WBBSE Class 10 History Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Long Answer Questions

Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Topic A Tribal Rebellion Long Answer Questions

Question 1: What do you mean by rebellion, uprising and revolution?
Answer:

Rebellion, uprising and revolution:

The terms revolt, uprising, and rebellion play a vital role in the study of History. Millions of people have participated in protest movements against brutal oppressors and rulers in different ages and different countries. The expression of grievances against brutal rulers and oppressors can rightly take place through ‘revolts’ ‘uprisings’ and ‘rebellions’.

The terms have differences among themselves which can be discussed as follows—

[1] Rebellion :

[1] Meaning: Rebellion refers to the movement made by the masses demanding a change in the existing rules and laws. A rebellion can both be long-term or short-term in nature. If the rebellion is successful, the existing laws and orders can be changed, and if the rebellion is not successful, then also, change is possible as a result of its reaction.

[2] Example: During the British rule in India several rebellions took place such as the Rangpur Rebellion, Indigo Rebellion, Pabna Rebellion, etc. The Sepoy Mutiny (1857) is another example of a rebellion.

[2] Uprising :[1] Meaning: Uprising refers to the efforts of a group of people to change the government or leader of a country. Uprisings are generally short-term in nature.

[2] Example:
(1) Sepoy Mutiny in the year 1857 where a part of the British army gathered together for an uprising against British rule.
(2) Naval Uprising in 1946.

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[3] Revolution:

[1] Meaning: Revolution means a quick change in the existing system. A revolution is generally more widespread in nature than a rebellion or an uprising.

[2] Example:
(1) The Industrial Revolution in Europe led to widespread change in the pattern of trade and commerce in the eighteenth century.
(2) The French Revolution in 1789 led to an overall change of the legal and ruling system in France. Revolt, uprising, and rebellion have a very fine line of distinction, and thus, in most cases, these three cannot be distinguished from one another.

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Question 2: Give an account of the Rangpur Uprising of 1783. What is the significance of the Rangpur Uprising?
Answer:

Rangpur Uprising of 1783:

The land settlement introduced by the English East India Company after 1765 caused immense suffering to the ryots of Bengal. Debi Singh, the baradari of the Purnea district, and his sub- baradari Hariram imposed high taxes on the ryots. Both the zamindars and peasants were oppressed. The money lenders took advantage of the situation and forced the peasants to sell their paddy at a low price. In 1783 Hindu and Muslim peasants revolted against Debi Singh. The uprising rapidly spread to Dinajpur and Cooch Behar.

Dorji Narayan was declared the nawab by the rebellious peasants. The rebels drove out all the officials of Debi Singh. The rebellion was however mercilessly suppressed by the British. The company now realized the futility of the baradari system and began to think of introducing a new type of land revenue collection.

Though the Rangpur uprising was a failure in the immediate sense, in the long run, the movement imparted a lesson to the future peasant rebels. The revolt exposed the nature of the company’s oppression in front of the peasants. The rebellious peasants forced the British authorities to take note of the abuses of the system of granting leases. It impelled the British to make fresh experiments with revenue collection which ultimately resulted in the introduction of the permanent settlement.

Question 3: Name two leaders of the Santhal Revolt. What were the main reasons for this revolt? Analyze the importance of the revolt.
Answer:

Two leaders of the Santhal Revolt were Sidhu and Kanhu.

The main reasons for the Santhal Revolt were-

[1] The rent question created discontent among the Santhals. The rate of tax went on increasing continuously and the Santhal peasants found it difficult to pay.
[2] Besides regular tax, certain illegal taxes were also collected from the Santhal peasants oppressively by the naibs and tax collectors.
[3] The Santhals were also oppressed by the money lenders who charged a high rate of interest to the Santhal peasants ranging from 50% to 500%.
[4] The European contractors were also oppressive. They were subjected to oppression like taking of kids, fowls, etc. without making any payment.
[5] The Santhals became convinced that complaints made in the court or higher officials would be of no avail. So they took up arms against the oppressors.

Importance: Though the Santhal rebellion could not attain the objective of bringing an end to British rule it had immense significance.

