WBBSE Class 10 History Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Long Answer Questions

Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Topic A The Great Revolt Of 1857 Long Answer Questions

Question 1: Analyse the political and economic causes of the great Revolt of 1857.

Political Causes: The annexationist policy of Lord Dalhousie was, to a large extent, responsible for the outbreak of the Great Revolt of 1857.

[1] His annexationist policy was high-handed and ruthless. His principle of Doctrine of Lapse was against Hindu rites and customs. Jhansi, Jaipur, Sambalpur, Nagpur, Satara etc. were annexed by the principle of Doctrine of Lapse, which caused widespread resentment.

[2] The annexation of Awadh on the ground of maladministration agitated the Sepoys.

[3] Nana Saheb, the adopted son of Baji Rao II was deprived by Dalhousie of his hereditary pension.

[4] Dalhousie abolished the imperial title of the old emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar and forced him to vacate his ancestral residence in Delhi Red Fort. This wounded the feelings of the Indians, especially the Muslim population.

[5] The native rulers and princes, who had been thrown out of employment, were waiting for an opportunity for revenge. Thus Lord Dalhousie’s imperialist policy created an atmosphere of rebellion in the native states of India.

Economic causes: The long hundred years of economic exploitation by the English East India Company was one of the primary causes of the Sepoy Mutiny. After the Battle of Plassey, the English started to plunder the wealth of India and began to send them to England.

In 1765, the company was granted Diwani rights and in later years, the company introduced new land revenue policies such as the Permanent Settlement, Ryotwari Settlement and Mahalwari Settlement. All these ruined agriculture and caused suffering to the peasants of the country. The peasants and the rural ‘have nots’ became over-burdened with taxes and thus they were forced to rise in revolt against the government.

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The traditional and well-established zamindari families were also destroyed by the new revenue policies of the company. The conditions of the rural people worsened and in many cases, they had to suffer from starvation. After the Industrial Revolution, the British government, due to the pressure from their industrialists, destroyed the industries of India, especially the cloth industries. In this way, the economic exploitation of the company paved the background of the Great Revolt of 1857.

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Question 2: What was the attitude of the educated Bengali society towards the Revolt of 1857?

The attitude of the educated Bengali society towards the Revolt of 1857:

The educated Indians did not take an active part in the Revolt of 1857, rather, they went against it. Almost all the revolutions which succeeded in the world had the support and cooperation of the educated classes, who became the leaders of the revolution. However, it did not go along similar lines in the Revolt of 1857.

The educated Bengalis were afraid because their newly acquired services landed property, title, honour, prestige-everything dependent on British supremacy. If the revolt became successful, they would lose everything. This was why educated Bengalis, with one or two honourable exceptions, competed with each other to prove their loyalty to the British and failed to respond even emotionally to the call of rebels.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chsapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Centres Of The Revolt Of 1857

Respect for the culture and civilisation ushered in by British rule made the educated Bengalees side with the British in 1857. During the heydays of the sepoy revolt, the patriots according to Ram Gopal Ghosh, contemporary authority, sympathised with the British administration in India. The educated people and leaders of Bengal stood enamoured.

It was natural for them to desire that the Revolt should end early so that there might be rapid undisturbed progress of British culture in the country. If the educated class did not respond to the Revolt, it was not because they were lacking in initiative. The reason was that they were always progressive in outlook, looking forward and not reactionary, looking backwards. The educated middle class was financially weak they were dependent on the foreign rule for their income.

The possibility of a return to the Early Stages of Collective Action: Characteristics and Analyses of anarchy and disorder prevailing immediately before the British rule induced them to render help to the British Government to ensure victory over the rebels.

Question 3: Discuss the reasons for the failure of the Revolt of 1857.

The reasons for the failure of the Revolt of 1857:

Though the Revolt of 1857 spread throughout the whole of the nation, it failed to reach its ultimate objective due to several reasons.

Some of them were-

[1] Scattered nature of the Revolt: The revolt was not carried out in a synchronised manner throughout the whole of India, but was scattered in nature. Thus it was easy for the British government to suppress the revolt.

[2] Support of the Gorkhas and the Sikhs: The Sikh and Gorkha communities showed support towards the British government and helped them in suppressing the Revolt.

[3] Lack of proper leadership: There was no proper single leader to lead the revolt across the different parts of the nation. Thus, each of the leaders in different regions led the revolts to achieve their own separate objectives, and thus the revolt fell apart gradually.

[4] Assistance from princely states: The princely states such as Kashmir, Rampur, etc., assisted the British during the Revolt of 1857. Scindia and Rajput kings did not take sides with the revolutionaries and took up a passive stance during the revolt. This helped the British is suppressing the Revolt easily.

