WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 1 Location And Administrative Divisions Of India

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 1 Location And Administrative Divisions Of India Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the state reorganisation in India from 1947-50. OR, Discuss the political structure of India during the period of 1947-50.
Answer:

The state reorganisation in India from 1947-50

The former country of India was divided into two separate countries—India and Pakistan on 15 August 1947. At that time, independent India possessed 9 Governor ruled states, 4 chief commissioners ruled states and 562 independent native states.

During 1948-49, the native states were included within the state of India under the leadership of Sardar Vallabbhai Patel. Some of them were added to the Governor ruled states while some were converted to princely states. On 26 January 1950, India was declared as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.  The Constitution of India was formed.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer

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During this time the states of India were divided into four categories—

Part A (Governor Ruled States] West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bombay, Madras and Punjab (Total 9 states)
Part B [Former Princely States] Hyderabad, Madhya Bharat, Mysore, Patiala and East Punjab State Union (PEPSU), Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Saurashtra and Travancore (Cochin) (Total 8 states)
Part C [Chief Commissioner Ruled States] Ajmer, Bhopal, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, Kachchh, Coorg, Delhi, Manipur, Tripura and Vindhya Pradesh (a Total of 10 states)
Part D [Central Ruled State] Andaman and Nicobar Islands

 

Question 2. Discuss the reorganisation of states from 1956 till date.
Answer:

State reorganisation in 1956: The State Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was formed in 1953, under whose recommendations India was reorganised into 14 states and 6 Union Territories on 1 November 1956 The main basis of this reorganisation was language.

States: Pradesh, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, West Bengal, Punjab, Bihar, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Mysore, Madras and Rajasthan.

Union Territories: Tripura, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Delhi, Lakshadweep, Manipur and Himachal Pradesh.

State reorganisation during other periods: After the reorganisation of the states in 1956, many

States were further reorganised during different periods. In this course, several states were renamed, e.g.—Madras was renamed as Tamil Nadu, Orissa as Odisha, Mysore as Karnataka, Rajputana as Rajasthan, etc. State reorganisation during other periods is listed below—

Date State Reorganisation
19 August 1947 The formation of the state of Orissa (now Odisha) was completed,
1 May 1960 The former state of Bombay was divided to form the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
1 December 1963 Nagaland was given the status of an independent state.
1 November 1966 The former state of Punjab was divided to form the states of Punjab and Haryana and the Union Territory of Chandigarh.
20 February 1970 The former NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency) was renamed Arunachal Pradesh.
25 January 1971 Himachal Pradesh was converted from a Union Territory to a State.
1 November 1973 The former state of Mysore came to be known as Karnataka.
26 April 1975 Sikkim was included as the 22nd state of India (Formerly it was ruled by Chogyal monarchs).
20 February 1987 The Union Territories of Mi Oram and Arunachal Pradesh were included as the 23rd and 24th states of India
30 May 1987 Goa was included as the 25th state of India.
1993 The capital of India, Delhi, was declared as the ‘National Capital Region.
1 November 2000 The state of Madhya Pradesh was divided to form the 26th state of India, Chhattisgarh.
9 November 2000 The state of Uttar Pradesh was divided to form Uttarakhand, the 27th state of India
15 November 2000 Jharkhand was formed from the former state of Bihar, forming the 28th state of India.
2 June 2014 The 29th state of India, Telangana was formed from the former state of Andhra Pradesh.
31 October 2019 The state of Jammu and Kashmir was divided into two Union Territories, Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir.
26 January 2020 Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu were formed after the merger of the former Union Territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.

 

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 1 Location And Administrative Divisions Of India Short Explanatory Answer Type Questions

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer

Question 1. Why is India regarded as a ‘miniature world’?
Answer:

India is a peninsular country in south Asia. It is bordered by oceans on three sides and the lofty Himalayan mountains on the northern side. It lies in the northeastern hemisphere and the Tropic of Cancer passes almost through the middle of the country.

Different kinds of physio-graphic features like mountains, plateaus, and plains are present here. Deserts, different types of soils, vegetation, climatic conditions and availability of mineral resources make the country a land of variety. Different species of animals and plants are present here.

Apart from these, different types of languages, cultures, religions, castes and creeds are found here. All these make India a representation of a miniature world.

Question 2. State the location of India according to – ciX latitudinal and longitudinal extent.
Answer:

Latitudinal extent: Latitudinally India lies in the northern hemisphere. The mainland of India extends from 8°4’N in the south (Kerala) to 37°6’N in the north (Jammu and Kashmir).

The southernmost point of India including the islands lies at 6°45’N (Indira Point or Pygmalion point of Great Nicobar Island).

Longitudinal extent: India lies between 68°7’E (Gujarat) and 97°25’E (Arunachal Pradesh) longitudes.

Question 3. State the boundary of India.
Answer:

The boundary of India on all sides are as follows—

1. North: The northern side of India is marked by the Himalayan mountains, China, Nepal and Bhutan.

2. West: India is bounded by Pakistan and the Arabian Sea on the west.

3. East: The eastern side of India is bounded by Myanmar, Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal.

4. South: The peninsular region of India in the south is bounded by the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The island country of Sri Lanka lies south of India, separated by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar. The Maldives lie to the southwest of India.

Question 4. Mention the location of India with respect to the distance from the sea.
Answer:

India lies in south Asia. It is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south. Hence, it is called a peninsula. Being surrounded by the seas on three sides, no place in India is farther than 1700 km from the coast.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer

Question 5. Name the neighbouring countries of India.
Answer:

The neighbouring countries of India

The neighbouring countries of India are— China, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, Pakistan in the west, Afghanistan in the north-west, Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east and Sri Lanka in the south (separated from India by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar). The island of Maldives lies to the southwest of India.

Question 6. Discuss the importance of the geographical location of India.
Answer:

The importance of the geographical location of India

India lies in south Asia. The geographical location of the country influences its economy, security and livelihood of people.

1. The presence of seas on three sides of India provides access to international waterways and promotes foreign trade. The seas also act as a natural barrier and safeguard the security of the
mainland.

2. The mighty Himalayas in the north and the desert in the west also act as natural barriers and protect the country from foreign invasions. The mountain passes help in foreign trade.

3. The presence of seas on three sides of the country promotes fishing and related activities. It also influences the social life, food habits and economic status of the people.

4. The Himalayan region in the north encourages tourism and supplies raw materials for several industries like fruit processing, furniture making, paper, tea and construction.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer

Question 7. Mention the extent and population of India.
Answer:

Extent: The north-south extent of India is 3214 km and the east-west extent of India is 2933 km.

Area: Total area of India is about 32 lacks 87 thousand 263 sq. km. Of this, about 43 thousand sq. km. of area is occupied by China and Pakistan. According to size, India is the seventh largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada, China, USA, Brazil and Australia).

Population: India is the second most populated country in the world (after China). According to the 2011 census, the total population of India was 121 crores 1 lakh 93 thousand 422.

Question 8. Mention the importance of the peninsular location of India on the livelihood of people
Answer:

The importance of the peninsular location of India on the livelihood of people is—

  1. The peninsular location of India promotes international trade through waterways from all three directions (east, west, and south).
  2. The presence of seas on three sides of the country promotes activities like navigation and fishing.
  3. The seas act as a natural barrier and protect the country from foreign invasions.
  4. The northern part of India is connected to mainland of Asia. This helps in maintaining trade

Question 9. Name the administrative divisions presently found in India.
Answer:

Presently, India is divided into types of administrative divisions- states and union territories. There are 28 states and 8 union territories in India.

State Capital
1. Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad
2. Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar
3. Assam Dispur
4. Bihar Patna
5. Chhattisgarh Raipur
6. Goa Panaji
7. Gujarat Gandhinagar
8. Haryana Chandigarh
9. Himachal Pradesh Shimla
10. Jharkhand Ranchi
11. Karnataka Bengaluru
12. Kerala Thiruvananthapuram
13. Madhya Pradesh Bhopal
14. Maharashtra Mumbai
15. Manipur Imphal
16. Meghalaya Shillong
17. Mizoram Aizawl
18. Nagaland Kohima
19.0disha Bhubaneswar
20. Punjab Chandigarh
21. Rajasthan Jaipur
22. Sikkim Gangtok
23. Tamil Nadu Chennai
24. Tripura Agartala
25. Uttar Pradesh Lucknow
26. Uttarakhand Dehradun
27. West Bengal Kolkata
28. Telangana Hyderabad

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map-

 

Union Territories Capital
1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Port Blair
2. Chandigarh Chandigarh
3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Daman
4. Delhi Delhi
 5. Lakshadweep  Kavaratti
6. Puducherry (formerly known as Pondicherry) Puducherry
7. Ladakh Leh-Kargil
8. Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar (May-October) Jammu (November-April)

 

Question 10. Discuss the standard meridian and standard time of India. OR, How does the longitudinal extent of India influence the standard time of the country?
Answer:

The standard meridian and standard time of India

India lies between the longitudes 68°7’E and 97°25’E. Therefore, the longitudinal extent is 97°25’E – 68°7’E = 29°18′ Each longitude or meridian has a different local time.

So, for ease of administration and time calculation, the meridian that passes through the centre of the country is chosen as the standard meridian, whose local time is considered the standard time of the country.

The 82°86’E meridian passes exactly through the centre of India. But for ease of calculation, the 82°30’E meridian is chosen as the standard meridian of India (passes through Allahabad). The local time of this standard meridian is considered as the standard time all over India.

Question 11. Why are Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya called so?
Answer:

The easternmost state of India was formerly known as the NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency). Being located at the eastern border, the first rays of sunlight could be seen from this region first in India as a whole. Hence, it was renamed Arunachal Pradesh.

The hilly regions of Khasi, Jaintia and Garo hills were included in the Union Territory of Meghalaya on 2 April 1970. The geographical location of the place influenced the weather conditions and generally kept the sky overcast with clouds.

Hence, it was named ‘Meghalaya'(the abode of clouds) by the famous geographer Dr S.P. Chatterjee. Later, on 21 January 1972, Meghalaya was given the status of a state.

Question 12. What do you mean by ‘India subcontinent’?
Answer:

‘India subcontinent’:

The countries of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka together are known as the ‘Indian subcontinent’. These neighbouring countries have physical, geographical and cultural similarities. India is the largest country among them with respect to size and population.

It lies in the centre surrounded by the other five countries. Due to its size and location, India is the most influential country among them. Hence, the whole region is called the ‘Indian subcontinent’. Name the newly formed states of India and their capitals

authenticated by the Indian Constitution, more than 160 languages are spoken in the country. Language is a very important factor that influences the administration.

Thus, it plays an important role in state reorganisation. India was reorganised into 14 states and 6 Union Territories in 1956 based on the language popularly spoken over a large region.

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 1 Location And Administrative Divisions Of India Short Answer Type Questions

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer

Question 1. Name the most and least populated states of India.
Answer:

According to the 2011 census, the most populated state of India is Uttar Pradesh (19.98 crores) and the least populated state of India is Sikkim (6.12 lakh).

Question 2. Presently, how many states and Union Territories are there in India?
Answer:

Presently, there are 29 states (including the newly formed states of Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and Telangana) and 7 Union Territories in India.

Question 3. Name the largest state and smallest state of India.
Answer:

The largest state of India is Rajasthan and the smallest state of India is Goa.

Question 4. Mention the latitudinal extent of the Indian mainland.
Answer:

The Indian mainland extends from 8°4’N in the south to 37°6’N in the north.

Question 5. Mention the longitudinal extent of India.
Answer:

The longitudinal extent of India is from 68°7’E in the west to 97°25’E in the east.

Question 6. From which erstwhile states the newly formed states of Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh have been separated?
Answer:

Uttarakhand has been separated from the former state of Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh has been separated from the former state of Madhya Pradesh.

Question 7. Mention the east-west and north-south extent of India.
Answer:

The east-west extent of India is 2933 km and the north-south extent of India is 3214 km.

Question 8. What are the length of India’s border and its coastline?
Answer:

The length of the border of India along all sides is about 15107 km. The length of the coastline of India including the mainland, Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands is about 7517 km.

Question 9. Name the largest and smallest Union Territory of India.
Answer:

The largest Union Territory of India in Jammu and Kashmir and the smallest one is Lakshadweep.

Question 10. Name the Union Territories of India.
Answer:

The Union Territories of India

The Union Territories of India are Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Puducherry, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman, and Diu.

Question 11. Name the largest and smallest neighboring countries of India.
Answer:

The largest neighboring country of India is China and the smallest one is the Maldives.

Question 12. Which factors were given importance while state reorganization in India? OR, Mention two main bases of state reorganization of India?
Answer:

Different bases have been given importance during the time of state reorganization. Although the main basis of reorganization in 1956 was language, the other bases considered at different times are— culture, administrative advantage and skill, physical and geographical similarity, and economic stability.

Question 13. What are ‘The McMahon line’ and ‘Raddiffe line’?
Answer:

  1. McMahon Line: The Indo-China border running from the eastern side of Bhutan to Arunachal Pradesh is known as the McMahon line.
  2. Radcliffe Line: The Indo-Pakistan border in the northwestern part of India is known as the Radcliffe line.

Question 14. Name two neighboring countries of India lying on the western side.
Answer:

Pakistan and Afghanistan are the two neighboring countries of India lying on the western side.

Question 15. Which Union Territory is recognized as the capital of two states of India?
Answer:

The Union Territory of Chandigarh is the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana.

Question 16. What do you mean by SAARC?
Answer:

SAARC:

SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is an organization formed for the political, economic, educational, cultural, scientific and technological, and recreational welfare of the member countries.

It was formed on 8 December 1985. Its headquarters is in Kathmandu, Nepal. The member countries are—India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Afghanistan.

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 1 Location And Administrative Divisions Of India If The Statement Is True,

Write True And If False Write False Against The Following

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer

Question 1. The state reorganization in India occurred in the year 1950, on the basis of language.
Answer: False

Question 2. Rajasthan is the largest state in India.
Answer: True

Question 3. Jharkhand is the newest state in India.
Answer: False

Question 4. The Amindivi island lies within the Lakshadweep islands.
Answer: True

Question 5. The east-west extent of India is 2933 km.
Answer: True

Question 6. The north-south extent of India is lesser than the east-west extent.
Answer: False

Question 7. The Minicoy island is situated in the Manas Sarovar.
Answer: False

Question 8. The difference between the easternmost and westernmost longitudes of India is almost 29°18
Answer: True

Question 9. The local time of Allahabad is considered the standard time of India.
Answer: True

Question 10. The southernmost point of India is Kanyakumari.
Answer: False

Question 11. India was declared a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic on 15 August 1947.
Answer: False

Question 12. The Tropic of Cancer passes through Bihar.
Answer: False

Question 13. NEFA has been renamed Mizoram.
Answer: False

Question 14. Jharkhand was given the status of a different state on the basis of regional cultural differences.
Answer: True

Question 15. India is the largest peninsular country in the world.
Answer: True

Question16. Goa is the smallest state in India.
Answer: True

Question 17. Sikkim was included as an Indian state in 1975.
Answer: False

Question 18. Goa was given the status of a state in 1989.
Answer: False

Question 19. ‘Meghalaya’ was named by Dr. S. P. Chatterjee.
Answer: True

Question 20. The newest state of India is Telangana.
Answer: True

 

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 1 Location And Administrative Divisions Of India Fill In The Blanks With Suitable Words

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer

Question 1. India was declared a sovereign democratic republic in the year_______
Answer: 1950

Question 2. The State Reorganisation Commission was formed in_______
Answer: 1953

Question 3. The the_______islands lie on the Bay of Bengal.
Answer: Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Question 4. India is separated from Sri Lanka by the_______
Answer: Palk Strait

Question 5. The local time of_______ is considered the standard time of India.
Answer: Allahabad

Question 6. Presently, there are _______ Union Territories in India.
Answer: 8

Question 7. Rajasthan was previously known as _______
Answer: Rajputana

Question 8. Chennai was previously known as _______
Answer: Madras

Question 9. India is surrounded by oceans on _______ sides.
Answer: Three

Question 10. The Darjeeling Gorkhaland Territorial Administration is an _______body that looks after the administration of the hills of the Darjeeling district.
Answer: Autonomous

Question 11. The capital of Tripura is _______
Answer: Agartala

Question 12. The chief language spoken in Karnataka is_______
Answer: Kannada

Question 13. Indira point is also known as the _______
Answer: Pygmalion point

Question 14. _______ is considered the standard meridian of India.
Answer: 82°30’E

Question 15. _______ is the capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
Answer: Hyderabad

Question 16. Kerala was given the status of a state in _______
Answer: 1956

Question 17. Delhi was declared as a Union Territory of India in _______
Answer: 1956

Question 18. The chief languages spoken in Telangana are_______ and _______
Answer: Telugu and Urdu

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 1 Location And Administrative Divisions Of India Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. When has India declared a sovereign, socialistic, secular democratic republic?
Answer: 26 January 1950.

Question 2. Which state’s capital is Bengaluru?
Answer: Karnataka.

Question 3. Which is the largest neighbouring country of India?
Answer: China.

Question 4. Name the capital of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
Answer: Daman.

Question 5. Name the capital of Chattisgarh.
Answer: Raipur.

Question 6. Where is the headquarters of SAARt located?
Answer: Kathmandu in Nepal.

Question 7. Name the smallest neighbouring country of India.
Answer: Maldives.

Question 8. When was Telangana given the status of a separate state?
Answer: 2 June 2014.

Question 9. What was Karnataka previously known as?
Answer: Mysore.

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

Question 10. Which former state was broken into Gujarat and Maharashtra?
Answer: Bombay (presently known as Mumbai).

Question 11. Which languages are popularly used in Tripura apart from Bengali?
Answer: Kokborok and Manipuri.

Question 12. What is the India-Pakistan border popularly known as?
Answer: Radcliffe Line.

Question 13. Name the smallest Union Territory of India.
Answer: Lakshadweep.

Question 14. Which state was broken to form Uttarakhand?
Answer: Uttar Pradesh.

Question 15. How many languages have been accepted by the Constitution of India, to be spoken here?
Answer: 22.

Question 16. Name the capital of Uttarakhand.
Answer: Dehradun.

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 1 Location And Administrative Divisions Of India Match The Left column With The Right Column

1.

LeftColumn Right Column
1. Andhra Pradesh A.  Malayalam
2. Tamil Nadu B. Kannada
3. Goa C.  Tamil
4.  Karnataka D.  Telugu
5.  Kerala E.  Konkani

Answer: 1-D,2-C,3-E,4-B,5-A

2.

Left Column Right Column
1. Telangana A. Kohima
2. Jharkhand B. Ranchi
3. Tripura C. Dehradun
4. Uttarakhand D Hyderabad
5. Nagaland E. Agartala

Answer: 1-D,2-B,3-E,4-C,5-A

3.

Left Column Right Column
1. Himachal Pradesh A.  2000
2.  Chhattisgarh B.  2014
3. Goa C. 1971
4.  Telangana D. 1963
5.  Nagaland E. 1987

Answer: 1-C,2-E,3-E,4-B,5-D

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 4 Climate Of India

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 4 Climate Of India Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the climatic conditions in different seasons in India.
Answer:

The climatic conditions in different seasons in India

The climate of India can be classified into four seasons depending on the temperature, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, and wind direction prevailing over a time period,

1. Winter season (December-February):

1. During this time the sun’s rays fall at a high angle in the southern hemisphere. The northern hemisphere receives slanting rays from the sun, whose angle of incidence is low.

2. The dry and cold winds generated from the high-pressure regions of Central Asia blow over India are northeast monsoon winds. These winds move towards the low-pressure regions over the Indian Ocean.

3. The average temperature in northern India remains about 10°-15°C. The temperature gradually increases towards the south and reaches about 25°C in Tamil Nadu.

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4. Rainfall is caused in the northern and north-western regions due to Western disturbances.
The coastal regions of Tamil Nadu also receive rainfall due to the northeast monsoon winds. The rest of the country generally remains dry.

2. Summer season (March-May):

1. During this season with the gradual movement of the sun towards the north the sun’s rays fall at a high angle in the northern hemisphere. As a result from March onwards, the temperature of India starts rising.

2. By the month of May, the sun’s rays fall almost vertically over the Tropic of Cancer. Thus, the temperature of the northern hemisphere rises considerably. The average temperature of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat rises to 38°-40 °C. The temperature in the desert region of Rajasthan reaches about 48 °C.

3. The hot dry wind called ‘Loo’ is experienced in the northwestern part of India due to very high temperatures.

4. Low-pressure cells develop over many regions, which leads to the generation of tropical storms. These storms are locally known as ‘Kalbaisakhi’ in West Bengal, ‘Aandhi’ in Uttar Pradesh, ‘Bordoichila’ in Assam, ‘Mango showers’ in Kerala and ‘Cherry Blossoms’ in Karnataka.

5. These storms and associated rainfall may suddenly reduce the temperature by 7-8 °C.

3. Rainy season or the monsoon season (June-September): The deep low-pressure cells created over the landmass of India during summer, attract the moist southwest monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean. These winds bifurcate into two branches before entering India—

1. The Arabian Sea branch: This branch of the southwest monsoon, collects a huge amount of moisture from the Arabian Sea and moves towards the Indian landmass.

They are obstructed by the Western Ghats, where they provide profuse rainfall on the western slopes. The eastern slopes lie on the leeward side of the Western Ghats and hence receive less rainfall. This turns the western part of the Deccan plateau into a rain shadow area.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Retreat of south-west monsoon winds

2. The Bay of Bengal branch: This branch of the southwest monsoon winds collects large amounts of moisture from the Bay of Bengal and enters India from the eastern side.

They are obstructed by the Eastern Himalayas and the hilly region of the northeast. There they provide huge amounts of rainfall.

Mawsynram situated on the southern slope of the Khasi hills of Meghalaya receive the highest rainfall in the world (1187 cm). These winds gradually move westward and provide rainfall in Manipur, Meghalaya, Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and other states of northwestern India.

4. Autumn season or the season of retreating monsoon (October- November): During this time the sum apparently starts shifting southwards beyond the equator. Thus, the high-pressure condition develops over landmass in the northern hemisphere and the low-pressure condition develops over the Indian Ocean.

The retreat of the monsoon winds sometimes causes tropical cyclones and sudden rainfall in the eastern coastal regions of India. In West Bengal, the cyclonic storm is locally known as ‘Ashwiner Jhor’.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment onset of south west monsoon winds

Question 2. Explain the influence of monsoons on the climate of India.OR, Discuss the characteristics of the seasons of India as influenced by the monsoon winds.
Answer:

The influence of monsoons on the climate of India

The climate of India is strongly influenced by the monsoon winds. The southwest monsoon winds blow during the summer and the northeast monsoon winds blow during the winter.

1. Influence of the southwest monsoon:

1. During summer, the southwest monsoon winds originate over the Indian Ocean and blow towards the low-pressure cell developed over the northwestern region of India.

2. These moisture-laden winds help to set in the rainy season in the country.

3. India receives about 67-72% of its total annual rainfall due to the southwest monsoon. Rainfall occurs in profuse amounts in Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Eastern Himalayan region, Terai region, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

2. Influence of the north-east monsoon:

1. During winter, the cold dry winds blow from the high-pressure regions of Central Asia towards the low-pressure cell developed over the Indian Ocean.

2. These winds lower the air temperatures to a great extent. Temperatures in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and other northern states fall as low as -10° to -40 °C. 0 The winds being very cold, have very less capable of holding moisture. Thus, they cause no rainfall.

Power in India to a great extent dependent on monsoon rains. If there is insufficient rainfall the reservoirs remain full of water, which helps in hydroelectric power generation.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Summer and winter

3. Unpredictable onset and retreat of monsoon: The before-time arrival or late retreat of the southwest monsoon results in a longer rainy season. This may lead to floods. On the other hand, late arrival or early retreat of the monsoons leads to a shorter rainy season. This may cause the soil to dry up and bead to droughts.

4. Seasons according to the monsoon winds: The climate of India can be classified into four seasons depending on the arrival and retreat of the monsoon winds.

They are-

1. Pre-arrival period of southwest monsoon or the summer season.
2. Season of southwest monsoon or the rainy season.
3. Retreat of the southwest monsoon, or the autumn season.
4. Onset of north-east monsoon, or the winter season.

Question 3. Discuss the influence of the southwest monsoons on India.
Answer:

The influence of the southwest monsoons on India

1. The positive influences of the southwest monsoon winds on India are-

1. Influence on climate: India mostly lies in the tropical-subtropical region, which is very hot. But the southwest monsoon winds provide sufficient rainfall to the landmass, which helps to reduce the general temperature conditions. Hence, India enjoys a hot and humid climate.

2. Influence on irrigation: Water for irrigation also depends upon the availability of water from the dams and reservoirs. In years of sufficient rainfall the area covered by irrigation increases or vice versa. In years of insufficient rainfall, the height of the underground water table falls leading to a shortage of water in the wells, tanks, and tube wells.

3. Influence on hydroelectric power generation: Generation of hydroelectric monsoon rains. If there is insufficient rainfall the reservoirs remain full of water, which helps in hydroelectric power generation.

3. Influence on agriculture: India is an agro-based country. About 70% of India’s population is directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture. The southwest monsoon winds provide sufficient rainfall for agriculture to be conducted properly. The crop calendar of India is dependent on the monsoon rainfall.

4. Influence on agro-based industries: The agro-based industries of India, like cotton textile, sugar, jute textile, tea and coffee, etc. are influenced by the southwest monsoon. The raw materials of these industries are dependent on the rainfall provided by the southwest monsoon.

5. Influence on forests: The forests or natural vegetation are directly related to the climate of a place. The distribution of rainfall in India decides the types of forests found in different regions of India.

6. Influence on the economy: Agriculture, industrial development, the lifestyle of the people, etc. are dependent on the southwest monsoon winds and the rainfall they provide. In general, the whole economy of the country is influenced by the monsoon winds.

2. The negative influences of the south-west monsoon winds are-

1. Floods and droughts: The whimsical and unpredictable nature of the southwest monsoon winds often bring hazards in India. Early onset and late retreat of the monsoon winds bring in too much rainfall and may cause floods. On the other hand, late arrival and early retreat of monsoon winds may cause droughts due to less rainfall.

2. Expensive irrigation system: Agriculture is dependent on the rainfall provided by the southwest monsoon. But the whimsical nature of the monsoon winds may lead to crop failures. Hence, irrigation facilities have to be arranged to assure the yield of crops. This is very expensive and needs a lot of maintenance.

3. Crop failures and loss of life and property: Frequent floods and droughts in India often cause crop failures and result in loss of life and property. Often food grains, pulses, oilseeds, and other crops have to be imported to meet the demands of the country. This imposes a negative effect on the economy of the country.

Question 4. Discuss any three factors that control the climate of India. OR, Discuss the factors that control the climate of India.
Answer:

The factors that control the climate of India are as follows-

1. Monsoon winds: The climate of India is influenced by two opposite monsoon winds—The hot wet southwest monsoon in summer and the dry cold northeast monsoon in the winter.

2. South-west monsoon winds:

1. During summer a deep low-pressure cell develops over central and north India. This draws the moist southwest monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean into the country. The rainy season commences, providing rainfall almost over the whole of India, except in a few places,

2. About 67-72% of rainfall in India occurs due to the southwest monsoon.

3. North-east monsoon winds:

1. During winter, a high-pressure cell develops over Central Asia, from where cold and dry winds rush towards the Indian Ocean, passing over the landmass of India,

2. The general temperature of the country decreases,

3. Generally the winds are dry. But before leaving the country, the winds collect some moisture from the Bay of Bengal and cause rainfall on the Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu.

Depending on the monsoon winds, the climate of India can be classified into four seasons—

1. The pre-monsoon or the summer season,
2. The onset of the southwest monsoon or the rainy season,
3. The retreat of the south-west monsoon or the autumn season,
4. The onset of the northeast monsoon or the winter season.

2. Latitudinal extent: The Tropic of Cancer divides the country into almost two equal halves. The southern part lies in the tropical region while the northern part lies in the sub-tropical region. The Himalayan region lies in the temperate region. Hence, the temperature of the northern region is lower than that of the southern region.

3. Location of the Himalayas and the Western Ghats: The mighty Himalayas prevent the moisture-laden southwest monsoon winds from escaping northwards. They help to cause rainfall in the country. Similarly, the Western Ghats lie across the direction of the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon and cause rainfall on its western slope. The Himalayas also prevent cold Siberian winds from entering India in winter.

4. Altitude: Temperature decreases by 6.4 °C for every 1 km or 1000 m rise in altitude (lapse rate). Thus, the peaks of the Himalayan mountains remain snow-covered throughout the year due to the high altitude. For this reason, Ooty is a cooler place in spite of lying closer to the equator than New Delhi.

5. Distance from the sea: The long coastline of India brings a huge area in the west, south, and east under the influence of the sea.

Question 5. Differentiate between ‘Loo’ and ‘Aandhi’.
Answer:

The differences between ‘Loo’ and ‘Aandhi’ are as follows-

Point of difference    LOO    Aandhi    
Region influenced Loo blows predominantly in the desert region of north-western Rajasthan, the adjacent areas of the desert, and in the drier states of north-western India. Aandhi blows in the north-western region of the Sutlej-Ganga plains.
Nature Loo is a strong, hot, dry wind. Aandhi is a strong stormy dusty wind.
Time Loo blows during summer. Aandhi blows during the end of spring.
Temperature The temperature of the wind varies between 45° and 50 °C. The temperature of the wind varies between 32° and 35 °C.
Period Loo blows during noon in the hot desert or semi-desert regions. Aandhi blows for a small period in the afternoon.
Sky condition Loo does not cause the sky to become dark. Aandhi causes the sky to become dark and reduces visibility.
Effects The hot and dry loo causes the leaves of plants to dry up and turn brownish. Aandhi deposits layers of dust on the leaves of plants and hampers photosynthesis.

 

Question 6. Discuss the influence of monsoon winds on the livelihood of people in India.
Answer:

The influence of monsoon winds on the livelihood of people in India

The monsoons impose a lot of influences on the livelihood of the people in India.

1. Cultivation of crops: More than 70% of the people of India are dependent on agriculture directly or indirectly. Agriculture is dependent on monsoon rains. Hence, people who depend on agriculture are dependent on monsoon.

2. Agro-based industries: The agro-based industries acquire their raw materials from agricultural products. They are indirectly dependent on monsoons for their production and economic growth.

3. Forest: The monsoon rains have helped in the growth of dense evergreen forests in the foothills of the Himalayas and the Western slopes of the Western Ghats. Deciduous forests grow in regions of moderate to high rainfall. These forests yield valuable timber and other forest products.

4. Economic development: The economic development of the country is much dependent on the monsoons. Sufficient rainfall helps in agricultural and industrial development, while droughts and floods cause crop failures and loss of life and property.

5. Foreign exchange: Crops like tea, Jute, sugarcane, etc. are dependent on monsoons. The export of tea, jute products, sugar, etc. helps India to earn a lot of foreign exchange. Thus, it is indirectly dependent on the monsoons.

Question 7. What are the characteristics of the climate of India?
Answer:

The characteristics of the climate of India are-

1. Seasons: The climate of India is influenced by the two oppositely blowing monsoon winds, i.e., the south-west monsoon winds help in the classification of Indian climate into four seasons—Winter (December- February), Summer (March-May), Monsoon or Rainy season (June-September) and Autumn (October-November).

2. Oppositely blowing winds: The direction from which the winds blow in the summer season (southwest) is reversed in the winter season (northeast).

3. Hot wet summers and cool dry winters: The moist southwest monsoon winds provide sufficient rainfall during late summer and the rainy season. The northwest monsoon winds are generally dry and do not provide rainfall except for the Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu. Thus, the summers are hot and wet while the winters are cool and dry.

4. Orographic rainfall: The southwest monsoon winds collide with the mighty Himalayas on the north and the Western Ghats along the western coast. Thus, they provide orographic rainfall in the foothills of the Himalayas and the western slopes of the Western Ghats.

5. Unpredictable rainfall: The whimsical nature of the monsoon winds make the occurrence of rainfall unpredictable. In some years rains come early and retreat late, while in some years the rains arrive late and retreat early. Thus, the monsoon winds sometimes cause floods and sometimes lead to droughts.

6. Diverse climate: The northern part of India is surrounded by landmasses. Hence, it experiences extreme and continental climates. The southern part is surrounded by oceans on three sides (west, south, and east). Hence, it experiences a moderate climate.

7. Cyclones: During the autumn season, the eastern and the western coastal regions experience cyclonic storms and rainfall. During the winter season, the Western disturbances cause cyclonic rainfall in the northwestern part of India. The temperature drops to a great extent and the hilly regions experience snowfall.

Question 8. Discuss the climatic regions of India. Or, Classify India according to climatic regions and discuss any three of them.
Answer:

The climatic regions of India

A region having similar conditions of temperature, pressure, humidity, rainfall, wind, etc. is known as a climatic region. Following the climatic classification of Koppen, India has been classified-

Climatic region Amongst influenced                           Characterise features
1. Tropical very wet monsoon region Coastal areas of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, and Kerala, western slopes of the Western Ghats, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Cachar district of Assam, Lakshadweep, Andaman, and Nicobar Islands. 1. Average annual temperature 18°-29 °C.

2. Average annual rainfall 300 cm.

2. Tropical Savanna region Gujarat, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha. 1. Average Annual temperature 15″-30 °C.
2. Average annual rainfall 50-100 cm.3. Very hot summers and cool winters.
3. Tropical dry summer and wet winter region Coromandel coast of south-eastern India. 1. Average annual temperature 20°-30 °C.

2. Average annual rainfall 100-150 cm.

3. Dry summer (Eastern Tamil Nadu) and wet winter.

4. Tropical semi-desert and sub-tropical steppe region Rain shadow areas of the Western Ghats, eastern Rajasthan, and southwest Pujnab. 1. Average annual temperature 10°-40  °C
2. Average annual rainfall 50-75 cm.
5. Hot desert region Western Rajasthan. 1. Average annual temperature 5°-48  °C.

2. Average annual rainfall 12.5 cm-30 cm.

3.  Extreme continental climate. The diurnal and annual range of temperature is very large.

6. Temperate mild summer and wet winter region Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern Assam. 1. Average annual temperature 20″-35 °C. 2. Average annual rainfall above 300 cm.
7. Wet sub-tropical monsoon region (dry winter) Plains of northern India. 1.  Average annual temperature 5 °-30  °C.

2. Average annual rainfall is 200 cm in the east and 50 cm in the west. 3. Rainfall occurs mostly in summer.

8. Cold mountainous region High mountains of the Western Himalayas. 1. Average annual temperature is 15 ‘C in summer to less than 0 °C in winter.

2. Average annual rainfall 50-75 cm.

3. Very cold throughout the year and snowfall in winter.

 

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment climatic zones of india

Question 9. Discuss the influences of the Himalayas on the climate of India.
Answer:

The influences of the Himalayas on the climate of India

The Himalayas stand on the northern margin of India like a huge and mighty wall. It influences the climate of India in the following ways-

1. Protects from the severe cold: The Himalayan mountains prevent the chilling polar winds coming from Siberia from entering the country and making the climate very cold and chilling.

2. Helps in causing rainfall: The Himalayas stand like a barrier against the southwest monsoon winds. The moisture-laden winds strike against the mountains and cause orographic rainfall. India receives about 67 72% of its total annual rainfall from the southwest monsoon.

3. Creates desert climate: The Himalayas prevent the moisture-laden southwest monsoon winds from escaping the country. Thus, it plays a vital role in the creation of deserts in Gobi and Taklamakan in Central Asia.

4. Reduces the effects of the Western disturbances: The Himalayas keep the effects of the Western disturbances limited to the northwestern part of the country.

It may be mentioned that, during the winter season, the northeast monsoon winds pass through the gap between the Eastern Himalayas and the Purvanchal mountains and decreases the temperature of the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam considerably.

5. Moderate climate: The places lying at high altitudes in the lap of the Himalayas enjoy cool climates throughout the year. Snowfall in the winter makes the place more attractive for tourism.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Location of the himalays

Question 10. What are the causes of the diversity in the climate of India?
Answer:

The causes of the diversity in the climate of India

The climate of India is diverse and different in different parts of the land at different times of the year. The causes of diversities are-

1. Latitudinal extent:

The main landmass of India extends from 8° N in the south to 37° N in the north. Thus, it spreads for about 29° of latitude. The southern part of India experiences a hot wet equatorial climate, the central part experiences a tropical climate, and the northern part experiences a subtropical and temperate climate.

2. Presence of mountains:

1. The Himalayan mountains in the north play a vital role in influencing the climate of India. During summer, they stop the moist southwest monsoon winds from escaping to Central Asia and cause rainfall in India.

During winter, they prevent the chilling polar winds coming from Siberia from entering India, thus keeping the climate of the country comparatively warmer and more comfortable.

2. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats along the western and eastern coasts of India cause rainfall on their windward sides. Being higher the Western Ghats stop more amounts of moisture-laden winds and receive sufficient rainfall. The leeward side of these mountains lying in the Deccan plateau makes the region comparatively drier. This is a rain shadow region.

3. The Aravalli range lying parallel to the direction of the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoons fails to stop the moisture-laden winds. Thus, the vast region of Rajasthan remains devoid of rainfall and makes Thar a desert.

3. Altitude: India is a country of diverse landforms. Hence, even though Agra and Darjeeling lie almost on the same latitude, Darjeeling is much cooler than Agra due to altitude [Temperature falls by 6.4 °C for every 1000 m rise in altitude]. Different places in the country have different temperature conditions for similar reasons.

4. Peninsular shape: The peninsula of India is triangular in shape (southern part). This makes the land narrow towards the south and brings the land under the influence of the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Indian Ocean in the south, and the Arabia Sea in the west. Thus, the southern part of India experiences a moderate maritime climate while the northern part experiences an extreme continental climate.

5. Distance from the sea: The places in southern India are not too far away from the coast. Hence, they enjoy moderate or maritime climates. But the places in northern India (e.g. Delhi, Jaipur, Lucknow, etc.) are far away from the coastal region. Hence, they have no influence on the sea and experience extreme or continental climates.

6. Oppositely blowing monsoon winds: India experiences two oppositely blowing monsoon winds at different times of the year. During summer, the monsoon winds blow from the southwest and during winter they reverse their direction and blow from the northeast. This causes the formation of seasons.

7. Temporary shift of the pressure belts: The sun’s apparent northward and southward movement cause temporary shifting of the pressure belts northwards and southwards by 5°-10°. This leads to temporary changes in climate conditions.

Question 11. Discuss the influence of topography, jet stream, tropical cyclones, Western disturbances, El Nino and La Nina on the climate of India.
Answer:

The climate of India is influenced by several factors. Some of them are—

1. Topography or relief: The topography of India is different in different regions. This influences the climate to a great extent.

1. The mighty Himalayas standing at the northern margin of the country stop the southwest monsoon winds from escaping northwards and helps to cause rainfall. Also, they stop the cold Siberian polar winds from entering the country and help to keep the climate warm and comfortable.

2. The Western Ghats stand against the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon and help to cause heavy rainfall on its western slopes. The presence of these mountains makes the eastern slopes or the Deccan plateau region a rain shadow area.

3. The north-south alignment of the Aravalli range fails to stop the moisture-laden monsoon winds.

4. In southern India, the region should have been hot due to the latitudinal position. But, high altitude in many places makes them mildly cold. E.g. Ooty being located at an altitude of 2240 m, remains cold throughout the year.

5. The Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills in north-east India receive immense rainfall on their windward sides. This makes Cherrapunji in Meghalaya the rainiest place in the world.

2. Jet stream: The very speedy winds generated in the upper atmosphere is known as the jet stream. It influences the climate of India in two ways—

1. Westerly jet: The westerly jet blows over the sub-tropical region during the winter season. This creates high-pressure conditions over the northwestern part of India.

This condition causes the northeast monsoon winds to blow from the landmass toward the Indian Ocean. The westerly jet is responsible for Western disturbances, winter rainfall in certain regions, and snowfall in the hilly regions.

2. Easterly jet: The easterly jet blowing from the tropical region causes low-pressure conditions over the Indian landmass. This helps to attract the moisture-laden southwest monsoon winds and marks the onset of the rainy season in the country.

3. Tropical cyclones: During the autumn, when the temperature of the sea surface rises too high, low-pressure conditions are created. This leads to the formation of cyclones in the Bay of Bengal, the Indian Ocean, and the Arabian Sea.

These are called tropical cyclones, which influence the climate of the coastal regions of India. The cyclones cause profuse rainfall and stormy conditions in India.

4. Western disturbances: Although the Western disturbances develop over the Mediterranean Sea, they are drawn eastwards by the westerly jet stream. These disturbances cause rainfall in the northwestern part of India and snowfall in the Western Himalayas.

5. El Nino and La Nina: El Nino is a southward moving warm current that develops along the coasts of Ecuador and Peru in the eastern Pacific Ocean in December-January.

El Nino causes floods or droughts in the tropical region. The countries of south-east Asia receive very less rainfall due to El Nino and droughts are created. After the effects of El Nino recedes, calm weather conditions prevail. This is known as La Nina. This causes enough rainfall in India. The effects of La Nina may last for 1-3 years.

Question 12. Discuss the effects of monsoon winds natural vegetation and agriculture in India.
Answer:

Effects of monsoon winds on soil, natural vegetation, and agriculture are discussed below—

1. Effects of monsoon winds on soil: The amount of rainfall regulates the level of fertility of the soil. In areas receiving heavy or very heavy rainfall, the minerals and soil nutrients are washed down. Thus, infertile soils like laterite and red soil are formed.

In regions receiving moderate to heavy rainfall, the soil is sandy. In regions of medium rainfall, the amount of vegetation growth is maximum. This makes the soil rich in nitrogen and humus content.

2. Effect of monsoon winds on natural vegetation: The amount of rainfall received in an area is the deciding factor of the type of natural vegetation to be found there.

Wet deciduous forests are found in regions of heavy rainfall while dry deciduous forests are found in regions of low rainfall. In regions of scanty or no rainfall, there is thorny, bushy, or no vegetation cover at all.

3. Effects of monsoon winds on agriculture: Agriculture in India is highly dependent on monsoons. Depending on the amount of rainfall received, methods of dry farming or wet farming are implemented.

In regions of scanty rainfall, agriculture is practiced with the help of irrigation. The crop calendar of India is also determined by the monsoons. E.g. Depending on the amount of rainfall received, some regions grow rice, some grow wheat, some grow tea and coffee while some grow millet crops like Jowar, Bajra, and ragi.

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 4 Climate Of India Short Explanatory Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Why Is the climate of India called a ‘monsoonal climate’? Slstiat’ OR, Why is India called the country of monsoonal climate?
Answer:

India is called the country of monsoonal climate for the following reasons-

1. Monsoon comes from the Arabic Word ‘mausinV, meaning season. In India, seasonal reversals of winds are seen.

2. The southwest monsoon winds cause wet summers and the northeast monsoon winds cause dry winters in India.

3. All the seasons found in India are related to the coming or retreating of the monsoon winds. Eg. Pre-arrival of south-west monsoon winds-Summer, the arrival of south-west monsoon winds-Rainy season, reversal and retreat of south-west monsoon winds- Autumn, the arrival of north-east monsoon winds-winter.

4. About 72% of the total annual rainfall occurring in India comes from the monsoon winds.

5. The rainy season is included in the summer season, thus broadly there are four seasons.

Question 2. Classify the main seasons of India.
Answer:

The main seasons of India are classified as follows

The climate of India can be classified into four main seasons based on the temperature, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, winds, etc. prevailing over a period of time.

 

Seasons Months
1. Winter or northeast monsoon December to February
2. Summer March to May
3. South-west monsoon or rainy season June to September
4. Autumn or retreating south-west monsoon October to November

 

Question 3. Why does rainfall occur In northwest India during winter?
Answer:

During winter, the dry and cold northeast monsoon winds blow over India. As it originates over cold land so this season is generally dry.

However, in some years temperate cyclones generated over the Mediterranean sea reach the north-western part of India with prevailing winds. These cyclonic winds gather moisture from the Arabian Sea and cause rainfall in that region.As these winds come from the western direction, they are called Western disturbances. The amount of rainfall gradually decreases eastwards.

Question 4. Why are floods and drought prevalent in India?
Answer: In India, the monsoon winds are responsible for both drought and flood.

The causes behind the prevalence of floods and drought in India are as follows—

Causes of drought:

1. Lesser rainfall than normal.
2. Late arrival of monsoon winds.
3. Early retreat of monsoon winds.
4. A number of dry days in the rainy season.
5. Excessive heat due to El Nino.

Causes of the flood:

1. Heavy rainfall due to the southwest monsoon winds.
2. Late retreat of the monsoon winds.
3. Early arrival of the monsoon winds.
4. Continuous heavy rainfall for many days.
5. Overflowing of rivers and dams.

Question 5. Why does the Coromandel coast of ‘ Tamil Nadu receive rainfall twice a year? OR, What is the cause of rainfall in the Coromandel coast in winter?
Answer:

The Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu receives rainfall twice a year.

1. During summer, the region receives rainfall from the southwest monsoon winds along with the whole country.

2. During winter, cold and dry winds blow from the northeast and generally cause no rainfall. But while leaving the eastern coast, the winds gather sufficient moisture from the Bay of Bengal and re-enter the landmass near the Coromandel coast.

These moisture-laden winds provide heavy rainfall on the Coromance coast of Tamil Nadu before they finally leave the landmass. Example-Chennai in Tamil Nadu receives 43 cm of rainfall from June-September but about 87 cm of rainfall from October- December.

Question 6. Classify the regions of India according to the amount of rainfall received
Answer:

A rainfall region refers to a region that receives more or less the same amount of rainfall on average.

Based on this, India can be sub-divided into five rainfall regions—

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment indian oceAN

 

Rainfall    Area     Average annual rainfall
Very heavy rainfall region Western slopes of the Western Ghats, Eastern Himalayas, Mizoram, northern West Bengal, Andaman, and Nicobar Islands. > 200 cm
Heavy rainfall region Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, hilly region of Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, the southern part of West Bengal. 100-200 cm
Medium rainfall region Punjab, Haryana, eastern Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra. 60-100 cm
Low rainfall region Rain shadow area of the Western Ghats, western parts of Punjab and Haryana, central Rajasthan. 20-60 cm
Scanty rainfall region Desert region of Rajasthan, Ladakh, north-western Gujarat. < 20 cm

 

Question 7. Which regions of India receive excessive rainfall and why?
Answer:

About 72% of the total annual rainfall of India comes from the monsoon winds. But, rainfall is not evenly distributed over India. There are two regions in the country that receive excessive rainfall.

They are-

1. The western slopes of the Western Ghats: The Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon is obstructed by the western slopes of the Western Ghats. Hence, this region receives a huge amount of orographic rainfall.

2. Eastern and northeastern India: The Bay of Bengal branch of the southwest monsoon enters India along the east and moves northward. They hit the Eastern Himalayas and the Purvanchal mountains and cause heavy rainfall in the northeastern and eastern regions.

The regions receiving heavy rainfall are—Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram, Tripura, and the northern part of West Bengal.

Question 8. Why do some regions in India receive scanty rainfall?
Answer:

India receives most of its rainfall due to the southwest monsoon winds, but the distribution of rainfall is not even all over the country. There are three regions in India that receive scanty rainfall-

1. Western Rajasthan and Northwestern Gujarat.
2. Ladakh plateau of Ladakh.

Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.

1. Western Rajasthan and north-western Gujarat:

1. Some winds from the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon blow over Kathiawar in Gujarat and escape to the northwest, as there are no maintains to stop them.

2. The Aravalli range of Rajasthan lies parallel to the wind direction and fails to stop the monsoon winds from escaping northward. Thus, these regions receive scanty rainfall.

2. Ladakh plateau Ladakh: The Ladakh plateau is an intermontane plateau surrounded by high mountains on all sides. Thus, moisture-laden winds cannot cross the mountains to provide rainfall to the region. As a result, the plateau remains dry.

3. The rain shadow area lying between the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats:
The southwest monsoon winds give heavy rainfall on the windward slope of the western ghats. When the winds reach the leeward side, they don’t have enough moisture to provide rainfall. Hence, the leeward side of the Western Ghats is a rain shadow area and receives scanty rainfall.

Question 9. Why are winters dry in India?
Answer:

The retreating monsoon or the northeast monsoon prevails in India before the onset of the winter.

1. These winds blow from land towards the sea, and cannot collect moisture in their course of movement. Thus, they are dry.
2. These winds are very cold and the water-holding capacity of these winds is very low. Thus, they fail to cause rainfall.
3. high pressure exists over the landmass and low pressure exists over the surrounding water bodies. Thus, winds blow offshore.

All these causes make the winters dry in India. As an exception, a small branch of the retreating monsoon collects moisture from the Bay of Bengal and provides heavy rainfall to the Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu before finally leaving the landmass.

Question 10. What are the causes of the formation of the Thar desert?
Answer:

The causes of the formation of the Thar desert

India receives most of its rainfall from the southwest monsoon winds. But the distribution of rainfall is not even all over the country. The amount of rainfall decreases from east to west. The western part of Rajasthan receives very scanty or almost no rainfall.

This is due to the following reasons—

1. The Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon blows over the Kathiawar region of Gujarat and escapes towards the northwest. There are no high mountains to obstruct these winds.