[1] A new administrative zone for the Santhals named ‘Santhal Pargana’ was created by the government.
[2] The revolt exposed the true nature of the colonial exploitation of the people.
[3] The revolt represented the revolt of the subaltern people against the colonial power.
[4] Though the rebellion failed the Santhals drew inspiration from it and subsequently organized another resistance movement against the British.
[5] Though the Santhal Rebellion was a failure it inspired peasant movements across various places of India against British rule.
[6] The Santhal Rebellion marked the unity of people from all castes and races.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Santhal Uprising(1855-1856)

Question 4: Discuss the causes and significance of the Munda Uprising.
Answer:

The causes of the uprising were as follows-

[1] The Munda Revolt which swept over Ranchi in 1899-1900 was led by Birsa Munda. The Mundas, one of the ancient tribal communities, believed that land was the property of the community. However, the colonial rulers forcibly superimposed upon them, a new set of agrarian relations during the 19th century.
[2] The Jagirdars or thikadars started using the Mundas as laborers. They were forced to perform ‘beth began or wageless forced labor.
[3] Moreover, British rule introduced a new system of land revenue and encouraged the missionaries to enter the Munda areas.
[4] The Mundas launched complaints in the courts through lawyers, who eventually cheated them.
[5] The Mundas lost the world to which they were accustomed. Thus, the Munda discontent eventually led to tribal resistance in the history of colonial India.

Its significance is as follows-

[1] The British were forced to take up several reformatory measures for the Muslims. Beth began was abolished.
[2] First came to be worshipped as a God and he remained as a living memory of being god’s prophet among the Mundas.
[3] The memory of the Munda Revolt encouraged the Tana Bhagat Movement in Chotanagpur among the Oraons. Though the Munda Revolt was a failure, the initiative taken by Birsha Munda had long-lasting effects on the Munda community.

Question 5: Write a short note on Birsa Munda and his revolt against the British.
Answer:

Birsa Munda and his revolt against the British:

During the period of 1899-1900, the people of the Munda tribe inhabiting the Chotanagpur Plateau and its adjoining areas started a revolt against British rule. Birsa Munda was the leader of this revolt.

[1] Early life: Birsa Munda was born in Ulihat village of Ranchi district in 1875. His father, Sugan Munda was a sharecropper. First completed his early education at a Christian missionary school.

[2] Propagation of religion: Birsa started to propagate a new religion in the year 1895. He proclaimed himself as an incarnation of God and he claimed that he had a vision of God. He made a prophecy of the deluge. He was against the prevalent superstitions of the Munda community. He was also against animal sacrifice. He raised a question on the sacred thread ceremony of the Mundas.

[3] First movement: When the British government started the acquisition of fallow lands of the Munda village during 1893-94, Birsa started his first movement against the British government.

[4] Initiation of the revolt: Birsa organized the people of the Munda tribe in the year 1899 and announced a revolt against British rule. December 24, 1899, was declared the day of the initiation of the revolt.

[5] Spread of the revolt: The month of January in the year 1900 witnessed the revolt under Birsa Munda at its extreme point. The people of the Munda tribe attacked government offices, police stations, and government officials.

[6] Death: Though the people of the Munda tribe under the leadership of Birsa Munda fought bravely against the British army, but they could not win over them. Birsa was captured and imprisoned at the Ranchi jail, where he died at the young age of 25 years, after suffering from cholera.

Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Topic A Tribal Rebellion Analytical Answer Type Questions

Question 1: Discuss the reasons behind the failure of the Kol Rebellion. Or, Discuss the shortcomings of the Kol Rebellion.
Answer:

The shortcomings of the Kol Rebellion are as follows-

[1] Lack of efficient leadership: There was no efficient leader of the Kol Rebellion. Leaders like Buddhu Bhagat, Joa Bhagat lacked proper leadership skills. So this rebellion did not last for long.

[2] Limited area of operation: To make the rebellion successful, it was necessary to spread the rebellion outside the limited boundaries of areas inhabitated by the Kol tribe. But this did not happen and it weakened the movement.

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[3] Non-cooperation by the educated people and intellectuals: The Kol Revolt was not supported by the educated people and the intellectual class of society. So the revolt was not well planned and properly organized.

[4] Lack of communication: There was a severe lack of communication between the people of the Kol tribe residing at different places. So the rebellion could not gather up enough strength.

[5] Weakness: The financial aids as well as arms and ammunitions required to make a revolt successful were not present at the disposal of the Kols. So the revolt weakened from the very beginning.

[6] British power: The British were far more efficient in terms of arms and ammunition. They were also well organized and had modern communication equipment to maintain communication among themselves, The cruelty of the British rulers broke the very backbone of the Kol Revolt.

Question 2: Write a note on Kol Rebellion.
Answer:

Kol Rebellion:

The Kol Rebellion of 1831 illustrates the hostility of primitive tribes against attempts to destroy the independence that they had enjoyed earlier. The immediate cause of the rebellion was the action of the Raja of Chotanagpur, who leased several villages to the Muslims and the Sikhs by depriving the Kols of their ancestral rights. The rebellion spread rapidly to Singbhum, Manbhum, Hazaribagh and the neighboring districts under the leadership of Buddhu Bhagat, Joa Bhagat, and Jhindrai Manki.