[5] Non-Cooperation from the educated class: The middle-class Bengalis educated in the Western patterns did not support the Revolt of 1857 and distanced themselves from it. They even showed support towards the British in some cases.

[6] Army Generals: There was a dire need for able army generals among the revolutionaries. On the other hand, the British forces had efficient leaders like Havelock, Neel, Outram, etc., who led them to battle against the sepoys.

[7] British power: The British army possessed better arms and firepower than the sepoys. Their naval power was greater than the Indians as well. They brought in soldiers and arms from England, Persia and Malay in order to strengthen their ranks.

Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Analytical Answer Type Questions

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Question 1: What were the social causes of the Revolt of 1857?

The social causes of the Revolt of 1857:

The rule of the British government in India gave rise to much discontentment among all the layers of Indian society, and this was one of the main causes of the Revolt of 1857.

The social reasons for the Revolt are as follows-

[1] Relation between the ruler and the ruled: The difference between the British rulers in India and the native Indian subjects became too great, and the Indians found themselves alien in their own land.

[2] Disgust towards the Indians: The British looked down upon the Indians in disgust everywhere-in schools, offices, courts, etc. Many European clubs had the sign ‘Dogs and Indians not allowed’ in front of them. According to Warren Hastings, “Even a few years back, most of the Britishers thought Indians to be barbaric”.

[3] Orthodox mentality: The Indians could never properly accept the rule of the White Britishers in their native land. The Muslims were opposed to the British rulers as they had caused the downfall of the Mughal Empire. Again, the orthodox Hindus were dissatisfied with the British rulers as they had abolished systems like the Sati and made provisions for widow remarriage, etc.

[4] Torture by British officials: Acts of torture by high-ranking British officials and their bias towards their own race became intolerable to the native Indians. Especially the tribal people, such as the Kols, Bhils, Mundas and Santhals, were exploited the most by the British officials. Due to all these reasons, the Indians became infuriated with the British government.

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Question 2: What was the immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857?

The immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857:

The introduction of the Enfield Rifle was the most important factor which intensified the hatred of the Indian Sepoys against the British. The Enfield Rifle introduced by the British in the army needed a special type of paper cartridge smeared with grease to keep the bullets effective.

Before the cartridge was loaded in the rifle, its outer cover had to be bitten off. The Sepoys were reluctant to do this because they had reasons to believe that the grease used in the paper was made of cow and pig fat. The Hindus regarded the cow as sacred and the Muslims consider the pig unclean. Consequently, the Sepoys were convinced that it was a trick to convert them to Christianity. This worked as a spark and the Revolt began.

Question 3: Justify with examples the popular nature of the Revolt of 1857.

The following incidents justify the popular nature of the Revolt of 1857:

[1] The wide participation of the peasants, zamindars, shopkeepers and artisans gave the movement a popular character, especially in UP and Bihar.

[2] In northern and central India, the revolt of the sepoys triggered popular revolts. The common people rose in arms fighting with whatever weapons they had like axes, sickles or muskets.

[3] Even in places where people did not rise in revolt they showed sympathy for the rebels and misled the British.

[4] The popular character of the revolt became evident when the British tried to suppress it. They had to wage relentless wars not only against the sepoys but also against the people in many areas.

[5] People were publicly hanged and executed without trials. This further showed the intensity and popular base of the revolt.

Question 4: Name the leaders of the Revolt of 1857 and mention their places of operation.

Mangal Pandey started the revolt against the British on March 29, 1857, at an army camp in Barrackpore. Gradually, this revolt spread to various parts of the country under different leaders.

[1] Bahadur Shah II: The revolting sepoys reinstated the fallen Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II (1775-1862) and declared him to be the leader of the revolt. The revolt was carried out under his name as the heir of the Mughal empire and the ruler of the undivided India. Basically, at the age of 80, Bahadur Shah was a leader only in name.

[2] Nana Saheb: The leader of the revolt at Kanpur was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II -Nana Saheb (his real name was Govind Dhondu Pant). He drove away the British from Kanpur and took up the title of ‘Peshwa’. His trusted subordinates Tantia Topi (real name Ramachandra Pandurang Topi) and Hakim Azimullah also led the revolt in certain areas.

[3] Begum Hazrat Mahal: The most prominent leader of the revolt at Awadh was the Begum Hazrat Mahal. She gathered the sepoys of Lucknow and the zamindars and peasants of Awadh and organised a powerful army, which led to the revolt.

[4] Rani Laxmi Bai: The leader of the Sepoy Mutiny at Jhansi was Rani Laxmi Bai. She fought bravely against British General Hugh Rose when he attacked Jhansi and was finally killed in action at the Battle of Kalpi against the British. Her courage and valiance inspired many freedom fighters later in India’s struggle for independence.