2. The Aravalli range of Rajasthan lies parallel to the direction of the monsoon winds and cannot stop them from escaping northwards.

3. The high temperature of the region increases the water-holding capacity of the winds and reduces the chances of rainfall. All these cause extreme scarcity of rainfall and lead to the formation of the Thar desert.

Question 11. Why do desert regions have extreme summers and winters?
Answer:

The desert regions have extreme summers and winters due to the following reasons—

1. The desert regions are covered with sand and rocks, which can absorb and release heat very quickly. Thus, they become very hot during the daytime, especially in summer, and very cold during the night, especially in winter.

2. The sky remains clear throughout the year in the desert remains. This helps in the fast escape of terrestrial radiation.

3. The desert atmosphere lacks the presence of water vapor. Water vapor helps to absorb heat and keeps the atmosphere warm. The absence of this helps the desert to cool down very fast during the night. The difference in the average temperature of summers and winters in deserts may be as large as 30-40°C.

Question 12. What is a rain shadow region? Give examples. OR, Where does the rain shadow area lie in India?
Answer:

Rain shadow region:

The moisture-laden winds being obstructed by a highland shed heavy rains on the windward slope. In this way, they become lighter and rise to cross the mountains.

As the winds reach the other side of the mountains, they do not have enough moisture to provide rainfall to the leeward slope. Also, as the winds move downward, the winds get warmer, and the water-holding capacity increases. Hence, this slope remains comparatively drier than the windward slope.

This is called the rain shadow region.

1. The windward side or the western slope of the Western Ghats receives heavy, rainfall from the Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoons. But the eastern slope receives no or scanty rainfall and turns into a rain shadow region.

2. The southern slope of the Garo and Khasi hills in Meghalaya receives extremely heavy rainfall. Mawsynram near Cherrapunji on that slope receives the highest rainfall in the world (1187 cm). But, the Shillong plateau lying on the northern slope or the leeward side of the mountains receives only 159 cm of rainfall annually. Hence, Shillong is a rain shadow area.

Question 13. Why does the southwest monsoon cause rainfall in India?
Answer:

The south-west monsoon causes rainfall in India for the following reasons—

1. During summer, especially during May, a deep low-pressure cell is developed over the Northern plains. This is a main driving force that draws the moisture-laden southwest monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean into the Indian landmass.

2. The winds are onshore winds, which collect a lot of moisture while crossing the surrounding seas. In the extreme north, the Himalayas act as a climatic barrier preventing these winds from crossing over to the other side. Thus, the southwest monsoon winds shed all their moisture over the Indian landmass and in turn lower the temperature.

Question 14. How can floods and drought be controlled in India?
Answer:

Flood controlling measures:

1. Construct strong dams along the banks of the rivers.

2. Monitoring the amount of rainfall and volume of water in the river channel regularly.

3. Maintaining the depth of the river channels by dredging out silt.

4. Construction of houses in high places if the region is flood prove.

5. Proper system to forecast flood conditions.

6. Construction of reservoirs in the upper course of the rivers, so that excessive water flowing through the rivers in the rainy season can be stopped from causing floods.

7. Prevention of soil erosion so that soil does not run off into river channels and decreases the depth.

Drought-controlling measures:

1. Proper use and utilization of rainwater, flowing water, and groundwater without any misuse.

2. Rainwater harvesting to provide water in the dry seasons.

3. Cultivation of drought-resistant crops.

4. Spread irrigation for agriculture, especially through pipelines in dry regions to prevent evaporation.

Question 15. Discuss the causes of floods in India.
Answer:

The causes of floods in India are—

1. The whimsical and unpredictable nature of southwest monsoons-

1. Torrential showers for a few hours continuously may cause floods.

2. Medium to heavy showers for a long time continuously may also cause floods.

3. Early onset and late retreat of monsoon increase the volume of rainfall received. Thus, also leads to floods.

2. Too much siltation in the river bed reduces the depth of the channel. This reduces the water-holding capacity of the rivers. Hence, floods may occur even due to medium rainfall.

3. Release of excess water from dams behind rivers leads to a sudden increase of water level in the rivers and leads to floods.

4. Cyclones developed in coastal areas lead to floods due to sudden rises in the water level of the seas and the devastating action of the waves.

5. In mountainous areas, landslides may block the path of rivers, thus flooding adjacent areas.

6. In desert regions, the dry channels of rivers and streams get filled up with sand and get blocked. Hence, even a small shower of rainfall can cause floods.

7. Some rivers tend to change their courses, leading to floods.

Question 16. causes of drought in
Answer:

The issues of drought in India can be broadly classified into two types—

1. The whimsical and unpredictable nature of southwest monsoon.
2. Deforestation.

1. The whimsical and unpredictable nature of the southwest monsoon: India receives 67-72% of its total annual rainfall from the southwest monsoon. But-

1. Late-onset and early retreat of the monsoon winds cause less amount of rainfall and may result in drought.

2. Rainfall may not occur every day during the rainy season. The sudden interval of rainfall for a long period during the rainy season is known as the ‘break of monsoon’. This may cause a shortage of water, drying up of the soil, lowering of the underground water table, and failure of crops. Thus, droughts may occur.

2. Deforestation:

1. Cutting down trees expose the soils to the scorching heat of the sun in summer. The soil moisture gradually dries up and the underground water table goes down. This may lead to conditions of drought.

2. Absence of trees reduces the level of transpiration considerably. This makes the air dry. Thus, it tends to draw out underground water in the form of vapor and lowers the water table. If such a situation prevails for a long time, droughts may result.

Question 17. Discuss the role of forests in the climate of India.
Answer:

The role of forests in the climate of India

The forests of India play a vital role in influencing the climate of the country.

1. Forests lead to a huge amount of transpiration and recharge the air with water vapor. Hence, the atmospheric condition near forest areas is humid.

2. A dense canopy of leaves of trees in a forest prevents sunlight from reaching the forest floor directly and drying up the soil moisture.

3. The transpired water increases the moisture content of the atmosphere and aids in rainfall.

4. The forest cover helps to reduce the temperature of the place considerably. The north-western region and the Deccan plateau region of India have less tree cover, hence they are comparatively warmer than the forested regions.

Question 18. Why Is India known as the land of a variety of climates?
Answer:

India is a country with a variety of landforms, which influences the climate of various regions of the country.

1. Difference in temperature: Different temperatures prevail in different parts of the country in different seasons. Example— The summer temperature of the Thar desert reaches as high as 5CTC, while the winter temperature of Ladakh drops to as low as-40°C.

2. Range of temperature: The average annual range of temperature in northern India is about 20-25°C, while that in the south is only 4-6°C.

3. Difference in rainfall: Heavy rainfall in the southern slopes of the Garo and Khasi hills makes Mawsynram near Cherrapunji the rainiest place in the world. On the other hand, the lack of rainfall in north-western regions makes Thar in Rajasthan a desert.

4. Wind: India’s climate is mostly influenced by the southwest monsoon winds in the summer and northeast monsoon winds in the winter. Apart from these, some local winds also influence the climate. E.g. Loo, Aandhi, and Nor’westers in summer. ‘Ashwiner Jhor’ in autumn and Western disturbances in winter make India’s climate full of varieties.

Question 19. Discuss the characteristic features monsoon climate in India.
Answer:

The monsoon climate prevails in India due to the influence of the monsoon winds.

The characteristic features of the climate are-

1. The most significant characteristic feature of India’s climate is the reversal of wind direction. The monsoon winds blow from just opposite directions in the summer and winter seasons

2. The cold dry north-east monsoon winds blowing in the winter drop the average temperature prevailing in the country.

3. The southwest monsoon winds blow from the sea to the land and hence are moisture-laden. They provide about 72% of the total annual rainfall that India receives.

4. The monsoon winds are unpredictable in nature. Hence, sometimes the rainy season sets in fast and stays for a long time, and sometimes it sets in late and leaves early. This whimsical nature of the winds influences the climate and agriculture of the country.

Question 20. Discuss the nature of rainfall in India.
Answer:

The nature or characteristics of rainfall in India are-

1. Uneven distribution of rainfall: Rainfall is not evenly distributed all over India. The Eastern Himalayas, western slopes of Western Ghats, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands receive ample rainfall, whereas, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, and Gujarat receive scanty rainfall.

2. Seasonal rainfall: India does not receive rainfall evenly throughout the year. 72% of the total annual rainfall occurs in the monsoon or rainy season, 10% in summer, 15% in autumn, and 3% in winter.

3. Uncertain rainfall: The amount of rainfall provided by the monsoon winds is uncertain. In some years, excessive rainfall may lead to floods, while in some years droughts may result due to scanty rainfall.

4. Break of monsoon: Long intervals may occur in the rainfall during the monsoon season due to the shift of the monsoon trough.

Question 21. How do the monsoon winds influence the economy of the country?
Answer:

The economy of India is largely influenced by the monsoon winds-

1. Influence on agriculture: The Indian economy is basically an agro-based economy. Agriculture is largely dependent on monsoon winds. The timely onset of monsoons and sufficient rainfall help in the production of crops. But late arrival of the monsoons or insufficient rainfall may lead to crop failures and droughts.

2. Influence on irrigation: Water for irrigation also depends upon the availability of water from the dams and reservoirs. In years of sufficient rainfall the area covered by irrigation increases or vice versa. In years of insufficient rainfall, the height of the underground water table falls leading to a shortage of water in the wells, tanks, and tube wells.

3. Influence on hydroelectric power generation: Generation of hydroelectric power in India to a great extent dependent on monsoon rains. If there is sufficient rainfall the reservoirs remain full of water, which helps in hydroelectric power generation.

4. Influence on industries: The agro-based industries are largely dependent on the monsoon winds for acquiring their raw materials. For example—The growth of jute, sugar cane, and cotton requires ample rainfall. Timely and sufficient rainfall will lead to a huge production of crops. Thus, the required amounts of raw materials can be supplied to the related industries. But delay in rainfall or a lesser amount of rainfall may lead to less production of crops. Hence, the industries will suffer.

5. Influence on economic development: Excessive rainfall from the southwest monsoons may result in floods and lack of rainfall may lead to droughts. Both situations may lead to loss of life and property, crop failures, food shortages, and hamper livelihood. Thus, the economy may suffer as a whole.

Question 22. Classify the climate of India into seasons.
Answer:

The climate of India is influenced by the onset and retreat of the monsoon winds.

Based on this, the climate of India can be classified into our seasons—

1. The pro-arrival time of the southwest monsoon in the summer season,

2. The arrival of the monsoon winds or the rainy season.

3. The reversal of the southwest monsoon winds, or the autumn season.

4. The onset of the northeast monsoon winds or the winter season.

Question 23. Why do we find a desert west of the Aravaili range? OR, How has a desert been formed on the western side of the Aravaili range?
Answer:

The Bay of Bengal branch of the southwest monsoon provides huge amounts of rainfall in the eastern part of the country, which goes on reducing towards the west.

By the time the winds reach Rajasthan, they become dry and cannot provide rainfall any further. Moreover, the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon winds blows parallel to the Aravaili range in Rajasthan. They are not obstructed by the Aravaili range and hence provide no rainfall. Thus, a desert has been formed on the western side of the Aravaili range.

Question 24. Why do the western slopes of the Western Ghats receive orographic rainfall?
Answer:

The Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon collides with the western slopes of the Western Ghats. These moisture-laden winds cause heavy rainfall in this region. The main cause of this rainfall is a collision of the moisture-laden winds with the western slopes of the high mountains. Thus, it is said that the Western Ghats receive orographic rainfall.

Question 25. How do the Himalayan mountains influence the climate of India?
Answer:

The Himalayan mountains influence the climate of India in the following ways-

1. The mountains stand across in the path of the southwest monsoon winds and prevent escaping towards the north. The moisture-laden winds collide with the southern slopes of the mountains and cause orographic rainfall. This rainfall is responsible for helping India to grow a large number of crops.

2. The mountains stop the chilling winds coming from Central Asia from entering the Indian landmass. This keeps the temperature of the northern part of the country less cold and more comfortable in the winter season.

Question 26. Why are the monsoon winds also called seasonal winds?
Answer:

The word monsoon derives from the Arabic word ‘Muslim’ meaning season. The monsoon winds blow from different directions in different seasons.

During summer, the winds blow from the southwest direction, while during winter they blow from the northeast direction. Due to this seasonal reversal of the direction of winds, the monsoon winds are also known as seasonal winds.

Question 27. Why are the southwest monsoon winds moist?
Answer:

The southwest monsoon winds generate over the Indian Ocean. While blowing towards India, they cross the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal before entering the landmass. They collect enough moisture while blowing over these water bodies. Thus, the southwest monsoon winds become moist.

Question 28. Why are ‘Kalbaisakhi’ storms also called ‘Nor’westers’?
Answer:

During the summer season, the landmass of India, especially the north-western region becomes very hot. This creates a deep low-pressure cell over the Chotanagpur plateau.

This low pressure induces the formation of cyclones. As a result coastal regions of West Bengal experience thunderstorms and heavy rainfall. Locally, these thunderstorms are known as ‘Kalbaisakhi’, but since they are caused by winds coming from the north-western direction, they are also called ‘Nor’westers’.

Question 29. Describe the influence of jet stream on monsoon winds.
Answer:

The influence of jet stream on monsoon winds are-

1. The generation of monsoon winds is influenced by the jet stream.
2. The jet stream is responsible for the arrival of etc. remains uniform and is called a climatic region.

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 4 Climate Of India

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Which regions receive rainfall in winter in India?
Answer:

The regions receiving rainfall in winter in India are—

1. North-west India and
2. The southern part of the eastern coastal plain or the Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu.

Question 2. Which regions in India receive more than 200 cm of rainfall on average?
Answer:

Western slopes of the Western Ghats, Eastern Himalayas, Mizoram, North Bengal, Andaman, and Nicobar Islands.

Question 3. Name two storms occurring in two different seasons.
Answer:

1. Thunderstorms called Kalbaisakhi or Nor’westers, bring rainfall to regions of West Bengal in summer.
2. Thunderstorms called Ashwiner Jhor, occur in West Bengal in autumn.

Question 4. What do you mean by ‘Ashwiner Jhor’?
Answer:

Ashwiner Jhor

During autumn in India, tropical cyclones cause storms and rainfall in coastal parts of West Bengal due to lower air pressure over the Bay of Bengal. These storms are devastating and cause loss of life and property. They are called ‘Ashwiner Jhor’.

Question 5. What do you mean by climatic region?
Answer:

Climatic region

1. The region in which various elements of weather and climate, like temperature, rainfall, humidity, etc. remain uniform is called a climatic region. monsoon winds in India.

2. Sometimes the winds reach the Indian landmass before time while sometimes they are delayed.

3. The northward movement of the southwest monsoon is influenced by the jet stream. Unless the jet stream moves away from the plains of northern India, the southwest monsoon winds cannot blow over land.

Question 6. What are monsoon winds?
Answer:

Monsoon winds

The monsoon winds are the most important seasonal winds that flow over the earth, especially over the countries of Southeast Asia. The word monsoon comes from the Arabic word ‘Muslim’, meaning ‘season’.

These winds blow in particular seasons, hence are called monsoon winds. India experiences two opposite monsoon winds in different seasons. The southwest monsoon winds in the summer and the northeast monsoon winds in the winter.

Question 7. Name some regions receiving scanty rainfall in India.
Answer:

The regions receiving scanty rainfall in India are-

1. Desert and semi-desert regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
2. Ladakh plateau of Kashmir.
3. Eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, Karnataka plateau.
4. Shillong in the northern part of the Meghalaya plateau.

Question 8. What are the causes of heavy rainfall in Meghalaya?
Answer:

The causes of heavy rainfall in Meghalaya

The Bay of Bengal branch of the southwest monsoon winds enters Bangladesh and moves northwards. Before reaching the Himalayas in the north and the mountainous region in north-east India, these winds are being obstructed by the Garo, Khasi, and Jaintia hills of the Meghalaya plateau. This causes heavy rainfall in Meghalaya.

Question 9. Name the region receiving the heaviest rainfall in the world.
Answer:

The southern slopes of the Meghalaya plateau is the region receiving the heaviest rainfall in the world. Mawsynram, situated south of the Meghalaya plateau near Cherrapunji is the wettest place in the world. This place receives an average annual rainfall of more than 1187 cm.

Question 10. What do you mean by drought?
Answer:

Drought

The environmental condition created due to scanty or lack of rainfall is called drought. According to the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD), meteorological drought occurs when the seasonal rainfall received in a region is less than 25% of its long-term average rainfall. The drought is classified as moderate if the rainfall deficit is 26-50% and severe drought when the deficit exceeds 50% of the normal long-term average rainfall. Drought results in severe scarcity of water for agriculture, irrigation, and drinking.

Question 11. Name the place of the highest and lowest rainfall in India.
Answer:

1. Highest rainfall: Mawsynram near Cherrapunji on the southern slope of the Khasi hills is the region with the highest rainfall in India. Also, the western slopes of the Western Ghats and the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas receive heavy rainfall.

Lowest rainfall: Marusthali or the desert region of Rajasthan receives the lowest rainfall in India. The Ladakh plateau of Jammu and Kashmir is also a region of scanty rainfall.

Question 12. Name two states receiving snowfall in winter.
Answer:

The states of India receiving snowfall in winter are-

1. Jammu and Kashmir and
2. Himachal Pradesh.

Question 13. What are Nor’westers or Kalbaisakhi?
Answer:

Nor’westers or Kalbaisakhi

In coastal regions of West Bengal, a severe thunderstorm generates in the afternoon during the summer season. This may bring heavy rainfall. This is called Kalbaisakhi. As the winds come from the north-western direction, they are also called Nor’westers.

Question 14. What are Mango showers?
Answer:

Mango showers

The thunderstorms that occur in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and also some parts of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry are called Mango showers. These showers arrive in late April and May and bring rainfall. The showers aid in ripening mangoes, hence the name.

Question 15. What do you mean by the ‘burst of monsoon’?
Answer:

Burst of monsoon

In India, during late summer, a deep low-pressure cell or a depression develops over the northwestern part of India. This depression draws winds from the high-pressure region over the Indian Ocean. The winds are divided into two branches-the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch and enter India from the southwest as the southwest monsoon. These moisture-laden winds suddenly cause thunderstorms and bring heavy rainfall. This onset of the monsoon is known as the ‘burst of monsoon.

Question 16. Why is the monsoon wind unpredictable in nature?
Answer:

India receives about 72% of its total annual rainfall from the southwest monsoon. But these winds in some years come before time, causing heavy rainfall and sometimes retreating too early leaving a deficit of rainfall. Sometimes they are the cause of floods while sometimes they cause drought. Thus, the monsoon winds are highly unpredictable in nature.\

Question 17. Write a short note on Western disturbances.
Answer:

Western disturbances

The cyclonic winds that originate over the Mediterranean Sea and reach the north-western part of India with the prevailing wind during the winter are known as Western disturbances.

They are influenced by the westerly winds in the temperate region. The Western disturbances cause rainfall and snowfall in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh.

Question 18. Why is the western part of Rajasthan Known as Marusthali?
Answer:

The western part of Rajasthan receives very little rainfall. Here, rainfall is highly variable in nature. The region is so arid that it is difficult to support plant or animal life over there. Hence, it is called ‘Marusthali’, the land of the dead.

Question 19. Which regions of India receive rainfall in winter?
Answer:

1. Coromandel or Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall due to the northeast monsoon.
2. North-western parts of India receive winter rainfall due to Western disturbances.

Question 20. What is a ‘Jet stream’?
Answer:

Jet stream

The jet stream is a fast-flowing, narrow meandering air current blowing from west to east in the upper part of the Troposphere. The speed of the winds in a jet stream usually ranges from 190-400 km/hr. The jet stream influences the climate of India.

Question 21. What is Loo’?
Answer:

Loo

The hot, dusty, and dry summer wind called Loo blows over the western Indo-Gangetic Plain particularly in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, and North Gujarat during the day. It is especially strong in May and June. The Loo blows at a speed of 30-35 km/hr and due to its very high temperatures of 45-50° C often leads to fatal heatstrokes.

Question 22. Name some regions in India that come under the influence of Loo.
Answer:

The western Indo-Gangetic Plain particularly Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, and North Gujarat come under the influence of Loo. The eastern part of Bihar, Jharkhand, and the Purulia district of West Bengal also experience Loo.

Question 23. What is Aandhi?
Answer:

Aandhi

The violent dust squalls that occur in the afternoon during summers in the northwestern part of India, especially in the states of Rajasthan, southern Punjab, western UP, and Delhi are called Aandhi. The speed of these winds is about 50-60 km/hr.

Question 24. Why does the Malabar coast receive heavy rainfall?
Answer:

The Arabian Sea branch of the southwest monsoon reaches the Malabar coast on 1st day of June. It hits the western slopes of the Western Ghats. This causes heavy rainfall (above 200 cm) along the Malabar coast.

Question 25. Why does the coastal region of Tamil Nadu receive rainfall twice a year?
Answer:

1. The southwest monsoon gives heavy rainfall to the coastal region of Tamil Nadu in summer.
2. In autumn, while the southwest monsoon winds retreat, they collect a lot of moisture from the Bay of Bengal. These moisture-laden winds re-enter the land near the Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu and provide sufficient rainfall before finally leaving the land.

Question 26. List the causes of floods in India.
Answer:

The causes of floods in India

1. Onset of monsoons before time.
2. Continuation of rainfall for a long period.
3. Heavy rainfall over a region at a stretch.
4. Sudden cloud bursts.

Question 27. What are the causes of drought in India?
Answer:

The causes of drought in India

1. Late coming of the southwest monsoon.
2. Before time retreat of the monsoon winds.
3. Lack of sufficient moisture in the air.

Question 28. What do you mean by ‘break of monsoon’?
Answer:

Break of monsoon

During the southwest monsoon season there are periods when the monsoon trough shifts from the Gangetic plains towards the foothills of the Himalayas. This leads to a sharp decrease in rainfall over a large part of the country. Such a situation is known as the ‘break of monsoon’.

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 4 Climate Of India

Multiple Choice Type Questions

Question 1. The main characteristic feature of the climate of India is—

  1. Change of seasons
  2. High temperature
  3. Heavy rainfall
  4. Severe cold

Answer: 1. Change of seasons

Question 2. Which of the following is a local wind in India?

  1. Monsoon winds
  2. Loo
  3. AshwinerJhor
  4. Cyclone

Answer: 2. Loo

Question 3. The ‘burst of monsoon’ occurs in—

  1. Rainy season
  2. Summer
  3. Autumn
  4. Winter

Answer: 2. Summer

Question 4. ‘AshwinerJhor’ occurs in—

  1. Autumn
  2. Monsoon
  3. Winter
  4. Summer

Answer: 1. Autumn

Question 5. Rainfall occurs twice a year in—

  1. North-eastern India
  2. Southern Himalayas
  3. Coastal regions of Tamil Nadu
  4. Western Ghats

Answer: 3. Coastal regions of Tamil Nadu

Question 6. Western disturbances occur in—

  1. Winter
  2. Summer
  3. Monsoon
  4. Spring

Answer: 1. Winter

Question 7. The word ‘Muslim’ means—

  1. Season
  2. Rainfall
  3. Wind
  4. Snowfall

Answer: 1. Season

Question 8. The type of rainfall that mostly occurs in India is—

  1. Convectional rainfall
  2. Orographic rainfall
  3. Cyclonic rainfall
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Orographic rainfall

Question 9. The ‘burst of monsoon’ brings the onset of—

  1. Summer
  2. Rainy season
  3. Winter
  4. Autumn

Answer: 2. Winter

Question 10. The general climate of southern India is—

  1. Hot and dry
  2. Wet and cold
  3. Moderate
  4. Temperate

Answer: 3. Moderate

Question 11.’Mango showers’ occur in—

  1. North India
  2. East India
  3. South India
  4. West India

Answer: 3. South India

Question 12. Which of the following is a rainshadow area in India?

  1. Chotanagpur plateau
  2. The western slope of the Western Ghats
  3. Shillong plateau
  4. The south-eastern coast of Tamil Nadu

Answer: 3. Shillong plateau

Question 13. A city in India experiencing extreme climate is—

  1. Cuttack
  2. Kolkata
  3. Mumbai
  4. Amritsar

Answer: 4. Amritsar

Question 14. The climate of India is influenced by the—

  1. North-east monsoon
  2. South-east monsoon
  3. North-west monsoon
  4. South-west monsoon

Answer: 4. South-west monsoon

Question 15. In India, the least amount of rainfall is received by—

  1. Thar desert in Rajasthan
  2. Plains of Gujarat
  3. Ladakh
  4. Coastal plains

Answer: 1. Thar desert in Rajasthan

Question 16. The storms that occur in the afternoon during the summer season in West Bengal are called—

  1. ‘AshwinerJhor’
  2. Loo
  3. Mango showers
  4. Kal Baishakhi

Answer: 4. ‘AshwinerJhor’

Question 17. In India, the cool mountainous climate is found in the—

  1. North
  2. South
  3. North-west
  4. East

Answer: 1. North

Question 18. In West Bengal, the cyclonic storms generated in the Bay of Bengal in October- November are known as—

  1. Nor’westers
  2. Western disturbances
  3. Loo
  4. ‘AshwinerJhor’

Answer: 4. ‘AshwinerJhor’

Question 19. A rainshadow area in South India is—

  1. Ladakh
  2. Shillong
  3. Eastern slope of the Sahyadri
  4. Shimla

Answer: 3. Eastern slope of the Sahyadri

Question 20. In India, the highest average rainfall is received in the—

  1. North-west
  2. South
  3. North-east
  4. West

Answer: 3. North-east

Question 21. The mountains that influence the climate of India are—

  1. Aravalli range
  2. Himalayan range
  3. Western Ghats
  4. Garo hills

Answer: 2. Himalayan range

Question 22. The monsoon winds enter the mainland of India in—

  1. May
  2. June
  3. July
  4. August

Answer: 2. June

Question 23. The Western disturbances cause snowfall in—

  1. Delhi
  2. Jammu and Kashmir
  3. Punjab
  4. Haryana

Answer: 3. Jammu and Kashmir

Question 24. The monsoon winds prevail for the least duration in—

  1. North-east India
  2. North-west India
  3. West India
  4. South India

Answer: 2. North-west India

Question 25. In India, the cyclones that occur in the autumn season are generated in the—

  1. Arabian Sea
  2. Gulf of Khambat
  3. Bay of Bengal
  4. Indian Ocean

Answer: 3. Bay of Bengal

Question 26. Western disturbances arise in the—

  1. Arabian sea
  2. Red sea
  3. Mediterranean sea
  4. Bay of Bengal

Answer: 3. Mediterranean sea

Question 27. Which of the following districts of West Bengal receives the lowest amount of rainfall?

  1. Darjeeling
  2. Nadia
  3. Purulia
  4. Bankura

Answer: 3. Purulia

Question 28. The local name for the first storm and rainfall of the monsoon season in Assam is—

  1. Bordoichila
  2. Nor’westers
  3. Loo
  4. Mango showers

Answer: 1. Nor’westers

Question 29. In India, the steppe climate is found in—

  1. Southern Bengal
  2. Eastern Tamil Nadu
  3. Eastern Rajasthan
  4. Western Karnataka

Answer: 3. Eastern Rajasthan

Question 30. Western disturbances help in—

  1. Cultivation of rabi crops
  2. Cultivation of plantation crops
  3. Cultivation of Kharif crops
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Cultivation of rabi crops

Question 31. According to the latitudinal extent, the northern part of India lies in the—

  1. Frigid zone
  2. Hot Temperate zone
  3. Torrid zone
  4. Cool temperate zone

Answer: 2. Hot Temperate zone

Question 32.’Aandhi’ is a—

  1. Dust storm
  2. Hot wind
  3. Cyclonic rainfall
  4. Cold wind

Answer: 1. Dust storm

Question 33. In India, El Nino leads to—

  1. Flood
  2. Drought
  3. Heat waves
  4. Cold waves

Answer: 2. Drought

Question 34. The drought of 2014 in India was the result of—

  1. El Nino
  2. La Nina
  3. Western disturbances
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. El Nino

Question 35. The south-west monsoon winds are a result of—

  1. Westerly jet stream
  2. Easterly jet stream
  3. El Nino
  4. Ocean currents

Answer: 2. Easterly jet stream

Question 36. Change of seasons does not occur in the

  1. Tropical monsoon climate region
  2. Equatorial climate region
  3. Hot desert climate region
  4. China’s type of climate region

Answer: 2. Equatorial climate region

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 4 Climate Of India

If The Statement Is True, Write True And If False Write False Against The Following

Question 1. The general climate of India is Temperate Monsoon type.
Answer: False

Question 2. The Arabic word ‘Muslim’ means season.
Answer: True

Question 3. Mango showers occur in West Bengal.
Answer: False

Question 4. Loo is a wet cold wind.
Answer: False

Question 5. The southeast monsoon winds influence rainfall in India.
Answer: False

Question 6. Rainfall occurs twice a year on the Coromandel coast.
Answer: True

Question 7. Western disturbances cause rainfall and snowfall during winter.
Answer: True

Question 8. Temperature is low at the poles because the angle of incidence of sun’s rays is very low.
Answer: True

Question 9. The thunderstorms occurring in West Bengal during autumn are called ‘Kalbaisakhi’.
Answer: False

Question 10. Shillong is a rain shadow area.
Answer: True

Question 11. If rainfall occurs less than 75% of the normal rainfall in a particular region, the condition is said to be a drought.
Answer: True

Question 12. The presence of seas on three sides of peninsular India gives the long coastline of the country a moderate climate.
Answer: True

Question 13. The dust storm occurring in April-May in northwest India is called Loo.
Answer: False

Question 14. Mediterranean sea in winter is called The thunderstorms that occur at the coastal plains during autumn are called Kalbaisakhi.
Answer: False

Question 15. The monsoon winds are a larger edition of land breeze and sea breeze.
Answer: True

Question 16. The Shillong plateau and the northern part of the Meghalaya plateau is a rain shadow areas.
Answer: True

Question 17. The central region of the plateau of southern India represents the rain shadow area of the Western Ghats.
Answer: True

Question 18. The wind that blows according to the seasons is called ‘Kalbaishakhi’.
Answer: False

Question 19. A severe low pressure develops over the northwestern part of India during summer.
Answer: True

Question 20. Loo is a hot dry wind.
Answer: True

Question 21. The rain shadow area of India is known as the ‘famine-prone region of India’.
Answer: True

Question 22. The average annual rainfall is very low in Uttar Pradesh.
Answer: False

Question 23. Kerala and Goa receive moderate rainfall.
Answer: False

Question 24. During October-November, a low pressure develops over the Indian Ocean due to vertical rays of the sun on the Tropic of Cancer.
Answer: False

Question 25. Maximum rainfall in India occurs from May-June.
Answer: False

Question 26. The Thunderstorms occur as a result of the influence of the westerly winds over the ‘Ashwine Jhor’.
Answer: False

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 4 Climate Of India Fill In The Blanks With Suitable Words

Question 1. India is a country of______ climate.
Answer: Monsoons

Question 2. In India, the maximum rainfall occurs in the ______
Answer: Mawsynram

Question 3. Rainfall occurs twice a year in the coastal regions of ______
Answer: Tamil Nadu

Question 4. The climate of India is influenced by the ______ winds.
Answer: Monsoon

Question 5. The thunderstorms occurring in southern India during the summer season are called ______
Answer: Mango showers

Question 6. ‘Monsoon’ comes from the Arabic word ______
Answer: Mausim

Question 7. The ______ monsoon winds are cold and dry.
Answer: North-east

Question 8. ______ is a cold desert in India.
Answer: Ladakh

Question 9. ______ are periodic winds that blow over India.
Answer: Monsoon

Question 10. ______ winds influence the weather of a small region.
Answer: Local

Question 11. The Mango showers are known as in______ Karnataka.
Answer: Cherry blossoms

Question 12. In India, the ______ monsoon winds blow from October-December.
Answer: North-east

Question 13. The ______ season prevails over India during October-November.
Answer: Autumn

Question 14. The Western disturbances cause ______ in north India.
Answer: Precipitation

Question 15. The Kalbaisakhi comes from the northwest, hence it is called the ______
Answer: Nor’westers

Question 16. The cyclonic winds prevailing in autumn are called ______
Answer: Ashwiner Jhor

Question 17. ______ is a flood prove region in India.
Answer: Assam valley

Question 18. The ______ jet streams help in the generation of the southwest monsoon winds.
Answer: Easterly

Question 19. In India, steppe climate prevails in ______
Answer: Eastern Rajasthan

Question 20. The dust storms occurring in Rajasthan are known as______
Answer: Aandhi

Question 21. The______ winds are a larger edition of the land breeze and sea breeze.
Answer: Monsoon

Question 22. The first rainfall occurring at the beginning of the rainy season is called the ______
Answer: Burst of monsoon

Question 23. The hot winds blowing over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Rajasthan during summer are called ______
Answer: Loo

Question 24. The monsoon winds are ______
Answer: Seasonal

Question 25. About______ % of total rainfall in India occurs in the rainy season.
Answer: 72

Question 26. The temperature of North India is ______ than that of South India in summer, keeping the weather calm.
Answer: Lower

Question 27. The ______ generating in the Pacific Ocean
Answer: La Nina

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 4 Climate Of India Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Which place in India receives the highest rainfall?
Answer: Mawsynram.

Question 2. Which is the main controlling factor of India’s climate?
Answer: Monsoon winds.

Question 3. Name a rain shadow area in India.
Answer: Shillong.

Question 4. Which wind blows over India in winter?
Answer: North-east monsoon winds.

Question 5. What is the pre-monsoon wild wind known as in Assam?
Answer: Bordoichila.

Question 6. When do Western disturbances occur?
Answer: Winter.

Question 7. What kind of climate prevails in the Ladakh plateau?
Answer: Cold desert climate.

Question 8. What is Aandhi?
Answer: A dust storm occurs in summer in Rajasthan.

Question 9. Name the thunderstorm that occurs in West Bengal in summer.
Answer: Kalbaisakhi.

Question 10. What kind of climate prevails in India?
Answer: Tropical monsoon climate.

Question 11. What does the term monsoon mean?
Answer: Season.

Question 12. Which region in India receives rainfall twice a year?
Answer: Coromandel coast in Tamil Nadu.

Question 13. Which region in India receives very less rainfall?
Answer: Thar desert in Rajasthan/Dras in Ladakh.

Question 14. What are thunderstorms that occur in autumn called?
Answer: Ashwiner Jhor.

Question 15. Which mountains help to cause rainfall from the southwest monsoon winds?
Answer: Himalayas.

Question 16. Where does El Nino originate?
Answer: Over the South Pacific Ocean.

Question 17. Which slope of the Himalayas is comparatively warmer?
Answer: Southern slope.

Question 18. Which season is mostly influenced by Western disturbances?
Answer: Winter season.

Question 19. Which season is mostly influenced by the Easterly jet?
Answer: Rainy season.

Question 20. Over which sea of India originates more cyclones?
Answer: Bay of Bengal.

Question 21. Which winds cause maximum rainfall in India?
Answer: South-west monsoon winds.

Question 22. Which is the hottest month in India?
Answer: May.

Question 23. When does Ashwiner Jhor occur?
Answer: October-November.

 

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Match The Left Column With The Right Column

 

1.

Left Column Right Column
1.  Kalbaisakhi A.  North-west India
2. Aandhi B. Brahmaputra Valley
3. Bordoichila C. Odisha and the coastal region of West Bengal
4. Mango showers D. Lower Ganga plains
5. Ashwiner Jhor E. Kerala

Answer: 1-C,2-D,3-E,4-A,5-B

2.

Left Column Right Column
1.  India A.  Hot dry wind
2.  Mawsynram B. Highest rainfall in the world
3.  Autumn C.  Identified climate regions of India
4. Loo D. Monsoon climate
5. Koppen ‘ E. Retreat of south-west monsoon monsoon

Answer: 1-B,2-C,3-A,4-D,5-E

3.

Left Column Right Column 
 1.  Easterly jet A. North-east monsoon
2.  Westerly jet B.  Thar desert
3. Burst of monsoon C.  South-west monsoon
4. Western disturbances D. Rainfall and snowfall in winter
5. Desert climate E. Onset of the rainy season

Answer: 1-D,2-A,3-E,4-C,5-B

4.

Left Column Right Column
1. Heavy rainfall A.  Sandy soil
2. Hot and less rainfall B.  Clayey soil
3. Wet climate C. Drought in India
4. Seasonal rainfall D.  Red soil
5. El Nino E. Deciduous trees

Answer: 1-D,2-A,3-E,4-B,5-C

 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 5 Soils In India

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 5 Soils In India Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the various causes of soil erosion.
Answer:

The causes of soil erosion can be broadly classified into two types-

  1. Natural causes
  2. Manmades causes

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india causes of soil erosion

Read and Learn Also WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 Geography and Environment

1. Natural causes:

1. Landform: The rate of soil erosion is greater in hilly regions than on plains due to the slope. The soil is not very deep and mature on hills and plateaus. Hence, it is easily washed down by rainwater or slips along the slope by gravitational force.

2. Storm: Strong winds and storms may uproot big trees and make the soil loose and easily eroded. Also, open or exposed lands are prone to soil erosion by the action of wind.

3. Nature of rainfall: Rainfall is directly related to soil erosion. If rainfall occurs with small drops and a short period, the level of soil erosion is less. But if there is heavy rainfall with big drops for a long period of time, the level of soil erosion is greater. Open land is more prone to erosion by splashing of rainwater than land covered with vegetation.

4. Wind: In deserts and arid regions where there is no or very less vegetation, the wind causes erosion over huge areas.

5. Flowing water: In hilly regions, the rainwater from higher altitudes comes down along the slopes of hills in numerous thin streams. These streams cause erosion of the slopes as they flow down, e.g. gully erosion, rill erosion, ravine erosion, etc.

2. Man-made Causes:

1. Deforestation: Deforestation of land causes the soil to become loose and easily erodible. Thus, wind and rainwater cause soil erosion when the land is exposed after cutting down trees.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india causes of deforestation

 

2. Unscientific methods of cultivation: Methods of shifting cultivation (e.g. Jhum) damage the soil and lead to high levels of erosion.

3. Overgrazing: Overgrazing of animals on the same fields remove the grass cover of the land. The soil is exposed to natural forces and becomes prone to erosion.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india causes of overgrazing

 

4. Population: The increasing population is a cause of soil erosion, an increase in population leads to an increase in the construction of roads, railways, houses, drainage lines, deforestation, increased agricultural activities, etc. All these lead to soil erosion.

5. Unscientific mining: Unscientific mining activities may damage the topmost layer of soil and cause erosion. If the excavated mines are not filled up properly, the roofs may collapse and cause disasters. Thus, unscientific mining increases the level of soil erosion.

6. Conventional method of farming: Traditional systems of agriculture may also cause soil erosion. Excessive application of chemical fertilisers and pesticides, and the use of tractors and harvesters tend to loosen the soil. Over-irrigation also makes the soil saline and infertile.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india causes of usages of chemical fertilizers in agriculture

 

7. Landslide: Unauthorised construction, unplanned agriculture and deforestation tend to loosen the soil of mountain slopes and cause landslides. Falling of stones, pebbles, rocks and boulders along the hill slopes causes heavy soil erosion.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india soli erosion

 

Question 2. Discuss the effects of soil erosion in India.
Answer:

The effects of soil erosion in India are as follows—

1. Decrease in the underground water level and soil humidity: The topsoil is generally more porous and softer than the lower layers. It helps in the absorption of rainwater and percolation in order to recharge the groundwater.

If this layer is removed, the relatively harder and less porous layer is exposed, which allows less percolation of the water. Thus, the level of underground waterfalls and the soil tends to dry up.

2. Removal of fertile topsoil: The essential minerals present in the topsoil are removed due to erosion. This reduces the fertility of the soil and hence reduces its productivity.

3. Deposition of silt in rivers and canals: The eroded soil particles are washed away by surface runoff and are deposited in rivers, lakes, canals, ponds and other water bodies. This reduces the depth of the water bodies. It may also lead to a flood.

4. Spreading of deserts: In arid and desert regions, the wind is the active agent of soil erosion. The wind blows away the topsoil and the sand particles from desert regions and drops them elsewhere.

This covers fertile lands with sand particles. Thus, the fertility of the land is reduced and the desert is extended. E.g. The area of the Thar desert is increasing in this way.

5. Floods and droughts: The deposition of eroded soil in rivers, lakes and other water bodies reduces their depth and cause floods in the rainy season.

On the other hand, erosion of the fertile and fine textured topsoil exposes the granular lower layers, which have less water-holding capacities. The Spread of sand particles makes fertile lands infertile and unproductive, which may result in droughts.

6. Landslides: Deforestation or unscientific construction in hilly regions loosens the soil, which easily falls off along the slopes due to gravitational forces. Thus landslides occur frequently, which increase soil erosion.

7. Hindrance in economic and cultural development: Soil erosion hampers agricultural production and affects the economy. Life of people becomes more and more difficult in regions which are severely prone to erosion, e.g. deserts, hilly regions, and flood-prone regions.

The Spread of deserts and the reduction of the productivity of land hampers the cultural development of that place.

Question 3. Discuss the characteristics of the soils of India along with their distribution.
Answer:

The main types of soil found in India are—

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Black or regur soil
  3. Red soil
  4. Laterite soil
  5. Desert soil
  6. Mountain soil.

The characteristics and distribution of the different types of soils in India are as follows—

Soil Distribution Characteristic features
1. Alluvial soil of river basins River basins and deltas of rivers Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra, etc. 1. Alluvium is deposited when the river floods its basin areas.

2.  Presence of silt makes the soil very fertile.

3. The soil is rich in potash and calcium compounds.

4.  The soil is suitable for growing rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, pulses, oilseeds, cotton, sugarcane, jute and vegetables.

2. Alluvial soil of coastal regions Eastern and Western Coastal Plains, delta regions, Sundarban region of West Bengal. 1.  Formed mainly due to the deposition of oceanic silt.

2.  Presence of sand and salts make the soil moderately fertile.

3.  Suitable for growing coconut and betelnut.

4.  Mangrove forests grow in the saline soil of lowlands in deltas.

Black soil Deccan trap region of northwestern Deccan plateau, the plateau of Maharashtra, Bharuch, Vadodara, and Surat of Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, northern Karnataka. 1.  Formed by weathering of basalt.

2. The soil is black in colour.

3. The soil has a high percentage of clay particles, hence water holding capacity is high.

4.  Suitable for growing cotton. Hence, also known as black cotton soil.

5. The soil is very fertile.

6. Other crops grown are—food grains, oilseeds, citrus fruits, vegetables, etc.

Red soil Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh of Deccan plateau, plateau of Maharashtra, Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand, hilly region north-eastern India, plateau of Meghalaya. 1. Formed by weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks like granite and gneiss.

2.  Presence of ferric oxides in the soil makes it red in colour. 3. Water holding capacity low.

4.  Rich in potash and phosphate minerals.

5.  Suitable for growing ragi, rice, tobacco, groundnuts, potatoes, vegetables, etc.

Laterite soil Western Ghats, Nilgiri hills, hilly region of Odisha, Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand 1.  Rich is oxides of iron and aluminium.

2. The soil is reddish in colour and hard like brick.

3.  The soil lacks nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potash, lime and magnesium.

4. The soil is less fertile.

5. Crops like rice, sugarcane and ragi are grown with the help of irrigation.

Desert soil Desert region of Rajasthan, Kachchh and Kathiawar region of Gujarat. Characteristic features
1. The soil is sandy, rich in salts and lacks organic matter.2. The soil is rich in phosphates but lacks nitrogen.3. Crops grown (with the help of irrigation) are—jowar, bajra, wheat and cotton.
Mountain soil Western and eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Cardamom hills. 1. The soil is not deep due to the steep slope of the mountainous regions and has a young immature profile.

2.  The soil lacks potash, phosphorus and lime, but is rich in organic matter.

3.  Podzol soil is found on the higher slopes of the mountains and chestnut soil is found on the lower slopes of the mountains.

4. Crops grown are—rubber, tea, coffee, spices, fruits, etc.

 

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india map

 

Question 4. How can soil erosion be recorded and soil be conserved?
Answer:

Prevention of erosion and conservation of soil is very important in order to retain the fertility and quality of the soil.

The steps that can be taken for the conservation of soil are as follows—

1. Afforestation: The roots of plants help to hold the soil tightly and the canopy of leaves overhead help to prevent the rainwater from splashing directly on the soil. These help to prevent soil erosion. Thus, barren and open lands must be afforested in order to conserve the soil.

2. Contour Farming: In hilly regions, agriculture can be done by the method of contour farming. This helps to break the slope of the land by cutting down the slopes into flattened stretches or steps so that the speed of running water can be reduced. This in turn helps to reduce soil erosion.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india Countour farming

 

3. Gully Farming: In regions where gully erosion is predominant due to heavy rainfall, cultivation is done in narrow strips across the direction of the flow of water. This reduces the speed of flowing water as well as reduces the level of erosion.

4. Prevention of Jhum Cultivation: In jhum cultivation and other methods of shifting cultivation, forested land is cleared for agriculture. After three or four years, this land is discarded when fertility reduces and affects crop production.

Once again another stretch of forested land is cleared and cultivated in the same way. This process is very harmful for the environment as biomass is destroyed considerably and soil is exposed to erosion. Therefore soil can be conserved if jhum cultivation or other shifting cultivation is prevented.

5. Step Farming: The hill slopes are cut into steps or stairs for practising agriculture. The flat lands thus formed help in holding the running water. This helps in agriculture as well as reduces soil erosion.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india step farming

 

6. Strip Farming: In hilly regions with steep slopes, agriculture can be practised in narrow strips of land across the direction of the slope. This helps to hold the soil tightly and reduces erosion. Erosion-preventive crops like pulses, soybean, nuts, etc. can be grown. The vegetative cover helps to hold the rainwater and increases the humidity of the soil.

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 5 Soils In India Short Explanatory Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What do you understand by ‘Khadar and Bahangar’?
Answer:

Khadar and Bahangar

Two types of alluvial soil are found in the Gangetic Plains of northern India. These are— khadar and bhangar.

1. Khadar:

  1. The new alluvial soil found on the banks of the rivers is called Khadar.
  2. Khadar is very fertile as the alluvium brought down by the rivers is renewed every year.
  3. The soil is loamy and porous.
  4. The soil is light brown in colour.

2. Bhangar:

  1. The old alluvial soil is known as a hangar.
  2. This lies higher up in the flood plains, on the river terraces at a distance from the rivers.
  3.  This soil is rich in calcium carbonate.
  4. The soil is clayey and non-porous.
  5. This soil is dark in colour and is less fertile than the new alluvium.

Question 2. Write a short note on laterite soil.
Answer:

Laterite soil

The word ‘laterite’ comes from the Latin word ‘later’, meaning ‘brick’.

Laterite soil regions in India: In India, laterite soil is found in the high temperature and heavy rainfall regions of the Western Ghats, Nilgiri hills and Cardamom hills of the Peninsular plateau, Hilly regions of Odisha, the Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand, etc.

Characteristic features:

  1. Due to heavy rainfall, the salts and other soluble minerals are washed down into the bottom layers from the surface of the soil.
  2. The soil texture is coarse with big air spaces in between. Hence, it has very less water holding capacity.
  3. This soil is less fertile and not very suitable for agriculture.
  4. The upper layers of laterite soil become very hard like bricks when dry.
  5. The soil is reddish or brownish in colour.

Question 3. Mention the characteristic features of black soil. OR, Where is black soil found in India? Discuss its characteristics. OR, Write a short note on the black soil of India.

Answer:

Black soil regions in India:

  1. Maximum availability of black soil is seen in the Deccan Trap region of Maharastra in the northwestern part of the Deccan plateau.
  2. Black soil is also found in Bharuch, Vadodara and Surat of Gujarat, western parts of Madhya Pradesh and northern parts of Karnataka.

Characteristic features:

  1. Black soil is formed by the weathering of basalt.
  2. This soil is also called Regur, derived from the Telegu word ‘Regada’.
  3. The soil is rich in iron oxides. The blackish colour comes from black crystalline schists and basic gneisses.
  4. The soil is fine textured with a high amount of clay and silt present in the soil.
  5. Although the soil is deficient in nitrogen, the calcium, potassium, lime, aluminium and magnesium carbonate present in the soil make it very fertile.
  6. The water-holding capacity of black soil is high.
  7. Cotton grows best in this soil. Thus, the soil is also known as black cotton soil.
  8. Other crops growing well in this soil are—sugarcane (Vidarbha, Marathwada), groundnuts (northern Karnataka), jowar, oranges (Nagpur), onion (Nasik), etc.

Question 4. What are the effects of regur soil on agriculture?
Answer:

The effects of regur soil on agriculture

The black soil is also known as ‘regur’, the term derived from the Telegu word ‘Regada’. The soil is formed due to weathering of basalt of the Deccan plateau region. The soil is rich in iron, lime, magnesium, potassium and aluminium,
which makes it very fertile. However, it is poor in phosphates, nitrogen and organic matter.

The high water holding capacity due to fine soil particles is another important factor for the high fertility of the soil. Cotton grows best in black soil. Hence, the soil is also known as black, cotton soil. Other crops grown in this soil are sugarcane, groundnuts, tobacco, onion, orange, etc. The black soil or regur soil regions are one of the best agricultural regions in India.