The ijaradars, landlords, Mahajan, grain merchants, and English officials were massacred by the Kols and their houses were looted or destroyed. The rebels threatened to kill the ‘dikes’ or outsiders if they did not leave Chotanagpur. In 1833 the British were able to suppress this rebellion by slaughtering thousands of tribals. The Kol Rebellion prompted the British government to reconsider its administrative setup and adopt a separate policy toward the tribals.

Question 3: Who was the Chukars? Give an account of the Chuar Revolt.
Answer:

Chukars:

The Chuars were tribal people who lived in Bankura, Midnapore, Dhalbhum, and Manbhum regions. Though they were basically farmers and hunters, they also worked as watchmen and attendants of the rajas of the Dhalbhum, Dholka, and Kailapal regions. Instead of salaries, they were assigned rent-free lands for their service. These regions came under the jurisdiction of the East India Company in 1760 and high taxes were imposed. The Chukars revolted against this high rate of tax. They were supported by the disgruntled zamindars.

The revolt spread to Midnapore, Bankura, Birbhum, and Dhalbhum. The rebellion took place in different phases in 1760-69, 1783-84, and 1788-89 successively. One of the leaders of this rebellion was Durjan Singh. The Chukars faced the force of the company with their traditional weapons of bows, arrows, and axe but were defeated and mercilessly suppressed by the company. The ‘Chuar Rebellion’ has been branded by Prof. Narahari Kaviraj as a spontaneous revolt of the peasants and the subaltern class.

Question 4: Discuss the features of the Chuar Revolt.
Answer:

The features of the Chuar Revolt:

The East India Company, after the establishment of British rule in India, started barbaric torture and exploitation of the Indian tribal peasants and zamindars. The tribal peasant communities started to revolt against British rule sporadically. Out of these, the rebellion initiated by the Chuar community stood out, and it came to be known as the Chuar Revolt. The features of the Chuar Revolt are as follows-

[1] Armed tribal movement: The Chuar Revolt was an armed tribal movement.

[2] Fight against British rule: The Chuar Revolt was mainly a revolt against British rule. The Chuar tribe vehemently protested against the exploitation and barbaric torture of British rule.

[3] Unity among the peasants and zamindars: The Chuar Revolt was not a revolt against the Indian zamindars. It was a revolt that witnessed the unity between the zamindars and the peasants.

[4] Duration: The Chuar Revolt lasted from 1767 to 1799. It continued for a span of 30 long years. The revolt was led by various leaders at different points of time.

[5] Two phases: The long period of the Chuar Revolt can be divided into two phases. The first phase continued from 1767 to 1768, and the second phase continued from 1798 to 1799.

Question 5: Discuss the importance or the results of the Chuar Revolt. Or, What was the significance of the Chuar Rebellion?
Answer:

The importance or the results of the Chuar Revolt:

At the initial phases of British rule in India, a tribe named ‘Chuar’ inhabited the northwestern part of the present Midnapore district and the southwestern part of the Bankura district. They rose against British rule during the second phase of the eighteenth century.

The importance or results of this revolt can be discussed as follows-

[1] Acts of cruelty and torture: To subjugate the Chuar Revolt, the British government initiated acts of cruelty and torture against the Chuar tribe. They killed Rani Shiromoni and arrested Durjan Singh.

[2] One of the early revolts and rebellions: The Chuar Revolt was one of the early movements against British rule. The revolt initiated by the illiterate and so-called backward Chuars paved way for the revolts that took place in the next century.

[3] Unity among the peasants and zamindars: The Chuar Revolt was not a revolt against the Indian zamindars. It was a revolt that witnessed the unity between the zamindars and the peasants.

[4] Formation of ‘Jungalmahal’: To impose strict restrictions against the Chuar tribe, the British government changed the law and order. A separate district named Jungalmahal’ was established surrounding the city of Bishnupur, to control the Chukars.

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Question 6: Why was the practice of shifting cultivation banned by the foresters?
Answer:

The practice of shifting cultivation was banned by the foresters due to the following reasons-

[1] European foresters felt that land used for Jhum cultivation could not grow timber trees necessary for making railway sleepers.
[2] Shifting cultivation also made it difficult for the government to calculate and collect taxes.
[3] Moreover, when a forest was burnt, there was a danger of the flames spreading and burning the valuable timber trees.

Question 7: What was the ‘Indian Forest Act’ (1845)? What were its amendments?
Answer:

‘Indian Forest Act’:

In 1865, the British Government passed the Indian Forest Act, which gave them the right to declare any forest land to be government land. There was no provision for the traditional rights of the tribal people.

It was amended in 1878. The 1878 Act divided forests into three categories:

[1] Reserved,
[2] Protected and
[3] Village forest. ‘Reserved forests’ were deemed the most commercially valuable and amenable to sustained exploitation. Rights to all activities like hunting, grazing, etc. were banned. Villagers could not take anything even for their own use.