[5] Maulvi Ahmadullah: In Faizabad, Maulavi Ahmadullah set up a strong resistance against the British during the Revolt of 1857. The British issued a warrant against him, with a reward of Rs. 50,000. He was finally killed by a king who was a supporter of the British government.

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Question 5: Discuss the nature or the character of the Revolt of 1857.

The nature or the character of the Revolt of 1857:

Debates exist on the nature or character of the Revolt of 1857.

These can be discussed as follows-
[1] Sepoy Mutiny: Akshay Kumar Dutta, Harish Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Dadabhai Naoroji, Charles Rex, and several others termed the Revolt of 1857 to be merely a mutiny of the sepoys. According to Charles Rex, “It was only an uprising of the sepoys.”

[2] Revolt of landlords: Rajani Palme Dutt, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Surendranath Sen and others have opined that the Revolt of 1857 was mainly an uprising of the orthodox and feudal powers. According to them, feudal lords such as Nana Saheb, Rani Laxmi Bai, Kunwar Singh, etc., participated in this revolt in order to achieve their own objectives.

[3] Revolt of the masses: Historians such as Norton, Malleson, Ball, John Kay, etc., noticed the participation of the common people in this revolt and termed it as a revolt of the masses. According to them, this revolt spread fast from Delhi, Lucknow, Awadh, Kanpur, Bareilly, Jhansi, and Bihar into other parts of the country.

[4] National revolt: Historians Outram, Duff, Robertson, the Tory leader Disraeli, the socialist Karl Marx, and several others have termed this revolt to be a national revolt. According to them, apart from the sepoys of Muzaffarnagar, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh, civilians and people from the zamindar class also launched anti-British movements during this stage.

[5] The first war of independence: Revolutionary leader V D Savarkar and some others call the Revolt of 1857 the first war of Indian independence. Professor Harinath Mukhopadhyay, Professor Susobhan Sarkar, etc., also give this revolt the name of a national struggle for Indian freedom.

[6] Great Revolt: Several nationalist historians have pointed out the popularity of the revolt in different levels of society, and thus term it the Great Revolt.

Question 6: Can the Revolt of 1857 be regarded as the First War of Indian Independence?

Historians differ in their opinion regarding the nature of the Revolt of 1857. Scholars like V D Savarkar and Ashok Mehta pictured the Revolt of 1857 as the First War of Indian Independence. According to them, there was no dearth of patriotic spirit among the people who joined. the revolt. Hindus and Muslims, peasants and zamindars fought shoulder to shoulder against the alien rulers in the 1857 revolt.

Any revolt of such an extensive scale, with the object of ending the alien rule in the country, certainly appears as a War of Independence. Dr R C Majumdar on the other hand says: “The so- called first National War of Independence was neither the first nor a War of Independence, but it was a limited political-cum-military rising.” According to him, the revolt was confined to a small part of India comprising parts of Awadh, Bihar, Delhi, a part of East Punjab and a part of Maharashtra.

The sepoys had no previous plan and programme before the outbreak of the revolt, they had no clear idea about India’s independence as the goal of their movement. The truth, however, lies somewhere between these two extreme views.

Question 7: What was Queen’s Proclamation?

Queen’s Proclamation:

The Great Rebellion of 1857 shook British rule in India to its very foundation. The immediate consequence of this revolt was the end of the East India Company’s rule in India and the Indian administration was taken over by the British Crown. Earl Canning announced this at a ‘Durbar’ held at Allahabad in a proclamation on November 1, 1858, in the name of Queen Victoria. The Queen’s Proclamation announced the policy and principles that the Government of England intended to follow upon the assumption of power.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Queen Victoria

[1] It confirmed the treatise and engagements of the East India Company and the native states and assured that their territories would not be annexed to the British Empire.
[2] Full religious freedom was granted to the Indians by the proclamation.
[3] It promised to pay due regard to the ancient rights, customs and usages of India and to respect the rights and honour of the native princes.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Queen's Proclamation, 1858

[4] It declared that all Indians, according to their qualifications, will be freely admitted to “offices in our service.”

[5] It also granted a general amnesty to all offenders, of the Revolt of 1857 except those who had been convicted of taking part in the murder of British subjects.

[6] It was also promised that the British Indian Government would try to advance the moral and material progress of the Indians.

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Question 8: Can the great Revolt of 1857 be termed a feudal revolt?