Question 5. Write a short note on the red soil region of India.
Answer:

The red soil region of India

Red soil regions in India: Red soil is found in India in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, the plateau region of Maharashtra, the Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand, hilly regions of northeastern India and the Meghalaya plateau.

Characteristic features:

  1. Red soil is formed from the weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks like granite and gneiss.
  2. High amounts of ferric compounds make the soil appear red in colour.
  3. The water-holding capacity of red soil is very low
  4. The soil is rich in potash.
  5. The crops grown in this soil are— ragi, rice, tobacco, groundnuts, pulses and vegetables.

Question 6. Name three important soil regions of India.
Answer:

The three important soil regions of India, according to the level of fertility and productivity

 soil region Geographical area
1. Alluvial  The Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra plains of northern India, the delta region of the Ganga, and the coastal regions on the eastern and western margins of India.
2. Black soil region Plateau region of Maharashtra, the south-eastern part of Gujarat, the southern part of Madhya Pradesh, the northern part of Karnataka, etc.
3. Red soil region The plateau regions of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, etc.

 

Question 7. What is the alluvial soil of the river basins known in different parts of India?
Answer:

Alluvial soil is known by different names in different parts of India. They are as follows—

Name of alluvial soil  Geographical location 
1. Bhangar Old alluvium deposits on the river terraces.
2. Khadar Newer alluvium deposits on the river banks.
3. Bet Sutlej plains in Punjab.
4. Bhabar Lies along the foothills of the Shiwalikhs formed due to the merging of alluvial fans.
5. Reh/Usar/ Kallar Saline and alkaline soils of the drier areas of Haryana.
6. Terai Lies to the south of the baby belt. Mostly found in the eastern parts than in the western parts.
7. Karewa Alluvial soil formed from deposits brought down by the glaciers in Kashmir valley.
8. Loess Found in Madhya Pradesh.

 

Question 8. Differentiate between red soil and laterite soil.
Answer:

The differences between red soil and laterite soil are as follows—

Point of difference Red soil     Laterite soil
Formation Formed due to weathering of old granite and gneiss rocks. Formed by the accumulation of oxides of iron and aluminium on the surface while the other soluble minerals get washed down to the lower layers during heavy rain.
Location Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, plateau regions of Maharashtra, Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand, hilly region of north-eastern India, plateau region of Meghalaya. Western Ghats, Nilgiri and Cardamom hills, hilly region of Odisha, Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand.
Crops grown Rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, etc. (with the help of irrigation) Maize, jowar, bajra, coffee, cashew nuts, etc.

 

Question 9. Differentiate between Khadar and bhangra soil.
Answer:

The differences between Khadar and bhangra soil are as follows—

Point of difference Khadar  Bangor 
 Location On the flood plains on either side of the river, lying close to the banks. On the river terraces on either side of the river a little far away from the banks.
Kankar deposits Calcareous concentrations or kankar are not found. Calcareous concentrations or kankar are found.
Fertility This is very fertile as alluvium deposits are renewed every year due to the flooding of river banks. This is less fertile as alluvium deposits are not renewed every year. Renewal of alluvium may occur only if the flood water spreads for a long distance from the river banks.

 

Question 10. Differentiate between alluvial soil.
Answer:

The differences between alluvial soil and black soil are as follows—

Point of difference  Alluvial soil Black soil
Formation  Formed by deposition of silt, sand, clay brought by rivers and organic materials.
Colour Varies from light brown to dark grey. Varies from black to dark brown.
Location  Found in the river valleys of India, especially along the middle and lower courses Found in the plateau region of Maharastra, parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
Crops grown  Rice, wheat, sugarcane, jute, etc Cotton, tobacco, Wheat etc.

 

Question 11. Where is jhum cultivation practised in India, and how?
Answer:

Jhum is a kind of shifting cultivation practised in India mostly by the tribal and native people. The areas where jhum cultivation can be seen in India are—the north-eastern states of India, especially in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya and Nagaland.

Method of Jhum Cultivation: In jhum cultivation, first a portion of a forest on the hill slopes are chosen and burnt. The ash thus produced is mixed with soil and used as a fertiliser.

Then the seeds of various crops are sown in the soil. The soil can produce sufficient crops for three to four years, after which the fertility starts decreasing.

Hence, a new portion of the forest is chosen and burnt and cultivated in the same way. Jhum cultivation results in the massive destruction of forests and biomass and causes the destruction of ecosystems. This in turn results in environmental degradation.

Question 12. Mention the causes of soil erosion in India and their possible solutions.
Answer:

Soil erosion refers to the removal of the topmost layer of soil by various natural agents like wind, rainfall, rivers, etc. and man-made causes like deforestation, unscientific cultivation, overgrazing, etc.

Solution: Soil erosion can be prevented or controlled by the following actions—

  1. Afforestation or planting more trees.
  2. Prevention of shifting cultivation, e.g. Jhum.
  3. Controlled grazing of animals.
  4. Scientific and planned methods of agriculture.

Question 13. How do unscientific mining landslides and deforestation cause soil erosion?
Answer:

Unscientific Mining: Mineral resources and ores of various kinds are excavated from mines by unscientific methods. This leaves the land exposed and prone to erosion. It may also lead to landslides if the mines are not filled up properly after excavation.

Landslides: The sudden fall of rocks and soil along the slope or topography due to man-made or natural reasons are known as landslides. The main causes of landslides are the construction of roadways and railways in hilly regions, the construction of dams and reservoirs on rivers, unscientific cultivation along hill slopes, etc.

Heavy rainfall, earthquakes, and unscientific construction of buildings in hilly regions increase the frequency and intensity of landslides.

Deforestation: The roots of the trees help to hold the soil tightly and prevent erosion. Cutting down trees loosens this bond and the exposed soil becomes easily erodible by wind and surface runoff coming from rainfall.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india causes of deforestation.

Question 14. Describe the regions facing problems of soil erosion in India.
Answer:

Soil erosion is a common problem faced in India.

The various regions of India facing soil erosion are—

  1. Himalayan region, Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats due to erosion by running water.
  2. Rajasthan and Gujarat due to wind.
  3. Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, parts of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh due to excessive grazing of animals on pastures.
  4. Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab due to excessive deforestation.
  5. Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Darjeeling, Sikkim and other hilly regions due to landslides.
  6. North-eastern states of India and parts of Odisha due to shifting cultivation.

Question 15. Discuss the role of afforestation, step farming and strip farming in the prevention of soil erosion.
Answer:

Afforestation: The roots of the trees help to hold the soil tightly and the canopy of leaves overhead prevents the rainwater from directly falling on the soil. Both of this help to prevent soil erosion. Hence, open lands must be covered with vegetation to prevent the top layer of soil from being removed fast.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india affforestation

Step farming: The steep slope of the land in hilly regions increases the speed of soil erosion. If the slope is cut into steps or stairs, the general slope of the land can be reduced and flat stretches of land can be created along the hills. This helps to reduce the speed of running water, thus reducing soil erosion. Hence, step farming is an important method of preventing soil erosion.

Strip farming: Gullies are formed in regions where the soil is washed away by running water. Formation of gullies and washing away of soil can be reduced or prevented by planting fast-growing trees in strips across the direction of the flow of the running water. If the speed of the running water is reduced, its erosive capacity is also reduced.

Question 16. How does the grazing of animals cause soil erosion?
Answer:

While grazing, the animals tend to pull out the roots of the grass and the small plants that they eat. This loosens up the topsoil. Also, the bonding of the soil is lost by the continuous stepping of the animals with hooves on the ground. As a result, the top layer of soil is easily removed by running water.

The process of formation of ravines is called ravine erosion. Such ravines are found in Garhbeta in Medinipur, West Bengal.

Question 17. How does jhum cultivation cause soil erosion?
Answer:

In jhum cultivation, the forests are burnt, which removes the vegetative cover and exposes the soil. This exposed soil is prone to erosion by the splashing of rainwater. Thus, jhum cultivation leads to soil erosion.

Question 18. How does flowing water cause soil erosion?
Answer:

The different types of soil erosion caused by running water are—

1. Sheet erosion: When rainwater splashes on the open ground, loosens the soil particles and washes them away like a sheet from the top, it is called sheet erosion.

2. Rill erosion: In sloping lands, the surface runoff creates thin and shallow channels on the ground while flowing downwards. These thin channels are called rills and the method of removal of soil by the water running through these rills is called rill erosion.

3. Cully erosion: When rill erosion continues for many years, the narrow channels become wider and deeper. These come to be known as gullies and the method of erosion is called gully erosion.

4. Ravine erosion: The rills and gullies that have very steep sides are known as ravines The process of formation of ravines is called ravine erosion. Such ravines are found in Garhbeta in Medinipur, West Bengal.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india soil erosion caused by flowing water

Question 19. How does landform or topography influence soil erosion?
Answer:

Soil erosion is higher in hilly regions and plateaus compared to plain lands. In plateaus and hills, the soil is not thick and deep due to the slope. Thus, they are easily washed away by rainwater. The slope of the land speeds up the process of erosion, and the gravitational force enhances it.

Question 20. How does an increase in population influence soil erosion?
Answer:

An increase in population leads to more construction of roadways, railways, houses, drainage systems, etc. All these lead to the cutting down of natural vegetation and exposure of soil. Thus, an increase in population leads to soil erosion.

Question 21. What is contour ploughing?
Answer:

Contour ploughing

A contour is an imaginary line that joins all places having the same height above mean sea level. In hilly regions, if the land is flattened by cutting down the slope into steps or stretches and cultivation is carried out on these steps along the contours, the method of cultivation is known as contour ploughing. This method of cultivation reduces soil erosion by reducing the speed of running water.

Question 22. How does the traditional method agriculture cause of soil erosion?
Answer:

In the traditional methods of agriculture, chemical fertilisers and pesticides are used to make the soil fertile, without even judging the requirement of a particular component.

Tractors and harvesters which are used in traditional methods tend to loosen the soil and cause erosion. An increase in soil erosion results in the destruction of soil fertility. Thus, the traditional method of agriculture causes soil erosion.

Question 23. Differentiate between step farming and stip farming.
Answer:

The differences between step farming and strip farming are—

Point of difference  Step forming Strip forming
Concept Cultivation of crops on steps or stairs cut along the slope of the hills. Cultivation of crops in narrow strips of land across the direction of the slope.
Type of Land The slope of the mountain is cut into a series of steps in order to reduce the slope and control soil erosion. Crops are grown on each step. Agriculture is practised in strips of land on the hills across the direction of the slope in order to check soil erosion and landslide.
Crops grown Here erosion resistant crops are not required to be grown. Crops like rice, wheat, maize, etc. are grown. Here erosion resistant crops are required to be grown, e.g. groundnuts, soybean, etc.

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 5 Soils In India

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What is soil?
Answer:

Soil:

Soil is the thin layer present on the surface of the earth composed of disintegrated rocks and decayed organic matter. It sustains the vegetation cover and stores groundwater for the use of both plants and humans.

The minerals present in the parent rocks, the texture of the grains, the structure of the soil, the porosity and the humus content decide the level of fertility of the soil. E.g. Alluvial soil, laterite soil, red soil, etc.

Question 2. Name the major types of soils found in India.
Answer:

Different types of soils are found in different parts of India due to differences in the type of parent rocks, topography vegetative cover and climatic conditions.

The major types of soils found in India are—

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Black or Regur soil
  3. Red soil
  4. Laterite soil
  5. Desert soil
  6. Mountain soil.

Question 3. Which soils of India are important for agriculture?
Answer:

Agriculture is dependent on the type of soil found in a region.

The soils that are the most suited for agriculture in India are—

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Black or regur soil
  3. Red soil.

Question 4. Classify alluvial soil according to texture.
Answer:

Alluvial soil can be classified into three types according to the ratio of silt, sand and clay present in the soil.

They are—

  1. Sandy soil (percentage of sand is high)
  2. Loamy soil (percentage of sand, silt and clay is almost equal)
  3. Clayey soil (percentage of clay is high).

Question 5. Name some crops grown in alluvial soil.
Answer:

Some crops grown in alluvial soil are—rice, wheat, jute, cotton, sugarcane, etc.

Question 6. What is podzol soil?
Answer:

Podzol soil

The acidic soil rich in humus, found in the coniferous forest regions on the mountain slopes is known as podzol soil. Example—In India, podzol soil is found in the mountainous region of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, where coniferous forests have grown.

Question 7. Name some regions where black soil is found in India.
Answer:

In India, black soil is found in the plateau regions of Maharashtra, Bharuch, Vadodara and Surat in Gujarat, the western region of Madhya Pradesh, and the northern region of Karnataka.

Question 8. In which regions of India saline soil is found?
Answer:

In India, saline soil is found in the coastal regions. Example—Sundarbans. It is also found in the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

Question 9. Where is laterite soil found in India?
Answer:

Laterite soil is found in India in the Western Ghats, Nilgiri hills and Cardamom hills of the Deccan plateau, hilly region of Odisha and Chotanagpur plateau.

Question 10. What are ‘Bhur’ and ‘Regur’?
Answer:

‘Bhur’ and ‘Regur’

‘Bhur’: Bhur is the slightly undulating highlands made up of very fine soil, lying in the upper doab region of the Ganga plains in western Uttar Pradesh. These plains are less fertile.

‘Regur’: The black-coloured soil formed due to the weathering of basalt rocks in the Deccan plateau region is called regur. The term regur comes from the Telegu word ‘Regada’. This is very fertile soil and best suited for the cultivation of cotton.

Question 11. What is ‘Khadar’?
Answer:

Khadar

The new alluvial soil found in the flood plains of the Ganga in northern India, is known as ‘Khadar’. The fertility of khadar is more than bhangra as the soil is replenished by the layer of fresh deposits of alluvium every year.

Question 12. Why has black soil been formed in the Deccan Trap region?
Answer:

The Deccan Trap is a region in the northwestern part of the Deccan plateau formed of lava deposits. The rocks found in this region are of volcanic origin. E.g.—Basalt. The black soil has formed due to the weathering of this basalt.

Question 13. Why is alluvial soil very fertile?
Answer:

The alluvial soil is rich in plant nutrients such as potash and potassium. The ratio of sand, clay and loam present in the soil is almost equal. All these factors make the soil very fertile and most suited for agriculture.

Question 14. Why does the regur soil appear black in colour?
Answer:

Regur soil is formed from the weathering of the basalt that makes up the surface of the Deccan plateau region. The black colour of the parent rock makes the regur soil black in colour. The black colour is also due to the presence of black crystalline schists and black gneisses.

Question 15. Why does the laterite soil appear red in colour?
Answer:

In regions receiving heavy rainfall, the soluble minerals present in the soil, e.g.— potassium, calcium and magnesium are washed downwards from the surface into the lower layers by rainwater.

The iron and aluminium oxides remain in the upper layers of the soil. Thus, laterite soil present in these regions appears red in colour.

Question 16. Why is black soil or regur soil of India so fertile?
Answer:

Although the black soil or regur soil lacks nitrogen, phosphate and organic matter, it is rich in calcium, lime, magnesium, potassium, etc.

Besides this, it is also rich in clay and silt particles, which increases its water-holding capacity. Thus, all these factors make the black soil or regur soil of India very fertile.

Question 17. Why is the laterite soil called so?
Answer:

The word ‘laterite’ comes from the Latin word ‘later’ meaning brick. As the soil appears to be reddish like the colour of a brick, it is called laterite soil.

Question 18. Name some crops grown in black soil.
Answer:

Some crops grown in black soil are—cotton, groundnut, wheat, onion, oilseeds, tobacco, etc.

Question 19. Name some crops grown in red soil.
Answer:

Some crops grown in this soil are—maize, soya bean, groundnuts, coffee, millet, grapes, etc.

Question 20. Mention two characteristics of soil found in the coastal areas.
Answer:

The two characteristics of the soil found in coastal areas are—

  1. The soil found in coastal regions is saline due to the influence of the sea.
  2. The presence of sand particles in coastal soils is high. But in regions where the rivers meet the sea, the soil is more clayey than sandy.

Question 21. Which crops grow well in mountain soil?
Answer:

Mountain soil is suitable for various plantation crops. The crops grown in this soil are—tea, coffee, spices, wheat, barley, etc. Fruits like apples, oranges, cherries and different kinds of berries are grown in orchards in mountainous regions.

Question 22. Name some crops grown in desert soil.
Answer:

Desert soil is very dry and not suitable for agriculture. If irrigation facilities are provided, some crops like cotton, wheat, barley, pulses and millets can be grown in desert soil.

Question 23. Mention some methods of reducing or controlling soil erosion.
Answer:

The methods by which soil erosion can be reduced or controlled are—

  1. Planting trees or afforestation.
  2. Scientific methods of agriculture.
  3. Prevention of jhum and other methods of shifting cultivation.
  4. Controlled grazing of animals.
  5. Contour farming and step farming along the mountain slopes in hilly regions.
  6. Covering open lands with vegetation covers.
  7. Crop rotation, etc.

Question 24. What are the various causes of soil erosion?
Answer:

The various causes of soil erosion are—

Natural causes:

  1. Storms and strong winds
  2. Rainfall,
  3. Rivers, etc.

Man-made causes:

  1. Deforestation,
  2. Unscientific agricultural practices,
  3. Overgrazing of animals, etc.

Question 25. What do you understand by soil erosion?
Answer:

Soil erosion

The removal of the topmost layer of soil by natural forces (e.g., wind, river, rainfall, etc.) or man-made causes (e.g., deforestation, unscientific agriculture, overgrazing, etc.) is known as soil erosion. Erosion of the top layer of soil reduces the fertility of the soil considerably.

Question 26. Which regions of India are prone to soil erosion?
Answer:

The regions of India that are prone to soil erosion are—Meghalaya, Nagaland and Manipur of north-eastern India, Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand, Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, the desert in Rajasthan, parts of Punjab, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, etc.

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 5 Soils In India Multiple Choice Type Questions

Write The Correct Answer From The Given Alternatives

Question 1. The old alluvium soil of the Northern Plains of India is called—

  1. Bhangar
  2. Khadar
  3. Terai
  4. Bhur

Answer: 1. Bhangar

Question 2. The most important soil for agriculture in India is—

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Red soil
  3. Black soil
  4. Sandy soil

Answer: 1. Alluvial soil

Question 3. ‘Bhur’ is found in—

  1. Desert
  2. Plateau
  3. Gangetic Plains
  4. Deccan region

Answer: 3. Gangetic Plains

Question 4. Laterite soil is found in—

  1. Desert of Rajasthan
  2. Chotanagpur plateau
  3. Gangetic Plains
  4. Himalayan mountains

Answer: Chotanagpur plateau

Question 5. Podzol soil is found in—

  1. Coniferous forest region
  2. Plateau region
  3. Plains
  4. Desert regions

Answer: Coniferous forest region

Question 6. Weathering of granite and gneiss give rise to—

  1. Laterite soil
  2. Black soil
  3. Red soil
  4. Alluvial soil

Answer: 3. Red soil

Question 7. Soil is found at the mouth of the rivers—

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Mountain soil
  3. Saline alluvial soil
  4. Red soil

Answer: 3. Saline alluvial soil

Question 8. Meghalaya plateau is mostly composed of—

  1. Laterite soil
  2. Alluvial soil
  3. Desert soil
  4. Black soil

Answer: 1. Laterite soil

Question 9. The new alluvial soil of the Gangetic plains is known as—

  1. Bhabar
  2. Khadar
  3. Terai
  4. Bhangar

Answer: Bhangar

Question 10. The water holding capacity of black soil is—

  1. Very high
  2. Very low
  3. Medium
  4. Low

Answer: 1. Very high

Question 11. The soil mixed with sand, pebbles, gravel and silt found in the foothill regions of the Himalayas is called—

  1. Bhangar
  2. Khadar
  3. Terai
  4. Bhabar

Answer: Bhangar

Question 12. Sandy soil is good for cultivating—

  1. Cucumber
  2. Rice
  3. Wheat
  4. Tea

Answer: 1. Cucumber

Question 13. Water holding capacity of laterite soil is less because it is—

  1. Sandy
  2. Gravelly
  3. Clayey
  4. Highly porous

Answer: 2. Gravelly

Question 14. Mountain soil is—

  1. Acidic
  2. Alkaline
  3. Saline
  4. Highly alkaline

Answer: 1. Acidic

Question 15. The soil found in the desert region of Rajasthan is called—

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Red soil
  3. Desert soil
  4. Laterite soil

Answer: 3. Desert soil

Question 16. The desert soil is—

  1. Alkaline
  2. Acidic
  3. Neutral pH
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Alkaline

Question 17. In West Bengal, laterite soil is found in the district of—

  1. Darjeeling
  2. Nadia
  3. Purulia
  4. Howrah

Answer: 3. Purulia

Question 18. Desert soil is good for growing—

  1. Millets
  2. Rice
  3. Wheat
  4. Oilseeds

Answer: 1. Millets

Question 19. The soil research centre of India is located in—

  1. Kolkata
  2. Jaipur
  3. Kochi
  4. Dehradun

Answer: 2. Jaipur

Question 20. The main cause of gully erosion is—

  1. Surface runoff
  2. Wind
  3. Ocean currents
  4. Agriculture

Answer: 1. Surface runoff

Question 21. A man-made cause of soil erosion in India is—

  1. Weathering
  2. Erosion by surface runoff
  3. Unscientific agricultural practices
  4. Wind

Answer: 3. Unscientific agricultural practices

Question 22. The practice of agriculture in hilly regions by cutting the slopes into thin stretches of flat land is called—

  1. Gully cultivation
  2. Strip cultivation
  3. Afforestation
  4. Step cultivation

Answer: 3. Afforestation

Question 23. Soil conservation in hilly regions can be done by the process of—

  1. Planting trees
  2. Step cultivation
  3. Constructing roads
  4. Constructing dams across rivers

Answer: 2. Step cultivation

Question 24. The method of soil erosion by layers due to surface runoff created by rainfall is called—

  1. Rill erosion
  2. Valley erosion
  3. Gully erosion
  4. Sheet erosion

Answer: 4. Sheet erosion

Question 25. Soil erosion increases due to—

  1. Shifting cultivation
  2. Step cultivation
  3. Contour farming
  4. Strip farming

Answer: 1. Shifting cultivation

Question 26. The laterite soil is found in the region of—

  1. Ganga plain
  2. The western slope of western ghat
  3. Sundarban
  4. Desert region

Answer: 2. Western slope of western ghat

 

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 5 Soils In India If The Statement Is True

Write True And If False Write False Against The Following

Question 1. The new soil of the river valleys is called regur.
Answer: False

Question 2. Cotton grows best in laterite soil.
Answer: False

Question 3. The presence of ferric oxide makes the soil red in colour.
Answer: True

Question 4. Desert and semi-desert regions have sandy soil.
Answer: True

Question 5. Red soil is commonly found in the Thar desert.
Answer: False

Question 6. Laterite soil is reddish or brownish in colour.
Answer: True

Question 7. Desert soil is acidic in nature.
Answer: False

Question 8. Laterite soil is found in the Gangetic Plains.
Answer: False

Question 9. Cotton is grown in saline soil.
Answer: False

Question 10. Desert soil is also known as podzol soil.
Answer: False

Question 11. Mountain soil comprises very thin layers.
Answer: True

Question 12. Black soil needs a lot of fertilisers for agriculture.
Answer: False

Question 13. The red soil has a low water-holding capacity.
Answer: True

Question 14. Black soil contains high percentages of silt and clay.
Answer: True

Question 15. The laterite soil becomes very hard when dry.
Answer: True

Question 16. ‘JhunV is a type of shifting cultivation.
Answer: True

Question 17. Soil erosion can be prevented by afforestation.
Answer: True

Question 18. Jhum cultivation helps to increase soil fertility.
Answer: False

Question 19. Gullies are created in lateritic soil regions due to sheet erosion.
Answer: False

Question 20. The wind is an agent of soil erosion.
Answer: True

Question 21. Soil erosion occurs at the same level all over India.
Answer: False

Question 22. Excessive irrigation makes soil saline.
Answer: True

Question 23. Crop rotation does not help in increasing soil fertility.
Answer: False

Question 24. Step cultivation helps to reduce soil erosion in hilly regions.
Answer: True

Question 25. Strip cultivation increases soil erosion.
Answer: False

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 5 Soils In India Fill In The Blanks With Suitable Words

Question 1. ______soil is found in the Northern Plains of India.
Answer: Alluvial

Question 2. Desert soil lacks ______ content.
Answer: Humus

Question 3. ______ soil is famous for cotton cultivation.
Answer: Black/regur

Question 4. The new alluvial soil of northern India is called ______
Answer: khadar

Question 5. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) classifies Indian soil into ______ types.
Answer: Eight

Question 6. ______ crops are grown in desert soil.
Answer: Millet

Question 7. Mountain soil is ______ in colour.
Answer: Grey

Question 8. Bhangar soil has high concentrations of calcium carbonate (lime) called ______
Answer: Kankar

Question 9. The soil of coastal regions is ______ in nature.
Answer: Sailine

Question 10. Alluvial soil is ______ in humus and nitrogen.
Answer: Deficient

Question 11. Black soil is formed due to weathering of ______
Answer: Basalt

Question 12. Weathering of granite and gneiss rocks forms ______ soil.
Answer: Red

Question 13. The red soil appears red due to the presence of ______
Answer: Ferric oxide

Question 14. Laterite soil is rich in iron and ______
Answer: Aluminum oxide

Question 15. ______ soil is found in the Bankura and Birbhum districts of West Bengal.
Answer: Red

Question 16. Desert soil has a very low water-holding ______ capacity as it is highly
Answer: Porous

Question 17. Mountain soil is rich in ______
Answer: Humus

Question 18. The Deccan plateau is covered with ______ soil.
Answer: Black/Regular

Question 19. The soil of the Sundarban region is ______ in nature.
Answer: Saline

Question 20. The soils of mountain regions are ______ than the soils of plains.
Answer: Immature

Question 21. Soil erosion not only refers to the removal of the top layer of soil but also the decrease of______
Answer: Fertility

Question 22. Rill erosion is a form of______ erosion.
Answer: Gully

Question 23. One of the man-made causes of soil erosion is ______
Answer: Deforestation

Question 24. Jhum cultivation is practised in the hilly region of______ India.
Answer: Northeastern

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 5 Soils In India

Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Name two states of India where laterite soil is found.
Answer: Meghalaya, Assam.

Question 2. In which soil does tea grow well?
Answer: Mountain soil.

Question 3. Which soil is deficient in humus, but is rich in potash, iron, calcium, and aluminium?
Answer: Black soil or regur.

Question 4. Which soil contains the least amount of hummus?
Answer: Desert soil.

Question 5. Which soil is best suited for cultivating rice?
Answer: Alluvial soil.

Question 6. Name the source of the word ‘regur’.
Answer: Telegu word ‘Regada’.

Question 7. What is alluvial soil known as in Kashmir Valley?
Answer: Karewa.

Question 8. Which kind of soil has a pH value of less than 7?
Answer: Acidic soils.

Question 9. Which is the most fertile soil in India?
Answer: Alluvial soil.

Question 10. Which soil has an equal ratio of clay and sand?
Answer: Loamy soil.

Question 11. Which soil has high contents of sand?
Answer: Sandy soil.

Question12. Where is loess soil found in India?
Answer: Madhya Pradesh.

Question 13. Which soil becomes very hard when dry?
Answer: Laterite soil.

Question 14. What is the hard layer formed at the top of laterite soil called?
Answer: Duricrust.

Question 15. What are the deposits of new alluvium in the river basins of Punjab known as?
Answer: Bet.

Question 16. Which minerals are present in high amounts in pedalfer soils?
Answer: Aluminium and iron.

Question 17. What is the sandy soil of the desert region known as?
Answer: Sierozem.

Question 18. Which mineral is present in high amounts in the pedal soils?
Answer: Calcium carbonate.

Question 19. What is the main cause of soil erosion in Rajasthan?
Answer: Wind.

Question 20. How can soil be conserved in regions of gully erosion?
Answer: Cultivation or planting trees along the gullies.

Question 21. Name a method of cultivation practised in hilly regions to prevent soil erosion.
Answer: Contour farming.

Question 22. Where is Jhum cultivation seen in India?
Answer: North-eastern India.

Question 23. Mention two natural causes of soil erosion.
Answer: Wind and surface runoff (rainwater).

Question 24. Mention two man-made causes of soil erosion.
Answer: Deforestation and traditional or primitive methods of cultivation

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 5 Soils In India

Match The Left Column With The Right Column

1.

Left Column Right Column
1.  Pedalfer A.  Chernozem
2.  Pedocal B.  Mountain soil
3.  Rendzina C.  Podzol
4. Slerozem D.  Black soil
5.  Regur  E. Desert soil

Answer: 1-C,2-A,3-B,4-E,5-D

2.

Left Column  Right Column
1.  Alluvial soil  A. Comes from basalt
2.  Black soil B. Good for agriculture
3.  Red soil C.  Comes from granite
4.  New alluvium D.  Kashmir valley
5.  Karewa E.  Khadar

Answer: 1-B,2-A,3-C,4e,5-D

3.

Left Column  Right Column
1.  Jhum cultivation  A. Preventing soil erosion
2.  Step cultivation B. North-east India
3. Desertification C.  Rainwater
4. Sheet erosion D. Mountain Slope
5.  Landslide E.  Increases slope erosion

Answer: 1-B,2-A,3-E,4-C,5-D

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 6 Natural Vegetation Of India

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 6 Natural Vegetation Of India Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Classify the natural vegetation of India. OR, Discuss the distribution and characteristics of any two types of natural vegetation region of India.
Answer:

Natural vegetation of India is broadly classified into five categories—

Type of vegetation Distribution Characteristics Species  Uses
Tropical evergreen forest Andaman and Nicobar islands, the western slope of the Western Ghats,

hilly regions of the north-east, Dooars region of West Bengal.

1.  Trees do not shed their leaves together due to the presence of sufficient moisture in the air.

2.  Trees grow close to each other.

3.  The forest soil remains moist throughout the year.

4. The thick canopy of leaves prevents sunlight from reaching the forest floor.

5. The trees are very tall and branched.

6. The trunks are very strong and the leaves are broad.

Garjan, mahogany, rosewood, ironwood, rubber, etc. The trees of these forests are not used much for economic purposes. The hard timber is used to make railway sleepers, and also in construction works.
Tropical deciduous forest Plains of Assam, plains and plateaus of West Bengal, Chota-Nagpur plateau, Odisha, foothills of Himalayas, Bihar,

eastern slope of Western Ghats, Uttar Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.

1. The trees shed their leaves together in the dry winter season.

2. The trees of the same species exist together in the forests.

3. The forests are less dense than evergreen forests.

4.  The timber is hard and economically valuable.

5. The trees are not too long and are heavily branched at the top.

6. The annual growth rings can be prominently seen in the trees.

7. Collecting timber from these forests is the most viable.

Sal, teak, mahua, mango, jackfruit, banyan, peepal, Palash, etc. The timber is used for making types of furniture, doors, windows, boats, ships, bridges, and other constructional works.

The thin branches and twigs are used for firewood and fuel.

Tropical desert vegetation Rajasthan, Kachchh and Kathiawar are peninsular of Gujarat, a rain shadow area of the Deccan plateau. 1. The vegetation is very sparsely spread.

2. The leaves are modified into thorns due to a lack of water.

3. The roots are very long so as to absorb water from deep underground.

4. The plants are thorny and bushy.

5. Some plants have fleshy stems covered with a waxy material.

Cactus, acacia, babool, date palm, etc. There is no economic use for these plants, except that they are used as fuel.
Mountain forest 1. Central and South India-Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Nilgiri, Vindhya, Satpura, Mahadeo and Mahakal ranges.

2. Himalayan region-The eastern region has more forest cover than the western region.

The trees are evergreen and found at an altitude of 1000-1500m. Above it, there are wet temperate forests. Magnolia, laurel, elm, cinchona, etc. Used for building houses, making furniture, firewood, medicines, etc.
2. In Eastern Himalayas, evergreen trees grow up to an altitude of 2000m. The forest is mostly of mixed type from 1000-2500 m. Coniferous forests are seen from 2500-4000m. Beyond this, Alpine vegetation is found.

1. Pine forests are found in Western Himalayas at 1000-2000 m.

Deodar, oak, maple, birch, fir, spruce, willow, etc. Pulp for making paper, matchstick, cardboard, boats, houses, furniture, etc.
Mangrove forest Delta regions of the rivers Ganga, Mahanadi, 3odavari, (Krishna, and Kaveri. 1. The trees are low in height.

2. The leaves are thick.

3. They have breathing roots.

4. The leaves are covered with a waxy coating.

Sundari, garan, gewa, hetal, hogla, etc. Sundari trees are used to make boats. Hogla and Kolkata are used for thatching huts. These forests also yield products like wax, honey, firewood, etc.

 

Read and Learn Also WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 Geography and Environment

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment natural vegetation of india regional distibution of natural vegetation of india

 

Question 2.  Why is the conservation of forests necessary in India?
Answer:

According to environmentalists, about l/3rd of the land must be covered with forests or natural vegetation.

The necessity of conservation of forests in India is as follows—

1. Maintain ecological balance: The levels of pollution and environmental degradation are increasing rapidly. It is essential to conserve forests in order to maintain the ecological balance.

2. Prevent global warming: The forest cover adds up a lot of humidity to the atmosphere, which causes rainfall. This keeps the climate of forest regions moderate. However, deforestation and pollutants in the atmosphere increase the temperature of the atmosphere considerably. More trees must be planted and forests must be created to control this situation in order to reduce global warming.

3. Prevent drought and soil erosion: Lack of forests leads to a lack of humidity and reduces the chances of rainfall. This induces the occurrence of droughts. The soil left open and exposed due to deforestation is prone to high levels of erosion.

4. Prevent desertification: Regular droughts and continuous felling of trees may lead to the spread of deserts in arid, semi-arid and adjacent areas. Planting trees and creating forests help to prevent desertification.

5. Maintain a supply of forest products: Forests provide valuable resources like wood, honey, medicinal plants, wax, etc. Hence, forests must be conserved in order to maintain the regular supply of these forest products.

Question 3. Discuss the uses of forests in India.
Answer:

The uses of forests in India are as follows—

1. Fuel and firewood: Most of the wood collected from forests is used as firewood and fuel for cooking.

2. Saw wood: The hard and strong timber is sawn in mills in order to make furniture, doors, windows, houses, boats, ships, railway sleepers, train compartments, parts of buses and trucks, etc. Sports equipment like bats, wickets, bells, etc. are also manufactured from wood.

3. Other forest resources: Coniferous trees like pine yield resins. Forests also yield several medicinal plants, perfumed flowers, spices like cardamom, cinnamon, clove, bay leaves, etc., as well as several fruits and berries. About 275 million people in India are dependent on forests. About 2% of the country’s national income is derived from forests.

4. Indirect uses: Forests help to prevent soil erosion, increase soil fertility and prevent the spread of deserts. They help to maintain the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. They help to reduce environmental pollution and maintain ecological balance. They also promote tourism and contribute to the economic development of the country.

Question 4. How is the distribution of natural vegetation in India influenced by the climate? Or, Discuss the distribution of evergreen and deciduous monsoon forests in India.

Answer: The distribution of natural vegetation in India is influenced by the temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind direction, sunlight, etc. of the region.

Depending on these factors, natural vegetation in India is classified into five types—

  1. Tropical evergreen forests
  2. Tropical deciduous forests
  3. Tropical desert vegetation
  4. Mountain forests and
  5. Mangrove forests.

1. Tropical evergreen forests:

  1. The tropical evergreen forests or rainforests grow in regions having an average annual temperature of 27 C and annual rainfall of over 200cm.
  2. The trees are 30-35 m tall and are highly branched at the top. The broad leaves create a canopy that prevents sunlight from reaching the forest floor.
  3. Trees shed their leaves turn by turn, so the forest never looks bare.
  4. The timber is heavy, strong and hard.
  5. Trees transpire a lot of water leading to too much humidity and the formation of clouds
  6. The forest floor is always moist and full of bushes, shrubs and weeds due to heavy rainfall.

2. Tropical deciduous forests:

  1. These forests grow in regions where the annual rainfall is 100-150 cm.
  2. Rainfall is seasonal, and the trees shed their leaves in the dry season. Hence, they are called deciduous trees.
  3. The timber is hard and heavy.
  4. Trees are of medium height and the forests are not as dense as evergreen forests.

3. Tropical desert vegetation:

  1. This type of vegetation is found in regions receiving 50-75 cm annual rainfall.
  2. The trees are short and bushy and scattered here and there.
  3. The leaves are modified into thorns to reduce transpiration.
  4. The roots are very deep so as to reach the deep underground water table.
  5. The stems are often modified into fleshy green parts which are protected with a waxy coating.
  6. These plants are also known as xerophytes.

4. Mountain forests:

  1. Different types of vegetation are seen on mountains at different altitudes. The foothills usually have evergreen forests up to about 1000m altitude. Deciduous and mixed forests are found at 1000-1500m altitudes.
  2. Coniferous forests are found at about 2000-4000m altitudes. Above this altitude, Alpine vegetation is found. Beyond this level, the vegetative cover gradually disappears
  3. The wood of these trees is generally soft and used for the construction of houses, furniture, doors, windows, etc.
  4. The leaves of coniferous trees are thin and needle-shaped so that snow can slip down and not cover up the tree.
  5. The trees are usually very tall and have very thin and small branches.

5. Mangrove forests:

  1. The mangrove forests are found in the delta regions of rivers Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.
  2. The trees are short and have breathing roots, and stilt roots to help them survive in the saline and wet soil of the coastal region.
  3. The leaves are coated with a waxy material.

 

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 6 Natural Vegetation Of India Short Explanatory Anser Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the influence of climate, relief and soil on the natural vegetation of a region.
Answer:

The influence of climate, relief and soil on the natural vegetation of a region are as follows—

  1. Evergreen forests grow in regions which receive sufficient rainfall and have hot and humid climates throughout the year.
  2. Deciduous forests grow in regions where the summers are hot and wet and the winters are
    cool and dry.
  3. Thorny vegetation is seen in desert or arid regions.
  4. Grasslands are found in regions of low rainfall.
  5. Coniferous forests are found in mountainous and cold regions.
  6. Hydrophytes grow in wetlands.
  7. Mangrove trees are found in the coastal regions where the soil is saline.
  8. Podzol soil is suitable for coniferous trees to grow.
  9. Grasslands grow best in chernozem soil.
  10. Tropical deciduous forests grow best in red soil and lateritic soil.

Question 2. Classify the natural vegetation of India
Answer:

The natural vegetation of India can be classified into five regions, based on the temperature, rainfall and altitude of the region.

  1. Evergreen forests: Example—Arjun, garjan, sishu, etc.
  2. Tropical deciduous forests: Example- Sal, teak, mahua, etc.
  3. Desert vegetation: Example—Cactus, babool, date palm, etc.
  4.  Mountainous forests: Example— Pine, fir, cedar, etc.
  5. Mangrove forests: Example—Sundari, Garan, news, etc.

Question 3. Write a short note on the mangrove forests found in the coastal regions of India. OR, What are the characteristics of mangrove trees?
Answer:

The mangrove forests found in the coastal regions of India

The forests that grow in the lower deltaic region of rivers, where the soil is saline, are called mangrove forests. The Sundarbans located in the southern part of the Ganga delta is the largest mangrove forest in India as well as in the world.

Mangroves are also found in the deltas of rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri and the Andaman and Nicobar islands.

Characteristics:

  1. Mangrove trees have breathing roots that help them to breathe from the atmosphere.
  2. The trees have supporting roots called stilt roots, buttress roots, etc., that help them to stand erect in the soft, wet soil of the coastal region.
  3. The constant influence of tides keeps the soil of the mangrove forests wet and saline.
  4. The trees are evergreen due to the availability of water in the soil throughout the year
  5. The trunks of the trees are strong and hard to bear the climatic and soil conditions.
  6.  Viviparous germination is common in mangrove forests i.e. the new plants germinate from the buds of the trees, while they are still attached to the tree.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment soil in india causes of Mangrove forest

 

Species: Sundari, Garan, gewa, holla, Kolkata, etc. are common mangrove trees.

Use:

  1. The timber of mangrove trees is very strong. They are used in making cartwheels, boats, ploughs, pillars of thatched houses, etc.
  2. The forests are a source of products like honey, wax, medicines, etc.

Question 4. Discuss the coniferous forests in India.
Answer:

The coniferous forests in India

Location: The coniferous forests in India are located in snow-covered or cold climatic regions. In the Eastern Himalayas, coniferous forests lie at an altitude of 2500-4000 m while in the Western Himalayas, they are found at an altitude of 2000-3200m.

Characteristics:

  1. The trees of coniferous forests are of medium height.
  2. The trees are conical in shape with thin and small branches.
  3. The leaves are needle-shaped, which helps the snow roll down, thus not covering up the tree.
  4. The trees yield softwood.

Species: Pine, fir, spruce, birch, silver pine, laurel, etc., are common coniferous trees.

Use: The coniferous trees are a very important raw material for the paper industry. But they are less utilised in India, as they are difficult to be acquired from the rugged Himalayan region.

Question 5. Classify the natural vegetation of the Himalayan region.
Answer:

The type of natural vegetation found in the Himalayan region keeps on changing with the increase in altitude.

They can be classified as follows-

 

Type of vegetation Regional distribution  Main species Causes of formation
1. Evergreen forests Foothills of Eastern Himalayas at an altitude of 1000-2000m. Shishu, chaplas, garjan, etc. Temperatures around 30°C and rainfall above 200cm induce the formation of such forests.
2. Mixed forests 1000-2500m in Eastern Himalayas, 500-2000m in Western Himalayas. Poplar, oak, maple, birch, laurel, etc. Temperature reduces with the rise in altitude. Hence, mixed forests of temperate evergreen and temperate deciduous trees are found.
3. Coniferous forests 2500-4000m in Eastern Himalayas, 2000-3000m in Western Himalayas. Pine, fir, spruce, laurel, etc. Snowfall and severe cold have caused modifications in the trees. Trees with conical shapes and thin needle-shaped leaves have grown here.
4. Alpine forest Above 3000 m up to 4500m in the Western Himalayas. Also found in Eastern Himalayas. Juniper, larch, rhododendron, etc. These trees grow in the spring season when the snow melts and the soil is exposed for a few months.

 

Question 6. Why are mangrove forests found in delta regions?
Answer:

The reasons for which mangrove forests are found in delta regions are—

1. The soft saline soil makes it difficult for plants to breathe. Mangrove trees have separate breathing roots that help them to survive in saline and wet soil.

2. The constant tidal effects make it difficult for the trees to stand erect in the soft soil. Mangrove trees have stilt and buttress roots that help them to stand erect.

3. The water-logged conditions may spoil or damage the seeds of plants and hamper germination. But the mangrove trees undergo viviparous germination, where new plants germinate from seeds and buds of the mother tree before they fall in the water or get damaged or float away.

Question 7. Where wet evergreen forests are found in India? State its characteristics.
Answer:

In India, wet evergreen forests are found in the western slope of the Western Ghats, the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas, and hilly regions of the northeast in the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills.

Characteristics:

  1. Evergreen trees grow in India in regions having an average annual temperature of 27°C and annual rainfall of above 200 cm.
  2. The trees remain evergreen due to adequate water available from the heavy rainfall.
  3. The hot and humid climate leads to the fast and dense growth of the forest.
  4. The trees are very tall and highly branched at the top.
  5.  The forest floor is covered with bushes, creepers and weeds. 6. Orchids and other symbiotic plants grow on the trunks of large trees.

Question 8. What do you understand by social forestry?
Answer:

Social forestry

The afforestation of barren lands and deforested areas in order to bring about environmental, rural and social development is known as ‘Social forestry’.

The term ‘Social forestry’ was first used in India in the year 1977 by the National Commission on Agriculture, Government of India.

Regions are suitable for practising social forestry—

  1. Broken banks of rivers and canals.
  2. Barren lands along railway lines or highways.
  3. Banks of ponds and lakes.
  4. Barren lands beside mining areas.
  5. Wastelands in the outskirts of towns and cities.
  6. Vacant land behind schools, temples, mosques, etc.

Aim:

  1. Using barren and fallow lands to increase the production of timber.
  2. Maintaining the ecological balance of the environment.
  3. Prevent soil erosion.
  4. Increase in production of fruits and vegetables and other plants that are economically important.
  5. Increase the supply of fuel wood and other forest products.
  6. Create job opportunities for unskilled workers.

Species:

Neem, eucalyptus, bamboo, babool, acacia, etc., are mainly grown on barren and fallow lands.

Question 9. Discuss the characteristic features of the tropical desert vegetation.
Answer:

The trees that grow in hot desert regions are called xerophytes.

The characteristic features of tropical desert vegetation are—

Characteristics:

  1. The xerophytes have very long roots that help to absorb water from deep underground.
  2. The plants have modified leaves called thorns.
  3. Some plants have small leaves, so minimal moisture is lost from the leaf’s surfaces.
  4. The stems are modified into green fleshy structures that are covered with a layer of waxy material.
  5. The stems of the plants are often hairy.
  6. The plants lie far away from one another i.e., they are scattered here and there.
  7. The flowers of these plants are of bright colours and emit a strong smell in order to attract insects and animals to help in pollination.

Question 10. Why do different types of forests lie in different parts of the Himalayan mountains?
Answer:

Natural vegetation is dependent on the climatic conditions, soil and relief of a region.

The causes of the growth of different types of forests in different parts of the Himalayan mountains are as follows—

1. Altitude: The climatic conditions of the Himalayan region are different at different altitudes. With the rise in altitude, the temperature reduces. Rainfall patterns also change. Hence, the type of vegetation goes on changing with the increase in altitude.

2. Rainfall and humidity: Rainfall is not evenly distributed along the mountainous region of the Himalayas. The southwest monsoon winds hit the eastern Himalayas first and provide much more rainfall there compared to the western Himalayas. Thus, different types of trees are found at the same altitude in the Eastern and Western Himalayas.

3. Latitude: The Western Himalayas lie at a higher latitude than the Eastern Himalayas. Hence, the western region is colder than the eastern region and has different types of forests.

Question 12. What are evergreen forests? Where are they found in India?
Answer:

Evergreen forests

The forests where all the trees do not shed their leaves together in any particular season, are called evergreen forests. The forests appear green throughout the year because the trees shed their leaves turn by turn and do not make the forest bare at any time of the year. These forests grow in regions having rainfall above 200 cm.

The soil always remains wet, and hence trees do not need to shed leaves in a season to prevent loss of water through transpiration. The trees found in these forests are Shishu, garden, rosewood, ironwood, etc.

Location: In India, evergreen forests are found in the Terai region at the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas, hilly regions of Assam, the western slope of Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar island, the southern slope of Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills, etc.

Question 13. Why are deciduous trees called so?
Answer:

The trees that grow in regions where rainfall occurs in a particular season, are called deciduous trees. As water is not available in all seasons, the trees shed their leaves in the dry season in order to minimise transpiration and loss of water. Thus, they are called deciduous trees (trees that shed their leaves in dry seasons).

Question 14. Write three characteristics of tropical evergreen forests.
Answer:

Three characteristics of tropical evergreen forests are—

  1. The tropical evergreen forests grow where the average annual temperature is around 27°C and rainfall is more than 200 cm.
  2. The trees grow as tall as 30-35m. They are heavily branched at the top and the leaves interweave to form a canopy.
  3. The trees shed some amount of leaves throughout the year and also transpire huge amounts of water that help to form clouds and cause rainfall.

Question 15. Why do evergreen forests grow in the Andaman and Nicobar islands and the western slope of the Western Ghats?
Answer:

Both the Andaman and Nicobar islands and the western slope of the Western Ghats receive an annual average rainfall of over 200 cm, and the average temperature is 25°-27°C. Hot and wet climate prevails in both regions. Thus, evergreen forests are found in these regions.

Question 16. Why are thorny bushes found on the eastern slope of the Western Ghats?
Answer:

Although the western slope of the Western Ghats receives heavy rainfall the eastern slope lies in the rainshadow area and receives only about 20-25 cm of annual rainfall. Thus, the natural vegetation found here is thorny, bushy and not at all dense.

Question 17. Why are breathing roots seen in mangrove trees?
Answer:

The mangrove trees grow in the wet saline soil of the delta regions. The soil of this region is clayey and the pore spaces between the soil particles are very small.

Thus, they always remain clogged with water due to the influence of tides. Very little air is present in the soil, which is insufficient for the trees to survive. Thus, modified roots called breathing roots to develop in mangrove trees, which help the trees to breathe directly from the atmosphere and survive.

Question 18. What is the importance of natural vegetation in the environment?
Answer:

Natural vegetation is important for the environment because of the following reasons—

  1. Natural vegetation helps to maintain a balance between the oxygen and carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere.
  2. The vegetative cover helps to control soil erosion.
  3. The natural vegetation influences the climate of the region to a great extent. The level of humidity, the possibility of rainfall and the temperature of the region is influenced by the vegetative cover.
  4. The vegetative cover helps to prevent desertification.
  5. Natural vegetation helps to maintain the ecological balance of the environment.
  6. We get products like wood, honey, wax, medicines, etc., from the forests.
  7. The diversity of species of plants as well as animals is maintained by forests.