Question 8: What was the effect of the Forest Act of 1878 on the life of the villagers?
Answer:

The Forest Act of 1878 affected the lives of the villagers in the following ways-

[1] The daily activity of the villagers-Cutting wood for building houses, hunting, fishing, and collecting fruits became illegal.

[2] Millions of people suffered as grazing and shifting (jhum) cultivation were banned. Due to the government’s ban on shifting cultivation, many people were forcibly displaced from their homes. Some had to change occupations while others rebelled against the government.

[3] Women who used to collect firewood became very worried as they were unable to collect wood.

Question 9: Why did the colonial government pass Indian Forest Act?
Answer:

In 1864 the Indian Forest Service was set up. Indian Forest Act was passed in 1865 and then amended in 1878. The objective of passing the Indian Forest Act

[1] English ships could not be built without a regular supply of timber. Moreover, imperial power could not be protected and maintained without ships.
[2] The spread of railways in the 1850s created a new demand for wood. In India, the colonial authority felt that railways were essential for effective colonial internal administration, colonial trade, and for quick movement of the Company’s troops.
[3] To run locomotives, wood was needed as fuel, and to lay railway lines wooden sleepers were essential to hold the track together.
[4] The colonial authority also paid attention so that Adivasi and other peasant users do not cut the trees for their personal use or to obtain things for sale or for their own animals, etc. The Indian Forest Acts caused great hardship to the villagers and they rose in revolt.

Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Topic B Sannaysi And Fakir Rebellion, Wahabi And Farazi Movement In Bengal Long Answer Questions

Question 1: Give an account of the Sannyasi and Fakir Rebellion.
Answer:

Sannyasi and Fakir Rebellion:

The Sannyasi and Fakir Rebellion (1763- 1800) organized by the Hindu saints and Muslim monks aimed at ventilating their grievances against oppressive tax collection by the British and also against the coercion of the leaseholders. Due to the despotic policy of the East India Company, the sannyasis and fakirs rose in revolt.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Sannyasi Rebellion

The Sannyasis who were mendicants belonged to the Dasnami sect had a tradition of militancy. Their rebellion spread like wildfire in the districts of Dinajpur, Rangpur, Malda, and Dacca. Political uncertainty, lawlessness, and economic oppression led landless ryots, zamindars, and jobless artisans to join hands with the sannyasi rebels.

Bhabani Pathak and Devi Chaudhurani were the leaders of the rebellion. Mahasthangarh was the stronghold of the rebellion. Dr. N K Sinha remarks that the ranks of the insurgents were swollen with the starving peasantry. The Sannyasi and Fakir uprising was repressed by the company’s army. The rebels failed because the leaders were inexperienced. Communication also prevented them from fighting unitedly against the British.

Question 2: Give an account of the Wahabi Movement in Bengal.
Answer:

The Wahabi Movement in Bengal:

Syed Ahmed Barelvi was the founder of the Wahabi Movement in India. His movement aimed at reviving the ways of the prophet and driving the British out of the country.

[1] Titu Mir: The movement was carried in Bengal by Mir Nisar Ali popularly known as Titu Mir who was a believer in the Wahabi ideal of Islamic reform.

[2] Aim of Titu Mir: Titu Mir’s aim was the replacement of British rule with Muslim rule and the extinction of the British government. He proclaimed “the sovereign power as the hereditary right of the Muslims which had been unjustly usurped by the Europeans”. His aim was also to organize the poor Hindu and Muslim peasants to fight against the oppressive zamindars who imposed punitive taxes on the Wahabis.

[3] Barasat uprising: The Barasat uprising (1831) was led by Titu Mir. The center of his movement was Narkelberia at Barasat. He organized his followers and built a bamboo fortress (Banser Kella). Loot, murder, arson, and cow slaughter alarmed the local authorities. Titu Mir along with his three hundred followers attacked the house of zamindar Krishnadeva Ray. He assumed the title of Badshah and established a parallel government in Narkelberia. The British government sent a large force and Titu Mir’s bamboo fortress was blown to pieces. Titu Mir was killed and his followers were imprisoned. Many of them were hanged.

Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Topic B Sannaysi And Fakir Rebellion, Wahabi And Farazi Movement In Bengal Analytical Answer Type Questions

Question 1: Give an account of the Farazi Movement under the leadership of Haji Shariatullah and Dudu Miyan. Or, Write a brief note on the Farazi Movement.
Answer:

Farazi Movement under the leadership of Haji Shariatullah and Dudu Miyan:

The Farazi Movement occupies an important place in the history of peasant rebellion in India. Haji Shariatullah, the leader of this peasant movement founded a sect called ‘Farazi’ which means ‘obey the dictates of Allah’ (God). Though the movement started as an Islamic revivalist movement, ultimately it turned into an anti-imperialist struggle aiming at the expulsion of the British and the restoration of Muhammedan power in India. The poor peasants of Bengal were organized against the landlords and indigo planters by Shariatullah.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Different Regional Revolts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After the death of Shariatullah his son Muhammad Muhsin, better known as Dudu Miyan, took up the leadership of the movement. After his return from Mecca he preached that all men are equal. According to him, god is the ultimate owner of the land; so it would be contrary to Divine Law to pay rent to anyone.

He united the peasants against the tyranny of the indigo planters and zamindars and gave instruction to his followers not to pay taxes to the zamindars. He created a parallel government and was arrested and put in prison.

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Question 2: What was the nature of the Farazi Movement?
Answer:

The nature of the Farazi Movement:

The nature of the Farazi Movement, which started under the leadership of Haji Shariatullah, was as follows-
[1] The most important feature of the movement was that it started as an Islamic revivalist movement but ultimately it turned into an anti-imperialist as well as anti-British struggle, aiming at the restoration of Muhammedan power in India.
[2] The movement was non-communal in nature.
[3] It was a part of the freedom movement of India and the rebels aimed at ousting the British from India.
[4] A parallel government was established which started collecting taxes from the people and also established local courts.

Question 3: Why is Dudu Miyan remembered?
Answer:

The Farazi Movement holds an important place in the history of peasant rebellion in India. The leader of the Farazi Movement was Haji Shariatullah. After his death, his son Muhammad Muhsin, better known as Dudu Miyan, took up the leadership of the movement. After he returned from Mecca, he preached that all men were equal and that God was the ultimate owner of the land; so it would be contrary to Divine law to pay rent to anyone.

He united the peasants against the tyranny of the zamindars and the indigo planters and instructed his followers.not to pay taxes to the zamindars. He created a parallel government but was arrested and put in prison.

Question 4: Discuss the importance of the Wahabi Movement in Bengal under the leadership of Titu Mir.
Answer:

The importance of the Wahabi Movement in Bengal under the leadership of Titu Mir:

Titu Mir, the leader of the Wahabi Movement in Bengal, organized the poor Hindu and Muslim peasants to fight against the oppressive zamindars and the British who imposed punitive taxes on the Wahabis. He constructed a bamboo fortress at Narkelberia in Barasat to counteract the enemy (1831). Though he failed in his objective this movement in Bengal had immense importance-

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Titu Mir

[1] The revolt exposed the true nature of British exploitation of the peasants.
[2] It was the first armed rebellion of the peasants of Bengal against the British, the indigo planters, the zamindars, and the moneylenders.

Question 5: Name two centers of the Wahabi Movement in Bengal, Who constructed the famous ‘Banser Kella’ or bamboo fortress? What was the main objective of the Barasat Revolt?
Answer:

Two centers of the Wahabi Movement in Bengal were Nadia and Jessore. The ‘Banser Kella’ or bamboo fortress was constructed by Titu Mir, the leader of the Wahabi Movement in Bengal.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Replica of the bamboo fortress of Titu Mir

Titu Mir organized the poor peasants of Jessore, 24 Parganas, and Nadia districts and constructed a bamboo fortress at Narkelberia at Barasat to counteract the British army. His aim was to organize the poor Hindu and Muslim peasants to fight against the oppressive zamindars who imposed punitive taxes on the Wahabis.

His objective was the replacement of British rule with Muslim rule and the extinction of the British government. He proclaimed, “the sovereign power as the hereditary right of the Muslims which had been unjustly usurped by the Europeans.”

Question 6: Why is Titu Mir remembered?
Answer:

Titu Mir was the leader of the Wahabi Movement in Bengal. Under his leadership, the movement turned into a movement of the peasants who were exploited at the hands of the Hindu zamindars and the European indigo planters. Titu Mir proclaimed the illegitimacy of the company’s government and declared that the Muslims were the rightful owners of the land.

The rebels declared that they were to receive rent from the peasants and they proceeded from village to village enforcing their demands. The British employed military to suppress the rebels. Titu Mir built up a ‘bamboo fortress’ at Narkelberia village near Barasat which is famous in history as the ‘Barasat Uprising’ (1831). After a valiant fight, Titu and his comrades were killed.

Question 7: Briefly describe the Barasat Uprising.
Answer:

The Barasat Uprising:

The Barasat Uprising (1831) was led by Titu Mir, the leader of the Wahabi sect in Bengal. Titu Mir’s aim was to organize the poor Hindu and Muslim peasants to fight against oppressive zamindars who imposed punitive taxes on the Wahabis. The center of his movement was Narkelberia at Barasat. He organized his followers and built a bamboo fortress (Banser Kella). Loot, murder, arson, and cow slaughter alarmed the local authorities.