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in ‘The Discovery of India’ characterises the rebellion of 1857 as basically a feudal revolt. This view is supported by historians like Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Dr Surendranath Sen, the Marxist thinker Rajani Palme Dutta and others.
Prof. Susobhan Sarkar holds a different opinion. Many of the major leaders of the revolt were either princes or zamindars. Many of them rendered an outstanding contribution to the revolt. For example, the two zamindars of Jagdishpur, Anwar Singh and Kunwar Singh, Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi, and Hazrat Mahal of Lucknow stoutly protested and resisted the British. So it would never be called of feudal revolt.

Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Topic B Age Of Association

Question 1 How did the Hindu Mela contribute towards spreading the idea of nationality among the people?

The contribution of Hindu Mela, an annual festival, established in Calcutta in 1867, towards spreading the idea of nationality amongst the people was immense. Its main objective was to foster a spirit of self-help among the Hindus and to promote all Indian integration through committees and slogans.

Institutions for imparting physical education were established which involved exercises for building up discipline and manhood of the nation with a view to fight British imperialism and colonialism. At the annual sessions, big exhibitions were organised to display the varied products of Indian arts and crafts to encourage Indian producers and to educate the general public about their own country.

Poets, authors, thinkers, artists, essayists and publicists thronged together in large numbers. National poems were read out, national songs were sung and speeches on national themes were delivered. Prizes were offered to writers, artists and athletes. Members of the Association were prohibited from speaking in English. In the background of the Hindu Mela national songs in modern India were first composed and set to music.

Satyendranath Tagore, Dwijendranath and Manmohan Basu composed patriotic songs which were sung at the mela. The Hindu Mela also published a newspaper named spreading the idea to the people, and its ‘National Paper’ for nationality among press was named ‘National Press’. Besides this, a national school, national gymnasium and a national library were also set up.

Thus the Mela gave birth to a movement which was truly national in character. For the first time, it brought hope to the minds of the people that Indians, in spite of their differences in caste, creed and place of residence, constituted a nation and could meet on the same platform for the preservation and improvement of their culture, language, literature, science, arts, industries and so on.

It gave the fullest expression of national sentiment and the theme of freedom. For about a decade, the Hindu Mela stirred up the entire Calcutta. But the importance gradually declined to owe to the establishment of other associations in Calcutta, more directly connected with political and national movements.

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Question 2 Mention the primary agenda or steps taken by Bharat Sabha or Indian Association. Or, Write a note on the protest movements of the Bharat Sabha under the leadership of Surendranath Bandopadhyay.

The primary objective of the Bharat Sabha (1876) was the general welfare of the people of India and the protection of their interests. The Sabha took several steps in order to achieve its objectives.

[1] Protest movements regarding the age for appearing in ICS: When the British government lowered the minimum age for appearing in the ICS examination from 21 to 18, the Bharat Sabha protested against it. They carried out protest movements demanding the raising of the minimum age to 22 years.

[2] Opposition to the Press Act: The Viceroy Lord Lytton imposed several restrictions on vernacular newspapers through the Vernacular Press Act (1878). This act was severely protested against by the Bharat Sabha.

[3] Opposition to the Arms Act: Lord Lytton, through the Arms Act (1878), prohibited Indians from carrying firearms without the permission of the British government. The Bharat Sabha severely protested against this act consequently, the next Viceroy Lord Ripon repealed this act in 1881.

[4] Movements for the Ilbert Bill: When Lord Ripon, through the Ilbert Bill, allowed Indian judges to try Europeans, the European community protested vehemently against this act. However, the Bharat Sabha, led by Surendranath, launched several movements in support of this act.

[5] Movements in favour of the peasants: The Bharat Sabha carried out several protest movements against the acts of torture and exploitation that the peasants faced at the hands of the government and the zamindars.

[6] Other movements: Bharat Sabha conducted movements for the fulfilment of demands like-formation of the people’s representative council, autonomy, prohibition of consumption of liquor, etc.

[7] Swadeshi movements: The Sabha carried out movements against the Partition of Bengal in 1905. In order to popularise the use of Swadeshi products, the Sabha set up a ‘Jatiya Bhandar’ or National Store as well.

Question 3 What was the role of Surendranath Bandopadhyay in popularising the Bharat Sabha? Or, Discuss the importance of the political activities of Surendranath Bandopadhyay. Or, Analyse the role of Surendranath Banerjee in the foundation and development of the Indian Association.

Under the initiative of Surendranath Bandopadhyay, Anandamohan Bose, Sivanath Sastri, Dwarkanath Ganguly, etc., the Indian Association or Bharat Sabha was established in 1876. Through several activities, Surendranath Bandopadhyay soon became the most prominent person in the Bharat Sabha.

[1] Nationwide campaign: In order to establish the Bharat Sabha as a national body, Surendranath Bandopadhyay travelled to various places across the country and participated in several activities to create a favourable public opinion.