Question 18. Mention the factors that have posed a threat to the forest cover of India.
Answer:

The total forest and tree cover in India is about 24.16% of the total land surface. Thus, it is necessary to conserve forests.

The factors posing a threat to the forest cover of India are—

1. Illegal felling of trees, exploitation of forest resources and poaching of animals: In India, every year huge number of trees are cut illegally. Also, the poaching of wild animals has reduced their numbers considerably.

2. Conversion of forest lands into agricultural plots: Due to the rapid increase in population and high demand for food grains, the forests are being cut off and converted to agricultural plots. Thus, forest cover is gradually reducing.

3. Forest fires and pest attacks: Large tracts of vegetal cover are destroyed every year due to forest fires and pest attacks on the trees. The Forest Department of India has not found an effective solution to this problem.

Question 19. Why has the timber industry not developed much in India?
Answer:

Although India has forest covers in many regions, the timber industry is not yet developed here due to the following reasons—

1. Dense forest: The predominant type of forest found in India is tropical deciduous forests. These forests are very dense and difficult to exploit. Choosing trees of a particular species is also difficult. Hence, the yield of timber is quite low.

2. Hardwood: The major portion of the forests in India are evergreen and tropical deciduous forests. These forests yield hardwood, which is difficult to cut and too heavy to be brought out of the forests. The amount of coniferous forests is very less in India. Thus, the economic exploitation of softwood for various purposes is very low.

3. Number of species: In tropical deciduous forests various species of trees grow together. So, it is difficult to identify any one species of tree and cut them down and carry them out of the forest.

4. Humid climate: The climate of India mostly remains hot and wet. Such a climate is not suitable for cutting down trees. The forest floor mostly remains wet and covered with weeds, which makes the felling and dragging of trees out of the forests quite difficult.

5. Lack of facilities: Lack of proper transportation facilities, technology for scientific exploitation and infrastructure of trade and commerce intensifies the above-mentioned problems.

Question 20. How should forests be conserved in India?
Answer:

In the year 2013, the total vegetative cover of the Indian landmass was about 24.16% of the total land surface. However, it is necessary to have at least 33% of forest cover over the total land surface. So, the conservation of forests is very necessary for India.

The steps taken up for the conservation of forests in India are—

1. Prevention of uncontrolled and unscientific deforestation: Uncontrolled and unnecessary felling of trees must be stopped. Felling of trees must be done keeping in mind the ecological balance of the environment.

2. Prevention of felling of immature trees: It must be made sure that immature trees are not cut off. This reduces the longevity of the trees. Only old and mature trees should be felled.

3. Substitute of firewood: In India, deforestation is carried out mainly for the collection of firewood. The use of substitute fuels like biogas, dung cake, solar energy, electric oven, etc., will reduce the use of firewood. Thus, the felling of trees can be reduced.

4. Controlling forest fires: A huge amount of forests are destroyed every year due to forest fires. Preventive measures must be taken to control forest fires so that forests do not get destroyed in this manner.

5. Preventing uncontrolled grazing of animals: Forests and grasslands may get permanently destroyed due to uncontrolled grazing of animals. The animals may damage or eat away the newly planted saplings, thus destroying forests indirectly.

6. Afforestation and reforestation: The regions where forests have been felled can be reforested and new forests can be created. Afforestation of fallow and barren land with the help of irrigation, advanced farming techniques and organic fertilisers helps to increase total forest cover.

7. Human participation: Man is responsible directly or indirectly for deforestation and the felling of trees. Thus, it is very essential to change his outlook and act responsibly. The ‘Joint Forest Management’ programme has been adopted; in order to keep an eye on the forest development programmes.

8. Treating diseased plants: The trees of a forest may be attacked by pests and harmful bacteria. This may decay the trees or reduce their longevity. Thus, the diseased trees must be treated in time.

9. Awareness programmes: The people of India must be made aware of the idea of afforestation. 5th June is celebrated annually as World Environment Day. Van Mahotsav and other programmes have been adopted with the aim of increasing the vegetative cover of India.

Question 21. Mention the steps taken for forest conservation in India,
Answer:

Forests are an important natural resource. However, they are being destroyed and damaged by reckless, unplanned and unscientific use. It is necessary to stop this destruction in order to prevent environmental degradation.

The steps taken for the conservation of forests in India are—

  1. Planting of trees: Every year during the rainy season, a huge number of saplings are planted under various programmes of ‘Van Mahotsav’.
  2. Forest Conservation Act: Several rules and regulations have been made for the conservation of forests and the Forest Conservation Act has been implemented since 1980.
  3. Pesticides: Pesticides are used at regular intervals to save the forests from pest attacks and the decay of plants.
  4. Preventing deforestation: Many steps have been taken to prevent unnecessary deforestation and the felling of immature trees.
  5. Animal grazing: The grazing of animals has been prohibited in reserved forests and protected forests.
  6. Research centres: The Forest Research Institute has been established at Dehradun to conduct various research regarding the betterment of forests.
  7. Social and agricultural forestry: These programmes have been taken up to convert fallow and barren lands into forest lands.
  8. Prohibiting jhum cultivation: Practices like jhum cultivation that severely destroy forests, have been prohibited.

 

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 6 Natural Vegetation Of India Short Answer Type Questions

 

Question 1. What do you mean by natural vegetation?
Answer:

Natural vegetation

The vegetation growing naturally in a region under the influence of temperature, rainfall, humidity, soil type, and terrain prevalent in that region and without any human interference is called natural vegetation. The naturally growing vegetation is responsible for creating forests and grasslands.

Question 2. Where are evergreen trees found in India?
Answer:

Evergreen trees are found in those regions of India where annual rainfall is above 200 cm. E.g.—the Terai region of the Eastern Himalayas, hilly regions of Assam, the western slope of the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar islands, etc.

Question 3. Where are wet deciduous forests found in India?
Answer:

The wet deciduous forests are found in India in the plains of Assam, the plateau region of Jharkhand, the eastern part of
Gangetic plains, plateau and plain region of West Bengal, plateau and coastal region of Odisha, parts of the Deccan plateau except the rainshadow area of the eastern slope of Western Ghats. The wet deciduous forests are also known as monsoon forests.

Question 4. Name some evergreen trees and mention their uses.
Answer:

Some evergreen trees are Shishu, Marjan, rubber, ironwood, etc.

Uses: The evergreen trees are very tall and produce very hard timber. So, they are used in making railway sleepers, furniture and also in construction works.

Question 5. Name a region in India where there is a high concentration of evergreen trees. What kind of climate prevails there?
Answer:

A high concentration of evergreen trees is found on the western slope of the Western Ghats. The climate prevailing there is a tropical monsoon climate.

Question 6. Where are temperate deciduous forests found in India?
Answer:

The temperate deciduous forests are found in the eastern Himalayas at an altitude of 1000-2500 m and in the Western Himalayas at an altitude of 500-2000 m. Some of the main trees found in these forests are—oak, maple, cedar, walnut, etc.

Question 7. In which region of India are coniferous trees found?
Answer:

In India, coniferous trees are found in the Eastern Himalayas at an altitude of 25004000m and in the Western Himalayas at an altitude of 2000-3200m.

Question 8. Name some deciduous trees and mention their uses.
Answer:

Some common deciduous trees are—sal, teak, simul, jarul, mahua, mango, banyan, peepal, neem, etc.

Uses:

  1. The timber of these trees is used for making types of furniture, doors, windows and vehicle parts.
  2. The branches and twigs are used as firewood in rural areas.
  3. Lac insects are cultured on Palash and mahua trees for obtaining lac.

Question 9. Name the plants which are found in the desert region of India.
Answer:

The plants which are found in the desert region of India are—cacti, babool, thorny bushes, date palms and some grass.

Question 10. What is Alpine vegetation?
Answer:

Alpine vegetation

The vegetation found above 4000m in the Eastern Himalayas and 3200m in the Western Himalayas is known as Alpine vegetation. These plants have low height and their forest is not dense. Such plants are common in the Alpine region of Europe. Hence they are popularly known as Alpine vegetation. Examples—Juniper, hidden dragon, larch, some bushes and grass.

Question 11. Name two regions in India where mangrove forest is found.
Answer:

Mangrove forests in India are found in the Sundarbans lying in the southern part of the Ganga delta and the Bhitarkanika forest of Odisha.

Question 12. What do you mean by mangrove vegetation? OR, What kind of forest is found in the saline soil of the delta region?
Answer:

Mangrove vegetation

The special type of vegetation growing in the saline soil of the delta regions is called mangrove vegetation. The trees of the mangrove vegetation have breathing roots that help them to survive in the saline and soft moist soil. Some important species of mangrove vegetation are—Sundari, Garan, gewa, Hetal, etc.

The Sundarbans of the southern part of the Ganga delta is the largest mangrove forest in India. The Bhitarkanika forest of Odisha is the second-largest mangrove forest.

Question 13. Where mangrove forests are found in India?
Answer:

Mangrove forests are found in India in the delta regions of the Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri and Krishna rivers. The Sundarbans located in the southern part of the Ganga delta is the largest mangrove forest in India.

Bhitarkanika forest in the delta of river Mahanadi in Odisha is the second largest mangrove forest in India.

Question 14. Where wet temperate forests are found in India?
Answer:

Wet temperate forests are found in the hilly regions of central and southern India at an altitude of 1500 m. Cinchona, elm, birch and laurel are common species of trees found in these forests.

Question 15. Name the places in India where forest research institutes are present.
Answer:

The main Forest Research Institute of India is located at Dehradun in Uttarakhand. The other institutes are located at Jodhpur in Rajasthan, Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh, Bengaluru in Karnataka, Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, etc.

Question 16. What do you mean by agroforestry?
Answer:

Agroforestry

The practice of planting trees on or around agricultural fields on fallow or barren lands to create forests is called agroforestry. The trees are planted and maintained by the farmers in order to obtain wood, fruits, medicines, biotic fertilisers, etc.

Question 17. Why are the people of India encouraged to practice afforestation?
Answer:

The people of India are encouraged to practice afforestation because—

  1. Forests help in causing rainfall.
  2. Forests help to maintain the ecological balance of the environment. Felling trees in huge numbers may cause problems like floods, droughts, soil erosion, etc.
  3. The minimum amount of forest cover needed on a land surface to maintain ecological balance is about 33%. India has a forest cover of only 24.16%. Hence, afforestation is necessary. Otherwise, the country will gradually turn into a desert.
  4. Forests provide us with various useful products like timber, firewood, medicinal plants, lac, honey, etc.

Question 18. How does Jhum cultivation destroy forest cover?
Answer:

In Jhum cultivation, the forest land is burnt and cleared for agricultural purposes. Agriculture is carried out for 3-4 years on the plot, after which the fertility of the soil reduces considerably.

The plot fails to produce the expected amount of crops. Hence, a new forest is cut off and land is cleared for agriculture. This way Jhum cultivation destroys the forest cover.

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 6 Natural Vegetation Of India Multiple Choice Type Questions

Write the correct answer from the given, alternatives

Question 1. Which of the following is an evergreen tree?

  1. Garan
  2. Teak
  3. Kendu
  4. Ironwood

Answer: 4. Ironwood

Question 2. Which type of vegetation is found in the Chotanagpur plateau?

  1. Deciduous
  2. Evergreen
  3. Coniferous
  4. Mangrove

Answer: 1. Deciduous

Question 3. Maximum forest area is found in the state of—

  1. West Bengal
  2. Madhya Pradesh
  3. Sikkim
  4. Assam

Answer: 2. Madhya Pradesh

Question 4. Mangrove forests are seen in—

  1. Delta regions
  2. Deserts
  3. Mountains
  4. Plains

Answer: 1. Delta regions

Question 5. Which type of vegetation is mostly found in India?

  1. Evergreen
  2. Mangrove
  3. Deciduous
  4. Coniferous

Answer: 3. Deciduous

Question 6. A common species of desert vegetation is—

  1. Rhododendron
  2. Cactus
  3. Shishu
  4. Mango

Answer: 2. Cactus

Question 7. Which type of vegetation is found in the rainshadow area of the Western Ghats?

  1. Bushes and grass
  2. Coniferous
  3. Mangrove
  4. Evergreen

Answer: 1. Bushes and grass

Question 8. Which of the following national parks lies in the southern region of West Bengal?

  1. Jaldapara
  2. Kanha
  3. Kaziranga
  4. Sundarban

Answer: 4. Sundarban

Question 9. A tree commonly found in the Indian desert is—

  1. Shishu
  2. Cactus
  3. Popular
  4. Mahogany

Answer: 2. Cactus

Question 10. Mangrove forests grow in—

  1. Black soil
  2. CD Saline soil
  3. Laterite soil
  4. Alluvial soil

Answer: 2. CD Saline soil

Question 11. The soil of evergreen forests always remains—

  1. Dry
  2. Moist
  3. Sandy
  4. Saline

Answer: 2. Moist

Question 12. Tall and conical trees are found in—

  1. Sundarban
  2. Deserts
  3. Mountainous regions
  4. Plateau regions

Answer: 3. Mountainous regions

Question 13. Natural vegetation is mostly influenced by—

  1. Landform
  2. Soil
  3. Climate
  4. Man

Answer: 3. Climate

Question 14. The largest mangrove forest in India lies in the—

  1. Gangetic delta
  2. Mahanadi delta
  3. Godavari delta
  4. Krishna delta

Answer: 1. Gangetic delta

Question 15. The vegetation found at the foothills of the Himalayas is—

  1. Deciduous
  2. Evergreen
  3. Thorny bushes
  4. Coniferous

Answer: 2. Evergreen

Question 16. The forests found over an altitude of 3000 4000m in the Himalayan range are—

  1. Mixed forests
  2. Deciduous forests
  3. Alpine forests
  4. Coniferous forests

Answer: 3. Alpine forests

Question 17. An important mangrove forest of India is—

  1. Gorumara
  2. Jaldapara
  3. Bhitarkanika
  4. Gir

Answer: 3. Bhitarkanika

Question 18. Presently, the total forest cover of India is about—

  1. 6.40 lakh sq. km.
  2. 6.98 lakh sq. km.
  3. 640 lakh sq. km.
  4. 2.60 lakh sq. km.

Answer: 2. 6.98 lacks sq. km.

Question 19. The predominant type of vegetation found in West Bengal is—

  1. Evergreen
  2. Coniferous
  3. Wet Deciduous
  4. Mangrove

Answer: 3. Wet Deciduous

Question 20. Xerophytic trees are mostly found in—

  1. Deserts
  2. Himalayan mountains
  3. Deccan plateau
  4. Coastal areas

Answer: 1. Deserts

Question 21. Sandalwood grows in—

  1. Evergreen forests
  2. Coniferous forests
  3. Deciduous forests
  4. Mangrove forests

Answer: 3. Deciduous forests

Question 22. The Forest Research Institute of India is located in—

  1. Dehradun
  2. Kolkata
  3. Delhi
  4. Cuttack

Answer: 1. Dehradun

Question 23. The term ‘Social forestry’ was first used in—

  1. 1976
  2. 1970
  3. 1990
  4. 2011

Answer: 1. 1976

Question 24. The friction of dry leaves and branches of trees in forests causes—

  1. Rainfall
  2. Forest fires
  3. Landslides
  4. Soil erosion

Answer: 2. Forest fires

Question 25. It is necessary to have at least forest cover on land.

  1. 23%
  2. 28%
  3. 33%
  4. 38%

Answer: 3. 33%

Question 26. Growing trees along with agricultural crops in barren or fallow lands is known as—

  1. Social forestry
  2. Agroforestry
  3. Agriculture
  4. Economic forestry

Answer: 2. Agroforestry

 

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 6 Natural Vegetation Of India If The Statement Is True.

Write True And If False Write False Against The Following

Question 1. ‘Babool’ is a xerophytic plant.
Answer: True

Question 2. Wood is the main source of fuel used in India for cooking.
Answer: True

Question 3. The eastern slope of the Western Ghats is covered with evergreen forests.
Answer: False

Question 4. The deciduous forests of India are also known as monsoon forests.
Answer: True

Question 5. The mangrove forest in the Ganga- Brahmaputra delta region is called Sundarban.
Answer: True

Question 6. Thorny bushes are found in desert regions.
Answer: True

Question 7. Mango, banyan, peepal, etc., are wet deciduous trees.
Answer: True

Question 8. The second largest mangrove forest of India is Bhitarkanika.
Answer: True

Question 9. Rosewood and ironwood are evergreen trees.
Answer: True

Question 10. The evergreen trees grow far from one another in the forest.
Answer: False

Question 11. Cactus and other thorny plants are seen in eastern Rajasthan.
Answer: False

Question 12. The deciduous trees shed their leaves in the rainy season.
Answer: True

Question 13. The tidal effects of the sea make the mangrove forests evergreen.
Answer: True

Question 14. Coniferous forests grow at the foothills of the Himalayas.
Answer: False

Question 15. Breathing roots are seen in desert vegetation.
Answer: False

Question 16. The soil in the desert region remains moist throughout the year.
Answer: False

Question 17. Evergreen forests grow in regions receiving an average annual rainfall of above 200 cm.
Answer: True

Question 18. The eastern Himalayas have more forest cover than the Western Himalayas.
Answer: True

Question 19. Evergreen trees are present in Shillong in Meghalaya.
Answer: False

Question 20. Rhododendron is an Alpine vegetation.
Answer: True

Question 21. Sundari is a coniferous tree.
Answer: False

Question 22. The natural vegetation of desert regions is called xerophytic vegetation.
Answer: True

Question 23. Forests help to control desertification.
Answer: True

Question 24. Lac is collected from teak trees.
Answer: False

Question 25. ‘Kash’ is a grass type of vegetation.
Answer: True

Question 26. The largest coniferous forest in India is found in Madhya Pradesh.
Answer: False

Question 27. The coniferous forests are found at a higher altitude than Alpine forests.
Answer: False

Question 28. Lush green bushes are found in desert regions.
Answer: False

Question 29. Deforestation helps to conserve forests.
Answer: False

Question 30. Trees and agricultural crops are grown together in agroforestry.
Answer: True

Question 31. The Forest Conservation Act was implemented in India in the year 1980.
Answer: True

Question 32. Forest fires may start due to friction between dry leaves and branches.
Answer: True

Question 33. Forests can be protected by practising social forestry.
Answer: True

Question 34. The use of sawn timber and wood is highest in India.
Answer: True

Question 35. ‘Van Mahotsav’ is celebrated all, over the world on 5th June.
Answer: False

Question 36. Forests do not encourage the growth of tourism.
Answer: False

Question 37. Agroforestry is another form of social forestry.
Answer: True

Question 38. The development of vegetative cover on barren and fallow lands help to reduce soil erosion.
Answer: True

Question 39. Tropical Evergreen forests are found in the states of Bihar and Chhattisgarh.
Answer: False

 

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 6 Natural Vegetation Of India Fill In The Blanks With Suitable Words

Question 1. ______ Lac comes from that feed on the Indian plum and Kusum trees.
Answer: Lac in insects

Question 2. Silkworms are cultured on ______ trees.
Answer: Mulberry

Question 3. The western slope of Westen Ghats has ______ forests.
Answer: Evergreen

Question 4. The Sundarbans have been named after the ______ trees.
Answer: Sundari

Question 5. Breathing roots are found in the trees of ______ forests in India.
Answer: Mangrove

Question 6. The thorny plants of the desert region are called ______
Answer: Xerogrove

Question 7. Vegetation growing in a region depending on the climatic characteristics and landform of the region is called ______
Answer: Natural vegetation

Question 8. Coniferous trees grow best in ______ regions.
Answer: Mountainous

Question 9. Sabai grass grows in ______ forests.
Answer: Dry deciduous

Question 10. The mangrove vegetation in West Bengal is popularly known as ______
Answer: Sundarbans

Question 11. The largest mangrove forest in India is in the ______
Answer: Sundarbans

Question 12. The tropical deciduous forests of India are also known as ______
Answer: Monsoon Forests

Question 13. Pine and fir are examples of ______ trees.
Answer: Coniferous

Question 14. ______ type of vegetation is found in the rainshadow area of India.
Answer: Savannah

Question 15. Forest is a ______ resource.
Answer: Renewable

Question 16. Dates and palms are trees of ______ vegetation.
Answer: Desert

Question 17. The Dooars region of West Bengal comprises ______ forests.
Answer: Tropical evergreen

Question 18. The tropical evergreen trees can be as tall as ______ metre.
Answer: 60

Question 19. The ______ forests of India are maximum utilised economically.
Answer: Tropical deciduous

Question 20. About 80% of the Indian landmass was covered with forests in ______ B.C.
Answer: 3000

Question 21. The only floating forest in India is ______ in Manipur.
Answer: keibul lamjao National park

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 6 Natural Vegetation Of India Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. What percentage of vegetative cover is needed to designate a place as a forest?
Answer: 5% per hectare.

Question 2. Who was the first to classify the forests of India?
Answer: k H. G. Champion in 1936.

Question 3. Which type of forest is found in Andaman and Nicobar islands?
Answer: Tropical evergreen forest.

Question 4. Which kind of tree is the rubber tree?
Answer: Tropical evergreen tree.

Question 5. Which type of forests grows in regions receiving rainfall higher than 200 cm?
Answer: Evergreen forests.

Question 6. Which type of trees exhibits well-defined annual growth rings?
Answer: Tropical deciduous trees.

Question 7. Mention one characteristic feature of desert vegetation.
Answer: The plants are thorny.

Question 8. Which type of vegetation does cactus belong to?
Answer: Desert vegetation.

Question 9. Which type of forest is commonly seen in the Himalayas at an altitude of 1000-3000 m?
Answer: Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest.

Question 10. What is the imaginary line beyond which vegetation does not grow called?
Answer: Treeline.

Question 11. Which trees have breathing roots?
Answer: Mangrove trees.

Question 12. Which is the largest mangrove forest in India?
Answer: Sundarbans.

Question 13. What per cent of land is occupied by India among the total land surface of the world?
Answer: About 1%.

Question 14. What per cent of land is occupied by forests in India?
Answer: 24.16%.

Question 15. What population of India is forest-dependent?
Answer: About 275 million people.

Question 16. What share of the national revenue of India comes from forests?
Answer: About 2%.

Question 17. How much area of the land surface of India was covered with forests in 3000 B.C.?
Answer: About 80%.

Question 18. Name the type of vegetation found in arid and semi-arid regions.
Answer: Xerophytic vegetation.

Question 19. At what altitude are Alpine forests found in the Himalayas?
Answer: Above 4000 m.

Question 20. Name an evergreen forest region of India.
Answer: Western slope of Western Ghats.

Question 21. Name a xerophytic tree.
Answer: Babool.

Question 22. Which forests in India are economically utilised the most?
Answer: Tropical deciduous forests.

Question 23. Which trees are used to manufacture matchsticks?
Answer: Coniferous trees.

Question 24. Mention an indirect use of forests.
Answer: Prevention of soil erosion.

Question 25. The Forest Research Institute of India is located in which city?
Answer: Dehradun.

Question 26. What are agriculture and forestry known as?
Answer: Agroforestry.

Question 27. Mention two direct uses of forests.
Answer: Manufacturing furniture and as raw material for the paper industry.

Question 28. Name the forest situated at the mouth of river Kaveri in Tamil Nadu.
Answer: Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary.

Question 29. When was the first National Forest Policy of India adopted?
Answer: 1952.

Question 30. which forest of Indian lions is found?
Answer: Gir Forest in Gujarat.

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 6 Natural Vegetation Of India Match The Left Column With The Right Column

1.

Left column  Right column 
1.  Tropical evergreen forest A. Roots grow deep into the ground in search of water
2. Tropical wet Deciduous forests B. Breathing roots
3. Desert vegetation C. The trees are conical in shape
4. Coniferous forest D. Dense Forest
5. Mangrove forest E. Shed their leaves in dry seasons

Answer: 1-D,2-E,3-A,4-C,5-B

2.

Left column  Right column 
1. Sundari A. Example of coniferous tree
2. Babool B. Example of wet deciduous tree
3. Teak C. Grows in the semi-arid region
4. Bamboo D. Example mangrove tree
5. Pine E. Example of an evergreen tree

Answer: 1-D,2-C,3-B,4-E,5-A

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 3 Water Resources Of India

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 3 Water Resources Of India Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Describe the courses of the three major rivers of northern India.
Answer:

The three major rivers of northern India are—the Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra.

1. The Ganga: The total length of the river Ganga is 2525 km, of which 2017 km lies in India. This is the most important river in India. The course of the Ganga can be divided into three parts—

1. Upper Course: The river Ganga rises from the Gomukh cave of the Gangotri glacier in the Garhwal Himalayas. Here the river is known as the river Bhagirathi. The river Alaknanda meets the river Bhagirathi at Devaprayag, and the combined flow is known as the river Ganga. The stretch of the river from its source up to Haridwar is known as its upper course.

2. Middle course: The middle course of the river Ganga stretches from Haridwar to the Rajmahal hills. The right bank tributaries Yamuna and Son and the left bank tributaries Gomti, Ghaghara, Ramganga, Gandak, Kosi, etc. meet the river Ganga in this course and multiply both its load and volume of water. The most important tributary of the river Ganga is the river, Yamuna.

3. Lower course: The lower course of the river Ganga extends from south of Rajmahal hills to the mouth in the Bay of Bengal. The Ganga after entering West Bengal bifurcates into two branches near Dhulian of Murshidabad. One of the branches enters Bangladesh as Padma and later drains into the Bay of Bengal as the river Meghna.

Read and Learn Also WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 Geography and Environment

The other branch flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river before meeting the Bay of Bengal. The right bank tributaries in this course are—Ajay, Damodar, Kangsabati, and Rupnarayan. The left bank’s tributaries are— Jalangi,
Mathabhanga, Churni, etc. The river Ganga together with the river Brahmaputra forms the largest delta in the world.

2. The Indus: The Indus is the longest and the most important river in northwestern India. It stretches for 2900 km, of which 1114 km lies in India. It rises from the Senge Khabab glacier near the Manas Sarovar in the Greater Himalayas. It flows through Jammu and Kashmir and then turns southwards near Nanga Parbat, entering Pakistan. From there it flows southwards and meets the Arabian Sea (southeast of Karachi).

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment courses of river ganga

The most important left-bank tributaries of the river Indus are— Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. These tributaries flow over Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Punjab. The right bank tributaries are— Shyok, Gilgit, Shigar, etc. The river Indus forms deep gorges near the Nanga Parbat massif. It forms a small delta at its mouth.

3. The Brahmaputra: The river Brahmaputra is the most important river in north-eastern India. It flows for 2900 km, of which 916 km lies in India. The river rises from the Chemayungdung glacier in Tibet. Here it flows as river Tsangpo over the Tibetan plateau for about 1500 km.

Near the Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a sharp turn towards the southwest and enters Arunachal Pradesh as river Dihang. The Dihang meets the rivers Dibang and Lohit near Sadiya in Assam. The combined flow of these three rivers flows as the river Brahmaputra westwards over Assam till Dhubri.

From Dhubri it turns southwards and enters Bangladesh as the river Jamuna. It meets the river Padma near Goalondo and enters the Bay of Bengal. The course of the river Brahmaputra in Assam is highly braided, forming several islands. The island of Majuli near Jorhat in Assam is the largest riverine island in India.

Some important right-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are— Subansiri, Kameng or Jiya Bharali, Manas, and Sankosh. Some left-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are- Dhansiri, Kopili, and Buri Dihing.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment courses of river indus

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment courses of river Brahmaputa

Question 2. Compare the characteristic features of the rivers of North and South India.
Answer:

The comparison of the characteristic features of the rivers of North and South India are as follows—

Point of comparison North Indian rivers South Indian rivers
Nature of flow The rivers of North India are both rainfed and snow-fed. Hence, they are perennial. These rivers are mostly rainfed. They tend to dry up in the dry season. Hence, they are non-perennial.
Course of rivers The rivers exhibit their upper, middle, and lower courses prominently. The rivers do not exhibit the upper, middle, and lower courses prominently. In many cases, these three courses are not at all present.
Nature of the course Most of the rivers tend to deviate from their original courses in the lower stretch. Hence, oxbow lakes and meanders are formed. Most of the rivers flow through hard rocky regions. They do not change their courses. Hence, meanders and oxbow lakes are absent.
Valleys They form deep V-shaped and 1-shaped valleys in their upper courses. Gorges are very common. They form very few deep valleys.
Length These rivers are very long. These rivers are comparatively short.
Silt deposition These rivers erode and bring down huge volumes of detritus materials from the mountains and deposit them in their lower courses. These rivers flow over hard resistant rock surfaces. Hence, the level of erosion is low, and so results in a lesser amount of silt deposition.
Hydel power generation Hydel power can be generated only in the upper course of the rivers, where they flow with great speed. The middle and lower courses are not suitable for power generation. The rivers have formed numerous waterfalls flowing over the plateau region. Hence, they are suitable for hydel power generation almost throughout their courses.
Irrigation The rivers being perennial are suitable for irrigation throughout the year. The rivers can be used for irrigation only if water is stored behind dams.
Navigability The rivers are perennial. The middle and lower courses are navigable as they have a very gentle slope. The rivers are non-perennial. They flow over rugged terrain. Hence, they are not navigable.
Tributaries and distributaries The rivers flow for a very long distance and have numerous tributaries. The lower courses of the rivers are divided into several distributaries due to the deposition of silt in the channel. The rivers flow through the plateau region and have fewer tributaries. The number of distributaries is fewer as well because the amount of silt deposition is less.
Delta The North Indian rivers deposit huge quantities of silt at their mouths and hence form large deltas. The South Indian rivers deposit small quantities of silt at their mouths and hence form small and narrow deltas. In some cases, the rivers do not form deltas at all.

 

Question 3 Give a short description of the main rivers of India
Answer:

The main river of India and their different features are listed below-

 River Length Source Mouth States/UTs covered Tributaries Main cities on banks
Ganga 5525 km of which 2517 km is India. Gomukh cave of the Gangotri glacier. Bay of Bengal Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal Left bank: Ghaghara, Kosi Ramganga, Gandak Right bank: Yamuna, Son Haridwar, Kanpur. Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, Kolkata
Indus 2880 km of Senge Arabian Jammu and Left bank: Skardu,
which 1114 km lies in India Khabab near Manas Sarovar Sea Kashmir Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej Right bank: Shyok, Gilgit Bunji, Chilas
Brahma- 2900 km of Chemung- Bay of Arunachal Left bank: Kopili Dibrugarh,
Putra which 916 km lies in India dang glacier near Manas Sarovar Bengal Pradesh, Assam Dhansiri Right bank: Subansiri, Sankosh, Manas Tezpur, Guwahati, Goalpara, Dhubri
Mahanadi 851km Sihawar highlands in Chhattisgarh Bay of Bengal Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Jharkhand Shivnath, Hasdeo, Brahmani, Baitarini Sambalpur, Tikarpara, Cuttack
Godavari 1465 km Trimba-Peshawar hills of the Western Ghats Bay of Bengal Maharashtra, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh Indravati, Pranhita, Manjira Nashik, Bhadra- chalam, Rajah- mundry
Krishna 1400 km Mahabaleshwar of the Western Ghats Bay of Bengal Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh Bhima, Koyna, Malaprabha, Tungabhadra, Ghataprabha, Tulsi Sangli, Vijayawada, Amaravathi
Kaveri 800 km Brahmagiri hills of the Western Ghats Bay of Bengal Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala Hemavathi, Arkavati, Bhavani, Amaravati Sriranga-Patna, Tiruchirapalli. Erode
1312 km Amarkantak plateau Gulf of Khambat Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat Tawa, Orsang Omkare- shwar, |Bharuch
Tapti 724 km Mulatai in the Satpura hills Gulf of Muhammad Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra Girna, purna, bori, Panzara Burhanpur, Buswell, surat

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment important of river of inda

Question 4. Describe the lakes of India.
Answer:

The lakes of India

A huge number of lakes are found in both North and South India. The lakes of India are classified according to the taste of the water.

1. Freshwater lakes: The lakes of northern India are generally freshwater lakes. They mostly lie in the Himalayan region. They are mostly fed by rainwater or by rivers. Some lakes are also fed by snowmelt water.

The level of salinity is low because the climatic condition of the region is cool and the level of evaporation is low. Some famous lakes of the Himalayan region are—Wular, Dal, Nainital, Bhimtal, Sattal, Punatal, Roopkund, Gurudongmar, etc.

The Wular lake of Jammu and Kashmir is the largest freshwater lake in India. The Gurudongmar and Tso Lamo lakes are two important high-altitude lakes. The Loktak lake of Manipur is considered sacred.

2. Saltwater lakes: Saltwater lakes are mostly found in Rajasthan and the coastal regions of India. Sambhar, Didwana, Pushkar, Degana, Pachpadra, and Kuchman are important saltwater lakes of Rajasthan.

Pangong and Tsomoriri of Jammu and Kashmir, Kolleru of Andhra Pradesh, and Pulicat of Tamil Nadu are important saltwater lakes. The Chilka of Odisha is a lagoon in India. The Vembanad and Ashtamudi are famous kayaks.

Question 5. Describe the course of the river Ganga.
Answer:

The course of the river Ganga

1. The Ganga: The total length of the river Ganga is 2525 km, of which 2017 km lies in India. This is the most important river in India. The course of the Ganga can be divided into three parts—

1. Upper Course: The river Ganga rises from the Gomukh cave of the Gangotri glacier in the Garhwal Himalayas. Here the river is known as the river Bhagirathi. The river Alaknanda meets the river Bhagirathi at Devaprayag, and the combined flow is known as the river Ganga. The stretch of the river from its source up to Haridwar is known as its upper course.

2. Middle course: The middle course of the river Ganga stretches from Haridwar to the Rajmahal hills. The right bank tributaries Yamuna and Son and the left bank tributaries Gomti, Ghaghara, Ramganga, Gandak, Kosi, etc. meet the river Ganga in this course and multiply both its load and volume of water. The most important tributary of the river Ganga is the river, Yamuna.

3. Lower course: The lower course of the river Ganga extends from south of Rajmahal hills to the mouth in the Bay of Bengal. The Ganga after entering West Bengal bifurcates into two branches near Dhulian of Murshidabad. One of the branches enters Bangladesh as Padma and later drains into the Bay of Bengal as the river Meghna.

The other branch flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river before meeting the Bay of Bengal. The right bank tributaries in this course are—Ajay, Damodar, Kangsabati, and Rupnarayan. The left bank’s tributaries are— Jalangi,
Mathabhanga, Churni, etc. The river Ganga together with the river Brahmaputra forms the largest delta in the world.

2. The Indus: The Indus is the longest and the most important river in northwestern India. It stretches for 2900 km, of which 1114 km lies in India. It rises from the Senge Khabab glacier near the Manas Sarovar in the Greater Himalayas. It flows through Jammu and Kashmir and then turns southwards near Nanga Parbat, entering Pakistan. From there it flows southwards and meets the Arabian Sea (southeast of Karachi).

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment courses of river ganga

The most important left-bank tributaries of the river Indus are— Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. These tributaries flow over Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Punjab. The right bank tributaries are— Shyok, Gilgit, Shigar, etc. The river Indus forms deep gorges near the Nanga Parbat massif. It forms a small delta at its mouth.

3. The Brahmaputra: The river Brahmaputra is the most important river in north-eastern India. It flows for 2900 km, of which 916 km lies in India. The river rises from the Chemayungdung glacier in Tibet. Here it flows as river Tsangpo over the Tibetan plateau for about 1500 km.

Near the Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a sharp turn towards the southwest and enters Arunachal Pradesh as river Dihang. The Dihang meets the rivers Dibang and Lohit near Sadiya in Assam. The combined flow of these three rivers flows as the river Brahmaputra westwards over Assam till Dhubri.

From Dhubri it turns southwards and enters Bangladesh as the river Jamuna. It meets the river Padma near Goalondo and enters the Bay of Bengal. The course of the river Brahmaputra in Assam is highly braided, forming several islands. The island of Majuli near Jorhat in Assam is the largest riverine island in India.

Some important right-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are— Subansiri, Kameng or Jiya Bharali, Manas, and Sankosh. Some left-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are- Dhansiri, Kopili, and Buri Dihing.

Question 6 Describe the course of the river Ganga. Why is the river Ganga known as an ideal river?
Answer:

The course of the river Ganga

1. The Ganga: The total length of the river Ganga is 2525 km, of which 2017 km lies in India. This is the most important river in India. The course of the Ganga can be divided into three parts—

1. Upper Course: The river Ganga rises from the Gomukh cave of the Gangotri glacier in the Garhwal Himalayas. Here the river is known as the river Bhagirathi. The river Alaknanda meets the river Bhagirathi at Devaprayag, and the combined flow is known as the river Ganga. The stretch of the river from its source up to Haridwar is known as its upper course.

2. Middle course: The middle course of the river Ganga stretches from Haridwar to the Rajmahal hills. The right bank tributaries Yamuna and Son and the left bank tributaries Gomti, Ghaghara, Ramganga, Gandak, Kosi, etc. meet the river Ganga in this course and multiply both its load and volume of water. The most important tributary of the river Ganga is the river, Yamuna.

3. Lower course: The lower course of the river Ganga extends from south of Rajmahal hills to the mouth in the Bay of Bengal. The Ganga after entering West Bengal bifurcates into two branches near Dhulian of Murshidabad. One of the branches enters Bangladesh as Padma and later drains into the Bay of Bengal as the river Meghna.

The other branch flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river before meeting the Bay of Bengal. The right bank tributaries in this course are—Ajay, Damodar, Kangsabati, and Rupnarayan. The left bank’s tributaries are— Jalangi,
Mathabhanga, Churni, etc. The river Ganga together with the river Brahmaputra forms the largest delta in the world.

2. The Indus: The Indus is the longest and the most important river in northwestern India. It stretches for 2900 km, of which 1114 km lies in India. It rises from the Senge Khabab glacier near the Manas Sarovar in the Greater Himalayas. It flows through Jammu and Kashmir and then turns southwards near Nanga Parbat, entering Pakistan. From there it flows southwards and meets the Arabian Sea (southeast of Karachi).

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment courses of river ganga

The most important left-bank tributaries of the river Indus are— Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. These tributaries flow over Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Punjab. The right bank tributaries are— Shyok, Gilgit, Shigar, etc. The river Indus forms deep gorges near the Nanga Parbat massif. It forms a small delta at its mouth.

3. The Brahmaputra: The river Brahmaputra is the most important river in north-eastern India. It flows for 2900 km, of which 916 km lies in India. The river rises from the Chemayungdung glacier in Tibet. Here it flows as river Tsangpo over the Tibetan plateau for about 1500 km.

Near the Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a sharp turn towards the southwest and enters Arunachal Pradesh as river Dihang. The Dihang meets the rivers Dibang and Lohit near Sadiya in Assam. The combined flow of these three rivers flows as the river Brahmaputra westwards over Assam till Dhubri.

From Dhubri it turns southwards and enters Bangladesh as the river Jamuna. It meets the river Padma near Goalondo and enters the Bay of Bengal. The course of the river Brahmaputra in Assam is highly braided, forming several islands. The island of Majuli near Jorhat in Assam is the largest riverine island in India.

Some important right-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are— Subansiri, Kameng or Jiya Bharali, Manas, and Sankosh. Some left-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are- Dhansiri, Kopili, and Buri Dihing.

An ideal river is one which exhibits the upper, middle, and lower courses prominently. It performs the works of erosion in the upper course, transportation in the middle course, and deposition in the lower course. The river Ganga exhibits all three courses prominently and performs all the actions accordingly. Hence, it is known as an ideal river.

Question 7. Describe the rivers of South India in brief. OR, Describe the east-flowing and west-flowing rivers of South India in brief.
Answer:

The rivers of South India

The rivers of South India can be classified into east-flowing rivers (Subarnarekha, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kavery) and west-flowing rivers (Narmada, Tapti, Sabarmati, and Mahi) according to their directions of flow.

 

River  cources  Tributaries
Subar-narekha (395 km) This river rises in the Chotonagpur plateau of Jharkhand.

Then it flows through West Bengal and Odisha before meeting the Bay of Bengal. The Hundru falls is a famous waterfall in this river.

Kharkai, Damra
(851 km) This never rises in the Sihawar highlands of Chhattisgarh, then flows through Odisha and meets the Bay of Bengal.

It forms a delta at its mouth.

Shivnath, lb, Brahmani, Baitarini
Godavari (1465 km) The longest river in South India rises from the Trimbakeshwar hills of Maharashtra.

Then it flows through Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh before meeting the Bay of Bengal.

It forms a large delta at its mouth.

Manjira, Indravati, Purna, Pranhita, Sabari
River Krishna (1400 km) This river rises in Mahabaleshwar in the Western Ghats in Maharashtra.

Then, it flows through Karnataka, Telangana, and Andhra Pradesh before meeting the Bay of Bengal.

It forms a delta at its mouth.

Tributaries  Bhima, Tungabhadra, Ghatprabha, Tulsi.
Kaveri (800 km) This river rises from the Brahmagiri hills of Karnataka.

Then, it flows through Tamil Nadu, and Kerala before meeting the Bay of Bengal.

Shivanasamudra is a famous waterfall in this river. It forms a delta at its mouth.

Hemavati, Arkavati, Bhavani
Narmada (1312 km) This river rises from the Amarkantak peak of Madhya Pradesh.

Then it flows through Maharashtra and Gujarat and meets the Gulf of Khambat.

The river Narmada forms the Dhuandhar falls near Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh.

Barna, Kolar, Hiran
Tapti (724 km) Tapti rises from Multai in the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh and flows through Maharashtra, Gujarat before meeting the Gulf of Khambat near Surat. Purna. Girna, Panjara
Sabarmati (371 km) This river rises from the Aravalli ranges in Rajasthan.

It flows through Gujarat and meets the Gulf of Khambat.

Wakal. Sei. Hatmati
Mahi (583 km) This river rises in the Vindhya range of Madhya Pradesh.

Then, it flows through Rajasthan and Gujarat before meeting the Gulf of Khambat.

Anas, Som, Panam

 

Question 8. Write the importance of rivers in the livelihood of the people of India.
Answer:

The importance and role of rivers in the livelihood of the people of India are—

1. Agriculture: The rivers have deposited fertile alluvial soils and provide sufficient water for agriculture in the catchment areas.

2. Transport: Rivers help in the inland transport of goods and passengers at cheap rates. This helps in trade and commerce within the places located along the river banks.

3. Pisciculture: Pisciculture is practiced in rivers to produce huge quantities of fish. This is used to meet the protein demand of the people as well as for trade.

4. Hydroelectricity: The mountainous rivers are harnessed for generating hydroelectricity. Also, multi-purpose projects are built on large rivers for generating electricity, irrigation, pisciculture, flood control, tourism, etc.

5. Industrial growth: The demand for water in industries is met by river water. In many cases, the produced goods are also traded through waterways within the country.

6. Drinking water: River water is purified and supplied as drinking water, especially in urban areas.

7. Others: Riversides are famous for tourism due to their scenic beauty. E.g.—Diamond Harbour, Taki, Ghatsila. They also play an important role in the conservation of aquatic ecosystems.

Question 9. Discuss the necessity of irrigation in India.
Answer:

Irrigation is very important for agriculture in India for the following reasons—

1. Uncertain monsoon rainfall: Indian agriculture is highly dependent on monsoon rainfall. About 67-72% of the total annual rainfall in India occurs from June- September. However, the onset and retreat of the monsoon winds are highly uncertain. This may lead to crop failure. Hence, irrigation is absolutely necessary.

2. Uneven distribution of rainfall: Rainfall is not evenly distributed all over the country. The north-eastern states receive more than 200 cm of rainfall, whereas the northwestern states receive as low as 75 cm of rainfall on average. Hence, irrigation is essential for agriculture in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, and parts of the Deccan plateau.

3. Dry winters: The winters are generally dry in India. Only a few regions in the northwestern part and the Coromandel coast in the south-eastern coastal region receive some rainfall in winter. Hence, irrigation is necessary for the cultivation of rabi crops like wheat, pulses, barley, oilseeds, and boro rice.

4. Different water-holding capacities of soils: Soils like laterite and red soil have very low water-holding capacity. Thus, irrigation is needed in order to conduct agriculture on those soils.

5. HYV seeds: The High Yielding Variety seeds are now increasingly used in the country to raise the yield of crops. However, they need huge amounts of water for the best results. Hence, irrigation is necessary.

6. Agriculture round the year: Each agricultural plot is cultivated 3-4 times a year in order to increase total crop production in the country. This cannot be done unless irrigation water is available.

Question 10. What do you understand by watershed development? Discuss its importance and processes of development.
Answer:

Watershed development

The general development of any river catchment area and the water divide for the overall development of the ecosystem, environment, and water resources is known as watershed development.

Importance:

1. Identification of the water divides helps to identify the catchment area of a river system.
2. The methods of watershed management and its development depend upon the nature of the rivers and the characteristics of the catchment area.
3. The amount of water found on the surface and underground in a catchment area depends upon the area covered by the rivers, the availability of rainfall, the porosity of the rocks, etc.

Processes of development:

1. Management of slope: The steep slopes of mountainous regions are prone to heavy soil erosion. To control this, afforestation, weaving grass on open lands, building guard walls for controlling landslides, or changing the path of the mountainous course of the rivers may be done. Bad practices of agriculture like Jhum cultivation must be stopped.

2. Afforestation along contour lines: Planting trees along the contours in step farming help to reduce soil erosion, and increases the recharge of underground water by percolation.

3. Check-dams across the river: Small and low check-dams built across small rivers in the catchment area helps to conserve water locally and reduce soil erosion.

4. Flood control: In the case of flood-prone rivers, several wetlands, ponds, and canals may be dug and the silt of the rivers may be removed in order to increase the water-holding capacity of the rivers. The excess water may flow into the canals and reservoirs dug for the purpose and help in controlling floods.

5. Multi-purpose river valley projects: Multi-purpose river valley projects are taken up in river catchment areas for the purpose of flood control, prevention of soil erosion, irrigation, navigation, generation of hydroelectric power, pisciculture, etc.

Question 11. Discuss the factors which help in irrigation in India.
Answer:

The factors which help in irrigation in India

India is the land of many snow-covered mountains and numerous rivers. It also receives huge amounts of rainfall from the southwest monsoon winds. Hence, there are a number of factors that assist irrigation in the country in order to carry out agriculture.

Thus, the factors which help in irrigation are discussed below—

1. Snow-fed rivers: The rivers of northern India are snow-fed, and have water throughout the year. Thus, canals can be dug from the rivers to the agricultural fields to carry out cultivation throughout the year.

2. Vast plain land: The soft soils of the vast plains of North India allow easy construction of canals for irrigation.

3. High water table: The northern part of India receives heavy amounts of rainfall, which percolates down gradually through the soft alluvial soils and recharges underground water. Thus, the water table lies only a little below the surface of the land. This water can easily be utilized by digging wells and tube wells.

4. Rainfall: Sufficient rainfall during the rainy season fills up the rivers, canals, ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and tanks. This water can be stored for use in the dry season.

5. Construction of dams: The rivers of south India flow through the undulating terrain of the plateau. The rivers make waterfalls and are suitable for generating hydroelectric power. Thus, they are dammed at places and the water is stored in natural reservoirs in the plateau. This is used for irrigation and other purposes during the dry season.

Question 12. Describe different methods of irrigation practiced in different parts of India. OR, What are the methods of irrigation practiced in India?
Answer:

Different methods of irrigation are used in climatic conditions and the production of crops.

The different parts of India depending upon the main methods of irrigation are—

1. Canals, availability of water, nature of soil, terrain,
2. Wells and tube wells,
3. Tanks and reservoirs.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment flow chart

 

1. Canals: Two types of canals are seen in India—

perennial canals and
inundation canals.

1. Perennial canals:

  1. The canals drawn from perennial rivers are called perennial canals, The main rivers being perennial, the canals can transport water to the agricultural fields throughout the year,
  2. Such canals are seen in northern India, as the North Indian rivers are snow-fed and are perennial. E.g.-Upper Ganga canal in Uttar Pradesh, the Western Yamuna canal and the Upper Bari Doab canal in Punjab; the Medinipur canal, Eden canal, and Tidal canal in West Bengal; the Bargarh canal of Odisha, etc.
  3. This method of irrigation is mostly used in Uttar Pradesh.

2. Inundation canals: The canals which receive water only when the rivers are flooded are called inundation canals. Such canals can be used for irrigation only in the rainy season. E.g.—Canals drawn from the rivers Krishna, Kaveri, and Godavari.

2. Well sand tube wells:

  1. The wells and tube wells are dug to bring out underground water and use it for agriculture. Wells and tube wells are common in the soft alluvial soils of the northern plains.
  2. The depth of the wells and tube wells depends upon the depth of the water table. If the water table is only a little below the surface of the land, the wells and tube wells need not be very deep.
  3. Tube wells can be manually operated or attached to electric pump sets in order to draw out water.
  4. Wells and tube wells are commonly seen in the plains of northern India in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, etc.
  5. Uttar Pradesh ranks first in India in using wells and tube wells for irrigation.
  6. Presently, deep tube wells are being dug to draw out water from the arid regions of western India.
  7. Such a method of irrigation is also seen in the southern region of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.