Titu Mir along with his three hundred followers attacked the house of zamindar Krishnadeva Ray. He assumed the title of Badshah and established a parallel government in Narkelberia. The British government sent a large force and Titu Mir’s bamboo fortress was blown to pieces. Titu Mir was killed and his followers were imprisoned.

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Question 8: What was the nature of the Wahabi Movement?
Answer:

The nature of the Wahabi Movement:

The nature of the Wahabi Movement was as follows-
[1] The Wahabi Movement started as an Islamic reform movement, but ultimately it turned into an anti-imperialist struggle.
[2] In Bengal, under the leadership of Titu Mir, the movement turned into a rebellion of the peasants, exploited at the hands of the zamindars and European indigo planters.
[3] It was a movement launched by both the Hindus and the Muslims and hence, was non-communal in nature.
[4] It was a part of India’s freedom movement. Its aim was to oust the British from India. [5] Wahabi Movement in Bengal, led by Titu Mir, was messianic in nature.

Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Topic C Indigo Rebellion And Pabna Peasant Rebellion Long Answer Questions

Question 1: Examine the causes of the Indigo Revolt.
Answer:

The causes of the Indigo Revolt:

The Indigo Revolt of 1859-60 was a mass upheaval, unprecedented in the history of organized political movements in India. By the beginning of the 19th century, indigo formed the basis of a flourishing sector of commercial agriculture. Many European planters established factories in different parts of Bengal when indigo became a profitable item of export. The revolt was directed against British planters who behaved like feudal lords in their state.

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 History Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Indigo Factory

The causes of the rebellion were as follows-

[1] The wages paid by the planters to ryots were meager although the prices of agricultural products doubled.
[2] The planters oppressed the cultivators and forced them to grow indigo under terms.
[3] The production of food crops declined considerably because the indigo planters used the best plots of cultivable land for indigo plantations.
[4] The indigo planters augmented the plantation area and evicted the peasants from their villages. Employing armed gang men, the planters did not hesitate to burn the peasants’ huts.
[5] Peasant women were abducted regularly and other family members were also not spared.

Question 2: Describe the nature of the Indigo Rebellion.
Answer:

The Indigo Rebellion was one of the events which profoundly influenced the political developments in India toward intense national awakening.

The nature of the rebellion was as follows-

[1] It was not directed against the zamindars and the Mahajan. It was a revolt against the indigo planters who committed all sorts of brutality to force the peasants to cultivate indigo.
[2] The ryots not only resisted forced cultivation but also wanted to put an end to indigo cultivation.
[3] The bravery and sacrifice of the peasants deserve special mention. One after another the peasants joined the movement and took the vow not to cultivate indigo.
[4] All communities-Hindus and Muslims joined the rebellion. Not only the peasants but the zamindars, businessmen, talukdars and Patidar’s also joined them.
[5] The Indigo Rebellion was by nature not a part of the religious reform movement. Peasants form the core and took the opportunity to give vent to their grievances against the oppressors.
[6] The Christian missionaries backed the peasants. Grant, the lieutenant governor of Bengal, and W S Seton Karr were also sympathetic towards the innocent peasants.

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Question 3: What role did the educated community play during the Indigo Rebellion?
Answer:
Role of the educated community during the Indigo Rebellion was as follows-

[1] In 1980, the indigo cultivators of Chowgacha village of Nadia district first rose in rebellion under the leadership of Bishnu Charan Biswas and Digambar Biswas. They organized the peasants of their village Chowgacha, who took the vow not to cultivate indigo anymore. The rebellion spread from one village to another and the villagers took a similar vow not to cultivate indigo.

[2] At this stage, the educated community joined the peasants. Sisir Kumar Ghosh organized peasants of ninety-two villages who took the pledge to refuse indigo cultivation, even at life risk.

[3] In 1860, Dinabandhu Mitra, then a high Government official, published the historic drama ‘Nil Darpan’, depicting the brutalities of the English planters and the heroic resistance of the peasants. The Bengali poet Michael Madhusudan Dutta translated this drama into English, but it was published in the name of Reverend James Long. The planters filed a case against James Long who was imprisoned for one month and fined one thousand rupees. Kaliprasanna Singha, a young writer paid off the fine on the spot.

[4] Harish Chandra Mukherjee, the editor of the Hindoo Patriot, published the news of the tyranny of the planters and the reaction of the peasants. He, through his fiery editorials, considerably influenced public opinion against the British government. Moreover, through his news and views, he greatly influenced the government to appoint the Indigo Commission in 1860.

