WBBSE Class 10 History Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Short Answer Questions

Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Topic A The Great Revolt Of 1857 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1: Who was Mangal Pandey? Why was he hanged?
Answer:

Mangal Pandey:

Mangal Pandey was a Sepoy of the Bengal regiment. He was the first martyr of the Sepoy Mutiny. He fired a shot at a European Officer on March 29, 1857, at Barrackpore, for which he was arrested and hanged.

Question 2: What were the characteristics of the Revolt of 1857?
Answer:

The characteristics of the Revolt of 1857:

The most important characteristic feature of the Revolt of 1857 was that it was joined by different classes of the civilian population. Hindus and Muslims fought shoulder-to-shoulder against British rule. Peasants, artisans and Zamindars rose in revolt and showed great courage and dedication in their struggle against the British.

Question 3: Which act brought an end to the East India company’s rule in India? Who passed the Act and when was it passed?
Answer:

The Act for the Better Government of India brought to an end the East India Company’s rule in India. The British Parliament passed the Act on August 12, 1858.

Question 4: What was the main objective of the Queen’s Proclamation of 1858?
Answer:

The main objective of the Queen’s Proclamation of 1858:

The main objective of the Queen’s Proclamation of 1858 was to put an end to the rule of the East India Company in India and to take over the Indian administration by the British Crown. Early Canning announced this at a ‘Durbar’ held at Allahabad, in a proclamation on November 1, 1858, in the name of Queen Victoria. The Queen’s Proclamation announced the policy and principles that the Government of England intended to follow upon the assumption of power.

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Question 5: What assurance did the Queen’s Proclamation give to the rulers of the Indian states?
Answer:

The Queen’s Proclamation assured the following to the rulers of the Indian states:
[1] Confirmation of the treatise and engagements of the East India Company and the native states.
[2] Territories of the native rulers would not be annexed to the British empire.
[3] Native rulers will be granted the right of adoption.
[4] The British Government will not extend their territories in India.

Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Topic B Age Of Association Short Answer Type Questions

Answer in 2 to 3 sentences

Question 1 What were the aims and objectives of the Landholders’ Society?
Answer:

The aims and objectives of the Landholders’ Society:

The Landholders’ Society was established on November 12, 1838. It was actually a political association.
[1] Its principal aim was to protect the interests of the landlords and Zamindars.
[2] Rajendra Lal Mitra, one of the leaders of the society, spoke for the protection of the rights of the riots as well.
[3] He spoke about the importance of the constitutional rights of the Zamindars.
[4] Though it was established to uphold the interests of the Zamindars, in a general way, it discussed matters related to the common interests of the people.

Question 2 What role did the Landholders’ Society of play in the growth of political consciousness among the people?
Answer:

The Landholders’ Society, a political association of Calcutta (Kolkata), rendered. invaluable service to the growth of political consciousness among the people.

[1] This association helped to create a platform for public opinion and urged the government to introduce certain changes in the administration for the benefit of the people.

[2] This association taught the people to fight constitutionally in order to assert their claims and give expression to their opinions.

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Question 3 Who composed the first national song of the Hindu Mela and in which year?
Answer:

The first national song of the Hindu Mela was composed by Satyendranath Tagore in 1868.

Question 4 Mention any two aims of the Indian Association.
Answer:

Two aims of the Indian Association:

The Indian Association founded by Surendranath had the following two aims:
[1] Promotion of unity among different communities of India.
[2] To spread political consciousness among people and to create a strong body of public opinion.

Question 5 What role did the Indian Association play with regard to the Ilbert Bill Agitation?
Answer:

The Indian Association, founded by Surendranath Banerjee in 1876 played an important part with regard to the Illbert Bill agitation.
[1] It organised meetings and demonstrations in support of the bill.
[2] When the European community of India organised campaigns against the Ilbert Bill. Indian Association leaders like S N Banerjee and Lalmohan Ghose organised counter campaigns.
[3] The Indian Association roused public opinion to an extent which was truly unprecedented.

Question 6 Mention two differences between the Zamindari Association and Bharat Sabha (Indian Association).
Answer:

Two differences between the Zamindari Association and Bharat Sabha are as follows:
[1] The Zamindari Association was an association of landowners, zamindars and rich businessmen whereas the Bharat Sabha was established with men from different sections of society.
[2] The primary objective of the Zamindari Association was to protect the interests of the landholders and zamindars whereas the primary objective of the Bharat Sabha was the general welfare of the people of India and the protection of their interests.

