 1800. Through this press translation of the Bible, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and other Indian literary works as well as various textbooks were published and became available to students in rural areas.

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[2] Establishment of schools: In 1818, about 103 primary schools were established in Serampore and adjoining areas which accommodated about 6703 students. Serampore Mission established the first school for girls and thus played an important role in spreading women’s education.

[3] Establishment of colleges: William Carey and his two associates established a degree college in Serampore in 1818 at their own expense. It was the first-degree college in Asia.

[4] Medium of instruction: Carey had realized that it was necessary to provide education through vernacular medium i.e., Bengali in order to spread mass education in rural Bengal. So he tried to spread education through the medium of Bengali.

[5] Progressiveness: Carey tried to remove bigotry and superstition from the minds of the students. So he emphasized on teaching subjects like modern literature, science, mathematics, history, philosophy etc., instead of following the old and obsolete method of education. Vishal Mangalwadi, in his book ‘The Legacy of William Carey’, has written that Carey had provided spiritual strength to the people to stand against those priests who had deprived them from the liberty of exploring the truth for their own interest.

Question 3 What do you know about the inventions and introduction of the printing press?

The inventions and introduction of the printing press:

The invention of the printing press is one of the most important inventions of all time. Few inventions have had such an impact as the printing press. It is one that ultimately led to our modern world.

[1] Printing press in China: The first overtures towards printing began around roughly 800 AD in China. Xylography, the art of engraving wood for the purpose of printing, likely originated in Chinese Buddhist temples. The world’s first movable type printing technology for printing books was invented around 1040 AD in China.

[2] Printing press in Arabian countries: The Battle of Talas took place between China and the Arabian countries in 751 AD. China was defeated by the Arabian countries. After their defeat, several, Chinese craftsmen, who could produce paper and who knew the art of printing were taken as prisoners. With them, the technique of printing arrived in the Arabian countries.

[3] Printing press in Europe: The technique of printing arrived in Europe along with the Arabian between 1250-1350 AD. This technique was further modified by Johannes Gutenberg (1400-1468 AD) of Germany. When he invented the modern. printing machine, a revolution began in the printing world. Hence he is known as the ‘Father of Printing Press’.

[4] Printing press in India: In 1556 the Portuguese introduced the printing press in India. Later the Christian missionaries played an important role in the development of the printing press.

[5] Printing press in Bengal: Towards the end of the 18th century the Portuguese missionaries introduced the printing press in Bengal. James Augustus Hickey in 1777 AD and Charles Wilkins in 1778 AD introduced the printing press in Calcutta and Chinsurah respectively. Panchanan Karmakar and Suresh Chandra Mazumdar were the first to type Bengali alphabets.

Question 4 What was the role of Upendrakishore Raychowdhury in the establishment of the printing industry in Bengal?

The role of Upendrakishore Raychowdhury in the establishment of the printing industry in Bengal:

Upendrakishore Raychowdhury was a pioneer of the printing industry. In the field of publishing, he is remembered in India and abroad for the new method he developed for printing both black and white and colored books and photographs with great accuracy and detail. He was the main brain behind the method of halftone block-making.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 5 Alternative Ideas Upendrankishore Raychowdhury

He invented several techniques related to halftone block-making, of which the ‘screen adjusting machine’ deserves special mention. When he saw that for one of his books, ‘Chotoder Ramayan’, the woodcut line block was of poor quality, he decided to import books, chemicals, and equipment from Britain to learn the procedure of block-making. His articles about block-making were published of the ‘Penrose Annual Volume’ of Britain.

After successfully learning the art, he set up a business for block-making. After fully grasping the art, he decided to start a publishing house of his own. Initially, he did not have a printing machine of his own. So he had to print his books in other printing presses. In 1913, he started one of the best publishing houses at Garpar in North Calcutta called U Ray & Sons.

He quickly earned recognition in India and abroad for the new method he developed for printing both black and white and color photographs with great accuracy. His ‘Tuntunir Boi’ is a classic, still loved and relished in most of Bengali homes. He did the illustrations of most of his books himself. Upendrakishore Raychowdhury was also a writer, painter, violin player, composer, and entrepreneur.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 5 Alternative Ideas Tuntunir Boi

Chapter 5 Alternative Ideas And Initiatives

Characteristics And Observations Topic B Development Of Science And Technical Education In Bengali

Question 1 Give a brief description of the development of technical education in Bengal.

The development of technical education in Bengal:

Prior to the establishment of British rule in Bengal, there was no provision for western education that included modern technology. Technical education began to develop in Bengal in the 19th century.

Technical institutes: Along with the progress of science in Bengal, some educational institutions also grew up to impart technical education. Such institutes include Roorkee Engineering College (1847), Calcutta Engineering College (1856), Association for the Advancement of Scientific and Industrial Education, Calcutta (1903), Jadavpur Engineering College (1906), Bengal Technical Institute (1906), etc, Bengal Technical Institute was established by Taraknath Palit in Calcutta when the Swadeshi Movement (1905) started against the partition of Bengal.