[2] Establishment of branches of the Bharat Sabha: Surendranath Bandopadhyay took the initiative of setting up several branches of Bharat Sabha across India and was successful in setting up branches at Lucknow, Meerut, Lahore, etc.

[3] Leadership in protest movements: Surendranath led several anti-British movements and popularised the Bharat Sabha among the Indian masses.

[1] He appealed for raising the minimum age limit for appearing in the ICS examination from 18 to 22 years.
[2] He led several movements against the Vernacular Press Act and the Arms Act (1878) by Lord Lytton.
[3] He also organised movements in support of the Ilbert Bill.
[4] He organised movements in order the protect the interests of the peasants.

[4] All India National Conference: Under the initiative of Surendranath Bandopadhyay, the All India National Conference was held in Calcutta in 1883.

[5] Inspiration for the establishment of the Congress: Dr Amalesh Tripathi termed the All India National Conference as the forerunner of the Indian National Congress. This is because Allan Octavian Hume set up the Indian National Congress in 1885 after being inspired by the All India National Conference.

[6] Incorporation into the Congress: In 1885, when the Congress met for the second session in Calcutta, Surendranath and his followers joined it. Due to this, the power of Congress increased to a large extent.

Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Analytical Answer Type Questions

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Question 1 What do you mean by ‘Age of Association’? Or, Write a short note on the ‘Age of Association’.

Age of Association:

Consecutive revolts and movements were organised against the British government in India from the beginning of the 19th century. Besides these, several associations were formed during this time period.

[1] Need for political movements: After the revolt of 1857, the feeling of nationalism spread across different parts of the country. During this time, Indians realised that they need to launch organised political movements in order to oppose British rule in India and safeguard their own position in the country.

[2] Formation of associations: Different associations started coming up in the fourth decade of the 19th century. These first started in Bengal and then slowly spread across the whole nation.

[3] Naming: As a number of associations were formed in the 19th century by people from different levels of society, Dr Anil Seal of the Cambridge group of historians, has named this phase ‘Age of Associations’.

[4] Different associations: Many associations were formed during the 19th century in India. Among these,
The mentionable ones are-
[1] Bangbhasa Prakashika Sabha,
[2] Zamindari Association,
[3] British Indian Association,
[4] Hindu Mela,
[5] Bharat Sabha,
[6] National Congress, etc.

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Question 2 Mention some of the features of the Age of Associations.

Many political associations were formed one after the other in India in the 19th century. Due to this, Dr. Anil Seal has called this phase the ‘Age of Association’.

Some of the features of the age of association are as follows-

[1] Initiation in Bengal: During British rule in India, political associations were first formed in Bengal. Later, following Bengal’s footsteps, associations were formed in other regions of the country as well.

[2] Objectives: The primary objective behind the formation of these associations was to secure the interests of the Indians. These associations used to present their appeals and demands to the British government.

[3] The prominence of upper classes: Generally these associations were formed and led by the educated and upper classes of the society.

[4] Limited influence: The influence of these associations was very limited during this phase. The poor and uneducated village dwellers had no role in the formation and workings of these associations.

[5] Slow working process: The associations formed during the initial stages of the age of associations made slow progress. Actually, the political activeness of these associations sped up after the formation of the Bharat Sabha (1876).

Question 3 What do you know about the Zamindari Association? Or, Write a note on the formation and activities of the Zamindari Association.

Zamindari Association:

Several associations were formed in 19th-century India. Among the initial ones that were formed, mention must be made of the Zamindari Association.

[1] Formation: The Zamindari Association was set up by the initiative of Dwarkanath Tagore and under the Presidentship of Radhakanta Deb on March 19, 1838.

[2] Members: A number of landowners, zamindars and rich businessmen were associated with this group. Among them, mention might be made of Dwarkanath Tagore, Radhakanta Deb, Prasanna Kumar Tagore, Rajkamal Sen, Bhabanicharan Mitra, etc. The non-governmental British officers overlooking business activities in Bengal were also allowed to join this association. However, the common people could not easily become members of this association.

[3] Aims and objectives: In order to serve the purposes of the zamindars, the Zamindari Association established close ties with the British bureaucracy and the British India Society in London.

[4] Agendas:
The Zamindari Association had several agendas-
[1] They appealed to the government in order to protect the interests of the zamindars.
[2] They tried to win over the British bureaucracy to their side.
[3] They appealed for the imposition of the system of permanent settlement over the country.
[4] They appealed to the government for better governance of the nation.

[5] Contributions: Due to the appeals of the Zamindari Association, up to 10 bigha of ‘Brahmattar’ land (a piece of land given away to a Brahmin) was declared tax free. According to Dr Rajendralal Mitra, the Zamindari Association was the harbinger of freedom in India.