3. Tanks and reservoirs:

  1. The plateau region of southern India is made up of non-porous layers of rocks. Thus, water cannot percolate down to recharge groundwater.
  2. The terrain is undulating. Hence, rainwater can easily be stored in reservoirs and tanks created naturally on the surface.
  3. The water can be used for irrigation and other purposes in the dry season.
  4. Tank irrigation is mostly practiced in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. It is also seen in West Bengal, Odisha, Assam, Bihar, and Jharkhand.
  5. Andhra Pradesh leads in tank irrigation in India.

4. Slope of land: The general slope of the land in India is from west to east. The canals can thus carry water easily from the rivers to the fields along the gently rolling plains.

5. Reservoirs: In southern India, the undulating topography provides natural depressions on land that can be used as reservoirs or tanks. Water is stored in these reservoirs in the rainy season. Canals can be dug from these reservoirs to meet the demand for water in the dry season.

6. Underground water: In many regions in India, the underground water level has gone down so low, that it is difficult to draw out water through the wells and tube wells. Thus, dependence on surface water has increased. Canals are the easiest way to divert river water to the fields.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment irragation system of india

Question 13. Discuss the reasons behind the usefulness of canal irrigation in India.
Answer:

Canals are a common means of irrigation in India.

Canals are of two types—

  1. The perennial canals are those that have water throughout the year and can irrigate fields in all seasons.
  2. inundation canals are those that have water only when the rivers are flooded, and can irrigate fields only in the rainy season. The reasons behind the usefulness of canal irrigation in India are—

1. Numerous rivers: India is a land of numerous rivers spread like a network over the country. Thus, canals can be easily drawn from these rivers to irrigate fields.

2. Snow-melt water: The rivers of North India are snowed. They have water throughout the year. Thus, canals drawn from them are also perennial and are used to irrigate agricultural fields throughout the year.

3. Landforms: The northern part of India is a vast plain land made up of soft alluvial soils. Thus, it is easy to draw canals from the rivers through the plains according to the need

4. Slope of land: The general slope of the land in India is from west to east. The canals can thus carry water easily from the rivers to the fields along the gently rolling plains.

5. Reservoirs: In southern India, the undulating topography provides natural depressions on land that can be used as reservoirs or tanks. Water is stored in these reservoirs in the rainy season. Canals can be dug from these reservoirs to meet the demand of water in the dry season.

6. Underground water: In many regions in India, the underground water level has gone down so low, that it is difficult to draw out water through the wells and tube wells. Thus, dependence on surface water has increased. Canals are the easiest way to divert river water to the fields. In India, presently about 26% of agricultural fields are irrigated by canals.

Question 14. Discuss the effects of excessive irrigation.
Answer:

The effects of excessive irrigation are as follows—

1. Deficiency of oxygen: Too much irrigation tend to fill up the air spaces within the soil with water. This drives out the air from the soil. The roots of the plants fail to absorb sufficient oxygen from the soil. Hence, the growth of plants is hampered.

2. Disease of plants: Bacteria and germs tend to multiply fast in waterlogged soil. They attack the roots of the plants and result in their decay. Also, the growth of fungus on the stems, leaves, and fruits of the plants causes various plant diseases.

3. Toxic chemicals: The stagnation of water in the soil for a long time causes the accumulation of toxic chemicals like hydrogen sulfide and volatile fatty acids.

4. Reduction of fertility: Agriculture is carried out in the fields throughout the year using irrigation and growing the same crop.

This constantly reduces the fertility of the soil. After a few years, the fertility may reduce to such an extent that the soil fails to grow any more crops at all.

5. Increase of salinity: Excessive irrigation causes the salts deposited in the lower layers of the soil to dissolve in the water and rise up to the top layers. This gradually makes the soil more saline.

6. Lowering of water table: Supply of irrigation water in one area may result in lowering of the water table in the area from where the water has been drawn out through wells and tube wells.

7. Others:

1. Excessive irrigation may result in changes in the ecosystem and affect the environment. Excess irrigated water mixed with fertilizers and pesticides when drains into the nearby water body cause water pollution.

2. Chances of water-borne diseases may increase.

3. Arsenic pollution and contamination of water may occur.

Question 15. discuss the methods of Watershed development
Answer:

The methods of Watershed development

The proper and judicious use of water is known as the conservation of water. In other words, conservation of water refers to the optimum and logical use of water, control of wastage, reduce unscientific and reckless use of water, water resource management, and storage for future use.

Importance: Shortage of fresh and potable water is a burning problem all over the world. More than 50% of the world’s population suffers from a scarcity of water.

This accounts for about 40% of the population in about 80 countries. Although nearly three-fourths of the earth’s surface is filled with water, 97% of it is saline and unusable.

Only about 3% of the total water is fresh, but only 0.3% is easily available in rivers, ponds, or lakes. With the increase in population, demand for water also increases, and per capita availability of water gradually decreases.

Unplanned extraction of groundwater to meet the rising demand for water has lowered the water table in some areas to such an extent that acute scarcity of water has resulted in those areas.

In India, 15% of the total block of the country suffers from an acute crisis of water. Unless the available water is used carefully, logically, and playfully, more areas will face water crises in the future. Hence, the conservation of water is very important and necessary in India.

Question 16. Discuss the methods of watershed development.
Answer:

Definition: The overall scientific development of the watershed of a river is known as watershed development. This includes the conservation of the ecosystem, development and proper management of resources, and overall development of the region.

Methods: Several steps have been taken up in the process of watershed development—

1. Slope management: The high and steep slopes of the upper course of the rivers are prone to landslides and soil erosion. These slopes are taken care of by planting trees, covering the open soil with grasses, prohibiting hum cultivation, building guard walls along the tree beds and even diverting the course of the rivers from where the slope is very steep and dangerous.

2. Flood control: The depth of ponds, canals, wetlands, and even rivers is increased by digging out silt and mud. This increases the water-holding capacity of the water bodies and helps to control floods.

3. Badlands: The formation of badlands may be controlled by building check dams at several places, which will stop the flow of rainwater as surface runoff and control soil erosion.

4. Contour plowing: Trees are planted along contour lines or particular heights, in order to prevent soil erosion. The forests thus created reduce the speed of the surface runoff water and help in recharge of groundwater by percolation of rainwater.

5. Small dams: Small dams are constructed on rivers to control soil erosion and conserve water locally.

6. Multi-purpose projects: Multi-purpose projects are undertaken for the purposes of flood control, generation of hydroelectric power, irrigation, pisciculture, navigation, controlling soil erosion, promotion of tourism, and overall conservation of water.

Question 17. Discuss rainwater harvesting in India.
Answer:

Rainwater harvesting in India

The method of collecting and conserving rainwater from the roofs or open ground to meet the demand for water is known as rainwater harvesting. The water thus collected is used all year round for various purposes, especially in the dry season.

Methods of rainwater harvesting: Rainwater may be collected by different methods—

1. Collection of surface runoff: Construction of reservoirs: Large reservoirs, tanks, ponds, etc. are constructed to hold rainwater and excess river water so that it can be used in the dry season. Accordingly, a pilot scheme was launched in 2005 to restore and augment the storage capacity of water bodies. This scheme was approved in 26 districts across 15 states covering 1098 water bodies.

2. Check-dams: Large dams are expensive to build, and often displace a large number of people living along the rivers or in the catchment area. Check-dams or smaller dams are less expensive and helpful in holding river water in lesser amounts. This is a successful method of flood control as well.

3. Collecting rainwater: India receives ample rain from the southwest monsoon winds. If this water can be held back properly, the crisis of water in the dry season can be met.

It is very essential to hold rainwater in West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka in order to recharge the reserves of the water resource. Tamil Nadu has excelled in this regard by harvesting rainwater on rooftops since 2001.

4. Proper use of surface water: The surface water stored in reservoirs, ponds, and lakes is used for irrigation. Efforts can be made to increase the efficiency of using this water from 35-40% to 60%.

2. Conservation of groundwater:

1. Implementation of rules and regulations: Implementation of rules and regulations will help to prevent the unplanned use of groundwater, its misuse, and waste. This will help in the conservation of groundwater.

2. Increase the level of water percolation: In places where the land surface is open, the rainwater passes by very fast and does not percolate underground to recharge the groundwater table. In such cases, pipelines and other arrangements may be made so that rainwater reaches deep down and the underground water table is recharged.

3. National policies: The ‘Swajaldhara’ project has been started in 2002 and the ‘Bharat Nirman’ project has been started in 2005-06 for distributing water in rural areas.

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment  Topic 3 Water Resources Of India Short Explanatory Anser Type Questions

Question 1. Why is the river Brahmaputra flood-prone? OR, Why do floods occur in Assam every year?
Answer:

The main river of Assam is Brahmaputra. Every year during the monsoon season, the river overflows its channel and flooding occurs in the lower Assam valley.

The causes of flood in Assam are—

1. Gentle slope of the land: The slope of the land in Assam valley through which the river Brahmaputra flows, is very gentle. Hence, the river loses its speed and load-carrying capacity. Thus, the heavy amounts of load brought down by the river and its tributaries from the upper course get deposited in the river bed in this region. This reduces the depth and water-holding capacity of the river and makes it flood-prone.

2. Heavy rainfall: The Assam valley receives heavy rainfall during the southwest monsoon season, which supplies huge quantities of water ‘ to the river Brahmaputra. Also, the snow melt water brought down from the upper course of the river (where it is known as Tsangpo, in Tibet) is added on. This increases the volume of water to such an extent that the river channel overflows. The result is severe flooding in the lower course of the river.

Question 2. What is an ideal river? Why is the river Ganga called an ideal river?
Answer:

Ideal river: A river that exhibits the upper, middle, and lowers courses from its source in the mountains or highlands to its mouth in the sea or ocean is called an ideal river. An ideal river generally erodes in the upper course, carries the load in the middle course, and deposits the load in the lower course.

Ganga as an ideal river: The river Ganga rises in the Gomukh cave of the Gangotri glacier in the Greater Himalayas. The upper course of the river stretches from Gomukh to Haridwar. The middle course of the river extends from Haridwar to Rajmahal hills. From south of the Rajmahal hills to the mouth of the river in the Bay of Bengal through the vast delta region lies its lower course. As the river Ganga exhibits all three courses prominently, it is called an ideal river.

Question 3. Describe the course of the river Ganga.
Answer:

The three major rivers of northern India are—the Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra.

1. The Ganga: The total length of the river Ganga is 2525 km, of which 2017 km lies in India. This is the most important river in India. The course of the Ganga can be divided into three parts—

1. Upper Course: The river Ganga rises from the Gomukh cave of the Gangotri glacier in the Garhwal Himalayas. Here the river is known as the river Bhagirathi. The river Alaknanda meets the river Bhagirathi at Devaprayag, and the combined flow is known as the river Ganga. The stretch of the river from its source up to Haridwar is known as its upper course.

2. Middle course: The middle course of the river Ganga stretches from Haridwar to the Rajmahal hills. The right bank tributaries Yamuna and Son and the left bank tributaries Gomti, Ghaghara, Ramganga, Gandak, Kosi, etc. meet the river Ganga in this course and multiply both its load and volume of water. The most important tributary of the river Ganga is the river, Yamuna.

3. Lower course: The lower course of the river Ganga extends from south of Rajmahal hills to the mouth in the Bay of Bengal. The Ganga after entering West Bengal bifurcates into two branches near Dhulian of Murshidabad. One of the branches enters Bangladesh as Padma and later drains into the Bay of Bengal as the river Meghna.

The other branch flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river before meeting the Bay of Bengal. The right bank tributaries in this course are—Ajay, Damodar, Kangsabati, and Rupnarayan. The left bank’s tributaries are— Jalangi,
Mathabhanga, Churni, etc. The river Ganga together with the river Brahmaputra forms the largest delta in the world.

2. The Indus: The Indus is the longest and the most important river of northwestern India. It stretches for 2900 km, of which 1114 km lies in India. It rises from the Senge Khabab glacier near the Manas Sarovar in the Greater Himalayas. It flows through Jammu and Kashmir and then turns southwards near Nanga Parbat, entering Pakistan. From there it flows southwards and meets the Arabian Sea (southeast of Karachi).

The most important left-bank tributaries of the river Indus are— Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. These tributaries flow over Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Punjab. The right bank tributaries are— Shyok, Gilgit, Shigar, etc. The river Indus forms deep gorges near the Nanga Parbat massif. It forms a small delta at its mouth.

3. The Brahmaputra: The river Brahmaputra is the most important river in north-eastern India. It flows for 2900 km, of which 916 km lies in India. The river rises from the Chemayungdung glacier in Tibet. Here it flows as river Tsangpo over the Tibetan plateau for about 1500 km.

Near the Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a sharp turn towards the southwest and enters Arunachal Pradesh as river Dihang. The Dihang meets the rivers Dibang and Lohit near Sadiya in Assam. The combined flow of these three rivers flows as the river Brahmaputra westwards over Assam till Dhubri.

From Dhubri it turns southwards and enters Bangladesh as the river Jamuna. It meets the river Padma near Goalondo and enters the Bay of Bengal. The course of the river Brahmaputra in Assam is highly braided, forming several islands. The island of Majuli near Jorhat in Assam is the largest riverine island in India.

Some important right-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are— Subansiri, Kameng or Jiya Bharali, Manas, and Sankosh. Some left-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are- Dhansiri, Kopili, and Buri Dihing.

Question 4. Why deltas have not been formed on the mouth of west-flowing rivers in India? OR, Why do the rivers meeting the Arabian Sea not form deltas near their mouths? OR, Why do the rivers Narmada and Tapti not form deltas near their mouths? OR, Why deltas have not been formed at the mouth of west flowing rivers of India?

Answer:

The west-flowing rivers of India generally do not form deltas because—

1. Short length of the rivers: The rivers flow for a short distance, and hence collect a very little amount of eroded materials.

2. Speed: The rivers (E.g.—Narmada and Tapti) flow through steep slopes of rift valleys. Hence, the water flows at high speed and removes whatever eroded materials are collected. Hence, the chances of the formation of deltas in their mouths are less.

3. Less erosion: The rivers flow through a region made up of hard and resistant igneous and metamorphic rocks. Hence, the rate of erosion is very less, which accounts for a very less generation of silt.

4. Lesser number of tributaries: The west-flowing rivers have a lesser number of tributaries. Thus, the total load of eroded materials collected by the rivers is very less.

5. Slope near the mouths of the rivers: The slope of the continental shelf near the mouths of the rivers is steep, which does not allow any deposition of silt. Hence, this repels the formation of a delta.

Question 5. What are the main causes of pollution in the rivers of India? What steps have been taken up for controlling pollution of the river Ganga?
Answer:

Causes of pollution of the rivers of India:

1. Disposal of wastes from household factories and sewage lines into the rivers.

2. Disposal of dead animals into the rivers.

3. Washing down of pesticides and chemical fertilizers by rainwater into the rivers.

4. Bathing domestic animals, washing utensils and clothes in rivers.

5. Lack of consciousness regarding environmental pollution and degradation.

Steps taken for controlling pollution of the river Ganga: The ‘Central Ganga Authority’ was formed in 1985 by the government of India.

The ‘Ganga Action Plan’ has been taken up by this organization for controlling pollution of the river Ganga. Presently, various plans are being executed in many places.

Once the plans are fully executed, it is expected that pollution of the river Ganga will be controlled to a large extent. Organizations like ‘National Ganga River Basin Authority’ have been formed and programs like ‘Namo Gange’ have been taken up to conserve the water of the river Ganga.

Question 6. Describe the course of a river flowing through a rift valley in India.
Answer:

The course of a river flowing through a rift valley in India

The river Narmada is a river flowing through a rift valley in India. The course of the river: The river Narmada rises in the Amarkantak plateau (1057 m high) in Madhya Pradesh. Itflowsfora a stretch of 1312 km towards the west through Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat before draining into the Gulf of Khambat.

In the first 300 km stretch of its flow, the river has the famous waterfalls of Kapil Dhara and Dhuandhar. The river flows through a plain land from Bharuch in Gujarat to the mouth in the Gulf of Khambat. Here the river widens and covers an area of about 20 km.

Question 7. Although most of the rivers of South India are east flowing, Why are the rivers Narmada and Tapti west flowing?
Answer:

Rivers flow in the direction of the slope of the land. The general slope of the southern part of India is from west to east. Hence, most of the South Indian rivers (e.g.—Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri) are east flowing. But the rivers Narmada and Tapti flow through rift valleys formed between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. The slope of these rift valleys, formed due to faulting, is from east to west. Hence, these rivers are west flowing.

Question 8. What is the river Brahmaputra known as in the different parts of its course?
Answer:

River Brahmaputra known as in the different parts of its course

The river Brahmaputra rises from the Chemayugdung glacier near Rakshastal and Manas Sarovar in Tibet. The river is known by different names in different parts of its course.

1. The river is known as Tsangpo from its source to Namcha Barwa in the east.

2. The southward flow of the river from there to Sadiya of Assam through Arunachal Pradesh is known as Dihang.

3. The Dihang meets with the rivers Dibang and Lohit near Sadiya. The combined flow of these rivers towards the west is known as the river Brahmaputra till Dhubri in Assam.

4. The river Brahmaputra enters Bangladesh after this and meets the branch of the river Ganga. Here it is known as river Jamuna, which flows southwards till Aricha in Bangladesh.

5. Beyond Aricha, the south-eastward flow of the river (Ganga and Jamuna) is known as the river Padma. After this stretch, the river Padma meets the river Meghna and finally drains into the Bay of Bengal.

Question 9. Describe the upper course of the river Ganga.
Answer:

The three major rivers of northern India are—the Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra.

1. The Ganga: The total length of the river Ganga is 2525 km, of which 2017 km lies in India. This is the most important river in India. The course of the Ganga can be divided into three parts—

1. Upper Course: The river Ganga rises from the Gomukh cave of the Gangotri glacier in the Garhwal Himalayas. Here the river is known as the river Bhagirathi. The river Alaknanda meets the river Bhagirathi at Devaprayag, and the combined flow is known as the river Ganga. The stretch of the river from its source up to Haridwar is known as its upper course.

2. Middle course: The middle course of the river Ganga stretches from Haridwar to the Rajmahal hills. The right bank tributaries Yamuna and Son and the left bank tributaries Gomti, Ghaghara, Ramganga, Gandak, Kosi, etc. meet the river Ganga in this course and multiply both its load and volume of water. The most important tributary of the river Ganga is the river, Yamuna.

3. Lower course: The lower course of the river Ganga extends from south of Rajmahal hills to the mouth in the Bay of Bengal. The Ganga after entering West Bengal bifurcates into two branches near Dhulian of Murshidabad. One of the branches enters Bangladesh as Padma and later drains into the Bay of Bengal as the river Meghna.

The other branch flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river before meeting the Bay of Bengal. The right bank tributaries in this course are—Ajay, Damodar, Kangsabati, and Rupnarayan. The left bank’s tributaries are— Jalangi,
Mathabhanga, Churni, etc. The river Ganga together with the river Brahmaputra forms the largest delta in the world.

2. The Indus: The Indus is the longest and the most important river of northwestern India. It stretches for 2900 km, of which 1114 km lies in India. It rises from the Senge Khabab glacier near the Manas Sarovar in the Greater Himalayas. It flows through Jammu and Kashmir and then turns southwards near Nanga Parbat, entering Pakistan. From there it flows southwards and meets the Arabian Sea (southeast of Karachi).

The most important left-bank tributaries of the river Indus are— Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. These tributaries flow over Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Punjab. The right bank tributaries are— Shyok, Gilgit, Shigar, etc. The river Indus forms deep gorges near the Nanga Parbat massif. It forms a small delta at its mouth.

3. The Brahmaputra: The river Brahmaputra is the most important river in north-eastern India. It flows for 2900 km, of which 916 km lies in India. The river rises from the Chemayungdung glacier in Tibet. Here it flows as river Tsangpo over the Tibetan plateau for about 1500 km.

Near the Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a sharp turn towards the southwest and enters Arunachal Pradesh as river Dihang. The Dihang meets the rivers Dibang and Lohit near Sadiya in Assam. The combined flow of these three rivers flows as the river Brahmaputra westwards over Assam till Dhubri.

From Dhubri it turns southwards and enters Bangladesh as the river Jamuna. It meets the river Padma near Goalondo and enters the Bay of Bengal. The course of the river Brahmaputra in Assam is highly braided, forming several islands. The island of Majuli near Jorhat in Assam is the largest riverine island in India.

Some important right-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are— Subansiri, Kameng or Jiya Bharali, Manas, and Sankosh. Some left-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are- Dhansiri, Kopili, and Buri Dihing.

Question 10. Describe the course of the river Brahmaputra. What is the river known as in different parts of its course?
Answer:

The three major rivers of northern India are—the Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra.

1. The Ganga: The total length of the river Ganga is 2525 km, of which 2017 km lies in India. This is the most important river in India. The course of the Ganga can be divided into three parts—

1. Upper Course: The river Ganga rises from the Gomukh cave of the Gangotri glacier in the Garhwal Himalayas. Here the river is known as the river Bhagirathi. The river Alaknanda meets the river Bhagirathi at Devaprayag, and the combined flow is known as the river Ganga. The stretch of the river from its source up to Haridwar is known as its upper course.

2. Middle course: The middle course of the river Ganga stretches from Haridwar to the Rajmahal hills. The right bank tributaries Yamuna and Son and the left bank tributaries Gomti, Ghaghara, Ramganga, Gandak, Kosi, etc. meet the river Ganga in this course and multiply both its load and volume of water. The most important tributary of the river Ganga is the river, Yamuna.

3. Lower course: The lower course of the river Ganga extends from south of Rajmahal hills to the mouth in the Bay of Bengal. The Ganga after entering West Bengal bifurcates into two branches near Dhulian of Murshidabad. One of the branches enters Bangladesh as Padma and later drains into the Bay of Bengal as the river Meghna.

The other branch flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river before meeting the Bay of Bengal. The right bank tributaries in this course are—Ajay, Damodar, Kangsabati, and Rupnarayan. The left bank’s tributaries are— Jalangi,
Mathabhanga, Churni, etc. The river Ganga together with the river Brahmaputra forms the largest delta in the world.

2. The Indus: The Indus is the longest and the most important river in northwestern India. It stretches for 2900 km, of which 1114 km lies in India. It rises from the Senge Khabab glacier near the Manas Sarovar in the Greater Himalayas. It flows through Jammu and Kashmir and then turns southwards near Nanga Parbat, entering Pakistan. From there it flows southwards and meets the Arabian Sea (southeast of Karachi).

The most important left-bank tributaries of the river Indus are— Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. These tributaries flow over Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Punjab. The right bank tributaries are— Shyok, Gilgit, Shigar, etc. The river Indus forms deep gorges near the Nanga Parbat massif. It forms a small delta at its mouth.

3. The Brahmaputra: The river Brahmaputra is the most important river in north-eastern India. It flows for 2900 km, of which 916 km lies in India. The river rises from the Chemayungdung glacier in Tibet. Here it flows as river Tsangpo over the Tibetan plateau for about 1500 km.

Near the Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a sharp turn towards the southwest and enters Arunachal Pradesh as river Dihang. The Dihang meets the rivers Dibang and Lohit near Sadiya in Assam. The combined flow of these three rivers flows as the river Brahmaputra westwards over Assam till Dhubri.

From Dhubri it turns southwards and enters Bangladesh as the river Jamuna. It meets the river Padma near Goalondo and enters the Bay of Bengal. The course of the river Brahmaputra in Assam is highly braided, forming several islands. The island of Majuli near Jorhat in Assam is the largest riverine island in India.

Some important right-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are— Subansiri, Kameng or Jiya Bharali, Manas, and Sankosh. Some left-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are- Dhansiri, Kopili, and Buri Dihing.

Question 11. Describe the course of the river Indus.
Answer:

The three major rivers of northern India are—the Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra.

1. The Ganga: The total length of the river Ganga is 2525 km, of which 2017 km lies in India. This is the most important river in India. The course of the Ganga can be divided into three parts—

1. Upper Course: The river Ganga rises from the Gomukh cave of the Gangotri glacier in the Garhwal Himalayas. Here the river is known as the river Bhagirathi. The river Alaknanda meets the river Bhagirathi at Devaprayag, and the combined flow is known as the river Ganga. The stretch of the river from its source up to Haridwar is known as its upper course.

2. Middle course: The middle course of the river Ganga stretches from Haridwar to the Rajmahal hills. The right bank tributaries Yamuna and Son and the left bank tributaries Gomti, Ghaghara, Ramganga, Gandak, Kosi, etc. meet the river Ganga in this course and multiply both its load and volume of water. The most important tributary of the river Ganga is the river, Yamuna.

3. Lower course: The lower course of the river Ganga extends from south of Rajmahal hills to the mouth in the Bay of Bengal. The Ganga after entering West Bengal bifurcates into two branches near Dhulian of Murshidabad. One of the branches enters Bangladesh as Padma and later drains into the Bay of Bengal as the river Meghna.

The other branch flows through West Bengal as the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river before meeting the Bay of Bengal. The right bank tributaries in this course are—Ajay, Damodar, Kangsabati, and Rupnarayan. The left bank’s tributaries are— Jalangi,
Mathabhanga, Churni, etc. The river Ganga together with the river Brahmaputra forms the largest delta in the world.

2. The Indus: The Indus is the longest and the most important river in northwestern India. It stretches for 2900 km, of which 1114 km lies in India. It rises from the Senge Khabab glacier near the Manas Sarovar in the Greater Himalayas. It flows through Jammu and Kashmir and then turns southwards near Nanga Parbat, entering Pakistan. From there it flows southwards and meets the Arabian Sea (southeast of Karachi).

The most important left-bank tributaries of the river Indus are— Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej. These tributaries flow over Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Punjab. The right bank tributaries are— Shyok, Gilgit, Shigar, etc. The river Indus forms deep gorges near the Nanga Parbat massif. It forms a small delta at its mouth.

3. The Brahmaputra: The river Brahmaputra is the most important river in north-eastern India. It flows for 2900 km, of which 916 km lies in India. The river rises from the Chemayungdung glacier in Tibet. Here it flows as river Tsangpo over the Tibetan plateau for about 1500 km.

Near the Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a sharp turn towards the southwest and enters Arunachal Pradesh as river Dihang. The Dihang meets the rivers Dibang and Lohit near Sadiya in Assam. The combined flow of these three rivers flows as the river Brahmaputra westwards over Assam till Dhubri.

From Dhubri it turns southwards and enters Bangladesh as the river Jamuna. It meets the river Padma near Goalondo and enters the Bay of Bengal. The course of the river Brahmaputra in Assam is highly braided, forming several islands. The island of Majuli near Jorhat in Assam is the largest riverine island in India.

Some important right-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are— Subansiri, Kameng or Jiya Bharali, Manas, and Sankosh. Some left-bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are- Dhansiri, Kopili, and Buri Dihing.

Question 12. Classify the rivers of India according to the size of their basins.
Answer:

The rivers of India can be classified into three types according to the size of their basins.

1. Main rivers: The rivers that have a total basin area of more than 20000 sq. km are known as main rivers. There are 12 such rivers namely—the Ganga, Indus, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari, Sabarmati, Krishna, Kaveri, Mahi, Brahmani, Subarnarekha, and Pennar.

2. Medium rivers: About 46 rivers in India have a basin size of 2000-20000 sq. km. Such rivers are known as medium rivers. E.g.—Rivers Sharavathi Vaigai, Periyar, Palar, and Baitarini.

3. Small rivers: More than 55 rivers in India have a basin smaller than 2000 sq. km. Such rivers are called small rivers. E.g.—Rivers Luni, Banas, Rachol and Damon Ganga.

Question 13. Why is India called the land of rivers?
Answer:

India is called the ‘land of rivers’ because—

1. The rivers of India carry about 186900 crore cubic meters of water (about 85% by the main rivers, 7% by the medium ri rivers, 4% by the small rivers, and the remaining 4% by other streams).

2. The ancient civilization of the Indus, the old cities of Allahabad, Varanasi, and Kanpur, and modern cities and towns have grown on river banks in different phases of time.

3. Agriculture in India is largely dependent on the rivers, especially for the alluvial soil and water.

4. Important industries like cotton textile, jute textile, sugar, etc. have come up near riverbanks

5. The rivers of India are important for irrigation, hydel power generation, navigation, trade and commerce through waterways, and many other uses. Hence, India is called the ‘land of rivers’.

Question 14. Name some flood-prone regions of India.
Answer:

According to the ‘Rashtriya Barh Ayog’, the most flood-prone regions of India are—

1. The river basins of Ganga, Yamuna, Ghaghara, and Gandak in Uttar Pradesh.
2. The river basins of Kosi and Son in Bihar.
3. Western Punjab
4. South-eastern Haryana
5. Eastern Rajasthan
6. North-eastern and southern parts of Gujarat
7. Coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh.
8. Coastal regions of Odisha.
9. The Brahmaputra basin of Assam.
10. The Ganga river basin and coastal regions of West Bengal.

Question 15. Discuss the role of lakes and reservoirs as sources of water resources.
Answer:

The lakes and other water bodies are considered to be important sources of water resources for the following reasons—

1. Lakes serve as sources of drinking water.
2. Lakes and reservoirs help to hold water and control floods.
3. The lakes and reservoirs supply water for irrigation in the dry season.
4. They help to recharge groundwater through percolation.
5. They help to maintain the aquatic ecosystems.
6. Pisciculture can be practiced in lakes and reservoirs, which gives rise to a new economic activity.
7. They are also used for water sports which, in turn, promotes tourism.

Question 16. Why are the rivers of South India not navigable?
Answer:

The rivers of South India are not navigable because—

1. Most of the rivers are rainfed. They either dry up or have scanty water in dry seasons, which is not suitable for navigation.

2. The rivers flow through the rough and undulating terrain of the plateau. They have immense speed in some regions and form waterfalls. Hence, they are not navigable.

Question 17. Why are the rivers of South India non-perennial?
Answer:

The rivers of South India rise in the plateau region that is not snow-covered. Thus, they receive water only from rainfall and not from the melting of snow. Hence, they have sufficient water only in the rainy season and tend to dry up during the dry season. This makes them non-perennial.

Question 18. Discuss the importance of irrigation in
Answer:

The importance of irrigation in India is as follows—

1. Irrigation helps in carrying out agriculture throughout the year.
2. Irrigation helps to grow HYV seeds, which yield more crops.
3. Irrigation helps to carry out agriculture in dry regions or regions of scanty rainfall.
4. Crops like Boro rice need large quantities of water but can be grown in the dry winter season with the help of irrigation.
5. Indian agriculture is dependent on monsoons. Crop failures due to the erratic nature of the monsoons can be controlled with the help of irrigation.

Question 19. Mention the advantages of multipurpose river valley projects.
Answer:

The advantages of multi-purpose river valley projects are—

1. Flood control.
2. Irrigation with the help of water stored in the reservoirs behind dams.
3. Generation of hydroelectric power.
4. Supply of drinking water.
5. Control of soil erosion.
6. Dams constructed on the rivers serve as bridges.
7. Pisciculture in the reservoirs behind the dams.
8. Promotes tourism due to scenic beauty.

Question 20. List the advantages and disadvantages of well and tube well irrigation.
Answer:

Advantages:

1. Wells and tube wells are easy to operate.
2. The cost of construction, as well as maintenance of wells and tube wells, is low. So, it can be afforded by most farmers.
3. Wells and tube wells can be dug near the agricultural fields according to necessity.

Disadvantages:

1. Wells and tube wells cannot be used to draw huge quantities of water.
2. Wells and tube wells become useless if the groundwater level goes down considerably.
3. Excessive drawing of groundwater through wells and tube wells may cause arsenic and fluoride pollution of water.

Question 21. Why is tank irrigation commonly practiced in south India?
Answer:

Tank irrigation is popular in South India because of the following reasons—

1. There are numerous natural reservoirs and artificial tanks in the plateau region of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.

2. The surface of this region is mostly non-porous and hence, rainwater cannot percolate down and recharge the groundwater.

3. The hard rocky surface of the land is not suitable for digging canals.

4. The region mostly lies in the rainshadow area. The rivers are non-perennial, and cannot be depended upon for irrigation throughout the year.

Question 22. What is the Damodar Valley multipurpose river valley project?
Answer:

Damodar Valley multipurpose river valley project

The Damodar Valley Project is the first multi-purpose river valley project taken up in India in 1948. The main objectives of the project are flood control, power generation, and irrigation along with several secondary objectives, such as controlling soil erosion and environmental pollution, pisciculture, etc.

For flood control, dams have been constructed at Tilaiya, Maithon, Panchet, Konar, and Tenughat. Thermal and hydel power stations have been set up at Mejia, Durgapur, Chandrapura, Maithon, Koderma, Bokaro (thermal), Maithon, Tilaiya, and Panchet (hydel power). Extensive irrigation canals provide water to the West and East Bardhaman and Howrah districts of West Bengal. For this purpose, a barrage has been constructed at Durgapur.

 

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment damodar valley projects

 

 

Question 23. Mention the advantages and disadvantages of canal irrigation.
Answer:

Advantages:

1. Perennial canals help in agriculture throughout the year.
2. The initial cost of the construction of canals is high, but the cost of maintenance is low.
3. The alluvial soils brought down by the rivers flow into the canals along with the water and spreads on the agricultural fields. This makes the soil more fertile.
4. It irrigates a vast area.

Disadvantage:

1. Canals can be used for irrigation only in the plains.
2. Soils tend to become saline due to too much irrigation through canals.
3. Canals may lead to floods in the rainy season.
4. Initial cost of construction is high.

Question 24. Name some of the multi-purpose river valley projects in India.
Answer:

Some of the important multi-purpose river valley projects in India are—

1. Bhakra-Nangal Project: This is the largest multi-purpose river valley project in India, built on the river Sutlej in Himachal Pradesh and Punjab.

2. Hirakud Project: This has been built on the river Mahanadi in Odisha for irrigation and other purposes.

3. Mayurakshi Project: This project has been built on the river Mayurakshi, West Bengal. Dams and barrages have been built at Massanjore and Tilpara for supplying irrigation water to the nearby areas of the Birbhum district.

4. Kosi Project: This project has been built on the river Kosi in Bihar.

5. Gandak Project: This project has been built on the river Gandak for providing irrigation to Nepal, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar.

6. Nagarjuna Sagar Project: This project on the river Krishna is an important multi-purpose project in Telangana.

Question 25. What do you mean by a multi-purpose river valley project?
Answer:

Multi-purpose river valley project

A project where a river is dammed at one or more places and the water is used for several purposes, is called a multi-purpose river valley project. The river is dammed for flood control, Irrigation, generation of hydroelectric power,

navigation, pisciculture, control of soil erosion, afforestation, supply of drinking water, construction of roads, and promoting tourism. In India, several multi-purpose river valley projects have been built on the rivers Damodar, Sutlej, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, etc.

Question 26. What purposes are served by the multi-purpose river valley projects?
Answer:

In multi-purpose river valley projects, the rivers are dammed and the water is stored in huge reservoirs behind the dams.

The different purposes served by the multi-purpose river valley projects are as follows—

1. Canals are dug from the reservoirs to the agricultural fields to provide irrigation water throughout the year.

2. The water stored in the reservoirs may be used for hydel power generation.

3. Flooding of the river basins during monsoon season may be controlled by storing the excess water behind dams.

4. The rivers as well as the canals may be used for navigation.

5. Pisciculture is practiced in the reservoirs.

6. The stored water is purified to supply drinking water.

7. Soil erosion is controlled by reducing the speed of the rivers. Further, trees are planted in the river basin and around the reservoirs for soil and environmental conservation.

8. The scenic beauty of the dams and reservoirs attracts tourists.

9. The dams act as bridges over the rivers. In India, multi-purpose river valley projects have been built on several rivers like Damodar, Sutlej, Mayurakshi, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Godavari.

Question 27. Discuss the main purposes of the Damodar Valley Project.
Answer:

The main purposes of the Damodar Valley Project are—

1. Generation of hydroelectricity to be supplied to the mineral-rich areas of the Damodar Valley for the development of industries.
2. Controlling flood in the lower course of the river Damodar.
3. Irrigation of agricultural land and reclamation of fallow infertile land for agriculture.
4. Reduction of soil erosion, conservation of soil, and controlling environmental degradation.
5. Development of other economic activities like pisciculture.
6. Development of tourism.

Question 28. Differentiate between irrigation dams and multi-purpose dams.
Answer:

The difference between irrigation dams and multi-purpose dams

 

Point of difference Irrigation dams Multi-purpose dams
Purpose Mainly constructed to provide irrigation to agricultural fields. Mainly constructed for the generation of hydel power, flood control, navigation, pisciculture, along with irrigation of agricultural fields.
Water storage Usually, the excess water during the monsoon season is stored behind the dams.

Once the agricultural season is over, there is no problem if the water behind the dams dries up.

Usually, water is stored throughout the year for several purposes like pisciculture, navigation, and hydel power generation apart from irrigation.
Examples Irrigation dam on the river Kangsabati in West Bengal. Multi-purpose dams on the rivers Damodar and Mayurakshi in West Bengal.

 

Question 29. Why there are more perennial canals In North India than In South India?
Answer:

The canals constructed from perennial rivers are called perennial canals. These canals have water throughout the year. In India, the rivers of South India are only rainfed. Most of them tend to dry up or have very little water during the dry season. On the other hand, the rivers of North India are both rainfed and snowed i.e., they are perennial. Hence, more perennial canals are present in North India than in South India.

Question 30. Why is irrigation necessary for agriculture in India?
Answer:

Irrigation is necessary for agriculture in India because—

1. Indian agriculture is dependent on monsoons. The irregularity of the monsoon rains may lead to crop failures. Thus, irrigation is necessary.

2. Distribution of rainfall is not even over the whole country. The north-eastern and eastern states receive heavy rainfall, but the north-western and western states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, and Haryana are comparatively dry. Irrigation helps in producing crops in regions of scanty rainfall.

3. In India, winters are dry, Hence, irrigation is indispensable for growing wheat, pulses, oilseeds, and other rabi crops during the winter season.

4. Rainfall occurs mainly in India during the southwest monsoon season (June-September). So irrigation helps to grow multiple crops on the same land throughout the year.

5. Some soils like laterite and red soil cannot hold water for long. Irrigation is necessary to grow crops in such soils.

6. Recently, HYV seeds are used in agriculture to increase crop production. These seeds need a sufficient amount of water to grow. Hence, irrigation is needed for getting the best results from these seeds.

Question 31. Which methods of Irrigation are popular in the plateau region of southern India?
Answer:

The plateau region of southern India is hard and rocky. The terrain is undulating and the rock beds are mostly non-permeable.

This helps in the formation of natural reservoirs that hold rainwater. Thus, tank irrigation is popular in this region. Also, the hard rocky surface is difficult for digging canals for canal irrigation. The non-permeable rocks do not permit the recharge of groundwater as well. Thus, irrigation by wells and tube wells is also not suitable here.

Question 32. Which method of irrigation is popular in the plains of India?
Answer:

The plains of India mostly constitute soft alluvial soils which makes digging the ground easy. The groundwater level is high in this region due to heavy rainfall and percolation through permeable rocks.

Hence, wells and tube wells are the best and the most popular methods of irrigation in the plains. Canals are also drawn from the rivers to the agricultural fields for irrigation.

Question 33. Why are canals mostly used for irrigation in the northern plains of India?
Answer:

Canals are mostly used for irrigation in the northern plains because of the following reasons—

1. Perennial rivers: The rivers of North India are both rain and snow-fed and hence perennial in nature. The canals dug from these rivers are also perennial and provide water for irrigation throughout the year.

2. Plain land: The northern plains are gently sloping and have very few undulations. This makes it easier for digging canals.

3. Soft soils: The northern plains constitute soft alluvial soils. This helps in digging canals for irrigation.

4. Multi-purpose projects: Many multi-purpose river valley projects have been undertaken in North India. Under those projects, many canals have been built.

Question 34. How does canal irrigation help in agriculture in India?
Answer:

Canals are very important in irrigating agricultural fields in India because of the following reasons—

1. Large area: Canals are drawn over long distances. Hence, large areas can be irrigated by them.

2. Flood control: The excessive water received from monsoon rains can be channelized with the help of the canals. This helps to control floods and puts the water to proper use.

3. Increase soil fertility: Canals carry sufficient amounts of silt brought down by the rivers and spread them over the fields they irrigate. This helps to increase the soil fertility of the region.

4. Recharge groundwater: Canals run on the surface and mostly carry river water. Thus, groundwater is not utilized, rather water percolates down from canals and helps to recharge groundwater.

Question 35. What do you mean by conservation of water? What is its importance?
Answer:

Conservation of water

Although the earth is covered with 3 parts of water, the amount of potable water is limited. Conservation of water refers to the methods taken up to save potable water and purify and reuse water without wasting it.

The importance of the conservation of water is—

1. Conservation of drinking water: The increasing population of the country poses a high demand for drinking water. So, it is necessary to maintain the supply of drinking water through the conservation of water.

2. Agriculture: Conservation of water is very important for providing irrigation water to agricultural fields.

3. Industries: Water is needed in huge amounts in industries and for other economic activities. So, the conservation of water is necessary.

Question 36. What are the advantages of rainwater harvesting?
Answer:

The advantages of rainwater harvesting are—

1. Rainwater can be purified and used as drinking water.
2. Rainwater percolates underground and helps to recharge the groundwater.
3. The stored rainwater can meet the demand for water during the dry season.

Question 37. How can rainwater be harvested?
Answer:

The method of holding rainwater and using it to meet the different demands of water is known as rainwater harvesting.

Rainwater can be harvested in two ways—

1. Arresting the run-off on the ground: The rainwater flowing on the surface as runoff can Use of conserved water. This water can be used for irrigation, generation of hydroelectric power and purification to be supplied as drinking water. This also helps in the recharge of the groundwater.

2. Collecting rainwater from the roof: Rainwater can be collected from the roofs and stored in underground reservoirs. Water collected in a number of such reservoirs will be sufficient for meeting household demands throughout the year. This water can also be purified for drinking. The excess water can be sent deep down to recharge the groundwater.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Rain water harvesting

 

Question 38. Discuss the role of rainwater harvesting in Tamil Nadu.
Answer:

The role of rainwater harvesting in Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu plays a very important role in rainwater harvesting in India. It is mandatory to accumulate and store rainwater for every household in the state. The project has been taken up in 2001, and since then it has been found that the groundwater level in Tamil Nadu has risen considerably. Different systems of rainwater collection are implemented in different categories of houses.

The government plays an active role in executing this project and provides the necessary infrastructure—

1. Campaigns regarding the necessity and importance of rainwater harvesting are conducted regularly to increase awareness among the people.

2. Hoardings, banners, festoons, and posters are used to send messages to all corners of the state.

3. Door-to-door surveys and campaigns are conducted regularly.

4. Government aid is provided to set up machinery for harvesting rainwater.

5. The wetlands and brackish lands (about 1821) have been reclaimed and about 6286.84 acres of wetlands have been provided for collecting rainwater.

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 3 Water Resources Of India Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Name three rivers of north and south India each.
Answer:

Rivers of north India—Ganga, Brahmaputra, and Indus. Rivers of south India—Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri.

Question 2. Where do the sources and mouths of rivers Godavari and Narmada lie?
Answer:

Godavari: The river Godavari rises in the Trimbakeshwar highlands of Western Ghats in the Nashik district of Maharashtra. It meets the Bay of Bengal near Rajahmundry.

Narmada: The river Narmada rises from the Amarkantak plateau lying at the border of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. It meets the Gulf of Khambat near Bharuch.

Question 3. Name three west-flowing rivers of India.
Answer:

The west-flowing rivers of India are Narmada, Tapti, and Mahi.

Question 4. Name two tributaries and distributaries each of the river Ganga
Answer:

Tributaries: Rivers Yamuna and Ramganga.

Distributaries: Rivers Bhagirathi-Hooghly and Jalangi.

Question 5. Which rivers of South India make deltas at their mouths?
Answer:

Rivers Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri have formed deltas at their mouths.

Question 6. From where does the river Brahmaputra rise? Name its two tributaries.
Answer:

The fiver Brahmaputra rises from the Chemayungdung glacier, 90 km away from the Rakshastal-Manas Sarovar region. Two tributaries of the river Brahmaputra are— Subansiri and Lohit.

Question 7. What is an inland river?
Answer:

Inland river

The rivers that rise in some highlands or mountains and flow into any lake or water body within the land or dry up in the desert region, are called inland rivers. They do not meet any ocean or sea near the boundary of the landmass. Example—The river Luni of Rajasthan rises from the Aravalli hills and ends near the Rann of Kachchh.

Question 8. What are disappearing or influent rivers?
Answer:

Disappearing:

Some rivers may suddenly disappear from the surface and flow through the underground for a certain distance an then once again emerge on the surface in the course of their flow. This may happen if the rivers flow through a limestone region, where the water dissolves the limestone and penetrates deep down. Once the rivers cross the limestone region, they reappear on the surface. These are called disappearing or influent rivers.

Question 9. Name two water divides of India.
Answer:

The two main water divides of India are the Vindhya range and the Western Ghats.

Question 10. Name the right and left bank tributaries of the river Ganga. OR, Name the right bank tributaries of the river Ganga. OR, Name the left bank tributaries of the river Ganga.
Answer:

Right bank tributaries of the river Ganga: Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi. Left bank, tributaries of the river Ganga: Yamuna, Son, Punpun.

Question 11. Which two rivers meet to form the river Ganga and where do they meet?
Answer:

The rivers Bhagirathi and Alaknanda meet at Devaprayag in Uttarakhand to form the river, Ganga.

Question 12. Which rivers meet to form the river Brahmaputra?
Answer:

The rivers Dihang, Dibang, and Lohit meet together to form the river Brahmaputra.

Question 13. Name the only river of Marusthali and mention its source.
Answer:

The only river of Marusthali is the river Luni. It rises from the Aravalli range.

Question 14. Name the most important river of Rajasthan. Where does it meet?
Answer:

The most important river in Rajasthan is Luni. It meets the Rann of Kachchh.

Question 15. Name a few east-flowing rivers of India.
Answer:

Some east-flowing rivers of India are— Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri.

Question 16. Name a few tributaries and distributaries of the river Godavari.
Answer:

Tributaries: Rivers Purna, Pranhita, Indravati, Manjira, Pravara, Manair.

Distributaries: Rivers Gautami, Vashishta.

Question 17. Name the main tributary of the river Ganga. Where does it rise?
Answer:

The main tributary of the river Ganga is the river, Yamuna. It rises from the Yamunotri glacier of the Garhwal Himalayas.

Question 18. Name a few cities located on the banks of the river Ganga.
Answer:

Few cities located on the banks of the river Ganga are—Kolkata, Patna, Allahabad, and Kanpur.

Question 19. Name the five tributaries of the river Indus.
Answer:

The five tributaries of the river Indus are— Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej.

Question 20. Name two rivers of India that have waterfalls in their courses.
Answer:

The rivers Kaveri (Shivanasamudra falls) and Sharavathi (Gerosoppa falls) have waterfalls in their courses of flow.

Question 21. Name two saltwater lakes in India.
Answer:

Two saltwater lakes of India are— Sambhar lake (Rajasthan) and Pangong lake (Jammu and Kashmir).

Question 22. Where is the source of the river Ganga?
Answer:

The river Ganga rises from the Gomukh cave of the Gangotri glacier, at about an altitude of 4023 m in the Greater Himalayas.

Question 23. Name the highest single-drop waterfall in India. On which river’s course does it lie
Answer:

The highest single-drop waterfall in India is the Gerosoppa waterfall. It lies on the course of the river Sharavathi on the western slope of the Western Ghats.

Question 24. Name two rivers that fall into the Gulf of Khambat.
Answer:

The rivers Narmada and Tapti fall into the Gulf of Khambat.

Question 25. Mention the course of the river Luni.
Answer:

The course of the river Luni

The river Luni is an important river in the desert region of Rajasthan. It starts from the Anasagar lake near Ajmer and ends at the Rann of Kachchh. The length of the river is about 530 km. The river Luni derives its name from the Sanskrit word lavonavari meaning ‘salt river’.

Question 26. Name a few rivers rising from the Western Ghats.
Answer:

The rivers rising from the Western Ghats are—Sharavathi, Ulhas, Netravati, and Savitri.

Question 27. Where do the Indian rivers mainly rise?
Answer:

Most of the rivers of North India rise in the Himalayan mountains. Most of the rivers of South India rise in the Western Ghats.

Question 28. Name the largest riverine island in India and mention its location.
Answer:

The largest riverine island of India is Majuli in the river Brahmaputra. It is located in the Majuli district near Jorhat town of Assam.

Question 29. Name an east-flowing and a west-flowing river in India.
Answer:

An east-flowing river of India is the river Mahanadi. A west-flowing river of India is the river, Narmada.

Question 30. Name some lakes in the Himalayan region.
Answer:

The freshwater lakes present in the Himalayan region are—Nainital, Bhimtal, Sattal, Dal, Wular, etc. Pangong lake is a saltwater lake of the Himalayan region, located in Ladakh.

Question 31. List a few characteristics of the rivers of North India.
Answer:

1. Most of the rivers of north India rise in the Himalayan region.
2. The rivers are perennial, as they are both rainfed as well as snow-fed.
3. The rivers have large basins.
4. The rivers are long and flood-prone in their lower courses.