Question 4: Describe the spread of the Indigo Rebellion in Bengal.
Answer:

The spread of the Indigo Rebellion in Bengal:

During the nineteenth century, the European indigo planters, in order to spread the cultivation of indigo all over Bengal, oppressed the peasants of Bengal in a barbaric way. Nearly 60 million indigo ryots, in order to protest against the inhuman torture and oppression, chose the path of rebellion, which came to be known as the Indigo Rebellion (1859-1860).

[1] Expression of grievances: The first phase of the rebellion was marked by the expression of grievances by the indigo ryots against the European indigo planters at the governmental departments.

[2] Boycott: The expression of grievances was of no good for the indigo ryots. So the second phase of the revolt was marked by the refusal of the indigo ryots to take advances for cultivation and thus the boycott of the movement. Digambar Biswas and Bishnucharan Biswas of Nadia district led the boycott movement. A large number of peasants in Nadia, Pabna, Faridpur, Barishal, Rajshahi, Khulna, Maldah, Murshidabad, and Dinajpur did not start cultivating indigo despite the inhuman torture and oppression carried out against them.

[3] Armed rebellion: The indigo ryots started an armed rebellion against the Britishers in the third phase of the rebellion. They burnt the indigo plantations and also attacked the European indigo planters.

[4] Role of the educated middle class: A section of the educated middle class in Bengal supported the Indian ryots and expressed their grievances against the European indigo planters.

[1] The editor of ‘Hindoo Patriot’ Harish Chandra Mukherjee questioned the indigo ryots and vehemently expressed his views against the European indigo planters.
[2] Dinabandhu Mitra in his drama ‘Nil Darpan’ pointed out the inhuman torture of the European indigo planters.
[3] Michael Madhusudan Dutta translated ‘Nil Darpan’ into English and published it in the name of Christian priest James Long, which led to the fine and imprisonment of James Long.

[5] Last phase of the revolt: Thousands of indigo ryots expressed their grievances to Peter Grant, the chief commissioner of Bengal during his visit to East Bengal. On the basis of those grievances, Peter Grant set up the Indigo Commission in the year 1860. The reports submitted by this commission led to the abolition of indigo plantations in Bengal, which, in turn, led to the end of the Indigo Rebellion.

Question 5: Discuss the nature and characteristics of the Pabna Peasant Rebellion.
Answer: The poor peasants of the Pabna district of East Bengal started a revolt against the exploitation of the zamindars in 1870. However, historians do not agree regarding the nature or characteristics of the revolt.

This can be discussed as follows-

[1] Non-communal movement: Some historians consider the Pabna Peasant Rebellion as being non-communal in nature. The peasants did not start the revolt against the zamindars as they were Hindu by religion, rather they started the revolt due to the barbaric nature of the zamindars.

[2] Lawful rebellion: The peasants of the Pabna Rebellion did not take any extremist ways against the zamindars. Neither did they start any armed rebellion. The steps they took included peaceful means like non-payment of tax. They also decided to fight against the wrong legal allegations brought against them by the British government. Due to this reason, some of historians are of the opinion that the Pabna Peasant Rebellion was a lawful rebellion.

[3] Agitation against the zamindars: The exploited peasants of the Pabna Peasant Rebellion fought mainly against the zamindars, as the zamindars continued mass oppression against the peasants.

[4] Limited nature of the revolt: The Pabna Peasant Rebellion was not against British rule, it was solely against the zamindars. The peasants wanted to be under British rule and wanted to pay taxes to the British queen directly. For this reason, the nature of this revolt is mentioned as limited by some historians.

[5] Lack of political awareness: Some historians are of the opinion that the Pabna Peasant Rebellion lacked political awareness. The rebels failed to understand that the British rule was the main origin of their miserable condition, and supported the British rule unknowingly.

Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Topic C Indigo Rebellion And Pabna Peasant Rebellion Analytical Answer Type Questions

Question 1: What is the significance of the Indigo Revolt?
Answer:

The significance of the Indigo Revolt of 1859-60 is as follows-
[1] It marked the beginning of a new direction in the Government’s policy towards the peasantry.
[2] In 1860, The Indigo Commission was set up to enquire into the hardships faced by the indigo farmers. It condemned indigo cultivation and considerable relief was provided to the cultivators
[3] As a consequence of the Indigo Revolt, the Bengalis became politically aroused and shrugged off their apathy and carelessness.
[4] The Indigo Revolt raised the tempo which motivated the peasants to participate in wider political movements.