Question 4 What were the limitations of the Hindu Mela? Or, Why did the Hindu Mela fail to gain popularity among the masses?

Among the various associations that were formed during the 19th century in India, mention must be made of the Hindu Mela (1867), which was established by Nabagopal Mitra. However, the Hindu Mela did not gain popularity because of several limitations.

[1] The prominence of Hindu religion: The Hindu religion was given more prominence in the Hindu Mela. Through this, Nabagopal Mitra dreamed of the rebirth of an India where Hindus would get a fair share of their rights. However, the Western-educated Bengali middle-class community did not agree with this idea of the Hindu Mela.

[2] Lack of political activities: The Hindu Mela did not give much importance to political activities; rather, they focused on spreading the idea of nationalism across the country. This did not prove to be of much help in the given backdrop of British India.

[3] The popularity of the Bharat Sabha: Shortly after the formation of the Hindu Mela, the Bharat Sabha was formed. The latter, through active political participation, soon became more popular among the common masses. Consequently, the importance of the Hindu Mela faded away.

[4] Lack of activeness: Between 1880 and 1890, the political activeness that was needed to oppose the British government in India, was lacking in the Hindu Mela. Therefore, most of the common masses drifted away from the Hindu Mela.

Question 5 What was the role of the Indian Association in national awakening?

The role of the Indian Association in national awakening:

Surendranath Banerjee founded the Indian Association in 1876.
[1] In 1877-78 he toured different parts of India and awakened the people to the new spirit of nationalism.
[2] Lord Lytton passed the Dramatic Performance Act (1876) and the Vernacular Press Act (1878). The Indian Association mobilised public opinion in India against these reactionary measures.
[3] It demanded that the ICS examination be held simultaneously in London and India. It also protested against the Act which reduced the age limit of the candidates for the ICS examination from 21 to 18.
[4] It also put forward the demand for the defence of peasant rights and the demand for local self-government.
[5] It agitated against the controversy regarding the Ilbert Bill of 1883.

Question 6 What was the Ilbert Bill? Who agitated against the bill and why? Or, Why was the Ilbert Bill opposed?

Sir C P Albert, a law member of the Government of Lord Ripon, introduced a Bill in 1883, which was popularly known as the Ilbert Bill. Under the prevailing system, the judicial system was based on the principles of inequality and discrimination. The Indian. sessions judge or magistrate had no jurisdiction over the European offenders.

To remove this abuse, Ilbert introduced the bill taking away the exclusive right of the Europeans to be tried only by judges of their own race. It proposed to confer on the Indian judicial officers the right to try not only Indian offenders but also European offenders.

The European community in India protested against the Ilbert Bill in order to protect the privilege of the Europeans. Most of them believed that their race was superior to the natives. Moreover, they thought that the only people who had any right to India were the British, and the Indians had no right whatsoever.

The European barristers of Calcutta High Court protested that they felt insulted to defend a white accused before a native magistrate. According to them, even the most highly educated among the Indians were not fit to try a European.

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Question 7 What was the Albert Bill controversy? What was its impact?

The Albert Bill controversy:

The law member of the government of Lord Ripon, Sir C P Ilbert, introduced a Bill in 1883. This Bill was popularly known as the Ilbert Bill. The exclusive right of the Europeans to be tried only by judges of their own race was taken away by it. It proposed to confer on the judicial officers of India the right to try Indian as well as European offenders.

The Ilbert Bill controversy was that while the Indians supported the Bill which aimed at removing the discrimination between the Indians and the Europeans, the European community in India agitated against the Bill to protect their privileges.

The Ilbert Bill controversy had a great impact. The Indians realised the value of solidarity and unity and they were determined to oust the British rulers from India. Dr Nemai Sadhan Bose has remarked that “The failure of the agitation provided much food for thought to the nationalists who now felt the need of a border line of action.

“Dr R C Majumder has rightly remarked that, “The Ilbert Bill greatly helped the cause of Indian political advance.” The liberty Bill agitation created bitter feelings between the Indians and the Europeans living in India. The agitation taught the Indian leaders the need for a wider political movement in India.

Question 8 What were the objectives behind the foundation of the Hindu Mela?

In 1867, the Hindu Mela, an annual festival was established in Calcutta-the main plank of which was Swadeshi or manufacture and use of indigenous consumer goods and the increased use of Indian languages. Big exhibitions of varied products of Indian arts and crafts were organised to encourage Indian producers to educate the general public about their own country.

The most significant objective of the Mela was the fostering of a unitary image of India and establishing institutions for imparting physical education, which involved exercises for building up the discipline and manhood of the nation, with a view to counter British imperialism and colonialism. Thus its main object was to foster a spirit of self-help among the Hindus and to promote all India integration through committees and slogans.