Question 32. List a few characteristics of the rivers of South India.
Answer:

1. Most of the rivers of South India rise in the Western Ghats and the highlands of Central India.

2. The rivers are nonperennial as they are only rainfed.

3. The rivers are ideal for the generation of hydroelectricity.

Question 33. Name a few rights and left bank tributaries of the river Brahmaputra.
Answer:

Right bank tributaries: Subansiri, Manas, Jia Bharali, Tista, etc.
Left bank tributaries: Kopili, Buri Dihing, Disang, Dikhu, Dhansiri, etc.

Question 34. What is an antecedent river?
Answer:

Antecedent river

The river that maintains its original course with the upheaval of the landmass and building of the mountain chains is called an antecedent river. It maintains its original course despite the upliftment of the land. Some antecedent rivers of India are—Indus, Brahmaputra, Sutlej, Kosi, Subansiri, etc.

Question 35. Why are the Himalayan rivers perennial?
Answer:

The Himalayan rivers are fed with snow melt water as well as rainwater. There is no shortage of water in the channels throughout the year. Hence, they are called perennial rivers.

Question 36. Why do the rivers Narmada and Tapti flow parallel to each other?
Answer:

The rivers Narmada and Tapti flow through the rift valleys between the parallel ranges of the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. Hence, the rivers flow parallel to each other.

Question 37. Why are the rivers of south India more swift flowing than the rivers of North India?
Answer:

The rivers of South India rise from the peninsular ranges and they traverse almost their whole courses over the peninsular plateau region of India. The peninsular plateau region is highly undulating and is made up of hard igneous and metamorphic rocks. Due to the steep slope, the rivers flow more swiftly than the rivers of North India.

Question 38. Why are most of the rivers of India east flowing?
Answer:

The general slope of the landmass in India is from west to east. Hence, the rivers follow the slope and flow eastwards. But the rivers Narmada and Tapti flow through the rift valleys that slope from east to west. Hence, these rivers are west flowing.

Question 39. Why are most of the rivers of South India east flowing?
Answer:

The rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Vaigai, Pennar, etc. rise in the peninsular plateau of South India. The general slope of the land is from west to east. Hence, these rivers flow towards the east and drain into the Bay of Bengal.

Question 40. What is a perennial canal?
Answer:

Perennial canal

A canal dug from a perennial river is called a perennial canal. Such rivers have water throughout the year. Hence, the canals also receive water throughout the year and can be used for irrigating agricultural fields. Example- Western Yamuna canal in Punjab.

Question 41. What is an inundation canal?
Answer:

Inundation canal

The canal which receives water only when the connected river is flooded, is called an inundation canal. In southern India, the rivers are rainfed and tend to dry up during the dry season. At that time the inundation canals also dry up. When the rivers receive rainwater and tend to flood, the canals also receive sufficient water. Example—The delta canal of the river Krishna.

Question 42. Mention the purposes of multipurpose river valley projects.
Answer:

The various purposes of multi-purpose river valley projects are—

1. Flood control,
2. Irrigation,
3. Generation of hydroelectric power,
4. Navigation,
5. Pisciculture,
6. Drinking water,
7. Tourism and others.

Question 43. Which methods of irrigation are seen in India?
Answer:

The methods of irrigation depend upon the topography, soil, climate, rainfall, and groundwater level of a region.

The common methods of irrigation seen in India are—

1. Wells and tube wells,
2. Tanks and
3. Canals

Question 44. Name a few irrigation canals in India.
Answer:

The irrigation canals in India are—The upper Ganga canal, Lower Ganga canal, Sarda canal, Indira Gandhi canal, Medinipur canal, Buckingham canal, etc.

Question 45. What is the Indian Rivers Inter-link Project?
Answer:

The Indian Rivers Inter-link Project

The Indian Rivers Inter-link Project is a proposed large-scale project that aims at linking Indian rivers by a network of reservoirs and canals so as to reduce persistent floods in some parts and water shortages in other parts of India. The project is managed by India’s National Water Development Agency (NWDA) under the aegis of the Ministry of Water Resources.

Question 46. What is the relation between the water-holding capacity of soil and irrigation?
Answer:

The type of soil present in a region is one of the factors determining the irrigation requirement of the region. Sandy and loamy soils have less water-holding capacities.

Hence, they require more irrigation water for agriculture. Alluvial soils have moderate to high water-holding capacity and require irrigation according to the crop cultivated. On the other hand, black soil and clayey soils can hold water for a long time. Hence, they require less irrigation water for agriculture.

Question 47. What are the sources of irrigation in India?
Answer:

The sources of irrigation in India

The main sources of water for irrigation in India are—flowing water, stored water, and groundwater. Canals are dug from flowing as well as stored water. Groundwater is utilized by pumping out through wells and tube wells. Then, water is spread onto the agricultural fields as and when needed.

Question 48. Name the states of India where well and tube well irrigation is popular.
Answer:

Well and tube well irrigation is popular in India in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal.

Question 49. Name two irrigation projects taken up in West Bengal.
Answer:

The two irrigation projects taken up in West Bengal are Damodar Valley Project on the river Damodar and the Mayurakshi project on the river Mayurakshi.

Question 50. What are the effects of excessive use of groundwater?
Answer:

Excessive use of groundwater tends to increase the amount of arsenic in the groundwater. It increases the salinity of the soil, lowers the water table, and may even lead to the subsidence of land.

Question 51. Mention the various methods of conservation of water.
Answer:

The various methods of conservation of water are—

1. Use of modern and scientific technologies in the conservation of water.
2. Reduce water pollution.
3. Development of watershed management.
4. Rainwater harvesting and conservation of rainwater.
5. Purification and reuse of water.

Question 52. How can rainwater be harvested or collected?
Answer:

Rainwater can be harvested or collected by two methods—

1. Store the flowing water or runoff in reservoirs.
2. Collect rainwater on the roof of houses and buildings.

Question 53. Mention two purposes of rainwater harvesting.
Answer:

Two purposes of rainwater harvesting are—

1. To increase groundwater reserves.
2. To increase the water reserve for irrigation by storing the rainwater during the rainy season.

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 3 Water Resources Of India Multiple Choice Type Questions

Write The Correct Answer From The Given Alternatives

Question 1. The water divide between the rivers of North and South India is the—

  1. Himalayan range
  2. Vindhya range
  3. Western Ghats
  4. Eastern Ghats

Answer: 2. Vindhya range

Question 2. The river Alaknanda meets the river Bhagirathi at—

  1. Allahabad
  2. Devaprayag
  3. Patna
  4. Kolkata

Answer: 2. Devaprayag

Question 3. The main tributary of the river Ganga is—

  1. Alaknanda
  2. Bhagirathi
  3. Yamuna
  4. Sabarmati

Answer: 3. Yamuna

Question 4. The river Indus rises from the glacier.

  1. Senge Khabab
  2. Manas Sarovar
  3. Chemayungdung
  4. Zemu

Answer: 1. Senge Khabab

Question 5. The river Brahmaputra is known as the Tsangpo in—

  1. Tibet
  2. India
  3. Nepal
  4. Bhutan

Answer: 1. Tibet

Question 6. The main river of Rajasthan is—

  1. Luni
  2. Sabarmati
  3. Mahi
  4. Saraswati

Answer: 1. Luni

Question 7. The river Luni meets the—

  1. Gulf of Kachchh
  2. Rann of Kachchh
  3. Gulf of Khambat
  4. Gulf of Mannar

Answer: 2. Rann of Kachchh

Question 8. The Hundru falls lies on the course of the river—

  1. Subarnarekha
  2. Damodar
  3. Mahanadi
  4. Tapi

Answer: 1. Subarnarekha

Question 9. The Shivasamudram falls is on the course of a river—

  1. Sabarmati
  2. Krishna
  3. Kaveri
  4. Mahanadi

Answer: 3. Kaveri

Question 10. Which of the following is a freshwater lake?

  1. Pushkar
  2. Wular
  3. Sambhar
  4. Chilka

Answer: Wular

Question 11. is a lake in the Himalayan region.

  1. Chilka
  2. Roopkund
  3. Loktak
  4. Kolleru

Answer: Roopkund

Question 12. Which of the following river rises in the Trimbakeshawar highland?

  1. Godavari
  2. Krishna
  3. Kaveri
  4. Vaigai

Answer: 1. Godavari

Question 13. The river rises in the Aravalli range.

  1. Mahi
  2. Kaveri
  3. Luni
  4. Krishna

Answer: 3. Luni

Question 14. The river Yamuna meets the river Ganga near—

  1. Allahabad
  2. Patna
  3. Haridwar
  4. Lucknow

Answer: 1. Allahabad

Question 15. Gerosoppa falls or Jog falls is on the course of the river—

  1. Sharavathi
  2. Sabarmati
  3. Netravati
  4. Narmada

Answer: 1. Sharavathi

Question 16. The combined flow of the rivers Dihang, Dibang, and Lohit is known as—

  1. Brahmaputra
  2. Yamuna
  3. Tsangpo
  4. Dhansiri

Answer: 1. Brahmaputra

Question 17. The largest river basin in India is the basin of the river—

  1. Ganga
  2. Brahmaputra
  3. Indus
  4. Godavari

Answer: 1. Ganga

Question 18. Which of the following river is a tributary of the Indus?

  1. Chambal
  2. Tista
  3. Yamuna
  4. Chenab

Answer: 4. Chenab

Question 19. The river Alaknanda rises from the glacier.

  1. Gangotri
  2. Yamunotri
  3. Satopanth
  4. Zemu

Answer: 3. Satopanth

Question 20. The longest tributary of river Yamuna is a river—

  1. Chambal
  2. Tons
  3. Beas
  4. Son

Answer: 2. Tons

Question 21. The city of Goalpara lies on the bank of the river—

  1. Ganga
  2. Brahmaputra
  3. Indus
  4. Mahanadi

Answer: 2. Brahmaputra

Question 22. The Indian lake has a floating market.

  1. Wular
  2. Dal
  3. Loktak
  4. Sambhar

Answer: 2. Dal

Question 23. An example of a crater lake in India is —

  1. Lonar in Maharashtra
  2. Sambhar in Rajasthan
  3. Pulicat in Tamil Nadu
  4. Dal in Jammu and Kashmir

Answer: 1. Lonar in Maharashtra

Question 24. A saltwater lake in north India is—

  1. Dal lake
  2. Wular lake
  3. Pangong lake
  4. Nainital

Answer: 3. Pangong lake

Question 25. The river Godavari is known as the ‘Ganga of South India’ because—

  1. It is the longest river in South India
  2. It is an important river in South India
  3. It is a holy river
  4. All of the above

Answer: 4. All of the above

Question 26. The city of Lucknow lies on the banks of the river—

  1. Sabarmati
  2. Gomti
  3. Kosi
  4. Ghaghara

Answer: 4. Ghaghara

Question 27. The river Narmada is also known as—

  1. Lohit
  2. Tsangpo
  3. Rewa
  4. Hiran

Answer: 3. Rewa

Question 28. The river Brahmaputra enters India as river Dihang in—

  1. Assam
  2. Meghalaya
  3. Arunachal Pradesh
  4. Nagaland

Answer: 3. Arunachal Pradesh

Question 29. The largest lagoon in Asia is—

  1. Vembanad
  2. Pulicat
  3. Chilka
  4. Dal

Answer: 3. Chilka

Question 30. The river is a west-flowing river in India.

  1. Son
  2. Godavari
  3. Krishna
  4. Tapi

Answer: 4. Tapi

Question 31. The most popular means of irrigation practiced in India is—

  1. Well and tube well
  2. Tank
  3. Canal
  4. Sprinkler

Answer: 3. Canal

Question 32. Irrigation facilities are most developed in—

  1. Punjab
  2. West Bengal
  3. Uttar Pradesh
  4. Rajasthan

Answer: 3. Uttar Pradesh

Question 33. A river on which a multi-purpose project has been built is—

  1. Rupnarayan
  2. Mahananda
  3. Damodar
  4. Tista

Answer: 3. Damodar

Question 34. The dam constructed only for the purpose of irrigation is called—

  1. Irrigation dam
  2. Natural lake
  3. Multi-purpose dam
  4. Natural dam

Answer: 1. Irrigation dam

Question 35. The country possessing the maximum amount of irrigated land is—

  1. India
  2. China
  3. Russia
  4. USA

Answer: 1. India

Question 36. Excessive irrigation—

  1. Increases soil fertility
  2. Increases humification
  3. Increases salinity of soil
  4. Soothes the soil

Answer: 3. Increases salinity of soil

Question 37. The irrigation dams constructed in the Mayurakshi Project are at Massanjore and—

  1. Bhakra
  2. Nangal
  3. Kangsabati
  4. Tilpara

Answer: 4. Tilpara

Question 38. The first multi-purpose river valley project of India is the—

  1. Bhakra-Nangal project
  2. Damodar Valley project
  3. Tista Project
  4. Nagarjuna project

Answer: 2. Damodar Valley project

Question 39. The second largest irrigation canal in India is the—

  1. East Yamuna canal
  2. West Yamuna canal
  3. Sarda canal
  4. Indira Gandhi canal

Answer: 3. Sarda canal

Question 40. The source of water for well or tube well irrigation is—

  1. Flowing water
  2. Stored water
  3. Groundwater
  4. Ocean water

Answer: 2. Stored water

Question 41. The maximum number of inundation canals are found in—

  1. Northern India
  2. Eastern India
  3. Southern India
  4. Western India

Answer: 3. Southern India

Question 42. The Bhakra dam has been constructed on the river—

  1. Sutlej
  2. Beas
  3. Chenab
  4. Indus

Answer: 1. Sutlej

Question 43. An important irrigation canal in Rajasthan is the—

  1. Indira Gandhi canal
  2. Betwa canal
  3. Chausa canal
  4. Bishnupur canal

Answer: 2. Betwa canal

Question 44. Draining out excessive water through tube wells may cause—

  1. Soil pollution
  2. Arsenic pollution
  3. Air pollution
  4. Sound pollution

Answer: 2. Arsenic pollution

Question 45. An important method of conservation of water is—

  1. Watershed management
  2. Not using water
  3. Re-use of water
  4. Cultivation in wetlands

Answer: 1. Watershed management

Question 46. Rainwater harvesting in India is mandatory in the state of—

  1. West Bengal
  2. Tamil Nadu
  3. Kerala
  4. Andhra Pradesh

Answer: 2. Tamil Nadu

Question 47. Which of the following is necessary for meeting the excessive demand for water?

  1. Watershed management
  2. Rainwater harvesting
  3. Constructing canals
  4. Storing snow-melt water

Answer: 2. Rainwater harvesting

Question 48. Rainwater harvesting helps to—

  1. Attract rainfall
  2. Reduce soil erosion
  3. Conserve the Ecosystem
  4. Recharge groundwater

Answer: 4. Recharge groundwater

Chapter 5 India Physical Environment Topic 3 Water Resources Of India If The Statement Is True, Write True And If False Write False Against The Following

Question 1. Subansiri is a tributary of the river Brahmaputra
Answer: True

Question 2. River Luni of India is an east-flowing river.
Answer: True

Question 3. Luni is an inland river in India.
Answer: True

Question 4. Chilka is a lagoon on the eastern coast of India.
Answer: True

Question 5. Jog falls lies on the course of river Luni.
Answer: False

Question 6. The river Indus rises from the Manas Sarovar.
Answer: False

Question 7. The river Brahmaputra flows into the Arabian Sea.
Answer: False

Question 8. The main branch of the river Ganga flows through Bangladesh as river Bhagirathi- Hooghly.
Answer: False

Question 9. The west-flowing river Godavari creates a waterfall at its mouth.
Answer: False

Question 10. The rivers of south India are mostly rainfed.
Answer: True

Question 11. The Vindhya range acts as a water divide between the rivers of North and South India.
Answer: True

Question 12. The river Shyok is a tributary of the river Indus.
Answer: True

Question 13. The middle course the of river Ganga extends between Haridwar and the Rajmahal hills.
Answer: True

Question 14. The river Brahmaputra rises from the Yangtse glacier in Tibet and flows into the Arabian Sea.
Answer: False

Question 15. The river Sankosh is a distributary of the river Brahmaputra.
Answer: False

Question 16. The Gangetic delta is the largest delta in the world.
Answer: True

Question 17. Vembanad is the largest lagoon in India.
Answer: False

Question 18. Mahanadi river rises in the highlands of Odisha.
Answer: False

Question 19. The river Chambal is a tributary of the river Yamuna.
Answer: False

Question 20. The rivers of South India are perennial.
Answer: False

Question 21. The River Tennessee is a tributary of the river Ganga
Answer: False

Question 22. The rivers of South India are navigable.
Answer: False

Question 23. Hyderabad is located on the banks of the river Musi, a tributary of the river Krishna.
Answer: True

Question 24. The river Kaveri is an inland river in India.
Answer: False

Question 25. The rivers Kaveri and Godavari are west-flowing rivers of India.
Answer: False

Question 26. The rivers Koyna and Ghataprabha meet with the river Krishna.
Answer: True

Question 27. The river Brahmaputra of Assam is flood-prone in nature.
Answer: True

Question 28. The rivers of South India often change their courses.
Answer: False

Question 29. The Medinipur canal is a perennial canal of West Bengal.
Answer: True

Question 30. The river Indus has been dammed in the Hirakud project.
Answer: False

Question 31. The Maithon dam and reservoir have been constructed on the Damodar river.
Answer: False

Question 32. The Bhakra dam has been constructed on the river Sutlej.
Answer: True

Question 33. The Indira Gandhi canal is a famous irrigation canal in India.
Answer: True

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 3 Water Resources Of India Fill In The Blanks With Suitable Words

Question 1. The river_______flows through the Kashmir Valley.
Answer: Jhelum

Question 2. The_______ is the main river flowing through north-west India.
Answer: Indus

Question 3. The main river of north-east India is_______
Answer: Brahmaputra

Question 4. The _______Indus civilization grew on the banks of the river
Answer: Indus

Question 5. The river Sabarmati rises in the_______ hills.
Answer: Aravalli

Question 6. The Narmada is a_______ river.
Answer: West flowing

Question 7. _______is an important tributary of the river Kaveri.
Answer: Bhavani

Question 8. One tributary of the river Indus flowing through Punjab is _______
Answer: Sutlej

Question 9. The river Brahmaputra is known as_______ in Arunachal Pradesh.
Answer: Dihang

Question 10. The river_______ is the chief tributary of the river Tapti.
Answer: Purna

Question 11. The river _______ rises near Multai in the Satpura hills.
Answer: Tapti

Question 12. The _______ is the longest west-flowing river in India.
Answer: Narmada

Question 13. The river Narmada rises from _______ plateau.
Answer: Amarkantak

Question 14. The river Brahmaputra is known as Tsangpo in _______
Answer: Amarkantak Id. Tlhot

Question 15. _______ is the highest single-drop waterfall in India.
Answer: Jon calls

Question 16. The river Tungabhadra is a tributary of the river _______
Answer: Krishna

Question 17. The island of Srirangapatna lies at the mouth of the river _______
Answer: Kavti

Question 18. Ahmedabad lies on the banks of the river_______
Answer: Sabarmatl

Question 19. _______ is a tributary of the river Brahmaputra which runs through Bhutan.
Answer: Manas

Question 20. The river Narmada meets the _______
Answer: Gulf of Khambal

Question 21. The river Mahanadi rises in the _______ range of Chhattisgarh.
Answer: Slhawa

Question 22. The river _______ is a large river in northeast India.
Answer: Brahmaputra

Question 23. The lakes in Uttarakhand are called _______
Answer: Tnl

Question 24. The _______ lake lies in between the delta of the rivers Krishna and Godavari.
Answer: Kolloru

Question 25. The lagoons on the Malabar coast are known as _______
Answer: Kayals

Question 26. The river Sabari is a tributary of the river_______
Answer: Godavari

Question 27. The Loktak lake is located in _______
Answer: Manipur

Question 28. Bhagirathi and _______ river meet at Devaprayag to form the river Ganga.
Answer: Alaknanda

Question 29. The _______ multipurpose river valley project is a famous river valley project in the northwestern part of India.
Answer: Bhnkra-Nangnl

Question 30. _______ irrigation is more popular in southern India.
Answer: Tank

Question 31. The canals which can be used for irrigation only when the rivers are flooded are called _______ canals.
Answer: Inundation

Question 32. The Damodar Valley Project has been built following the _______ project.
Answer: Tennessee Valley

Question 33. Water is collected from the _______ of the mountains in the development and management of the watershed.
Answer: Pool hills

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 3 Water Resources Of India Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Name the longest tributary of the river Ganga
Answer: Kivor Yamuna.

Question 2. What is the combined flow of the rivers Bhagirathi and Alaknanda known as?
Answer: River Ganga.

Question 3. Name two east-flowing rivers of India.
Answer: Rivers Godavari and Krishna.

Question 4. What is the combined flow of the rivers Dwarakcshwar and Silabati (Silai) known as?
Answer: River Rupnarayan.

Question 5. On which river have the Bhakra and Nangal dams been constructed?
Answer: River Sutlej.

Question 6. Name a left-bank tributary of the river Ganga.
Answer: River Gomtl

Question 7. Name one of the holy rivers of South India.
Answer: River Koverl.

Question 8. Which is the highest single-drop waterfall in India?
Answer: Jog or Gerosoppa falls.

Question 9. Where is the river Brahmaputra known as Tsangpo?
Answer: Tibet.

Question 10. Name a waterfall on the river Kaveri.
Answer: Shlvasnmudram.

Question 11. Which river is known as the ‘Ganga of South India’?
Answer: River Godavari.

Question 12. Name a city located on the banks of the river Tapti.
Answer: Surat.

Question 13. What is the river Brahmaputra known as in Bangladesh?
Answer: River Jamuna.

Question 14. Where does the river Ganga enter West Bengal?
Answer: South of Rajmahal hills.

Question 15. Name a tributary of the river Yamuna.
Answer: River Tons.

Question 16. From which place onward is the river Brahmaputra known as the river Jamuna?
Answer: Dhubri in Assam.

Question 17. From where does the river Narmada rise?
Answer: Amarkantak plateau.

Question 18. Between which mountains does the river Narmada flow?
Answer: Through the rift valley between the Vindhya and the Satpura ranges.

Question 19. Name a freshwater lake in India.
Answer: Dal lake.

Question 20. Name the holy lake in Manipur.
Answer: Loktak lake.

Question 21. Name the famous waterfall on the river Narmada.
Answer: Dhuandhar.

Question 22. Where is irrigation through perennial canals practiced in India?
Answer: Northern India.

Question 23. Where is the Eden canal located?
Answer: West Bengal.

Question 24. Name an important irrigation dam in eastern India.
Answer: Hlrakud darn.

Question 25. What are the canals that are used for irrigation throughout the year called?
Answer: Perennial canals.

26. Which state of India has the maximum amount of irrigated agricultural land?
Answer: Punjab.

27. Name the multi-purpose river valley project built on the river Krishna.
Answer: Nagarjuna Sagar.

28. Which one is the longest river in South India?
Answer: Godavari.

29. Name the common multipurpose river valley project of the states of Jharkhand and West Bengal.
Answer: Damodar Valley Project.

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Topic 3 Water Resources Of India Match The Left Column With The Right Column

1.

Left Column Right Column
1. Narmada A. Shivasamudram waterfall
2. Sharavathi B. Dhuandhar falls
3. Kaveri C. Jog falls
4. Subarnarekha D. Hundru falls
5. Tapti E. Multai Hills

Answer: 1-C,2-D,3-E,4-A,5-B

2.

Left Column Right Column
1.  Vembanad A.  Playa
2.  Sambhar B. Tamil Nadu
3.  Chilka C. Between Krishna and Godavari deltas
4. Kolleru D. Malabar coast
5. Pulicat E. Odisha coast

Answer: 1-B,2-C,3-A,4-D,5-E

3.

Left Column Right Column
1.  Yamuna A.  Indus
2.  Beas B.  Dwarka
3.  Manas C.  Kaveri
4.  Brahmani D.  Ganga
5.  Amaravati E. Brahmaputra

Answer: 1-D,2-A,3-E,4-C,5-B

4.

Left Column Right Column
1.  Ganga A. South Indian river
2.  Brahmaputra B.  Inland river
3.  Sharavathi C. Bhagirathi-Hooghly
4. Godavari D. Chemayungdung glacier
5.  Luni E. Gerosoppa falls

Answer: 1-D,2-A,3-E,4-B,5-C 

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 Geography And Environment Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Topic 2

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Topic 2 Industries In India Long Answer Type Questions

 

Question 1. Discuss the factors which influence the location of industries. OR, Which factors should be considered before choosing a location for setting up an industry?
Answer:

Industries cannot be established anywhere and everywhere on the earth.

The factors which must be considered before setting up an industry are discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The location of the industry primarily depends upon the type of raw materials that are being used in that particular industry. Raw materials are of two types—

2. Pure raw materials: The raw materials which do not lose weight during their processing into finished products are called pure raw materials.

Examples—Cotton, and jute. One tonne of cotton or jute will produce one tonne of cotton fabric or jute goods. Thus, industries dependent on pure raw materials can be established anywhere between the source of raw materials and the market as the transportation cost remains the same.

3. Impure raw materials: The raw materials which lose weight during their processing into finished products are called impure raw materials. For example— Sugar manufactured from sugarcane has less weight than that the raw material. So to reduce transportation costs, industries dependent on impure raw materials are established in the vicinity of the source of the raw material.

2. Water: Availability of water is essential for all industries for the industrial processes as well as for the workers. So industries are usually set up near waterbodies like rivers and lakes. Example—The iron and steel plant at Durgapur has been established near the Damodar river in West Bengal.

3. Power: Power is extremely important for the proper functioning of industry, especially thermal and hydroelectric power resources. For this reason, many industries in Europe and America have grown up centring the coalfields. In India also, there are many industries which have been built close to thermal and hydel power plants.

4. Transport: A well-connected transport system is required for sourcing the raw materials, taking the finished products to the nearby market or port (for importing and exporting purposes) and movement of labourers and other people associated with the industry. It is best to set up an industry at a location where the cost of transportation is minimum.

5. Availability of labour: The establishment of an industry requires an abundant supply of skilled and cheap labour. Availability of labour is such an important factor that Bangladesh has progressed in the cotton textile industry only due to the presence of abundant labour although an adequate amount of cotton is not grown in this country.

6. Market: An industry develops depending on the market demand for a certain product. Wherever there is a demand for a particular product, industries based on that product are generally set up.

Example—Although cotton is not cultivated in West Bengal, the cotton textile industry has flourished in the Hooghly region because of the large population which led to the high demand for cotton clothes.

7. Capital: Huge capital investments are essential for setting up an industry. An adequate amount of capital is required to buy the plot, set up the industry, buy equipment and raw materials, establish factory shade, pay the wages of labourers and provide a continuous power supply

For example—The cotton textile industry has flourished to a great extent in western India due to huge capital investment by Gujarati and Parsi businessmen.

Question 2. Explain in brief the factors responsible for the development of the cotton textile industry in Western India. OR, Discuss the causes of the concentration & of cotton textile industries in the Mumbai-Ahmedabad region. OR, Justify the concentration of cotton; in the textile industry in the black soil region of Western India.

Answer:

At present, there are many cotton textile mills concentrated in the western region of India (in the black soil region of western India) mainly in Maharashtra including the districts of Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, Sholapur, Akola and Jalgaon and Gujarat including the districts of Ahmedabad, Surat, Bharuch, Vadodara and Rajkot.

The causes behind the concentration of cotton textile industries in Western India are discussed below—

1. Best cotton-producing region: The black soil region of Maharashtra and Gujarat is extremely suitable for cotton cultivation. Hence, the raw materials (i.e., cotton) for the cotton textile industry are readily available in this region.

2. Humid climate: Hot and humid climate of this region due to its proximity to the Arabian Sea is favourable for cutting the yarn.

3. Power resources: Hydroelectric power plants in Ukai, Kadana (Gujarat) and Bhivpuri, Khopoli, Koyna (Maharashtra); thermal power plants in Trombay and Nasik (Maharashtra) provide the necessary power to the cotton textile mills.

4. Nearness to ports: Three important ports of India-Mumbai, Kandla and NhavaSheva (Jawaharlal Nehru port) and other smaller ports namely Surat and Porbander are located in this region. These ports help in the export of cotton fabric and the import of raw materials and necessary equipment.

5. Well-connected transportation system: The Western, Central and Konkan railways as well as the National Highways 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 pass over this region thereby forming a well-connected transportation system. This transport network helps in acquiring f raw materials and sending the finished products to different parts of the country.

6. Capital: Wealthy Gujarati, Parsi and Bhatia businessmen have invested huge capital in the cotton textile industry. Apart from this, Mumbai being the ‘financial capital’ of India is advantageous in terms of acquiring capital for the cotton textile industry.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Cotton textile industry in western india

 

7. Easy availability of labour: Abundant supply of skilled and cheap labour is found in the Mumbai-Ahmedabad region as this region is densely populated.

8. Infrastructure: Suitable infrastructure required for the development of the cotton textile industry is available here which has helped the industry flourish.

9. High demand: There is a huge demand for cotton clothes in our country because of the large population. Also, the high demand for cotton fabric in foreign markets has helped this industry grow.

Question 3. Discuss the problems of the cotton textile industry in India and their remedial solutions.
Answer:

The problems of the cotton textile industry are discussed below—

1. Lack of raw materials: Long staple cotton (suitable for making the best quality cotton fabric) is not available in adequate quantities in India.

2. High cost of production: Long staple cotton is imported from different countries which have led to an increase in the production cost.

3. Old machinery: Most of the cotton textile industries have old and outdated machinery which produces low-quality fabric. This has ultimately led to a high cost of production.

4. Stiff competition in the global market: The sale of cotton fabrics from India is limited in European countries. India also faces stiff competition from other countries in selling cotton fabric to the global market.

5. Competition with synthetic fibres: Synthetic fibres such as rayon, nylon, polyester, and acrylic are popularly used nowadays to make different fabrics. This has, to some extent, decreased the demand for cotton fabric.

6. Irregular power supply: Sometimes inadequate power supply to the cotton textile mills hampers production.
The remedial solutions to the problems faced by the cotton textile industry in India are as follows—

1. Modernisation of the industry: The Government of India has set up the Textile Modernisation Fund which will help in replacing old and outdated machinery with advanced ones and implement modern technologies in the production process.

2. Cultivation of long-staple cotton: To reduce the import of long-staple cotton from other countries, it is being cultivated in the northwestern region of India with the help of irrigation.

3. Reduction in excise duty: As per the recommendation of the Joshi Committee, the government has reduced the excise duty on cotton-based commodities.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Cotton textile industry

 

4. Use of automated power looms: Fully automated power looms are being nowadays in order to increase the rate of production and reduce the price of the finished product.

5. Establishment of the cotton textile export promotion council: The cotton Textile export promotion council has been established in order to facilitate the export of cotton-based commodities.

6. Establishment of research institutes: Many research institutes like Ahmedabad Textile Research Association, Mumbai Textile Research Association and South India Textile Research Association have been set up to focus on the betterment of cotton fabrics.

7. Establishment of the National Textile Corporation: The National Textile Corporation (NTC) has been established to revive the sick cotton industries by introducing new machinery and advanced technology.

Question 4. Briefly discuss the causes that have influenced the development of the cotton textile industry in India.
Answer:

The cotton textile industry in India is a flourishing industry and there are at present, many cotton textile mills distributed all over the country.

Cotton textile industries in India can be divided into four categories on the basis of their location—

1. Western region,
2. Southern region,
3. Northern region and
4. Eastern region.

The causes that have influenced the development of cotton textile industries in these regions are discussed below—

1. Availability of raw materials: Adequate amount of cotton is grown in the black soil region of India which is used as the raw material in the cotton textile industry. Apart from this, the southern states of India have taken initiative to start the cultivation of long and very long staple cotton.

2. Humid climate: Hot and humid climate prevails in the states of peninsular India, especially the southern states which are highly favourable for cotton cultivation. This type of climate also helps in cutting the yarns. Nowadays, a humid atmosphere is artificially created in factories using humidifiers.

3. Easy power supply: A number of thermal power plants and hydel power plants have been established in this region in post-independent India.

These power plants supply the requisite power to the cotton and textile industries. Examples—Ukai, Koyna in western India; Hirakud, Talcher, Bandel in eastern India; Bhakra-Nangal, Rihand, Bhatinda in northern India; Mettur, Sivasamudram, Nagarjunasagar in southern India.

4. Proximity to ports: The raw materials are imported and the finished products are exported through the various ports situated close to the cotton textile mills. Example— Mumbai, Kandla (west coast of India); New Mangalore, Kochi, Chennai (south coast of India); Visakhapatnam, Kolkata, Haldia (east coast of India).

5. Well-connected transport system: Numerous railway lines, national highways and other important roads have been linked in such a way that a well-connected transport system has developed in India. Thus, it has become easy to collect raw materials from different parts of the country and distribute the finished products all over the country.

6. Capital: Wealthy businessmen from the Parsi, Bhatia and Gujarati communities as well as several government and non-governmental organisations have invested huge capital in the cotton textile industries of India.

7. Cheap labour: India is a highly populated country. Thus the availability of cheap and skilled labour is a favourable factor that promotes the development of cotton textile industries in India.

8. High demand: There is a huge demand for cotton fabrics in both national and international markets. This has helped in the development of the cotton textile industry in India.

Question 5. Discuss the locational advantages of any two large-scale iron and steel plants in India.
Answer:

Two large-scale iron and steel plants in India are the Indian Iron and Steel Company (Kulti-Burnpur) and Durgapur Steel Plant (Durgapur).

The locational advantages of these two large-scale iron and steel plants in India are discussed below—

1. Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO), Kulti’Burnpur

Location: This iron and steel plant is located on the banks of the river Damodar in Paschim Bardhaman district of West Bengal and is connected by the Eastern Railway. The steel plant partially lies in both Kulti and Burnpur.

Establishment: The iron and steel plant at Kulti was established in 1870 and that at Burnpur was established in 1919 under private enterprise. In 1973, these two plants were brought under the control of the government of India.

Locational advantages behind the establishment of IISCO

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

 

Raw material Place
Coal Raniganj (West Bengal) and Jharia (Jharkhand).
Iron ore Gua; Noamundi (Jharkhand); Bolani, Gorumahisani, Badampahar (Odisha).
Limestone Gangpur and Birmitrapur (Odisha).
Dolomite Gangpur (Odisha).
Manganese Gangpur (Odisha).

 

2. Availability of water: The nearby rivers, Damodar and Barakar meet the demand for water required for this iron and steel plant.

3. Refractory bricks: Refractory bricks sourced from coal mines at Raniganj are used in this plant.

4. Location of power plants: Power supply from the nearby thermal power plants at Durgapur, Dishergarh and Mejia provides the necessary power to the iron and steel plant.

5. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from the nearby densely populated regions of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal meet the demand of labourers required for this plant.

6. Well-connected transport system: National Highway 2 and the Eastern Railway help in transporting raw materials and finished products.

7. Proximity to ports: The ports at Haldia and Kolkata are within 230km of this plant. This helps in the export and import of goods necessary for this plant.

8. Demand: The rise in the demand for iron and steel in India as well as in other countries has created a good market for iron and steel-based products both in national and international markets.

2. Durgapur Steel Plant, Durgapur:

Location: This iron and steel plant is located on the eastern side of the Raniganj coal mines, beside the Eastern railway track on the banks of the Damodar river. Establishment: Established by government enterprise in 1956, but production started in 1962.

Locational advantages behind the establishment of the Durgapur Steel Plant:

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

 

Raw material  Place
Coal  Raniganj (West Bengal) and Jharia (Jharkhand).
Iron ore Gua, Noamundi (Jharkhand); Gorumahisani, Badampahar (Odisha).
Limestone Gangpur and Birmitrapur (Odisha).
Manganese Gangpur (Odisha).

 

Location of power plants: Durgapur thermal power plant provides the power necessary for the functioning of the plant and provides the water required for this plant

1. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal meet the demand of labour required for this plant.

2. Well-connected transport system: National Highway 2 and the Eastern Railway help in transporting raw materials and the finished products

3. Proximity to ports: Nearness of this plant to the Kolkata port (160km away) and the Haldia port (250 km away) provides opportunities for the import and export of goods.

4. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal meet the demand of labour required for this plant.

5. Well-connected transport system: National Highway 2 and the Eastern Railway help in transporting raw materials and the finished products

6. Proximity to ports: Nearness of this plant to the Kolkata port (160km away) and the Haldia port (250 km away) provides opportunities for the import and export of goods.

7. Demand: The establishment of heavy engineering industries in the eastern region of India as well as the high demand for iron and steel all over the world have created a good market for the finished products.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment 3

 

Question 6. Discuss the locational advantages of two iron and steel plants in India—one under the public sector and the other under the private sector.
Answer:

The locational advantages of two iron and steel plants in India

Two iron and steel plants in India, one under the public sector and the other under the private sector are—Bhilai Steel Plant at Bhilai and Tata Iron and Steel Company at Jamshedpur.

1. An iron and steel plant under the public sector—Bhilai Steel Plant

Location: The Bhilai Steel Plant is the largest iron and steel plant in India and is located at Bhilai in the Durg district of Chhattisgarh.

Establishment: This iron and steel plant was a government of India initiative and had a collaboration with erstwhile Soviet Russia. It was established in the year 1956. However, the plant became fully operational in 1959.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment location of iron and steel plant at bhilai

 

Locational advantages behind the establishment of Bhilai Steel Plant:

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

 

Raw material Place 
Coal Korba (Chhattisgarh); Jharia (Jharkhand).
Iron ore Dalli-Rajhara (Chhattisgarh).
Limestone Nandini and Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh).
Dolomite Hirri, Baradwar (Chhattisgarh).
Manganese Balaghat (Madhya Pradesh); Bhandara (Maharashtra).

 

2. Availability of water: The Tendula reservoir situated close by supplies water to this plant.

3. Power resources: Bhilai Power Plant and Korba Thermal Power Station supply power to this plant.

4. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from the nearby region are easily available. This is because the industry provides employment as there is a minimum scope of employment in the agricultural sector.

5. Well-connected transport system: The South-Eastern railway connects the steel plant to Mumbai and Kolkata whereas National Highway 6 connects the plant to other parts of the country.

6. Proximity to the port: The Visakhapatnam port is only 570km away from this plant. This facilitates the import of raw materials and the export of finished products.

7. Demand: High demand for iron and steel in central and western India, especially for the development of heavy engineering industries in western India has helped in the growth of this iron and steel plant.

2. An iron and steel plant under the private sector—Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO)

Location: The Tata Iron and Steel Company is located at Jamshedpur in the East Singbhum district of Jharkhand at the confluence of the Subarnarekha and Kharkai rivers. This is the largest of all the iron and steel plants in the private sector in India.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment location of iron and steel plant at jamshedpur

 

Establishment: TISCO was founded by pioneer industrialist Jamsetji Tata in the year 1907 at Jamshedpur.

Locational advantages behind the establishment of Tata Iron and Steel Company:

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

 

Raw material Place 
 Coal Jharia, Bokaro (Jharkhand); Raniganj (West Bengal).
Iron ore Bolani, Barsua (Odisha); Gua, Meghahatuburu, Kiriburu (Jharkhand).
Limestone Gangpur, Birmitrapur (Odisha); Purnapani (Chhattisgarh).
Dolomite Sambalpur (Odisha); Baradwar (Chhattisgarh).
Manganese Gangpur, Kalahandi (Odisha).

 

2. Availability of water: Ample supply of water is available from the river Subarnarekha and its tributary Kharkai.

3. Power resources: This steel plant has its own thermal power station which provides the necessary power resource.

4. Cheap labour: The highly populated regions of Jharkhand and Odisha are a source of cheap and skilled labour. As agricultural practices are not prevalent here, many people look for employment in the iron and steel industry.

5. Well-connected transport system: The industry is well-connected to the rest of the country by the South-Eastern Railway, and the National Highways 2, 23, 31, 33.

6. Proximity to port: The Kolkata port which is about 280 km away from this plant helps in the import of raw materials and export of finished products.

Establishment: The Bokaro Steel Plant was a government of India initiative and had a collaboration with erstwhile Soviet Russia. The plant was established in the year 1964 but it became fully operational in 1972.

 

Question 7. Discuss the geographical factors that have influenced the development of the Bokaro Steel Plant.
Answer:

Location: The Bokaro Steel Plant is located near the Bokaro coal mines in the Bokaro district of Jharkhand.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment location of iron and steel plant at steel plant

 

Establishment: The Bokaro Steel Plant was a government of India initiative and had a collaboration with erstwhile Soviet Russia. The plant was established in the year 1964 but it became fully operational in 1972. The geographical factors that have influenced the development of the Bokaro Steel Plant are discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw Material  Place
Coal  Bokaro, Jharia (Jharkhand).
Iron ore Chiria, Gua, Meghahatuburu, Kiriburu (Jharkhand).
Limestone Bhawanathpur, Daltonganj (Jharkhand); Birmitrapur (Odisha).
Dolomite Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh)
Manganese Ganpur (Odisha)

 

2. Availability of water: Adequate amount 3 of water is collected from the Tenughat reservoir constructed over the Damodar river.

3. Power resources: The power required for this plant is sourced from the Bokaro and Patratu thermal power stations.

4. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from Jharkhand form the majority of the workforce in this plant. As agricultural practices are not prevalent here, many people look for employment in the iron and steel industry.

5. Well-connected transport system: This iron and steel plant is connected to the rest of the country by the South-Eastern Railways and National Highways 2, 23, 31, and 33.

6. Proximity to port: The Kolkata port, located 320km away from this plant facilitates the import of raw materials and export of finished products.

7. Demand: The establishment of heavy engineering industries in Jamshedpur, Ranchi and adjacent areas has created a huge demand for the finished goods of this plant.

 

Question 8. Discuss the factors behind the development of iron and steel plants at Rourkela and Visakhapatnam.
Answer:

Rourkela Steel Plant

Location: The Rourkela Steel Plant is located on the banks of the Brahmani river in the Sundargarh district of Odisha, along the SouthEastern Railway track.

Establishment: The Rourkela Steel Plant was established in the year 1956. It was a government of India initiative in collaboration with the German company Krupps and Demag. The steel plant became fully functional in the year 1959.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment location of Rourkela and steel plant

 

The factors that have influenced the development of the iron and steel plant at Rourkela are discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

 

Raw material Place
Coal Jharia, Bokaro (Jharkhand); Raniganj (West Bengal).
Iron ore Bolani, Barsua (Odisha); Gua, Meghahatuburu, Kiriburu (Jharkhand).
Limestone Gangpur, Birmitrapur (Odisha); Purnapani (Chhattisgarh).
Dolomite Sambalpur (Odisha); Baradwar (Chhattisgarh).
Manganese Gangpur, Kalahandi (Odisha).

 

2. Availability of water: Adequate amount of water for the steel plant is available from the Brahmani and Sankha rivers as well as from the reservoirs of south Koyel and Mandira.

3. Power resources: The power required for this plant is sourced from the Hirakud hydel power station.

4. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from the nearby region are easily available because there is very less scope for employment in the agricultural sector.

5. Well-connected transport system: The South-Eastern Railways; East Coast Railways and several National Highways connect this steel plant to metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and other parts of the county.

6. Proximity to port: The Paradeep port located 400 km away and the Kolkata port located 510 km away help in the import of raw materials and export of finished products.

7. Demand: The development of heavy engineering industries in eastern India has created a high demand for the iron and steel industry.

Visakhapatnam Steel Plant Location: This steel plant is located on the eastern coast of India in Visakhapatnam in the state of Andhra Pradesh.

Establishment: The Visakhapatnam Steel Plant was established in 1982 and became fully functional in 1990. This is the largest iron and steel plant in the southern region of India.

The factors that have influenced the development of the iron and steel plant at Visakhapatnam are discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

 

Raw material Place
 Coal  Singareni (Telangana); Talcher (Odisha).
Iron ore Kadapa, Nellore, Kurnool (Andhra Pradesh); Bailadila (Chhattisgarh).
Limestone Jaggayyapeta (Andhra Pradesh); Badnapur, Katni (Madhya Pradesh).

 

2. Availability of water: India-Economic Environment water is available from the reservoir situated over river Yeleru in the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh.

3. Power resources: The power required for this plant is sourced from the Ramagundam thermal power station.

4. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labour is easily available from nearby areas.

5. Well-connected transport system: The East Coast Railways and different roadways connect this steel plant with the rest of the country.

6. Proximity to port: The Visakhapatnam port is situated very close to this steel plant and even the Paradeep port is just 550km away from here. This helps in the import of raw materials and the export of finished products.

7. Demand: The development of heavy engineering industries in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha has created a good market for the finished products of this industry.

Question 9. Discuss the locational advantages of the Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited (Bhadravati Iron and Steel Plant).
Answer:

Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited (Bhadravati Iron and Steel Plant)

Location: The Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant is located in Bhadravati on the banks of river Bhadra in northern Karnataka.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment location of Visvesvaraya Steel plant

 

Establishment: This plant was established in the year 1918, but it became fully operational in 1923. In 1962, the Government of India and the state government of Karnataka took charge (400km away) to help in the import of raw materials and export of finished products.

Locational advantages behind the establishment of Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited:

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

 

Raw material Place 
 Iron ore  Kemmanugundi, Bababudan hills (Karnataka).
Dolomite Bhundiguda (Karnataka).
Limestone Bhundiguda (Karnataka).
Manganese Shimoga, Chitradurga (Karnataka).

 

2. Availability of water: The river Bhadra is the main source of water for this plant.

3. Power resources: The Mahatma Gandhi and Sharavati Valley hydroelectric power plants over the Jog waterfalls supply the required power to this plant.

4. Cheap labour: Skilled and cheap labour is easily available from the nearby densely populated regions of Karnataka.

5. Proximity to port: The New Mangalore port (210km away) and the Mormugao port

6. Well-connected transport system: The Southern and South-Central Railway and well-developed roadways help this plant to connect with the rest of the country.

7. Demand: The development of heavy engineering industries in western southern India has led to high demand for the finished products of this industry.

Question 10. What are the geographical factors behind the development of the iron and steel industry in West Bengal?
Answer:

The geographical factors behind the development of the iron and steel industry in West Bengal

There are two large-scale iron and steel plants in West Bengal—Durgapur Steel Plant in Durgapur and Indian Iron and Steel Company in Kulti-Burnpur. Apart from these, there is the Alloy Steel Plant in Durgapur which focuses on the production of special steels.

The geographical causes behind the development of the iron and steel industry in West Bengal are discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for the iron and steel industry located in West Bengal and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

 

Raw material Place
 Coal  Raniganj, Andal, Mejia, Dishergarh (West Bengal); Jharia (Jharkhand).
Iron ore Gua, Noamundi (Jharkhand); Gorumahisani, Badampahar, Bolani (Odisha).
Limestone Birmitrapur (Odisha).
Dolomite Gangpur (Odisha).
Manganese Gangpur (Odisha).

 

2. Availability of water: Adequate amount of water is available from the nearby Damodar and Barakar rivers.

3. Power resources: Thermal power stations at Durgapur, Mejia and Dishergarh provide power to the iron and steel plants.

4. Well-connected transport system: The Eastern Railways, the Grand Trunk Road and the navigable canals constructed under the supervision of Damodar Valley Corporation connect the plants with the Hooghly industrial belt and the Kolkata port. This helps in importing raw materials and exporting and selling the finished products.

5. Proximity to ports: The ports at Haldia and Kolkata help in importing raw materials needed for the iron and steel industry and in exporting the finished products.

6. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from the densely populated regions of Jharkhand and West Bengal are easily available.

 

Question 11. Explain the major factors responsible for the development of the Iron and Steel industry in Eastern and Central India
Answer:

There is a concentration of iron and steel plants in east and central India namely at Durgapur, Kulti-Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela and Bokaro (in the eastern region) and at Bhilai in central India). Apart from these, approval has been granted for a few more iron and steel plants in this region.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Location of iron and steel plants of eastern and centeral india

 

The factors responsible for the concentration of iron and steel industry in east and central India are plants in this region discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for the iron and steel plants in east and central India and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

 

Raw materials  place 
Coal East India: Raniganj (West Bengal); Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura (Jharkhand); Talcher (Odisha)

Central India: Korba, Sonhat (Chhattisgarh), Singrauli, Umaria (Madhya Pradesh).

Iron ore East India: Gua, Noamundi, Chiria, Kiriburu (Jharkhand); Bonai; Gorumahisani, Badampahar, Sulaipat, Bolani (Odisha)

Central India: Bailadila, Dalli Rajhara (Chattisgarh).

Limestone East India: Birmitrapur, (Odisha); Bhawanathpur, Daltonganj (Jharkhand); Purnapani (Chhattisgarh)

Central India: Satna, Kuteshwar, Katni (Madhya Pradesh).

Dolomite East India: Sambalpur, Gangpur, Sundargarh (Odisha), Hirri (Chhattisgarh).

Central India: Katni (Madhya Pradesh).

Manganese East India: Gangpur, Bonai (Odisha).

 

2. Availability of water: Water required for this industry is available from the rivers Damodar, Barakar, Subarnarekha, Kharkai, Shankha and Brahmani. The Tendula water reservoir is also a major source of water.