Its contributions towards the spread of technical education are as follows-

[1] Initiative for national education: During the Swadeshi Movement, an attempt was made to establish a national system of education as an alternative to the education system of the British government. One of the objectives of national education was the spread of indigenous technical education. So Taraknath Palit, an Indian lawyer, founded the Bengal Technical Institute in Calcutta on July 25, 1906.

[2] Association with other institutes: In order to spread the indigenous system of education, Bengal Technical Institute merged with Bengal National College in 1910 and formed the Bengal National College and Technical School. This joint institution was renamed as College of Engineering and Technology (CET) in 1928.

[3] Activities: After the merging of the institutions, arrangements were made for the cultivation of various subjects like Physics, Chemical Technology, Industrial Technology, etc., besides the disciplines of Humanities. As a result, several educated Bengalee youths could receive technical education and become self-dependent.

Question 2 Write what you know about the foundation of the Bose Institute.

The foundation of the Bose Institute:

Bose Institute was one of those institutions which grew up during the colonial rule in Bengal for the cultivation of science and development of science education.

[1] Background: Famous Jagadish Chandra Bose was completely dedicated to the cultivation of science in India. He gathered a lot of experience by traveling through different countries and tried to build up a modern scientific research center on the basis of his experiences.

[2] Foundation: Sir JC Bose resigned from the post of Professor at Presidency College (1950) and founded the Bose Institute on November 30, 1917, to carry out fundamental research on different branches of science. He dedicated the institution to his nation in his welcome speech named ‘The voice of life’ at the inauguration ceremony.

[3] Expenses: Sir JC Bose sold his ancestral property in Munsigunj and spent the major part of it to establish the Bose Institute and to build up the infrastructure for the cultivation of science at the global level. When the institute ran short of funds, Rabindranath Tagore extended a helping hand.

[4] Research work: Sir JC Bose arranged an international level of research in various branches of science like Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Environmental Science, etc. He also made suitable arrangements for the publication of a journal containing the research papers.

Chapter 5 Alternative Ideas And Initiatives From Mid-19th Centur Characteristics And Observations Topic C Criticism Of The Colonial System Of Education And Visca-Bharati

Question 1 Write a note on Rabindranath Tagore’s ashram school at Santiniketan.

Rabindranath Tagore’s ashram school at Santiniketan:

According to Rabindranath Tagore, there must be three basic elements in any ideal method of teaching.

Those are-

[1] Freedom,
[2] Creative self-expression and
[3] Active communication between man and nature. A child is born in a natural environment and he is also born into a social environment. According to Rabindranath, a method that can integrate these two in education should be selected. To make such an integration possible, he established the Ashrama Vidyalaya at Santiniketan. He expected that the ashram society and nature around would help in educating children better.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 5 Alternative Ideas Rabindranath Tagore

In 1901, he started this school with only a few pupils. He was impressed by the trends of ancient Indian ashram education and established this school. The learners there practiced simple living. The relationship between a teacher and a pupil was as close as that of the ancient ashram period and was based on mutual respect.

At his school in Santiniketan, Rabindranath Tagore applied three of his principles to teaching. The pupils of the school were allowed to enjoy enough freedom. They could move about the campus according to their own will. They could also play as they liked. The selection of the site for the school was in keeping with his principles and ideals of teaching.

The teaching-learning process was conducted under the open sky because Rabindranath himself disliked keeping students confined within the four walls of a classroom. For their spiritual and social development, pupils participated in various forms of creative activities and social development schemes.

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Question 2 Give a brief description of Rabindranath Tagore’s ideas on education and Santiniketan.

Rabindranath Tagore’s ideas on education and Santiniketan:

According to Rabindranath Tagore, there must be three basic elements in any ideal method of teaching. These are-
[1] Freedom,
[2] Creative self-expression, and
[3] Active communication with man and nature. His ideals of education materialized through his ashram school at Santiniketan. Rabindranath said, “At first started a school at Santiniketan and brought children here to let them move freely in the wide fields of this universe. But gradually it came to my mind that existing differences between one man and another would have to be removed and man will have to be emancipated amidst all other men.” He wanted to harmonize and integrate Eastern and Western cultures at Visva-Bharati.

So he said, “the foundation of that relationship, which awaits discrimination all over the world, will be established here.” The Visva-Bharati University is pursuing its aim successfully till date. If we analyze Rabindranath’s ideals in education, it will be understood that his childhood experiences are the sources of his inspiration. He had some bitter experiences in his childhood regarding studying at school and college.

This made him sympathetic toward children. He brought together the educational ideals of the past and the present and educational philosophies of the East and the West in developing his system of education. While explaining the aim and function of the Visva-Bharati University, he said that being strongly impressed by need and responsibility, he had formed the nucleus of an international university for the promotion of mutual understanding between the East and the West.

Rabindranath Tagore’s educational philosophy is, at the same time, a combination of scientific, psychological, and sociological trends. According to him, a student confined within the four walls of a classroom was nothing more than a bird in a cage.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 5 Alternative Ideas Visva-Bharati University

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