Question 9 How many committees were formed to carry out the objectives of the Hindu Mela? What were their functions?

Six committees were formed to carry out the objectives of the Hindu Mela. The function of the first committee was to remove the conflict among the Hindus and to promote unity. The function of the second committee was to make a list of welfare work.

It was the work of the third committee to honour those Indians who worked for the improvement and spread of indigenous education. The function of the fourth, fifth and sixth committees was to collect indigenous consumer goods from different places and to display those in the mela.

Question 10 Write a note on Bangabhasha Prakashika Sabha.

Bangabhasha Prakashika Sabha:

The Bangabhasa Prakashika Sabha of 1836 is known to be the first political association of Bengal. The founder members of the Sabha were Dwarkanath Tagore, Kasinath Roy, Prasanna Kumar Tagore etc. Its first session started on December 8, 1836. This session was presided over by Gaurisankar Tarkabagish.

This Sabha protested against the tax imposed on rent-free lands. In the beginning, discussions were held on different subjects like religion, philosophy etc. The association also discussed topics connected with the policy and administration of the Government and sought redressal by sending petitions and memorials to the Government. Despite the failure of the Bangabhasa Prakashika Sabha, it must be admitted that inspired by its example, many such associations came to be established in later years.

Question 11 Why is the Bangabhasha Prakashika Sabha regarded as the first political association?

The Bangabhasha Prakashika Sabha is known to be the first political association. Its first session started on December 8, 1836. The Sabha regarded the government measured as highly injurious to the country. The association discussed tropics connected with the policy and administration of the government and sought redressal by sending petitions and memorials to the government. It protested against the tax imposed on rent-free lands.

It decided to summon a public meeting to discuss the proposal of sending a petition to the government signed by five thousand persons. A circular was distributed widely among the people in Calcutta (Kolkata) and its neighbourhood. Thus it may be said that the founder members Dwarkanath Tagore, Kasinath Roy, and Prasanna Kumar Tagore were politically conscious and the Bangabhasa Prakashika Sabha established by them was the first political association.

Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Topic C Expression Of Nationalism In Writings And Paintings

Question 1 What was the contribution of Bankim Chandra’s ‘Anandamath’ to the cause of nationalism in India?

The contribution of Bankim Chandra’s ‘Anandamath’ to the cause of nationalism in India:

: Bankim Chandra Chatterjee made a remarkable contribution to the growth and development of nationalism among the Indians and he has been aptly described as the ‘Real father of Indian Nationalism’. The tone of his novel ‘Anandamath’ and his new interpretation of Hinduism are generally regarded as ‘Hindu revivalism’ in politics.

The famous song ‘Bande Mataram’, which features in his novel ‘Anandamath’ became the national hymn and it inspired the Indians to sacrifice their lives for the emancipation of their motherland. The fact is that he took a dip in the past in search of a key to national regeneration.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Bankim Chandra's 'Anandamath'

It was this novel that inspired many freedom fighters. He raised nationalism to the pedestal of religion through his writings and preached that only a group of young men, physically strong, mentally upright and spiritually developed devoted wholeheartedly to the cause of the mother country- could bring salvation to the nation.

His novel ‘Anandamath’ acted as the Bible for the secret revolutionaries. The famous say ‘Bande Mataram’, which found a place in this novel, became a political hymn, and the novel itself became a political gospel. It was the song ‘Bande Mataram’ which gave the extremists their vision of the motherland as a goddess and a song to sing her praise.

Question 2 Shows how the spirit of nationalism is embedded in Rabindranath’s novel Gora.

‘Gora’, the most widely acclaimed novel of Rabindranath, was published in 1909. Nationalism is an important aspect of this novel, and Rabindranath’s vision of nation and nationalism have found expression in this novel. This novel marks Tagore’s “search for national identity”.

The central theme of the novel has a political undercurrent. The novel reflects Gora’s patriotic zeal, the conflict between the ideals and aspirations between the East and the West and several other important political questions. An anti-British notion in Bengal under the veil of Hinduism has also been portrayed in this novel. ‘Gora’ can be viewed from the nationalist perspective through Gora’s conscious attempts to exalt Hinduism and build Indian nationalism on its basis.

Tagore’s nationalism is seen in Gora’s opinion that foreign and native criticism of Hinduism can best be refuted by holding firmly on to Hindu customs and beliefs. This novel is an attempt to concretise the Indians of the motherland suffering under British rule. All the characters of the novel, except a few who are the followers of the Brahmo Samaj, have antagonistic feelings towards the British rulers.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Rabindranath's 'Gora'

Class 10 History Wbbse

Question 3 How did the picture of ‘Bharat Mata’ create nationalist feelings among the Indians?