3. Power resources: There are many large-scale coal-based thermal power plants in east and central India which supply the power necessary for the functioning of these iron and steel plants such as power stations at Durgapur, Mejia, Dishergarh, Wariya (West Bengal); Patratu, Bokaro (Jharkhand), Talcher (Odisha) in east India and Korba (Chhattisgarh) and Vindhyachal (Madhya Pradesh) in central India. Apart from these the Hirakud and Sileru hydel power plants also provide power resources to this industry.

4. Well-connected transport system: The presence of eastern and south-eastern railways and roadways like NH-2, 6, 23, 31, and 33 have allowed the iron and steel industry in this region to have good connections with the rest of the country. Thus, the transport of goods has become easier.

5. Proximity to ports: The Kolkata, Haldia, Visakhapatnam and Paradeep ports which are quite close to the iron and steel plants, have helped in the export and import of goods.

6. Abundance of cheap labour: Abundant cheap and skilled labourers are available from the eastern states of Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Odisha as well as from the states of central India namely Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

7. Demand: The development of heavy engineering industries in east and central India has generated a huge demand and hence, a good market for the finished products of these industries.

Questions 12. Discuss the problems faced by the iron and steel industry in India.
Answer:

The problems faced by the iron and steel industry in India are as follows—

1. Lack of high-quality coking coal: Although India has good reserves of iron ore, there is a lack of high-quality coking coal, which is one of the most important raw materials required for the iron and steel industries.

2. Lack of capital: There is a serious lack of capital investment which is required for setting up new iron and steel plants and modernising and expanding the existing ones.

3. Problem of acquiring land: There is a dearth of land required for constructing new steel plants. There are also various problems relating to the acquisition of land.

4. Lack of advanced machinery: New and improved machinery have not been implemented yet in the existing iron and steel plants. This has led to an increase in the cost of production.

5. Lack of skilled labourers: Although cheap labourers are available, skilled labourers are not abundantly available. So the production rate per labourer is quite low

6. Problems of transportation: Lack of roads at par with international standards have posed problems in transporting raw materials and finished products.

7. Reduced demand in the national market: Demand for iron and steel is not always high in the national market. Hence, the iron and steel industries have to depend on the international market.

8. Dumping of iron and steel products: Many foreign countries dump iron and steel goods manufactured by them in India at cheap rates. Thus, companies in India are forced to sell their products at low rates, thereby incurring severe losses. This ultimately creates a financial loss.

9. Lack of refractory bricks: Availability of refractory bricks is not so easy and this has led to problems in establishing and maintaining furnaces and walls of the production units.

Question 13. Give a short account of the petrochemical industry in India.
Answer:

Petrochemical industry in India

The petrochemical industry nowadays is popularly called the ‘giant industry of the modern world’. Each and every product and by-product produced in this industry is useful for mankind either directly or indirectly. Many allied industries have grown up centring the petrochemical industry which is known as ‘downstream industries’.

Commencement: The petrochemical industry in India was initially started by Union Carbide (India) Limited in the year 1966 in Trombay. In 1977 a petrochemical industry was established at Hazira in Surat, Gujarat and in 2001 the Haldia petrochemical industry (at Haldia, West Bengal) first started its commercial production.

Raw materials: The by-products obtained while refining crude oil and natural gas are primarily the raw materials of the petrochemical industry, i.e., naphtha, methane, ethane, propane, butane, hexane, benzol, butadiene, ethanol, propylene, etc.

 

Finished products:

  1. Chemicals— benzene, ethylene, propylene, carbon black etc.;
  2. Different kinds of solvents;
  3. Synthetic fibres— acrylic fibre, nylon filament yarn, polyester filament yarn etc.;
  4. Polymers-Polyethylene, Polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride etc.;
  5. Plastic; fibre intermediates—acrylonitrile, mono ethylene glycol etc.;
  6. Synthetic rubber.

 

Question 14. Discuss the factors that favour the growth of the petrochemical industry at a particular location.
Answer:

The factors that favour the growth of the petrochemical industry at a particular location

The petrochemical industry nowadays is known as the ‘giant industry of the modern world’. It produces numerous products that are used as raw materials in other industries.

Thus, it helps in the development of the subsidiary industries. Petrochemical industries are largely concentrated in the western and eastern regions of India. The finished products manufactured by this industry are—synthetic rubber, synthetic fibres, plastic, polythene, paints, life-saving drugs, pesticides, fertilisers, cosmetics and many more.

The factors favouring the growth of petrochemical industries at a particular location are discussed below—

1. Location of oil refineries: Petrochemical industries acquire their raw materials from the by-products obtained while refining crude oil and natural gas. Thus, the petrochemical industries develop in the vicinity of the oil refineries. The chief raw material of this industry is naphtha, based on which the downstream industries grow close to the oil refineries.

2. Availability of power resources: Easy availability of power facilitates the growth of the petrochemical industry.

3. Capital: A huge capital is required for the growth of the petrochemical industry. So huge capital investments are being made by the state and central governments as well as by rich industrial groups.

4. Advanced technology and technical skills: Advanced technology and proper technical skills help in the development o the petrochemical industry and increase the product output.

5. Demand: High demand for petrochemical products in the internal as well as international markets have boosted the development of this industry.

6. Skilled labourers: Skilled labour is essential for this industry for executing the production process.

7. Efficient transport system: Close proximity to the ports, well-developed roadways and railways help in the development of the petrochemical industry as import, export and distribution of goods become easier.

For all the above-mentioned reasons, the petrochemical industry has developed to a great extent in the western region (Trombay, Koyali and Vadodara) as well as in the eastern region (Haldia) of India.

Question 15. Briefly discuss the regional distribution of the petrochemical industry in India.
Answer:

The petrochemical industry in India is concentrated in four regions surrounding the oil The regional distribution of the petrochemical industry in India is discussed below—

 

Region      Place     Important facts
 Western Nagothana (Maharashtra); Vadodara, Koyali, Hazira in Surat, Dahej, Jamnagar (Gujarat). Crude oil from the Cambay and Ankleshwar region, Mumbai High region and imported from the countries of the Middle East are sent to the refineries.

These refineries, in turn, supply the requisite raw materials to the petrochemical industries.

Eastern Bongaigaon (Assam); Haldia (West Bengal). Naphtha obtained from the oil refineries in Bangaigaon, Noonmati, Digboi and Numaligarh in Assam is used as raw material in the petrochemical industry at Bongaigan.

Naphtha from the Haldia oil refinery is used as a raw material in the petrochemical industry at Haldia. Naphtha is also imported from other countries as well.

The petrochemical industry in Haldia has developed due to the joint initiatives taken by the government and private enterprises.

Southern Tuticorin, Manali (Tamil Nadu); Mangalore (Karnataka). The petrochemical industry in Manali was established in 1986. It mainly manufactures and exports propylene glycol and polyols.

The petrochemical industry at Mangalore was established in 1988.

Northern Payal, Panipath (Haryana); Auraiya (Uttar Pradesh). These petrochemical industries have been established separately over about 5000 acres of land with the assistance of the India Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL).

 

Question 16. Discuss the problems and prospects of the automobile industry in India.
Answer:

The problems of the automobile industry in India are discussed below—

1. High production cost: The production cost of automobiles are quite high due to the use of old technologies and outdated machinery.

2. Increase in the cost of fuel: The poor quality of the roads in India as well as not-so-advanced automobile engines had led to an increase in fuel costs. This poses a major problem for the automobile industry. Apart from this, recent diesel and petrol price hike has led to a decrease in the demand for automobiles.

3. Changing government policies: The frequent changes in the different policies implemented by the government cause a major hindrance in the production process and expansion of the automobile industries.

4. Labour disputes: Production is often disrupted due to labour disputes and lockouts of the factories.

The prospects of the automobile industry in India are discussed below-

1. Open economy and license system: The introduction of an open economy in 1991, abolition of the Industrial Licensing, and the scope of 100% investment by foreign investors have facilitated the growth and development of the automobile industry.

2. Economic benefits: According to the Automotive Mission Plan (AMP) implemented by the government of India, tax is exempted for investments which are more than 225000 dollars. Rapid approval and processing of investment procedures and other economic benefits have positively impacted the growth of the automobile industry.

3. Low production cost: Investment by different foreign investors has facilitated the use of advanced and modern technologies in the production process. This has considerably reduced production costs which have led to a decrease in the price of automobiles. Different models of automobiles are being also manufactured.

4. Increase in the purchasing power of the people: The income levels of people in India (especially in urban areas) have considerably increased over the past few years. Thus, it is predicted that people will now invest their money in buying automobiles as their purchasing power has increased.

5. Development of industries manufacturing spare parts of automobiles: The development of ancillary industries manufacturing spare parts of automobiles like engines, suspensions, clutch etc., has helped in the development and expansion of the automobile industry.

Question 17. List the automobile and rail coach manufacturing units of India.
Answer:

The different automobile manufacturing units of India are listed in the following table—

 

Company  Manufacturing
Tata Motors Limited  units Sanand (Gujarat); Jamshedpur (Jharkhand); Pantnagar (Uttarakhand); Pune (Maharashtra); Dharwad (Karnataka); Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
Mahindra and Mahindra India Limited Nasik, Kandivali [near Mumbai] (Maharashtra); Haridwar (Uttarakhand); Bengaluru (Karnataka); Zaheerabad (Telangana).
Maruti Suzuki India Limited Manesar, Gurgaon (Haryana).
Ford India Private Limited Maraimalai Nagar near Chennai (Tamil Nadu).
Bajaj Auto Limited Chakan near Pune, Waluj (Maharashtra); Pantnagar (Uttarakhand).
Ashok Leyland Ennore, Hosur (Tamil Nadu); Pantnagar (Uttarakhand); Alwar (Rajasthan).

 

  1. The difference rail coach manufacturing units of inia are
  2. Perambur near Chennai, Tamil Nadu(Integral coach factory);
  3. Mangalore in Karnataka ( Bharat Earth Movers limited);
  4. Dumdum near Kolkata, West Bengal ( Jessop and company limited) and
  5. Kapurthala, Punjab (Integral coach factory).

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Auto mobile manufacturing units of india

 

Question 18. Account for the concentration of engineering industries in the Hooghly industrial belt?
Answer:

The causes for the concentration of engineering industries in the Hooghly industrial belt are discussed below—

1. Initiative was taken by the British: During British rule, Kolkata was the capital of India till the year 1911. Hence, the British were concerned with the industrial growth in and around Kolkata for their own interests. Thus, different engineering industries started developing in the Hooghly industrial belt due to the introduction of modern technology from the west.

2. Capital: Kolkata emerged as a prominent banking and trading centre in eastern India. Thus, the requisite capital could be easily acquired from different financial organisations which led to the development of the engineering industry.

3. Cheap labour: Cheap labour is easily available from the densely populated regions along the banks of river Hooghly.

4. Availability of raw materials: The chief raw materials required for engineering industries are iron, steel and coal. These raw materials are acquired from the following locations—

 

Raw materials Location of the industry
 Iron and steel  Iron and steel plants in Kulti-Burnpur and Durgapur (West Bengal) and in Jamshedpur (Jharkhand).
Coal Raniganj, Asansol (West Bengal).

 

5. Availability of water: The river Hooghly provides an adequate amount of water required for the engineering industries.

6. Availability of power: Sufficient power is supplied from power stations at Cossipore, Budgebudge, and Titagarh which are under the Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation Limited.

7. Efficient transport system: The Eastern and South-Eastern Railway and National Highways 2, 6, 34, and 35 connect this industrial belt to the rest of the country. The Hooghly river also is a major waterway in this region.

8. Proximity to the port: This industrial belt has developed quite close to the Kolkata port which has helped in importing raw materials and exporting finished goods.

Question 19. What are the causes behind the development of the information and technology (IT) industry In India?
Answer:

The industry which is involved in the collection, recovery, modification, improvement, analysis and storage of data for commercial purposes with the help of computer and telecommunication services is called the information and technology or the IT industry. Gradual advancement of the IT industry commenced in the 1970s and continued till the middle of the 1980s. However, the rate of advancement in this industry picked up speed in the 1990s in India.

The causes behind the development of the IT industry in India are as follows—

1. Skilled and talented workers: Indians are quite advanced where science and technology are concerned. There are several institutes for imparting technical education in India including computer training centres. Students from these institutions are easily hired by IT companies.

2. Global market: Countries in Europe and the United States of America outsource people from IT. Apart from this, information technology is nowadays widely used in the spheres of banking, railway and air ticket booking, telecommunication and many other sectors. Thus, the demand for the IT industry is increasing by leaps and bounds all over the world.

3. No land problem: Like other industries, ’ it industry does not need large plots of land to develop. A number of IT companies can operate from different storeys of the same building.

4. Infrastructure: The IT industry is an urban industry. The efficient transport system, ample supply of electricity, availability of internet and WiFi services and other facilities help in the rapid development of the industry in metropolitan cities like Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata.

5. Government initiative: The state governments of India have provided extensive support to the IT industry by helping in setting up IT complexes, Special Economic Zones (SEZs) offering tax subsidies and providing financial benefits.

6. Capital investments: Multinational companies like TCS, INFOSYS, IBM, and WIPRO, have made huge investments in the development of the IT industry in India.

Question 20. Why no heavy engineering industries have developed in the Himalayan region?
Answer:

The reasons for why no heavy engineering industries have developed in the Himalayan region are discussed below—

1. Topography: The rugged and hilly terrain of the Himalayan region is not suitable for the construction of factory sheds. Hence, the development of the heavy engineering industry is difficult.

2. Lack of raw materials: Heavy engineering industries require huge amounts of coal and mineral-based raw materials. The lack of mineral resources in the Himalayan region hinders the growth of such industries.

3. Lack of water and power resources: The Himalayan region lacks a sufficient amount of water and power resources required for the development of heavy engineering industries.

4. Lack of skilled labourers: The Himalayan region is sparsely populated and most of the people in this region do not have adequate technical knowledge. Hence, there is a lack of skilled and technically sound labourers.

5. Inefficient transport system: The rugged terrain prevents the development of roadways and railways in the Himalayan region. Frequent occurrences of landslides often block the roads and isolate this region from the rest of the country.

6. Less demand: As the Himalayan region is sparsely populated, there is less demand for the finished goods of this type of industry in this region.

7. Lack of capital: The geographical conditions are not favourable for the development of industries in this region. Hence, entrepreneurs show little interest in investing in industries of this region.

8. Political disturbances and terrorism: Political disturbances in the hilly regions of north-east India and terrorist activities in Jammu and Kashmir have created a politically unstable environment unfavourable for setting up industries.

Question 21. Discuss the locational advantages behind the development of the petrochemical industry at Haldia.
Answer:

The petrochemical industry at Haldia is one of the most important petrochemical complexes in West Bengal as well as in eastern India. It is located in the East Midnapore district of West Bengal at the confluence of the Hooghly and Haldi rivers.

The locational advantages behind the development of the petrochemical industry at Haldia are discussed below—

1. Close proximity to the oil refinery: The petrochemical complex at Haldia acquires its raw materials from the nearby Haldia oil refinery.

2. Nearness to the Haldia port: The Haldia port plays a vital role in importing raw materials, crude oil and machinery and exporting the finished products.

3. Capital investment: The petrochemical industry at a particular location favours the development of ancillary industries in its surrounding region. Thus, capital is easily available from government and non-government organisations.

4. Cheap labour: The densely populated regions of West Bengal and its neighbouring states supply abundant cheap labour required in this industry.

5. Advanced technology: Highly advanced and modern technologies have been implemented in the production process. This has led to the production of high-quality goods which are in high demand in the market.

6. Other factors: Availability of land at cheap rates, adequate power supply, high demand for the finished products and a huge market both within the country and in foreign countries have helped in the development of the petrochemical industry at Haldia.

Question 22. Discuss the problems and prospects of the petrochemical industry in India.
Answer:

The problems of the petrochemical industry in India are discussed below—

1. The initial cost of setting up this industry is quite high for which large capital investments are essential. This hinders the growth and expansion of the petrochemical industry.

2. The industry requires continuous implementation of advanced and modern technologies. In most cases, these technologies are bought from other countries which are quite expensive.

3. The customs duty on petrochemical products is higher in India compared to other countries.

4. Sharp rise in the price of crude oil in the global market has increased the cost of production of petrochemical products.

5. petrochemical products are not biodegradable. Hence, wastes generated by this industry are causing environmental pollution.

The prospects of the petrochemical industry in India are discussed below—

1. About 600 different products are manufactured in the petrochemical industry, which is of high commercial value in the Indian market. Thus, there is a huge scope for selling these products.

2. The, problem of huge capital is being solved by collaborating with NRI investors and foreign organisations.

3. The petrochemical industry leads to the growth of many ancillary industries, which in turn, have created job opportunities for a large section of the Indian population.

 

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Short Answer Explanatory Type Questions

 

Question 1. Classify industries according to the sources of raw materials used.
Answer:

According to the source of raw materials used, industries can be classified into four categories which are as follows—

1. Agro-based industries: These industries use agricultural products as raw materials. Example—A cotton textile industry uses cotton as the raw material, the jute textile industry uses jute as the raw material and the sugar industry uses sugarcane as the raw material.

2. Animal-based industries: These industries use animal products as raw materials. Examples are—Dairy industry, leather industry, meat and fish processing industries and fur industry.

3. Forest-based industries: These industries use products obtained from forests as raw materials. Examples are—Paper industry, furniture industry and silk industry.

4. Mineral-based industries: These industries use minerals as raw materials. Examples—are the iron and steel industry, the cement industry, aluminium industry.

Question 2. Mention briefly three problems associated with the cotton textile industry of India.
Answer:

The three problems associated with the cotton textile industry of India are as discussed below—

1. Lack of long-staple cotton: India does not grow an adequate amount of long-staple cotton, which is required for making the best quality cotton cloth. Hence, long-staple cotton is imported from other countries, which increases the overall cost of production.

2. Old and outdated machinery: The machinery used in most cotton textile industries in India are old and outdated. Thus, both the quality and quantity of fabric manufactured are low, which in turn, increases the cost of production.

3. Faulty management and labour disputes: Faulty management rules and labour disputes often lead to lockouts and strikes in the cotton textile mills. This hampers the process of production.

Question 3. What are the prospects for the cotton textile Industry in India?
Answer:

The cotton textile industry has a very bright prospect in India. The prospects are as follows—

1. India is a highly populated country located in a hot tropical region. So the demand for cotton clothes will always be high.

2. The neighbouring countries of India do not excel in the cotton textile industry. Thus, they import cotton from India.

3. The use of modern machinery and improved technology will help in producing better quality cotton fibre in a short span of time. This may ultimately help in reducing the cost of production and finally the price of the finished goods.

Question 4. Why is Mumbai called the ‘Cottonopolis of India’?
Answer:

The cotton textile industry was initiated in India in the year 1851, by the establishment of the Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company Limited.

Raw cotton cultivated in the black soil of the Deccan trap region, export-import of cotton through the Mumbai port, the Mumbai-Thane railway line providing a good transport network, high global demand for cotton, and cheap skilled labourers are some important factors which have facilitated the growth of cotton textile mills in and around Mumbai.

About 92 cotton textile mills were established by 1914. Presently, there are 57 running cotton textile mills in Mumbai. 30% of the total handlooms and 20% of the total spindles of the country are found here. So for all the above-mentioned reasons, Mumbai is called the ‘Cottonopolis of India’.

Question 5. Why Is the iron and steel industry Important for India’s economy?
Answer:

The iron and steel industry is known as the ‘backbone of all industries’. It is important for India’s economy due to the following reasons—

1. India is a highly populated country, there is a great demand for iron and steel for the construction of houses, railway tracks, bridges, motor vehicles, agricultural equipment, household goods and machinery for other industries. This huge demand for iron and steel makes it very important for India’s economy.

2. Being a large-scale industry, the iron and steel industry provides direct as well as indirect employment to a huge section of the population.

3. The finished products of the iron and steel industry help in earning a substantial amount of foreign currency which in turn, is beneficial for the country’s economy.

Question 6. Name the important iron and steel plants in India.
Answer:

The iron and steel plants of India are mainly controlled by four organisations namely—the Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (RINL), Tata Steel Limited and Jindal Power and Steel Limited.

The main iron and steel plants under these organisations are enlisted below

 

Question 7. Mention the favourable conditions required for the development of the iron and steel industry.
Answer:

The favourable conditions required for the development of the iron and steel industry are as follows—

  1. Availability of raw materials like iron ore, coal and minerals such as limestone, dolomite, manganese etc. So iron and steel plants usually grow in the vicinity of mineral mines.
  2. Availability of huge amounts of water. A site located near a water body which is also close to a mine is ideal for an iron and steel plant.
  3. A continuous supply of power from a nearby power station is favourable for iron and steel plants.
  4. Availability of abundant cheap and skilled labourers from local regions is also required.
  5. A well-built transport system for the easy import and export of goods also help in the development of the iron and steel industry.

Question 8. Why is Durgapur called the ‘Ruhr of India’?
Answer:

Ruhr is a small tributary of the famous Rhine river in Germany. The Ruhr river valley has a huge coal reserve which led to the development of large-scale iron and steel industries, heavy engineering industries and chemical industries in this region. This region is called the Ruhr industrial region.

Similarly, in India, the Damodar river valley has huge deposits of coal which has led to the development of iron and steel industries, heavy engineering industries, and chemical fertilizer industries centring around the coal mines in Durgapur, Raniganj and Andal. Thus, Durgapur is called the ‘Ruhr of India’.

Question 9. Name three automobile manufacturing centres one each from three states of India.
Answer:

Three automobile manufacturing centres one each from three states of India are given below—

 

Question 10. What are the factors responsible for the growth of heavy engineering industries?
Answer:

The factors responsible for the growth of heavy engineering industries are as follows—

  1. iron and steel are an important raw materials required for most heavy engineering industries. Thus, these industries grow near the iron and steel plants.
  2. Heavy engineering industries can also grow in regions with cheap and efficient transport systems. This facilitates the acquisition of raw materials and distribution of the finished products to different parts of the country.
  3. These types of industries grow in regions where power resources are easily available
  4. The heavy engineering industries also grow in regions where advanced technologies can be easily implemented.
  5. The growth of heavy engineering industries also depends on the presence of a suitable market for finished goods.

Question 11. What do you mean by the petrochemical industry?
Answer:

Petrochemical industry

The type of industry which uses the by-products obtained during refining crude petroleum and natural gas to manufacture different compounds is called the petrochemical industry.

The important raw materials of this industry are—naphtha, propane, butane, ethane, methane, hexane, pentane, benzol, butadiene, ethanol, propylene etc. The finished products of this industry are—synthetic fibres (polyester, nylon), plastics, paints, synthetic rubber, pesticides, gums, medicines, perfumes etc.

Several subsidiary or downstream industries have developed depending on the products and by-products of the petrochemical industry. Thus, the petrochemical industry nowadays is also called the ‘giant industry of the modern world’.

Question 12. Explain briefly three reasons for the development of the petrochemical industry in western India
Answer:

Three reasons behind the development of petrochemical industries in India are as follows—

1. Availability of raw materials: Crude oil is extracted from oilfields at Mumbai High in Maharashtra and the Cambay-Ahmedabad region in Gujarat. This crude oil is then sent to the refineries located at Trombay, Koyali and Jamnagar. The primary and secondary by-products obtained during the refining process form the major raw materials of the petrochemical industry.

2. Proximity to ports: The presence of large ports with modern amenities (like Mumbai port, Kandla port, and Jawaharlal Nehru Port) in this region help in importing raw materials and machinery required for this industry and also exporting the finished products.

3. High demand: Many ancillary industries have sprung up in this region which has led to high demand for the finished goods of the petrochemical industry.

Question 13. Briefly discuss the role of transport in the development of an industry.
Answer:

The role of transport in the development of an industry

Transport is an important factor behind the development of an industry. A cheap and efficient transport system is essential for bringing in raw materials, types of machinery, instruments, power resources and labourers.

Well-connected transport is also needed for the distribution and sale of finished products throughout the country.

A well-developed transport system helps industries to grow at locations that result in minimum cost of production such as near the source of raw materials, near the market or at a location intermediate between the source of raw materials and market

 

Question 14. List the regions where railway locomotive manufacturing units have grown in India.
Answer:

The regions where railway locomotives manufacturing units have grown in India are given in the following table—

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment 18

 

Region  Place and important facts 
Eastern 1.  Chittaranjan Locomotive Works [CLW] (Chittaranjan, West Bengal): Diesel and electric locomotives;

2. Jessop and Company (Dumdum, West Bengal): Manufacturer of Electric Multiple Units (EMU);

3.  Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (Jamshedpur, Jharkhand): Manufacturer of meter gauge electric locomotives.

Northern 1.  Diesel Locomotive Works [DLW] (Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh): Manufacturer of diesel rail engines;

2. Diesel Loco Modernisation Works (Patiala, Punjab): Modernisation of diesel-electric locomotives;

3. Rail coach factory (Kapurthala, Punjab): Manufacturer of rail coach, DMU, EMU.

Central 1.  Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited [BHEL] (Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh): Manufacturer of high-capacity electric and battery-operated locomotives;

2. Rail Spring Factory (Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh): Manufacturer of different types of springs.

 

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Short Answer Type Questions

 

Question 1. What do you mean by industry?
Answer:

Industry

‘Industry’ is the collective term for the activities involved in the conversion of forest-based agro-based and mineral-based raw materials into consumable commodities. For example—The cotton textile industry manufactures cotton fabric from raw cotton, iron and steel industry produces iron and steel goods from iron ore.

Question 2. What are pure raw materials?
Answer:

Pure raw materials

The raw materials which do not lose weight during their processing into finished products are called pure raw materials.

Example—1 metric tonne of raw cotton produces 1 metric tonne of cotton thread, which in turn, produces 1 metric tonne of fabric.

Question 3. What are impure raw materials?
Answer:

Impure raw materials

The raw materials which lose weight during their processing into finished products are called impure raw materials. Iron ore, bauxite, copper ore, and sugarcane are some examples of impure raw materials. Example—In order to produce 1 tonne of pig iron, the number of materials required are, 1.7 tonnes of iron ore, 1 tonne of coal, 0.5 tonnes of limestone and dolomite and other materials totalling an amount of 5 tonnes of raw materials.

Question 4. What do you mean by basic industry?
Answer:

Basic industry:

The industries on which the development of other industries depends or those industries whose output is used by other industries are called basic industries. Example—Finished products from the iron and steel industries are used in engineering industries. So the iron and steel industry is an example of a basic industry.

Question 5. What are ancillary industries?
Answer:

Ancillary industries:

When the finished product of one industry is used as a raw material for some other industries, the first one is known as the basic industry and the industries dependent on the basic industry are called ancillary industries. Example—The petrochemical industry at Haldia is a basic industry and the industries which are dependent on this petrochemical industry for the raw materials are the ancillary industries.

Question 6. Why is the cotton textile industry known as a ‘footloose industry’?
Answer:

The main raw material of the cotton textile industry is raw cotton which is a pure raw material. It means that an equal amount of (1 tonne) raw cotton produces an equal amount of (1 tonne) cotton thread which in turn, produces an equal amount of (1 tonne) cotton fabric.

Thus, cotton textile industries can be established either close to the source of the raw material, near to the market or in any intermediate region. It means that cotton textile industries do not show any particular affinity for growing up in a certain location. Thus, the cotton textile industry is called a ‘footloose industry’.

Question 7. State any two cotton textile industrial centres of West Bengal.
Answer:

Two cotton textile industrial centres of West Bengal are—

  1. Serampore and
  2. Shyamnagar.

Question 8. Name two agro-based and two mineral-based industries of India.
Answer:

  1. Agro-based industries: Sugar industry and cotton textile industry.
  2. Mineral-based industries: Iron-steel industry and cement industry.

Question 9. Name the raw materials which are required in the iron and steel industry.
Answer:

The important raw materials required in the iron and steel industry are iron ore, scrap iron, sponge iron, coal, oxygen and limestone. Apart from these, dolomite, manganese, chromium, nickel, tungsten and vanadium are also needed along with an ample supply of clean water.

Question 10. Why is manganese required as a raw material in the iron and steel industry?
Answer:

Manganese is required as a raw material in the iron and steel industry to produce better quality steel called ferromanganese. This type of steel is very hard, durable and resistant towards rusting and corrosion. Ferro-manganese steel can also withstand very high temperatures.

Question 11. Name two large-scale iron and steel plants in India.
Answer:

Two large-scale iron and steel plants in India are—

  1. Bhilai Steel Plant in Chhattisgarh and
  2. Bokaro Steel Plant, Jharkhand.

Question 12. In which places of India did iron and steel plants develop under the Five-Year Plan?
Answer:

The iron and steel plants which have grown in India under the Five-Year Plan are—

  1. Durgapur, West Bengal;
  2. Rourkela, Odisha;
  3. Bhilai, Chhattisgarh;
  4. Bokaro, Jharkhand;
  5. Vijaynagar, Karnataka;
  6. Salem, Tamil Nadu;
  7. Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.

Question 13. Name four important iron and steel plants of India.
Answer:

The four important iron and steel plants of India are—

  1. Bhilai, Chhattisgarh,
  2. Bokaro, Jharkhand,
  3. Durgapur, West Bengal and
  4. Jamshedpur, Jharkhand.

Question 14. Write a short note on TISCO.
Answer:

TISCO

TISCO stands for Tata Iron and Steel Company. It was founded by eminent industrialist Jamsetji Tata in the year 1907. This iron and steel plant is located in the Singhbhum district of Jharkhand at the confluence of two rivers—Subarnarekha and Kharkai. This is the largest private iron and steel plant in India.

Question 15. Why is the iron and steel industry called the ‘backbone of all industries’?
Answer:

Almost all industries are either directly or indirectly dependent on iron and steel plants. Iron and steel are required to manufacture instruments, equipment and machinery which are used in other industries. It is also required to set up the basic framework of different industries.

So progress in the iron and steel industry will have a positive impact on other industries as well. Thus, the iron and steel industry is called the ‘backbone of all industries’.

Question 16. Name two iron and steel plants, one of which has developed centring a coal mine and the other near a seaport.
Answer:

An iron and steel plant which has developed centring around a coal mine is the Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO), Burnpur. An iron and steel industry which has developed near a seaport is Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited or Vizag Steel, Visakhapatnam.

Question 17. Write a short note on the alloy steel industry.
Answer:

Alloy steel industry

The industry which is involved in the manufacture of different types of steel by forming iron alloys using one or more than one kind of metal is called the alloy steel industry.

Steel produced in such a way is strong, hard, durable, resistant towards rust and corrosion and can withstand high temperatures and pressure. There are three large-scale alloy steel plants in India —

  1. Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant, Karnataka.
  2. Durgapur Alloy Steel Plant, West Bengal,
  3. Salem Iron and Steel Plant, Tamil Nadu.

Question 18. Name two iron and steel industrial centres of India—one under the public sector and one under the private sector.
Answer:

An iron and steel industrial centre of India under the public sector is the Bhilai Steel Plant in Bhilai, Chhattisgarh under the Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL).

An iron and steel industrial centre of India under the private sector is Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) at Jamshedpur, Jharkhand.

Question 19. What is SAIL?
Answer:

SAIL

SAIL stands for Steel Authority of India Limited. It is a government enterprise that coordinates and controls the different iron and steel plants established by the initiative of the Indian government.

The large-scale iron and steel plants under this organisation are—Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur-Kulti, Rourkela and Bokaro. The alloy steel plants under this organisation are—Durgapur, Bhadravati and Salem. The headquarters of SAIL is in New Delhi.

Question 20. What do you mean by an industrial region?
Answer:

Industrial region

An industrial region is such a geographical region where several industries have developed simultaneously due to favourable physical, economic and cultural factors.

Availability of raw materials, market, demand, and cheap labour supply are some factors due to which there is an aggregation of industries in a particular location. Agricultural activities are seldom observed in such regions. Example— Hooghly industrial region in West Bengal.

Question 21. What do you mean by mini steel plants?
Answer:

Mini steel plants

Steel plants are usually of two types— integrated steel plants and mini steel plants. The steel plants that have a manufacturing capacity of less than 10 lakh tonnes annually and manufacture steel from scrap and sponge iron with the help of electric furnaces are known as mini steel plants. Presently, there are about 650 mini steel plants in India. Some of them are—

  1. National Iron and Steel Company, West Bengal;
  2. Andhra Steel Corporation Limited, Andhra Pradesh and
  3. Mukand Limited, Maharashtra.

Question 22. Name two railway engines and one automobile manufacturing industry in India.
Answer:

The railway engine manufacturing industry in India is at Chittaranjan in West Bengal and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh.
The automobile manufacturing industry in India is at Gurgaon in Haryana. fibres (such as polyester, and nylon), plastic, artificial rubber, gum, paints, pesticides and perfumes.

Question 24. Name one petrochemical industry in eastern and western India.
Answer:

One petrochemical industry in eastern India is at Haldia, West Bengal (Haldia Petrochemicals Limited) and one in western India is at Vadodara, Gujarat (Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited).

Question 25. Write a short note on the light engineering industry.
Answer:

Light engineering industry

The engineering industries which manufacture small machine parts for other industries and also manufacture small electronic devices are called light engineering industries. Cameras, radio, television, watch, typewriter, calculator, fans are the finished products of this type of industry.

Question 26. Name one petrochemical industry in northern and southern India.
Answer:

One petrochemical industry in northern India is at Panipat, Haryana (Panipat Petrochemical Plant) and one in southern India is at Mangalore, Karnataka (Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited).

Question 27. Name one automobile industry in northern and southern India.
Answer:

One automobile industry in northern India is at Gurgaon, Haryana (Maruti Suzuki India Limited) and one in southern India is at Chennai, Tamil Nadu (Ford India Private Limited).

Question 28. Write a short note on the petrochemical industrial complex.
Answer:

Petrochemical industrial complex

During the process of refining petroleum, a number of by-products are obtained such as propane, butane, ethane, methane, benzol, ethanol, propylene, butadiene etc. Many industries, therefore, grow in the vicinity of the petroleum refinery which uses these by-products as their raw materials. Thus this conglomerate of industries collectively forms the petrochemical industrial complex.

Question 29. Why is the petrochemical industry regarded as the ‘giant industry of the modern world’?
Answer:

A number of by-products are obtained when crude petroleum is refined. This has led to the development of many ancillary industries near these refineries that are dependent on the by-products.

These ancillary industries use these by-products as raw materials. So the petrochemical industry is responsible for the functioning of many other allied industries. Thus, it is regarded as the ‘giant industry of the modern world’.

Question 30. What do you mean by the information and technology industry?
Answer:

Information and technology industry

The industry which is involved in the collection, recovery, modification, improvement, analysis and storage of data for commercial purposes with the help of computer and telecommunication services is called the information and technology industry.

This industry deals with the exchange of data digitally through electronic media. Proper infrastructure and production units are required for this type of industry such as computer hardware, software, semiconductor, internet, telecommunication devices, e-commerce etc.

Question 31. Write a short note on the heavy engineering industry.
Answer:

Heavy engineering industry

The industries which manufacture heavy types of machinery, bulky instruments and types of equipment needed for agriculture, mining, dredging, lifting etc. and automobiles, locomotive coaches and such other large appliances are called heavy engineering industries. Example- Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, West Bengal.

Question 32. Why do most of the petrochemical industrial centres grow in proximity to ports in India?
Answer:

India is not fully capable of extracting crude oil in such a quantity that it meets the demand of the huge population of India. Every year, about 83% of the total amount of petroleum required is imported from other countries.

The petrochemical industrial centres including the refineries have grown in proximity to the ports in order to save the cost in transporting crude petroleum to the refineries (from oil tankers that bring petroleum to our country from foreign lands) and sending the finished products to the port for export.

Question 33. What is meant by the engineering industry?
Answer:

Engineering industry

The industries which mainly use different metals as raw materials, especially iron and steel to manufacture various instruments, machinery and appliances are called engineering industries.

Engineering industries can be of two types—

  1. Heavy engineering industries (like the automobile industry) and
  2. Light engineering industries (like wrist watch industry).

Question 34. Why is the petrochemical industry known as the ‘sunrise industry’?
Answer:

The importance of the petrochemical industry is growing day by day as both refined petroleum (the major finished product) and other by-products of this industry have immense use in our lives.

The by-products are extensively used as raw materials in other industries. So, the petrochemical industry helps in the development of several other industries and is emerging as a fast-progressing industry.

 

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment MCQs

 

Write The Correct Answer The Given Alternatives

Question 1. The largest cotton textile industry in south India is located in—

  1. Madurai
  2. Chennai
  3. Coimbatore
  4. Bengaluru

Answer: 3. Coimbatore

Question 2. Which of the following cities is famous for its cotton textile industries?

  1. Jamshedpur
  2. Visakhapatnam
  3. Ahmedabad
  4. Kolkata

Answer: 3. Ahmedabad

Question 3. The first cotton mill in India was

  1. Maharastra
  2. West Bengal
  3. Gujarat
  4. Tamil Nadu

Answer: 2. West Bengal

Question 4. The first cotton mill in West Bengal was established at—

  1. Serampore
  2. Dumdum
  3. Ghusuri
  4. Chandannagar

Answer: 3. Ghusuri

Question5. In which region of India do we find the maximum number of cotton textile industries?

  1. Northern region
  2. Southern region
  3. Eastern Region
  4. Western Region

Answer: 4. Western region

Question 6. Which of the following cities in India is known as the ‘Manchester of India’?

  1. Mumbai
  2. Bhavnagar
  3. Ahmedabad
  4. Pune

Answer: 3. Ahmedabad

Question 7. The city which is known as the ‘Manchester of South India’ is—

  1. Chennai
  2. Bengaluru
  3. Coimbatore
  4. Kochi

Answer: 3. Coimbatore

Question 8. Which of the following is an alloy?

  1. Iron
  2. Manganese
  3. Steel
  4. Aluminium

Answer: 3. Steel

Question 9. A large-scale iron and steel plant is located at

  1. Ranchi
  2. Bhilai
  3. Bastar
  4. Mysore

Answer: 2. Bhilai

Question 10. An important raw material of the iron and steel industry is—

  1. Hematite
  2. Limonite
  3. Bauxite
  4. Chalcopyrite

Answer: 1. Hematite

Question 11. Which steel plant was established after India attained independence?

  1. Durgapur
  2. Jamshedpur
  3. Bhadravati
  4. Burnpur

Answer: 1. Durgapur

Question 12. The iron and steel plant of Jamshedpur was established in the year—

  1. 1905
  2. 1907
  3. 1912
  4. 1915

Answer: 2. 1912

Question 13. The government-sponsored sponge iron plant is located at—

  1. Kothagudem, Telangana
  2. Durgapur, West Bengal
  3. Bokaro, Jharkhand
  4. Daitari, Odisha

Answer: 1. Kothagudem, Telangana

Question 14. TISCO is located at—

  1. Bhilai
  2. Rourkela
  3. Burnpur
  4. Jamshedpur

Answer: 4. Jamshedpur

Question 15. In which of the following places has the iron and steel plant developed near a coal mine?

  1. Rourkela
  2. Bhilai
  3. Durgapur
  4. Bhadravati

Answer: 3. Durgapur

Question 16. In India, the maximum amount of iron and steel is manufactured in —

  1. Jamshedpur
  2. Bhilai
  3. Rourkela
  4. Visakhapatnam

Answer: 2. Bhilai

Question 17. Which of the following is called the ‘Ruhr of India’?

  1. Durgapur
  2. Jamshedpur
  3. Raniganj
  4. Bokaro

Answer: 1. Durgapur

Question 18. SAIL is important—

  1. Coal mine
  2. Petroleum refinery
  3. Iron and steel plant
  4. Cotton textile mill

Answer: 3. Iron and steel plant

Question 19. Asia’s third-largest steel plant is located at—

  1. Jamshedpur
  2. Durgapur
  3. Bhilai
  4. Rourkela

Answer: 3. Bhilai

Question 20. The first iron and steel plant which was founded in the coastal region of India is located at—

  1. Paradeep
  2. Visakhapatnam
  3. Chennai
  4. Kochi

Answer: 2. Visakhapatnam

Question 21. The largest steel plant in India is located at—

  1. Salem
  2. Jamshedpur
  3. Durgapur
  4. Bhilai

Answer: 1. Salem

Question 22. The diesel rail engine factory of Uttar Pradesh is located in—

  1. Kanpur
  2. Allahabad
  3. Varanasi
  4. Lucknow

Answer: 3. Varanasi

Question 23. A petrochemical industry situated in northeastern India is—

  1. Bongaigaon
  2. Digboi
  3. Naharkatiya
  4. Haldia

Answer: 1. Bongaigaon

Question 24. The petrochemical industry has developed at—

  1. Tarapur
  2. Thane
  3. Trombay

Answer: 3. Trombay

Question 25. Which of the following is famous for its petrochemical industry?

  1. Kolkata
  2. Haldia
  3. Durgapur
  4. Siliguri

Answer: 2. Haldia

Question 26. Which of the following industry is called a ‘sunrise industry’?

  1. Information and technology
  2. Petrochemical
  3. Jute
  4. Iron and steel

Answer: 2. Petrochemical

Question 27. Which of the following industry is considered the ‘giant industry of the modern world’?

  1. Information and technology
  2. Cotton textile
  3. Iron and steel
  4. Petrochemical

Answer: 4. Petrochemical

Question 28. The first petrochemical industry in India was established at—

  1. Koyali
  2. Vadodara
  3. Trombay
  4. Haldia

Answer: 3. Trombay

Question 29. The only shipyard located in West Bengal is—

  1. Hindustan Shipyard
  2. Kolkata Shipyard
  3. Garden Reach Shipbuilders
  4. BCC Shipbuilders

Answer: 3. Garden Reach Shipbuilders

Question 30. The National Instruments Limited is located at—

  1. Burdwan
  2. Kolkata
  3. Krishnanagar
  4. Serampore

Answer: 2. Kolkata

Question 31. The largest automobile manufacturing company in India is—

  1. Ashok Leyland, Chennai
  2. Maruti Suzuki India Limited, Gurgaon
  3. Hindustan Motors, Kolkata
  4. Tata Motors, Jamshedpur

Answer: 2. Maruti Suzuki India Limited, Gurgaon

Question 32. The chief raw material required for the information and technology industry is

  1. Iron and steel
  2. Coal
  3. Man’s intellect
  4. Power resources

Answer: 3. Man’s intellect

Question 33. Which of the following cities is called the ‘Silicon Valley of India’?

  1. Kolkata
  2. Bengaluru
  3. Pune
  4. Chennai

Answer: 2. Bengaluru

Question 34. Which city is known as the ‘Detroit of

  1. Jamshedpur
  2. Chennai
  3. Mumbai
  4. Gurgaon

Answer: 2. Mumbai

Question 35. Railway coaches are manufactured in —

  1. Varanasi
  2. Kolkata
  3. Perambur
  4. Bengaluru

Answer: 3. Perambur

 

Chapter 5 India-Economic Environment If The Statement Is True, Write True And If False Write False Against The Following

 

Question 1. Cotton textile is an important industry in Gujarat.
Answer: True

Question 2. The cotton textile industry is a type of agro-based industry.
Answer: True

Question 3. Tamil Nadu contains the maximum number of cotton textile mills.
Answer: True

Question 4. Bengaluru is known as the ‘Manchester of South India’.
Answer: False

Question 5. There are many cotton textile mills along both the banks of river Hooghly.
Answer: False

Question 6. In India, the cotton textile industry is known as the ‘Backbone of all Industries’.
Answer: False

Question 7. The iron and steel plant at Jamshedpur lies on the banks of the Damodar river.
Answer: False

Question 8. Weber’s theory regarding the location of industries and the effect of transportation cost is very important.
Answer: True

Question 9. The Durgapur Steel Plant is located along the banks of river Subarnarekha.
Answer: False

Question 10. The iron and steel plant at Jamshedpur has been built in collaboration with the government.
Answer: False

Question 11. The iron and steel plants at the Burnpur-Kulti region are dependent on the water of the Damodar river.
Answer: True

Question 12. Bhilai is known as the ‘Ruhr of India’.
Answer: False

Question 13. The only steel plant in India is in Salem.
Answer: False

Question 14. The chief raw material of the petrochemical industry is naphtha.
Answer: False

Question 15. Rail engines are manufactured in West Bengal at Chittaranjan in the Burdwan district.
Answer: True

Question 16. Diesel rail engines are manufactured in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
Answer: True

Question 17. The automobile manufacturing industry is an example of an ancillary industry.
Answer: True

Question 18. A petrochemical plant has been set up in Assam at Digboi.
Answer: True

 

Chapter 5 India-Economic Environment Fill In The Blanks With Suitable Words

 

Question 1. Cotton is best cultivated in________ climate.
Answer: Humid

Question 2. ________ is a leading state in the case of the cotton textile industry in India.
Answer: Gujarat

Question 3. ________ is known as the ‘Manchester of North India’.
Answer: Kanpur

Question 4. ________ is an example of pure raw material.
Answer: Cotton

Question 5. Dairy industry is________ an industry.
Answer: Animal-based

Question 6. The paper industry and furniture industry are________ examples of industries.
Answer: Forest-based

Question 7. A steel plant is located at________ in Tamil Nadu.
Answer: Salem

Question 8. Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant is located at ________
Answer: Bhadravathi

Question 9. An iron and steel plant in Odisha is located at ________
Answer: Rourkela

Question 10. ________ is used to make steel harder.
Answer: Manganese

Question 11. Dolomite for the iron and steel plants in the Burnpur-Kulti region is sourced from ________
Answer: Gangpur

Question 12. The iron and steel plant of Jamshedpur is ________ located at the confluence of the rivers Subarnarekha and ________
Answer: Kharkai

Question 13. The largest concentration of iron and steel plants is seen in the ________ region of India.
Answer: Eastern

Question 14. The steel plant in Rourkela lies on the________ banks of the river
Answer: Brahmani

Question 15. The iron and steel plant at ________ was built in collaboration with erstwhile Soviet Russia.
Answer: Bokaro

Question 16. An important raw material of the petrochemical industry is________
Answer: Naphtha

Question 17. Maruti Suzuki India is an automobile manufacturing company located at in ________India.
Answer: Gurgaon

 

Chapter 5 India-Economic Environment Answer In One Or Two Words

 

Question 1. Give an example of pure raw material.
Answer: Cotton.

Question 2. Write the names of some important cotton textile mills of India.
Answer: Ahmedabad, Surat (Gujarat); Mumbai, Nagpur (Maharashtra).

Question 3. From which reservoir does the steel plant at Bhilai draw its water?
Answer: Tandula.

Question 4. Which industry is known as the ‘backbone of all industries’?
Answer: Iron and steel industry.

Question 5. What is the full form of SEZ?
Answer: Special Economic Zone.

Question 6. From where is the iron ore sourced for the iron and steel plant at Bhadravati?
Answer: Bababudan Hills in Karnataka.

Question 7. Where is the headquarters of SAIL located?
Answer: New Delhi.

Question 8. Name the oldest iron and steel plant in India.
Answer: Kulti in Burdwan, West Bengal.

Question 9. Give an example of an impure raw material.
Answer: Iron ore

Question 10. Name some of the raw materials of the petrochemical industry.
Answer: Naphtha, propane, ethane.

Question 11. Name a petrochemical plant located in
Answer: Vadodara.

Question 12. Where has the petrochemical industry grown in Haryana?
Answer: Panipat.

Question 13. Where is the real Silicon Valley located?
Answer: Santa Clara Valley in the United States of America.

Question 14. Name two cities in India where the information and technology industry has thrived.
Answer: Bengaluru and Chennai.

Question 15. Name some heavy engineering industries of India.
Answer: Automobiles, railway engines, large machinery, and generators.

Question 16. Name some light engineering industries of India.
Answer: Wristwatch, sewing machine, home appliances manufacturing industry.

Question 17. Name some important raw materials of the automobile manufacturing industry.
Answer: Steel, glass, paints, plastic.

Question 18. Name some electrical engineering industries.
Answer: Refrigerator fan, air conditioner.

Question 19. Where has the major IT industrial park been set up in West Bengal?
Answer: Bidhan Nagar (Salt Lake) in Kolkata.

 

Chapter 5 India-Economic Environment Match The Left Column With The Right Column

 

1.

Left column  Right column 
1. Jamnagar A. 1964
2. Bhadravathi B. 1956
3. Bhilai C. 1982
4. Bokaro D. 1918
5. Visakhapatnam E. 1907

Answer: 1-E,2-D,3-B,4-A,5-C

2.

Left column  Right column 
1. Shipbuilding industry A. Jamnagar
2. Cotton Textile Industry B. Vijayanagar
3. Petrochemical Industry C. Gurgaon
4. Auto Nobile Manufacturing D. Ahmedabad
5. iron and steel industry 5. Visakhapatnam

Answer: 1-E,2-D,3-A,4-C,5-B

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 Geography And Environment Chapter 5 India Physical Environment

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Topic 2 Physiography Of India Long Answer Type Questions

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

Question 1. Classify the physiographic divisions of India and describe any one of them, OR, Describe the northern mountainous region of India. OR, Describe the physiography of the northern mountains of India.
Answer:

India can be divided into five parts according to the physiography of the land.

They are—

  1. The Northern Mountains,
  2. The Northern Plains,
  3. The Peninsular Plateau,
  4. The coastal plains,
  5. The islands.