Question 2: What repressive measures were adopted by the British government to suppress the Indigo Rebellion?
Answer:

The Indigo Revolt of 1859-60 was a mass upheaval, unprecedented in the history of organized political movements in India. The revolt spread to almost all the indigo-growing districts of Bengal. In order to suppress the Indigo Rebels, the British government resorted to repressive measures. The government sent police and military forces to the disturbed areas. British troops were stationed all over Bengal. They even sent two naval warships to Nadia and Jessore to suppress the revolt. British police mercilessly hanged the great leader of Indigo Rebels Biswanath Sardar in Asannagar, Nadia after a show trial.

Class 10 History Wbbse

Question 3: Why was the Indigo Commission (1860) appointed?
Answer:

Among the tribal and peasant rebellions after the revolt of 1857, the Indigo Revolt deserves special mention. It started in 1859, and the brutalities of the European planters made the ryots determined in their protest against the system. Thousands of indigo ryots expressed their grievances to Peter Grant, the Chief Commissioner of Bengal, during his visit to East Bengal. In the face of a serious situation and public demand for probing the system of indigo cultivation, the government finally appointed the Indigo Commission on 31 March 1866 to enquire into the system of indigo production.

The Commission was formed with W S Seton Kar and R Temple (representative of Government), WF Fergusson (representative of Indigo planters), Rev. J Sale (representative of Christian missionaries), and Chandramohon Chatterjee (representative of the zamindars). 134 persons (15 government employees and Christian missionaries, 21 planters, 13 zamindars, and 77 ryots) presented their depositions before the Indigo Commission.

Question 4: Was the Pabna Rebellion a non-communal movement?
Answer:

The poor peasants of the Pabna district of East Bengal started a revolt against the exploitation of the zamindars in 1870. The zamindar dominated British Indian Association was bitterly hostile to the movement. The Hindoo Patriot, related to the British Indian Association, tried to call the Pabna Rebellion a communal rebellion. But actually, the majority of the peasants in Pabna happened to be Muslim and their zamindars were mainly Hindus.

The communal element in the rebellion was virtually absent. It may be mentioned here that the three important leaders of the agrarian league were Ishan Chandra Roy and Shambhu Pal who were caste Hindus and Khoodi Mollah who was a Muslim jotted.

Chapter 3 Resistance And Rebellion Characteristics And Analyses Advanced Questions And Answers

Question 1: What were the causes of the protest movement of the tribal community against colonial rule?
Answer:

India witnessed a number of protest movements against colonial rule in the century after 1857. The impoverishment of the Indian peasantry was a direct result of the transformation of the new agrarian structure, colonial economic policy land revenue systems, and colonial administrative and judicial systems.

The British colonial policy inflicted a kind of misery upon the peasants that they had never experienced before the growing oppression of the peasantry and the exploitative policy followed by the colonial government were not simply swallowed by them, but they rose in protest against it. Among the significant organized protest movements of the tribal peasant, community mention may be made here of the movements like the Santhal Rebellion, Kol Rebellion, Munda Rebellion, Sannyasi-Fakir Rebellion, the Indigo Rebellion, etc.

Question 2: Mention the reasons behind the failure of the various peasant and tribals rebellions in the 19th century.
Answer:

The various tribal and peasant movements that took place in India as well as West Bengal in the nineteenth century were mostly failures due to the following reasons-

[1] Lack of unity among the leaders: Nineteenth century witnessed various peasant movements like the Wahabi Movement, the Farazi Movement, etc. These revolts were largely influenced by religious factors. As a result, there was a lack of unity between the Hindu and Muslim rulers.

[2] Lack of proper planning: The planning which is required to carry forward a mass movement or rebellion was largely absent in all the revolts and so most of the revolts lost their driving force.

[3] Regional limitations: The peasant movements like Rangpur Rebellion, Pabna Peasant Rebellion, Santhal Rebellion, Munda Revolt, etc., were mainly regional in nature. The impacts of these revolts and rebellions did not affect the areas which were not under the control of those particular tribes and peasant communities. So it was easier for the zamindari rulers as well as British rulers to intrude into those areas.

[4] Lack of proper communication system: Due to the lack of a proper communication system, the rebels could not exchange important thoughts among themselves. This weakened the revolts and uprisings to a large extent.

[5] Lack of efficient leadership: Most of the uprisings that took place in the nineteenth century were sporadic in nature. The efficient leadership that was required to make these revolts successful was lacking in the case of most of the revolts. As a result, most of these revolts weakened within a few days.

[6] Oppression by British rulers and zamindars: The barbaric act of cruelty and oppression against the rebels by the British rulers as well as the zamindars broke the very backbone of most of the movements. The British cannon destroyed the bamboo fortress of Titu Mir at the Barasat Rebellion. Most of the rebels of the Santhal Rebellion or the Munda Rebellion were hanged to death or were sentenced to life imprisonment. These resulted in the weakening of the revolts and rebellions.

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