Question 7 What were the different associations which were established in Bengal prior to the establishment of the Indian National Congress?
Answer:

The different associations which were established in Bengal prior to the establishment of the Indian National Congress were: Prakashika
[1] Bangabhasha Sabha,
[2] Zamindari Association,
[3] Hindu Mela,
[4] Indian Association (Bharat Sabha).

Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Topic C Expression Of Nationalism In Writings And Paintings Short Answer Type Questions

Answer in 2 to 3 sentences

Question 1 Name two books are written by Swami Vivekananda.
Answer:

Two books written by Swami Vivekananda are ‘Bartaman Bharat’ and ‘Prachya-O- Paschatya’.

Question 2 What did Vivekananda say in his Bartaman Bharat?
Answer:

In his book ‘Bartaman Bharat’, Vivekananda tried to describe how the society was first ruled by the Vedic Priests (Brahmin), who followed by the mighty rules and were finally succeeded by Vaishya power. Then the author says that following this cyclical rule, the Vaishyas too will lose their power one day and the lowermost class of the Indian society, the Shudras, will rise to power and the whole society will be ruled by them.

Question 3 What is the importance of Vivekananda’s ‘Bartaman Bharat’?
Answer:

The importance of Vivekananda’s ‘Bartaman Bharat’:

‘Bartaman Bharat’ by Vivekananda contains deep feelings on nation, national and political issues. Its closing paragraph is addressed to every Indian, urging them to rise and awaken to the national ideal of identity with the Indian Heritage.

Question 4 When and where was ‘Bartaman Bharat’ first published?
Answer:

‘Bartaman Bharat’ was first published in the 1899 issue of ‘Udbodhan’, the only Bengali magazine of Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission.

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Question 5 What contribution did Bankim Chandra make in the field of nationalism in the 19th century?
Answer:

Bankim Chandra played an important role in arousing national consciousness among the Indian people. He has been aptly described as the ‘Real Father of Indian Nationalism’. In his writings and speeches, he upheld patriotism as the highest possible virtue. The famous song ‘Bande Mataram’, which features in his novel ‘Anandamath’, became the national hymn. The concept of ‘Bharat Mata’ emerged from the ‘Anandamath’. It inspired the Indians to sacrifice their lives for the emancipation of their motherland.

Question 6 What was the role of the famous image of ‘Bharat Mata’?
Answer:

The role of the famous image of ‘Bharat Mata’:

The famous image of ‘Bharat Mata’ was painted by Abanindranath Tagore. In this painting, Bharat Mata is portrayed as a four-armed Hindu Goddess wearing saffron-coloured robes holding the Vedas, sheaves of rice, a ‘mala’ and a white cloth. It was an icon to create nationalistic feelings during the anti-partition struggle and Swadeshi Movement in 1905.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Bharat Mata

Question 7 How did the novel ‘Anandamath’ incite the feeling of nationalism?
Answer:

Bankim Chandra in his novel ‘Anandamath’ upheld patriotism as the highest political virtue. The famous song ‘Bande Mataram’ which features in his novel ‘Anandamath’, became the national hymn. The concept of Bharatmata emerged from the ‘Anandamath’. It inspired the Indians to sacrifice their lives for the emancipation of their motherland.

Question 8 Name some paintings of Abanindranath Tagore.
Answer:

Some paintings of Abanindranath Tagore are ‘Bharat Mata’, ‘Passing of Shah Jahan’, ‘The Last Journey’, and ‘Banga Mata’.

Question 9 What is a ‘University Machine’?
Answer:

University Machine:

One of the famous cartoons of Gaganendranath Tagore is ‘University Machine’. The building of the university is in the form of a heavy and large book. Two figures are seen standing on two pillars, one European and the other in European dress, who probably represent the founders of the University. The crowd at the gate are students in Bengali dress. When the students finally finish the course, they become crippled.

Question 10 Why were cartoons drawn?
Answer:

In colonial India cartoons were drawn-
[1] To express in a humourous way the evils of society;
[2] To point out the political and economic features in a satirical way;
[3] To make the Illiterate people understand the exploitation nature of British rule.

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