The identity of a nation is most often symbolised in a figure or image. This helps to create an image with which people can identify the nation. It was in the 20th century, with the growth of nationalism, that the identity of India came to be usually associated with the image of ‘Bharat Mata’. The image of Bharat Mata was an icon to create nationalist feelings in India during the freedom struggle.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Abanindranath Tagore

The famous image of ‘Bharat Mata’ was painted by Abanindranath Tagore. In this painting, Bharat Mata is portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. The image, Sister Nivedita opined was, refined and imaginative-standing on green earth and blue sky behind her, feet with four lotuses, four arms indicating divine power, a white halo and sincere eyes and gift-Shiksha-Diksha-Anna- Basra of mother and to her children.

His image was influenced by the Swadeshi movement. ‘Anandamath’ portrayed ‘Bharat Mata’ as a four-armed Hindu Goddess wearing saffron-coloured, robes holding the Vedas, sheaves of rice, a ‘mala’ and a white cloth. The image of ‘Bharat Mata’ in subsequent years acquired many different forms as it circulated in popular prints and was painted by different artists.

Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Analytical Answer Type Questions

Answer in 7 to 8 sentences

Question 1 Briefly mentions the role of Swami Vivekananda in the spread of Indian nationalism.

The role of Swami Vivekananda in the spread of Indian nationalism:

Swami Vivekananda, the greatest disciple of Sri Ramkrishna, was a peerless source of came to be usually associated with the image of ‘Bharat Mata’. The image of Bharat Mata was an icon to create nationalist feelings in India during the freedom struggle. inspiration to the freedom fighters of India. His teachings inspired the Indian nationalists to be more courageous. His teachings gave the Indians a renewed sense of pride in their national culture.

The Indian intelligentsia realised for the first time that they were in no way inferior to the people of the West. His spiritual call, “Arise, awake and stop not till the goal is reached”-inspired the Indian nationalists and they carried on a relentless struggle for independence. He wrote many crushing a large number of common people. He wanted to expose the hypocrisy of the Western-educated Indians and the priests.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Swami Vivekananda

books including ‘Gyanjog’, ‘Karmajog’, ‘Rajjog’, and ‘Bartaman Bharat’ which were pathfinders and guides to the Swadeshis and the revolutionaries. In every house, that the police searched, they found writings of Swami Vivekananda during the revolutionary movement. R G Pradhan has rightly observed, “Swami Vivekananda might well be called the father of modern Indian nationalism.”

Question 2 What was the condition of the society reflected in the cartoons of Gaganendranath Tagore?

The condition of the society reflected in the cartoons of Gaganendranath Tagore:

Gaganendranath Tagore was a well-known artist and cartoonist of Bengal. He was known for his satirical works based on the then-prevailing social norms. His powerful cartoons depict the socio-political scenario of early 20th-century Bengal. Some of his remarkable cartoons were ‘Millstone of Caste’, ‘Courtesy to Countrymen’, ‘Auto Speechola’ etc.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 4 Early Stages Of Collective Action Characteristics And Analyses Gaganendranath Tagore's Cartoon' Millstone of Caste'

In his cartoon ‘Millstone of Caste’, he highlights the caste system and the inequality in the Hindu society and the privileged position of the Brahmins. It depicts a priest sitting on a giant millstone, guided by a macabre figure of a skeleton. The priest is shown to be performing rituals as the skeleton turns the millstone.


Question 3 What was Swami Vivekananda’s ‘Swadesh Mantra’?

Swami Vivekananda’s ‘Swadesh Mantra’:

Swami Vivekananda’s ‘Swadesh Mantra’ holds a position of vital importance in awakening the people of India-
[1] The closing passage of the ‘Bartaman Bharat’ is titled by Swami Vivekananda as ‘Swadesh Mantra’. It is an electrifying message for the rejuvenation of the Indian nation.
[2] It is addressed to every Indian.
[3] It is an incantation (chant) for the motherland, Swami’s greatest God.
[4] It reminds the Indians of their values and their roots.
[5] It calls the Indians to give up imitating the western lifestyle.
[6] It is a call to arise and awake to the rational ideal of identity with the Indian heritage.
[7] It is a call to the Indian people that even if they are poor and lowly they should take pride in having been born Indian.
[8] Patriotism nationalism for Vivekananda was never a matter of political strategy, rather it had to do with spiritual belonging to one’s culture and history. Through his cartoons, he criticized the caste systems and racial discrimination prevalent in society. His cartoons were a staunch attack on the so-called ‘upper class’ Bengalis or ‘Babus’. He was against the practice of blindly following western culture which was reflected in his drawings.

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