The Northern Mountains: The northern mountains are broadly classified into two parts—

  1. The Himalayan Mountainous region and
  2. The Purvanchal or the North-Eastern Mountainous region.

Read and Learn Also WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 Geography and Environment

The Himalayan Mountainous Region: The Himalayas are the highest mountain ranges in the world. They stretch from Nanga Parbat in Kashmir in the west to Namcha Barwa peak in Tibet in the east for about 2414km. According to geographical characteristics, the Himalayas can be divided into three zones from west to east.

  1. Western Himalayas,
  2. Central Himalayas and
  3. Eastern Himalayas.

The Western Himalayas: The stretch of the Himalayas from Nanga Parbat in the west to river Kali in the Indo-Nepal border is known as the Western Himalayas. This region can be classified into four mountain ranges.

  1. The Outer Himalayas or the Siwalik is the southernmost range, whose average height is 600-1500m.
  2. The Himachal Himalayas or the Lesser Himalayas lie north of the Siwalik range. It comprises the Pir Panjal, Dhauladhar, Nag Tibba, and Mussourie ranges. The average height of the region is 1500 – 4500m. The valleys of Doon, Marhi, and Kangra are seen in between the ranges.
  3. North of the Himachal lies the Greater Himalayas or the Himadri. The average altitude of this region is about 6000 m. The famous peaks of Nanga Parbat (8126m), Kamet (7756m), Nanda Devi (7816m), Kedarnath (6940m), Chaukhamba (7138m), etc. lie here. The famous Kashmir Valley lies here between the Pir Panjal and the Greater Himalayas.
  4. The northernmost part of the mountainous region is the Trans or Tethys Himalayas. This comprises mainly the Zanskar, Ladakh, and Karakoram ranges. The average altitude of this region is more than 6000 m.
  5. The Godwin Austen peak (K2) of the Karakoram range is the highest peak in India and the second-highest peak in the world (8611m). Other peaks are Gasherbrum I (8068m), Gasherbrum II (8035m), Broad Peak (8047 m), etc.
  6. The longest glacier in India, Siachen (76km) lies in the Karakoram range. Other glaciers are Biafo, Baltoro, etc.

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

2. The Central Himalayas: The Central Himalayas totally lie in Nepal, where it is known as the Mahabharat Lekh.

  1. The Siwalik lies at the southern margin along with Churia and Dundua hills as the Outer Himalayas.
  2. The Himadri Himalayas lie in the northernmost part. World-famous peaks like Mt. Everest, Annapurna, Dhaulagiri, etc. are present here.
  3. Other attractions of this region are Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys; Suraj Tal, Phewa Tal, and other lakes, glaciers like Lhotse and Ganesh; mountain passes like Tipta La, Umbak, etc.

3. The Eastern Himalayas: The Eastern Himalayas lies between the eastern border of Nepal in the west and the eastern border of Arunachal Pradesh in the east.

  1.  The southernmost range or part of the Siwalik range comprises the Dafla, Miri, Abor, and Mishmi hills of Arunachal Pradesh.
  2. The Central Himalayas are seen as dissected or broken ranges in this region. The Sandakphu peak (3636m) of the Singalila range is the highest peak in the region.
  3. The Himadri Himalayas form the northernmost range of the Himalayas. The high peaks of the Himadri are visible over here. E.g.—Mt. Kanchenjunga (8598m). Other mountains present here are Namcha Barwa in China border and Kula Kangri in Bhutan.
  4. Other geographical attractions present here are Nathu La pass; Valleys of Chumbi, Paro, Punakha, Haa, etc.; lakes like Tsango; Zemu glacier from where the river Tista originates.

The Purvsnchal or the Morth-eastern Mountainous Region:

  1. In the northeast Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, and Tripura, several hills and ranges are present. They are 1800-4000m high on average. E.g.—Patkai, Naga, Lushai, Barail, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, etc. This hilly and mountainous region is known as Purvanchal.
  2. The highest peak of the Purvanchal is the Daphabum of the Mishmi hills in Arunachal Pradesh.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map-1

 

Question 2. Discuss the causes of the formation of the Himalayan mountains with diagrams.
Answer:

The formation of the Himalayan mountains can be explained with the help of two theories—

  1. The Geosyncline theory,
  2. The Plate Tectonic theory.

1. The Geosyndine Theory:

  1. The Tethys Sea (a shallow sea) existed in the region where the Himalayas have been formed today about 6.5-7 crores years ago.
  2. The Laurasia in the north and the Gondwanaland in the south were two ancient landmasses lying on either side of the Tethys Sea.
  3. The Tethys Sea started getting filled up with huge amounts of silt that was brought down by the numerous rivers flowing through the Laurasia and Gondwanaland.
  4. In the Tertiary Age, due to orogenic movements, the Gondwanaland and Laurasia started moving towards each other. This compressed the sediments accumulated in the Tethys Sea.
  5. The sedimentary rocks formed due to high silt depositions in the sea were folded under high pressure. These folds gradually started rising due to more and more pressure and formed the Himalayan mountains.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment mountains of the himalayan mountains

 

2. The Plate Tectonic Theory:

1. According to the Plate Tectonic Theory, the earth’s crust is made up of 7 major and 20 minor plates. Out of these plates, the Himalayan range has been formed due to the collision of the Indian and the Eurasian plates.

2. The Indian plate and the Eurasian plates are converging plates, i.e., they move towards each other. Out of them, the Indian plate moves with greater speed than the Eurasian plate.

3. This caused a great collision between the two plates. Due to this collision, the comparatively heavier Indian plate subducted below the Eurasian plate near the boundary.

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

4. The sediments already compacted into rocks in the Tethys Sea were compressed hard and thrown into folds. This gradually gave rise to the Himalayan mountains. The Eurasian plate, which lies over the Indian plate also rose in height and gave rise to the Tibetan plateau.

5. The movement of the plates is still going on. The Indian plate moves northwards by 5.4cm every year. Thus, the compression of the sedimentary rocks is still going on and the Himalayan mountains are still gaining height. Hence, they are called new or young fold mountains.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment formation of the himalayan mountains

 

Question 3. Name the mountain ranges that form the Himalayan mountainous region. Describe the mountain ranges briefly. OR, Describe the parallel ranges that form the Himalayan mountains. OR, Describe the mountain ranges lying from north to south in the Himalayas.

Answer:

The Himalayan mountains can be divided into four parallel ranges from north to south.

They are—

  1. The Trans or Tethys Himalayas,
  2. The Himadri or the Greater Himalayas,
  3. The Himachal or the Lesser Himalayas,
  4. The Siwaliks or the Outer Himalayas.

1. The Trans or Tethys Himalayas:

  1. This is the northernmost range of the Himalayas and it gradually meets the Tibetan plateau.
  2. This range was formed about 70 million years ago after the first earth movements.
  3. This is about 225 km wide in the center and 1000 km long and the average height is about 6000m.
  4. The Karakoram range, Ladakh range, and Zanskar-Deosai range form the main ranges of this region. The highest peak of this region is K2 or Godwin Austen (8611m) in the Karakoram range.
  5. The Trans Himalayas lying in India have been heavily eroded and converted into a huge plateau region.
  6. The Trans or Tethys Himalayas lie only in Jammu and Kashmir state in India.

2. The Himadri or Greater Himalayas:

  1. The Himadri Himalayas have formed about 70 million years ago when the Tethys Himalayas were formed.
  2. This region lies south of the Tethys Himalayas. It is about 50km wide and the average height is about 6000 m. Most of the v time the region remains snow-covered. Hence, it is named Himadri.
  3. The important peaks present here are—Mt. Everest (8848 m, the highest peak of the world), Kanchenjunga (8598 m), Dhaulagiri (8167 m), Nanga Parbat (8126 m), Annapurna (8078 m), Nanda Devi (7816 m), etc. This range is formed of very old sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

3. The Himachal or Lesser Himalayas:

  1. The Himachal Himalayas have formed about 20 million years ago due to the second earth’s movements. This lies south of the Himadri and north of the Siwalik ranges.
  2. The range is about 3700-4500 m high and 60-80 km wide. Pir Panjal, Dhauladhar, Nag Tibba, and Mussourie ranges are present here. The famous peaks present here are Kedarnath (7188 m), Chaukhamba (7138 m), and Trishul  (7120 m).
  3. Many valleys are present here such as Kullu Valley, Kangra Valley, Rampur Valley, etc. The river valleys of the Himachal region are deep and with steep walls.

4. The Siwalik or Outer Himalayas:

  1. The Siwalik was formed by the last severe earth movements that occurred about 70 lakh years ago.
  2. The average height of the range is about 600,1500 m and the width is about 10 -50 km.
  3. The hills of Mussourie, Jammu, Dafla, Miri, Abor, and Mishmi are present here.
  4. This range is separated from the Lesser Himalayas or the Himachal by a number of structural valleys or doors and gorges.

Question 4. Give a brief account of the physiography of the Western Himalayas of India.
Answer:

The Western Himalayas:

Location: The Western Himalayas lie between Nanga Parbat in Jammu and Kashmir in the west and the river Kali on the western border of Nepal in the east.

This can be further subdivided into three regions—

  1. Kashmir Himalayas,
  2. Himachal or Punjab Himalayas and
  3. Kumaon Himalayas.

1. Kashmir Himalayas:

  1. This part lies in Jammu and Kashmir.
  2. The ranges of Pir Panjal, Jammu, and Poonch lie in this region. The mountains are mostly made up of sandstone and shale.
  3. Numerous valleys are present here. For example—Kashmir Valley, Udhampur doon, etc.
  4. The Pir Panjal range separates the Kashmir Valley from the rest of the country. The valley can be reached only through the Banihal and the Pir Panjal passes.
  5. Numerous glacial lakes are present in this region. E.g.—Dal, Wular, Anchar, Nageen, etc.
  6. The Greater Himalayas lie to the east and north of the Kashmir Valley.
  7. The highest peak of India, Godwin Austen or K2 (8611 m) lies in this region in the Karakoram range. Other peaks present are Hidden Peak, Broad Peak, etc.
  8. The longest glacier in India, Siachen (75 km) also lies here.
  9. The Ladakh range lies south of the Karakoram range, east of which lies the Ladakh plateau. The average height of the region is about 4300 m.
  10. The Zanskar range lying south of the Ladakh range is separated from each other by the Indus Valley.
  11. Zoji La and Banihal are important passes of the Kashmir Himalayas.

Class 10 Geography West Bengal Board

2. Himachal or Punjab Himalayas:

  1. The part of the Himalayas lying in Himachal Pradesh is known as the Himachal Himalayas.
  2. The northern part comprises the Himadri Himalayas which are about 5000-6000 m high.
  3. South of the Himadri lies the ranges of Dhauladhar, Pir Panjal, Zanskar, Nag Tibba, and Mussourie. The peaks of the Pir Panjal range remain snow-covered throughout the year. The average height of the region is 1500-4000 m.
  4. The Siwalik range forms the southernmost part of this region. The average height of this region is 600-1500 m.
  5. A number of valleys are present here, e.g. Lahul, Spiti, Kullu, Kangra, etc.

3. Garhwal and Kumaon Himalayas:

  1. The part of the Himalayas lying in the state of Uttarakhand is known as Garhwal and Kumaon Himalayas.
  2. Famous peaks like Nanda Devi (7816 m), Gangotri (6614 m), Kedarnath (7188 m), Kamet (7756 m), Trishul (7120 m), etc., lie in this region. These peaks belong to the Lesser or Middle Himalayas.
  3. The Siwalik lies to the south of this region. Numerous valleys or doors are present here, e.g. Dehradun. Several lakes are present east of Nag Tibba and Mussourie hilly regions. E.g.—Nainital, Bheemtal, Sattal, etc.
  4. The Gangotri and Yamunotri glaciers give rise to the Ganga and Yamuna rivers respectively.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment physiography of the western himalayas of the western himalays

 

 

Question 5. Describe the physiography of the Eastern Himalayas in brief.
Answer:

The Eastern Himalayas:

Location: The Eastern Himalayas extend from the eastern margin of Nepal near the Singalila range in the west to the eastern margin of Arunachal Pradesh.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment physiography map- eastern himalays

 

This region is further sub-divided into three parts—

  1. Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalayas,
  2. Bhutan Himalayas and
  3. Arunachal Himalayas.

Class 10 Geography West Bengal Board

1. SikkinvDarjeeing Himalayas:

  1. This part of the mountains extends from the Singalila range in the Nepal-Sikkim and West Bengal in the west to the Donkia hills of Sikkim in the east.
  2. The second-highest peak in India and the third-highest peak in the world, Mt. Kanchenjunga lies at the western margin of the Singalila range in the Eastern Himalayas.
  3. The famous passes of Nathu La, Jelep La, Goecha La, and Donghkha La lie in this region.
  4. Other peaks present here are Sandakphu (3636 m), Phalut (3595 m), and Sabangram (3543 m). The famous lakes of Mirik (in Darjeeling) and Chhangu, Gurudongmar, and Khecheopalri (in Sikkim) are also present here.

Bhutan Himalayas:

  1. The part of the Himalayas lying in Bhutan is called the Bhutan Himalayas. Locally, this is known as Masang Kidu.
  2. The Kula Kangri (7553m) and Chomolhari (7326m) peaks lie in this section of the Himalayas.

3. Arunachal Himalayas:

  1. The part of the Himalayas lying in Arunachal Pradesh is called the Arunachal Himalayas.
  2. The three parallel ranges of the Himalayas, i.e., the Siwalik, Himachal, and Himadri are noticed in the Arunachal Himalayas.
  3. The Namcha Barwa peak (7756m) is located to the northeast of Arunachal Pradesh on the Tibet Border.
  4. The Tsang Po gorge lies east of this peak.
  5. The passes like Tulang La, Bum La, Thag La, Yonggyap, etc., connect Arunachal Pradesh with Tibet and Bhutan by Bomdila pass.

Question 6. Describe the mountainous region of the northeastern part of India.
Answer:

The North-eastern Mountains Region of India or the Purvanchal

Location: The low hills of the Eastern Himalayas lying in the north-eastern of India and the different hills that run from this region towards the south (dissected branches of the Eastern Himalayas) are together known as the north-eastern mountainous region of India or the Purvanchal.

This spreads over the southern region of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and the Caehar district of Assam. region meets the Meghalaya plateau in the west.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map- western himalyas

 

Physiographic Features:

1. The Patkai and Mishmi ranges of Arunachal Pradesh run north to south. The Dapha Bum peak of the Mishmi hills is the highest peak in this region.

2. The Patkai range meets the Barail range in Nagaland towards the south. The Barail range runs eastwards and meets the Kohima and Naga hills.

The highest peak of Kohima hills is Japvo (2995 m) and that of Naga hills is Saramati (3826 m). A part of the Barail range passes through the Caehar district of Assam and meets the Meghalaya plateau. Garo, Khasi, and Jaintia are important hills of the Meghalaya plateau.

3. The altitude of the hills decreases in the south of Nagaland. The Imphal Valley has been formed in such low-altitude areas of Manipur, where the beautiful lake called Loktak is present.

Class 10 Geography West Bengal Board

4. The low hills of Manipur meet the Lushai or Mizo hills of Mizoram. Phawngpui (2157 m) is the highest peak of the Lushai hills.

5. In Tripura, six parallel ranges of low hills are seen lying parallel to the Lushai hills. These are locally known as ‘Tang’. Amongst these, the Jampui Tang is the highest, of which, Bething Sib (960 m) is the highest peak. The hills of northeast India run further south through Chittagong of Bangladesh and enter Myanmar as Arakan Yoma.

Question 7. Discuss the role of the Himalayas on human life in India.
Answer:

The Himalayas play a very important role in human life in India.

1. Climate: The Himalayas trap the southwest monsoon winds and force them to shed their moisture in the form of rainfall. They also block the cold Siberian winds from entering the country, thus protecting North India from severe cold.

2. Natural frontier: The Himalayas act as a natural barrier and have been protecting the country from foreign invasions.

3. Source of rivers: The Himalayan ranges have given rise to numerous perennial rivers such as the Ganga, Yamuna, Tista and many others. These rivers provide water for agriculture, industries, and drinking purposes. In this way, the Himalayan rivers form the very basis of life for the whole of North India.

4. Fertile soil: The Himalayan rivers have brought down enormous quantities of fertile alluvium. This is deposited in the Great Plains of North India which forms the basis of the agricultural prosperity of the region.

5. Generation of hydel power: The swift-flowing Himalayan rivers such as the Indus, Ganga, Yamuna, Sutlej, and Tista are harnessed for hydel power generation. The hydel power generated from the Himalayan rivers is utilized in irrigation, agriculture, industries, and transport system thereby facilitating the growth of the Indian economy.

6. Pastoral land and forests: The Himalayas provide rich pastures for grazing animals. The tribal people such as Gujjar and Gaddi rear animals in the Himalayan pastures. The Himalayan forests are rich in biodiversity and provide medicinal plants, fuel woods, and raw materials for forest-based industries.

Class 10 Geography West Bengal Board

7. Agriculture: Tea, and many fruits such as apples, cherries, pears, peaches, and mulberries grow in the Himalayan region. Himachal Pradesh is called the apple state of India because it produces three-fourths of the total national production. Famous Dehradun rice is cultivated in the Himalayas as well.

8. Minerals: The Himalayan mountains are important sources of coal, natural gas, copper, chromite, lead and zinc magnesite, limestone, and many other minerals. Anthracite coal in India is only mined in the Kashmir Himalayas. These minerals provide raw materials for various industries.

9. Tourism: Snow-capped peaks, picturesque lakes, scenic beauty of the natural landscape, healthy environment, and pleasant climate attract large numbers of domestic and foreign tourists to the Himalayas. Tourism provides employment to the large number of people living in this region. Srinagar, Shimla, Kullu, Manali, Nainital, Darjeeling, and Gangtok are some of the notable tourist centers in the Himalayas.

10. Pilgrimage: The Himalayan region is studded with a large number of sacred shrines like the Amarnath, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Vaishno Devi, and many others. These places are visited by a large number of pilgrims to pay their reverence to those shrines.

Question 8. Describe the physiography of the Kashmir Valley and the Himachal
Answer:

1. Kashmir Himalayas:

  1. This part lies in Jammu and Kashmir.
  2. The ranges of Pir Panjal, Jammu, and Poonch lie in this region. The mountains are mostly made up of sandstone and shale.
  3. Numerous valleys are present here. For example—Kashmir Valley, Udhampur doon, etc.
  4. The Pir Panjal range separates the Kashmir Valley from the rest of the country. The valley can be reached only through the Banihal and the Pir Panjal passes.
  5. Numerous glacial lakes are present in this region. E.g.—Dal, Wular, Anchar, Nageen, etc.
  6. The Greater Himalayas lie to the east and north of the Kashmir Valley.
  7. The highest peak of India, Godwin Austen or K2 (8611 m) lies in this region in the Karakoram range. Other peaks present are Hidden Peak, Broad Peak, etc. The longest glacier in India, Siachen (75 km) also lies here.
  8. The Ladakh range lies south of the Karakoram range, east of which lies the Ladakh plateau. The average height of the region is about 4300 m.
  9. The Zanskar range lying south of the Ladakh range is separated from each other by the Indus Valley.
  10. Zoji La and Banihal are important passes of the Kashmir Himalayas.

2. Himachal or Punjab Himalayas:

  1. The part of the Himalayas lying in Himachal Pradesh is known as the Himachal Himalayas.
  2. The northern part comprises the Himadri Himalayas which are about 5000-6000 m high.
  3. South of the Himadri lies the ranges of Dhauladhar, Pir Panjal, Zanskar, Nag Tibba, and Mussourie. The peaks of the Pir Panjal range remain snow-covered throughout the year. The average height of the region is 1500-4000 m.
  4. The Siwalik range forms the southernmost part of this region. The average height of this region is 600-1500 m.
  5. A number of valleys are present here, e.g. Lahul, Spiti, Kullu, Kangra, etc.

Question 9. Represent the physiographic divisions of India on a map of India.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map- Physigraphic divisions of india

 

Question 10. Discuss the importance of the Himadri Himalayas with respect to physiography.
Answer:

The Himalayan range can be divided into four parallel ranges from south to north—

  1. Siwalik range or the Outer Himalayas,
  2. Himachal or the Lesser Himalayas,
  3. Himadri or the Greater Himalayas,
  4. Trans or the Tethys Himalayas.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer WBBSE

1. Climate: The Himadri Himalayas are about 6000m high and on average 120-190km wide. It stands like a high wall along the northern margin of the country. This prevents the severely cold winds from Central Asia from entering the country. This also prevents the moisture-laden southwest monsoon winds from leaving the country. Thus, it also controls the climate of India.

2. Glaciers and perennial rivers: The high altitude and volume of snow have given rise to numerous glaciers. E.g.—Gangotri, Yamunotri, Zemu, etc. These glaciers give rise to numerous rivers. The rivers remain perennial as they receive snowmelt water as well as rainfall. E.g.—Ganga, Yamuna, and their numerous tributaries. They are useful for hydel power generation, irrigation, etc.

3. Communication: A number of mountain passes are present in the Himadri Himalayas which help in connecting the northern and southern regions of the mountains. E.g.— Barlacha La, Shipki La, Zoji La.

4. Fertile Soil: The rivers rising in the Himadri Himalayas bring down huge amounts of silt and then spread them all over the northern plains. This makes the region very fertile and suitable for agriculture.

5. Tourism: The natural beauty of the Himadri Himalayas attract a large number of tourists and trekkers from India and abroad. This helps to boost the economy.

6. Defense: The Himadri Himalayas stand along the northern border of India like a natural barrier. This protects the land from foreign invasion from the north.

7. Others: The Himadri Himalayas also play an important role in the development of the timber industry, paper industry, handicrafts, cottage industries, etc.

Question 11. Discuss the location and physiography of the Gangetic plains of India.
Answer:

Location: The huge Gangetic plains are bounded by the Himalayan mountains in the north, the river Yamuna in the west, the mouth of the river Ganga in the southeast, and the peninsular plateau in the south. The plain spreads over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal over an area of about 3 lakh 75 thousand sq. km.

Physiography of the Gangetic plains: The Gangetic plains can be subdivided into three parts according to geographical features.

1. Upper Ganga Plain:

  1. The region spreads from the Yamuna river in the v/est to the confluence of rivers Yamuna and Ganga in Allahabad in the east.
  2. The average height of the region is about 220m in the west to 100m in the east.
  3. The land slopes from northwest to southeast. Thin stretches of Babar and terai regions lie in the northern part of this stretch.
  4. The regions composed of old alluvium are called Bangar and that composed of new alluvium are called khadar.

2. Middle Ganga Plain:

  1. The region extends from Allahabad in the west to the Rajmahal hills in the east. Landforms like floodplains, natural levees, oxbow lakes, etc. are seen here.
  2. The height of the region decreases towards the east to about 35m.
  3. The region covers the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh and the western part of Bihar.
  4. The rocky and pebbly region lying at the foothills of the Siwalik is known as Babar.
  5. South of the Babar region lies the terai region made up of pebbles, gravel, sand, silt, and clay particles.

3. Lower Ganga Plains: The region extends from the Rajmahal hills in the v/est to the mouth of the river Bhagirathi-Hooghly in the east.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer WBBSE

This region is further sub-divided into three parts—

  1. North Bengal plain (formed by the silt deposition of the rivers Ganga-Padma and their tributaries rising in the silt deposition of the tributaries of Ganga the Himalayas),
  2. Rarh region (formed by rising in the Chotanagpur plateau),
  3. Delta

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map- Physiography of the gangetic plains

 

Question 12. Describe the location and physiography of the Rajasthan plain in brief. How can the region be Jibber subdivided?
Answer:

Location: The southwestern part of the northern plain of India is known as the Rajasthan plain. This region extends between the south of the Punjab plain and west of the Aravalli range. It occupies the western part of Rajasthan and is known as the Thar desert.

Characteristics:

  1. The average height of this totally sand-covered region is 350m in the east near the foothills of the Aravallis and 150m in the west near the Pakistan border.
  2. A number of seif dunes and barkhans are present here.
  3. A number of small saltwater lakes called hands or playas are present here (E.g.—Didwana, Kuchaman, Pachpadra). Large salt lakes are also seen here (E.g.—Sambhar).
  4. Some small residual hills are seen near Jaisalmer.
  5. Many shifting dunes or drains are seen here.
  6. Luni is the main river of this region.
  7. Small springs are seen in some regions which give rise to oases.
  8. Lake Sambhar is the largest lake (salt water) on the Rajasthan plain.

Classification of the Rajasthan Plain: Physiographically, the Rajasthan plain can be classified into five parts—

Physiographic divisions  Location 
Marusthali The westernmost part of the Rajasthan plain composed of sand, rocks, dunes, drains, etc. is called Marusthali.
Bagar The semi-desert region lying east of Marusthali in the basin of river Luni is called Bagar. Several playas are seen here.
Rohi The fertile floodplains formed by the small streams coming from the Aravalli range, east of the Bagar region is called Rohi.
Thali The region north of river Luni composed of fixed sand dunes are called Thali.
Bhangar The old silt region lying south of the Punjab plain along the border of Marusthali is called Bhangar.

 

Question 13. Discuss briefly the Punjab plain and the Brahmaputra valley,
Answer:

Punjab Plain:

Extent: The western part of the northern plain of India is known as the Punjab plain. The region extends from west of river Yamuna and includes a big region of Pakistan. Delhi, Punjab, and Haryana lie within this region.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer WBBSE

Characteristics:

1. The plain has been formed by the silt deposition of the tributaries of the river Indus-namely, Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, and Chenab. The region adjacent to the rivers formed of new alluvium is called ‘bet’ and the region beyond the ‘bet’ formed of old alluvium is called ‘bar’.

2. The average height of the plain is 200-240m.

3. Five doabs are seen in this region.

They are—

  1. Bist-Jalandhar doab,
  2. Bari doab,
  3. Rechna doab,
  4. Chal Jech doab and
  5. Sind-Sagar doab.

4. The high domes formed by silt deposition in Punjab are called ‘haya’ Plains of the Brahmaputra Basin or The Brahmaputra Valley

Extent: The 640km long and 90-100km wide Brahmaputra Valley extends from Sadia in the east to Dhubri in the west. It covers an area of 56 thousand sq. km. The Assam plain lies within the Brahmaputra Valley

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment maps location of the punjab plain

Characteristics:

  1. The plain is bounded by mountains in the north, east, and south. The land slopes from the east to the west.
  2. The height of the land is about 130m in the east and 30m in the west.
  3. The plain has been formed by the silt deposited by the river Brahmaputra and its tributaries.
  4. The river Brahmaputra gives rise to numerous sand bars in its course of flow through the plains. The largest river bar in India, Majuli lies here. The Majuli island now occupies an area of 614 sq. km.

Question 14. Describe the physiography of the northern plain of India.
Answer:

The physiography of the northern plain of India

The plain lying between the Himalayan mountains in the north, and the peninsular plateau in the south, formed of silt deposited by the rivers Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra and their numerous tributaries is called the northern plain of India.

The plain can be broadly subdivided into four parts—

  1. Rajasthan Plain,
  2. Punjab Plain
  3. Ganga Plain and
  4. Assam Plain or the Brahmaputra Valley.

1. Rajasthan Plain:

  1. This region lies west of the Aravalli range in central and western Rajasthan. The region is dry and sandy. This is known as the Thar desert, which extends into Pakistan. The westernmost part of the Thar desert is known as Marusthali.
  2. The rocky region of Marusthali is known as hamada. Several shallow salt lakes have been formed in between parallel seif dunes due to the blowing away of sand and forming of depressions. These are called hands.
  3. The eastern part of the plain is comparatively less sandy and forms small grasslands. This is known as a bar. The river Luni flows through this region.
  4. East of the bar, numerous small streams come down from the Aravalli range and deposit silt on either bank. Floodplains formed this way are called roshi.
  5. Few low residual hills are also seen near Jaisalmer.
  6. A few saltwater lakes are present in the lowland areas of the Thar desert. They are locally known as rann. Lake Sambhar is the largest lake in this region.
  7. Some oases are seen in the desert where dates, palms, and grasses grow.

2. Punjab Plain:

  1. This region stretches the northeast of the Rajasthan plain in the west and the river Yamuna in the east. This includes Punjab, Haryana, and Delhi.
  2. This fertile plain has been formed by the deposits of silt from the river Indus and its tributaries, namely Sutlej, Beas, Ravi, and Chenab.
  3. The average height of the region is 200-240m.
  4. The eroded regions of the Aravalli range surround the plain in the south, north, and northeast.

3. Ganga plain:

  1. This region spreads over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal, extending from the river Yamuna in the west to the Ganga delta in the east. The region has been formed by silt deposited by the river Ganga and its numerous tributaries.
  2. Floodplains, natural levees, oxbow lakes, etc. are seen in the Ganga plain.
  3. The slope of the land is from the west to the east and southeast.
  4. The region formed of old silt is called bhangra and that formed of new silt is called khadar.
  5. The rocky, pebbly, and gravelly region lying at the foothills of the Himalayas is called baba.
  6. South of the baby lies the densely forested region of Terai, composed of rocks, pebbles, sand, silt, and clay. The Ganga delta has been formed at the mouth of the river near the Bay of Bengal.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer WBBSE

The Ganga plain can be subdivided into three parts—

  1. Upper Ganga Plain (lying mainly in Uttar Pradesh),
  2. Middle Ganga Plain (lying in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh and the western part of Bihar),
  3. Lower Ganga Plain (in the whole of West Bengal except Darjeeling mountainous region and the western uplands).

4. Brahmaputra Valley:

  1. This 700 km long and 80 km wide plain has been formed along both banks of the river Brahmaputra in Assam.
  2. The slope of the land is from east to west. The river Brahmaputra flows here in a braided channel.
  3. A number of river bars have been formed in this region. Majuli is the largest river bar formed here, which is also the largest river bar in India.

Question 15. Discuss briefly the mountain ranges of the Deccan plateau region.
Answer:

The mountain ranges situated on the Deccan plateau region are as follows—

1. Satpura-Mahadeo-Maikal ranges:

  1. These mountain ranges lie south of the river Narmada and stretch from west to east. The highest peak of the Satpura range is Dhupgarh (1350 m).
  2. Limestone caves are present in the Mahadeo hills.
  3. The highest peak of the Maikal range is Amarkantak (1057 m).
  4. The Satpura is a horst or a block mountain and the rivers Narmada and Tapti flow through two grabens or rift valleys.

2. Ajanta hills: The Ajanta hills lie south of the Satpura range and stretch from the west to the east. This hilly region has been highly dissected due to erosion.

3.Western Ghats or Sahyadri:

  1. The Western Ghats lie along the western margin of the Deccan plateau. It extends for a length of 1600 km and the average height is 1200 m and runs north-south.
  2. The western slope of the mountains is very steep and the eastern slope comes down step by step and meets the Deccan plateau.
  3. The important peaks are Agasthyakoodam (1868 km), Kalsubai, Mahabaleswar, Salhar, etc.
  4. Two important passes or gaps present in this region are Thalghat near Nashik and Bhorghat near Pune.
  5. Annamalai, Palni hills, Cardamom hills, Elumalai, and Agasthyamalai form the southern portion of the Western Ghats. This southern part of the Western Ghats is made of granite and gneiss rocks. Hence, they form round or dome-shaped hills. The Anamudi peak (2695m) of the Anamalai range is the highest peak in southern India.

4. Nilgiri:

  1. The Nilgiri mountains meet the Western Ghats in the south. The highest peak of the Nilgiri is Doddabetta (2637 m).
  2. The Palghat gap lies to the south of the Nilgiri mountains.
  3. The mountain ranges are covered with dense forests.

5. Eastern Ghats:

  1. These mountains run from north to south along the eastern margin of the Deccan plateau.
  2. The range is highly dissected and the average height is only 600m.
  3. The Eastern Ghats comprise the Kolli Malai, Velikonda, Palkonda, Shevaroy, Pachaimalai, Javadi, etc. hills.
  4. The region lying between the Godavari and Mahanadi rivers is quite high. Here, Kondhan and Khondmal are the two prominent hills. Mahendragiri (1501 m) peak of the Eastern Ghats is situated in this region.
  5. Jindhagada (1690 m) is the highest peak of the Eastern Ghats and is situated in Andhra Pradesh.

Question 16. Compare the Eastern and Western Coastal Plains of India.
Answer:

Comparisons between the Eastern and Western Coastal Plains of India are as follows—

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Question Answer WBBSE

Point of companies  Eastern Coastal Plains Western Coastal Plains
Location Lies along the Bay of Bengal. Lies along the Arabian sea.
Height The average height of this coastal plain is low. The average height from the mean sea level is more.
Width Lies along the Bengal. The width of the Western coastal plain varies between 10 and 25 km.
Dunes Sand dunes are present throughout the coast. Sand dunes are present only in the southern part of the coastal plain.
Nature of Coast The coast is continuous. Only the southern portion is broken. Hence, number of ports is less. The coast is broken throughout. Hence, the number of ports is more.
Rivers Rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, etc. flow through this plain and have wide mouths. Rivers Netravati, Sharavathi, Periyar, etc. flow through this region. They have small and narrow mouths.
Delta The rivers form large deltas. The rivers do not form deltas except a small delta in the mouth of river Netravati.
Lakes and Lagoons Numerous lakes and lagoons are present along the coast. E.g.—Chilka, Kolleru, Pulicat, etc. Lakes and lagoons are present only in the southern portions like Vembanad, Asthamudi, etc.
Fertility The fertile soil is used for agriculture all along the coastal plain. The soil is less fertile (except in the Konkan and Malabar regions). Hence, agriculture is not much developed.
Rainfall Receives moderate rainfall. Receives heavy rainfall.
Industry The Eastern Coastal Plains are heavily industrialized. Industrial development is seen in only one or two places.
Transport System The flat and wide coastal plains help in the development of the transport system. The coastal plains being narrow don’t have a highly developed transportation system.

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Question 17. Discuss the location and physiography of the Deccan plateau in brief.
Answer:

Location: The Deccan plateau lies over the vast stretches of Peninsular India in the south. It is bounded by the Vindhya range in the north, Kanyakumari in the south, Eastern Ghats in the east (Malayadri), and Western Ghats in the west (Sahyadri). The plateaus of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu comprise the Deccan plateau.

Physiography of the Deccan Plateau:

  1. The Deccan plateau is a part of the oldest landmass or the shield region of the world.
  2. The region is formed of old granite, gneiss, and other igneous and metamorphic rocks.
  3.  The region has been eroded for millions of years. Hence, some areas have been lowered to peneplains and some regions have been dissected to form mesas and buttes.
  4. The slope of the land is from west to east. The southern portion is higher than the northern portion.
  5. The northwestern part is known as the Deccan Trap. Trap means steps or staircases. The Maharashtra plateau lying in this region is flat-topped, with steep slopes broken into stairs, thus forming a trap.
  6. The flat, low region of the Karnataka plateau lying south of the Deccan Trap is known as Maidan. The hilly region lying west of the Maidan is known as Malnad.

7. This triangular plateau region is surrounded by—

  1. The Satpura-Mahadeo- Maikal-Ajanta hills in the north,
  2. The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) in the west,
  3. The Eastern Ghats (Malayadri) in the east.

8. The Anaimalai hills lie in the southern part of the Deccan plateau. The Anamudi peak (2695m) of this range is the highest peak in southern India.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map Locationb and physiography of decan plateau

Question 18. Describe the western coastal plain of India.
Answer:

Location:

  1. The Western Coastal Plains lie along the western margins of India and spreads from Rann of Kachchh in the north to Kanyakumari in the south.
  2. The Western Ghats lie to the east and the Arabian sea lies to the west of these coastal plains. The coastal plains are 10-25 km in width.
  3. This coast is narrower than the Eastern Coastal plains.
  4. The plains taper from the north to the south.
  5. No deltas are formed, except for a small and narrow delta of river Netravati.

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Physiography: The Western coastal plains can be sub-divided into four parts—

1. Gujarat Coastal Plain:

  1. This is the northernmost part of the Western Coastal plains.
  2. This region extends from the Rann of Kachchh in the north to the borders of Maharashtra in the south.
  3. A large region of shallow salt marshes lies in the Kachchh region, known as the Rann. The western part is known as the Great Rann and the eastern part is known as the Little Rann.
  4. The Kathiawar peninsula is quite wide and the central region is high. There are two mountains found here, namely, Gir and Girnar.
  5. The rivers Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada, Tapti, etc., deposit a huge amount of silt on the continental shelf of the Kathiawar peninsula.
  6. This is increasing the height of the shelf and extending the coastal plains westwards.

2. Konkan Coastal Plain:

  1. This region extends from the border of Maharashtra with Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. It is about 500km long.
  2. The plains are narrow and broken. Most of the region is rocky.
  3. The coastal region comprises a variety of landscapes like wetlands, sand beaches, sea bars or banks, low hills made of lava, etc.

3. Karnataka Coastal Plain:

  1. This region extends from the south of Goa in the north to the south of Mangalore in the south.
  2. This coastal line is about 225 km long.
  3. The coastal plain is quite narrow but becomes a little wider beyond Mangalore in the south.
  4.  Sandy beaches are found in some regions, while the Western Ghats directly meet the sea at some places near the coast.
  5. The only delta of the Western.
  6. The coastal plain lies at the mouth of the Netravati river.
  7. Some typical landforms found here are small sand dunes, clayey lowlands, small lagoons, narrow river valleys, and low plateaus of laterite at the foothills of the Western Ghats.

4. Malabar Coastal Plain:

  1. This coastal plain extends from the south of Mangalore in the north to Kanyakumari in the south. It is about 500km long.
  2. This region is wider (about 25 km) as compared to the Konkan and Karnataka coastal plains.
  3. A number of sand dunes, wetlands, lakes, and lagoons are present here. The shallow wetlands are known as ‘backwaters’ in this region. The lagoons are known as ‘kayaks’. E.g.— Vembanad kayal near Kochi, Asthamudi Kayal near Kollam.WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map Physiography of the western coastal plains

Question 19. Describe the physiography of the old plateau region of India.
Answer:

The old plateau region of India can be divided into two parts—

  1. The main plateau and
  2. The dissected plateau.

1. The Main Plateau: The main plateau is bounded by the Vindhya, Satpura, Mahadeo, and Maikal ranges in the north, the Sahyadri in the west, the Malayadri in the east, and the Nilgiri and Anaimalai hills in the south. This part of the old plateau (known as the Deccan plateau) lies in the peninsular part of India.

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Characteristics:

  1. The Maharashtra plateau lying in the north-western part is a lava plateau that descends on the sides like steps or stairs. This region is also called the Deccan Trap,
  2. The part of the plateau lying in Karnataka, made up of granite and gneiss rocks, is known as the Karnataka plateau. The hilly area adjacent to the Western Ghats in this part is known as the Malnad and the lower plains on the eastern side are known as Maidan.
  3. The northeastern part of the old plateau is known as the Chotanagpur plateau. The highest part of this region is the ‘Pat’ region (average height 1100 m). The Parasnath (highest peak), Dalma and Rajmahal hills lie here. This region is highly rich in mineral resources,
  4. The Malwa, Bundelkhand, and Rewa plateaus are present along the north-western and northern margins of the old plateau region,
  5. Chhattisgarh region, Dandakaranya, and Tamil Nadu plateaus lie to the east and southeast of this region.

The Dissected Plateau: The Meghalaya plateau is a dissected plateau that was once a part of the peninsular plateau of India.

Characteristics:

  1. The Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, and Mikir hills lie in this region. The Shillong peak (1966 m) is the highest peak in this region,
  2. This is a dissected part of the Deccan plateau,
  3. The average height of the region is around 900 m.
  4. The Meghalaya plateau is surrounded by the Shillong peak and hilly region in the north, Mikir hills in the northeast, Khasi and Jaintia hills in the central part, and the Cherrapunji plateau in the south.

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Short Explanatory Answer Type Questions

 

Question 1. Discuss the relationship between the physical environment and human life in India.
Answer:

The relationship between the physical environment and human life in India

India is a land of diverse physical environment and variety, which plays an important role in the life of people. The influence of the physical environment on India and the life of the people are as follows-

1. The Himalayas lying at the northern margin of the country prevents the cold polar winds coming from Siberia from entering the land. It also prevents the southwest monsoon winds from escaping outside the country. Thus, the mountains control the climate of the country to a great extent.

2. The Himalayas in the north and the three seas and oceans in the east, west, and south provide natural boundaries and protect the country from foreign invasions.

3. The passes in the mountain ranges help to conduct trade between India and other countries.

4. The tropical climate of the country makes its economy agro-based.

5. The fertile soils found in most parts of India help to grow crops like rice, wheat, jute, tea, coffee, spices, cotton, etc. Sufficient rainfall, numerous rivers, availability of mineral and forest resources, etc. help in the economic development of the country.

6. The plains are not only suitable for agriculture, but they also favor the growth of industries, railways, roadways, and other economic activities.

Question 2. Describe the southernmost range of the Himalayan mountains.
Answer:

The southernmost range of the Himalayan mountains

The southernmost range of the Himalayan mountains is known as the Outer Himalayas or the Siwalik. After the formation of the Tethys, Himadri, and Himachal Himalayas, a severe orogenic movement about 30 lakh years ago gave impetus to the mountain-building process. After this, an ice age started.

The mountains of the Himalayas were severely eroded by the large glaciers in the ice age, and the eroded materials accumulated at the foothills. Another orogenic movement occurred about 1 million years ago when the Tethys, Himadri and

Himachal Himalayas rose in height considerably and the rock debris accumulated and compacted near the foothills rose as the Siwalik range. The Siwalik range is 600-1500m high and 10-50km wide approximately. The southern slope of this range is steep and the northern slope is gentle. The Jammu hills are part of the Siwalik range.

Question 3. Write a short account of the Ladakh range arid the Ladakh plateau.
Answer:

Ladakh Range: The Ladakh range lies to the north of the Greater Himalayas or the Himadri in Kashmir. It is often regarded as a southern extension of the Karakoram range. This is about 370km long and stretches between the Indus and Shyok river valleys.

The Ladakh range has an average height of 6000m. During the rise of the Himalayas, the Ladakh range was also formed from the silt deposited in the Tethys Sea. The range has been severely eroded and lowered by the glaciers and has been highly dissected.

Ladakh Plateau: The Ladakh plateau lies in the northeast of the Ladakh range. The average height of the plateau is 4300m or more. This is the highest plateau in India.

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Question 4. Describe the Karakoram ranged
Answer:

The Karakoram ranged

The Karakoram range is located in the northwestern part of Jammu and Kashmir. It was formed during the same age when the silt depositions of the Tethys Sea were giving rise to the Himalayan and Ladakh ranges.

The Karakoram range is about 500 km long. Some of the famous peaks present in this range are— K2 (King of Karakoram) or Godwin Austen (8611m high; the highest peak of India and the second highest peak of the world), Gasherbrum I or the Hidden Peak, Broad Peak, etc.

A number of glaciers are present in this range. Some of them are Siachen (76km long; the longest glacier of India), Hispar, Baltoro, Rimo, etc. The Karakoram range remains snow-covered throughout the year.

Question 5. Discuss the Importance of the northeastern mountainous region of India;
Answer:

The northeastern mountains of India comprise hills and ranges like Patkai, Naga, Barail, Lushai, Kohima, Mishmi, etc.

The importance of this region is—

Forest Resources: The forest covering this mountainous region is very rich with a lot of economic value.

Defense: The mountains provide defense and security to the northeastern border of the country from foreign invasions.

Hydroelectric Power: The rivers rising from the mountainous region are fast flowing and help in the generation of hydroelectric power.

Agriculture: The crops like tea, rubber, and spices are grown on the slopes of the mountains.

Tourism: The scenic beauty of the region attracts a large number of tourists and results in the economic development of the region.

Question 6. Differentiate between the Eastern and Western Himalayas.
Answer:

The differences between the Eastern and Western Himalayas are—

 

Point of difference  Eastern Himalayas Western Himalayas
Height and extent  The Eastern Himalayas are generally narrower than the western Himalayas are spread Himalayas and are spread over a a leser extent. The western Himalayas are extremely high and are spread over a greater extent.
Peaks glaciers It has a lesser number of peaks and glaciers. It has a greater number of very high peaks and a lesser number of glaciers.
Slope The Eastern Himalayas are generally narrower. The Western Himalayas are broader from south to north and are generally much wider.

 

Question 7. How have the northern plains been formed?
Answer:

The northern plains lie between the Himalayan mountains in the north and the peninsular plateau in the south. The causes of the formation of this region are—

A long trough existed in this region between the Himalayan mountains and the Peninsular plateau.
This trough was created during the rise of the Himalayas when the upper margin of the Peninsular plateau got lowered due to great pressure.

Later on, numerous rivers rising from the Himalayas as well as the plateau region brought down huge amounts of silt and deposited them in the trough, gradually forming the vast northern plains.

Question 8. How can the plains of the Ganga river basin be classified?
Answer:

The plains of the Ganga river basin can be classified into three parts with respect to the differences in landform, rainfall and temperature conditions.

They are—

  1. The Upper Ganga Plain,
  2. The Middle Ganga Plain and
  3. The Lower Ganga Plain.
Region Location
Upper Gangs Plain   This stretch extends from the Yamuna river in the west to the confluence of the river Yamuna and Ganga in Allahabad. Most of the plains of Uttar Pradesh lie in this region.
Middle Ganga Plain This stretch extends from Allahabad in the west to Rajmahal hills in the east. The plains on the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh and most of Bihar lay this region.
Lower Ganga Plain This stretch includes the Terai, Duars, and the rest of West Bengal except the northern mountainous region and the western upland region.

 

Question 9. Describe Marusthali of India.
Answer:

Marusthali of India

The region lying on the western side of the desert in Rajasthan is known as Marusthali. This is almost a rainless region composed of sand, rocks, and dunes.

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Physical Characteristics:

  1. This sand-covered region is about 350m high in the east and 150m high in the west.
  2. Numerous seif and barkhan dunes are present here.
  3. Numerous small saltwater lakes or hands or playas are present here. E.g.- Didwana, Kuchman, Pachpadra, etc. Large saltwater
  4. lakes are also present here. E.g.—Sambhar.
  5. There are many shifting dunes or durians found here.
  6. Some low hills are seen near Jaisalmer.
  7. A few oases are seen in the vast stretches of sand.

Climate: The climate here is extreme, with an average temperature of 40°C and total annual rainfall of only 20cm. The sand radiates back heat very fast during the night and becomes very cold. Both diurnal and annual ranges of

Question 10. Discuss the role of the northern plains
Answer:

The role of the northern plains

The northern plains of India play an important role in the life of the people and in the economy.

1. Agriculture: The northern plains are very fertile except for a small region in Marusthali in the west. This region is extremely suitable for agriculture and crops like rice, jute, sugarcane, wheat, cotton, pulses, oilseeds, etc. grow here in abundance.

2. Industries: The availability of agricultural raw materials, a good transport system, a huge labor force due to the high population and other facilities have led to the development of several industries in this region. E.g.— Sugar, jute textile, cotton textile, engineering, chemical, leather, etc are some of the industries that have developed here.

3. Urbanisation: The plain landform, suitable climate, scope of employment and income, well-developed transport and communication system, etc., attract huge population and lead to the development of numerous towns and cities. The main urban centers of the northern plains are- Chandigarh, Amritsar, Delhi, Agra, Lucknow, Allahabad, Varanasi, Kolkata, Patna, etc.

4. Others: The plains helped in the development of transport and communication system, which in turn helped in the development of trade and commerce. The salt lakes in the western part of the plains help in the production of large amounts of salt.

Question 11. What do you mean by the highlands of east India? Describe the region.
Answer:

Highlands of east India

The Highlands of Eastern India: The highlands of Eastern India include the Chotangapur plateau of Jharkhand, the Baghelkhand plateau, the plains of the Mahanadi basin in Chhattisgarh, and Dandakaranya of Odisha.

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Physical Characteristics:

1. The highlands have been eroded heavily through the ages and have been lowered considerably. The average height of the highlands is 700m. Many places of the highlands have been lowered to form peneplains.

2. The highest region of the Chotanagpur plateau is the Pat region on the western side (above 1000m high). The Ranchi plateau lies east of the Pat region. The river Damodar flows between the Ranchi and the Hazaribag plateaus. The Rajmahal hills occupy the northeastern corner of the Chotanagpur plateau. Parasnath (1365m) is the highest peak of the Rajmahal hills.

3. The middle part or central part of the Mahanadi basin lying to the south of the Baghelkhand plateau is known as the Chhattisgarh basin.

4. South of the Chhattisgarh basin lies rugged and dissected hilly area of Dandakaranya. The highest place of this region is Koraput.

5. South of the Ranchi plateau lies the hilly region of Odisha, comprising hills of Sundargarh, Garhjat, Bamra, Kandhamal and Kondhan hills.

Question 12. Describe the location of the Rann of Kachchh region of India.
Answer:

Rann of Kachchh: The extensive salt marshes located in the Kachchh peninsula in Gujarat is known as the Rann of Kachchh.

Location: The Kachchh peninsula lies north of the Kathiawar peninsula. The northern and eastern side of the Kachchh peninsula is bordered by the Rann of Kachchh.

The larger portion of the Rann lying in the north is known as the Great Rann and the smaller portion in the south is known as the Little Rann. The Great Rann is bordered by the Arabian Sea and the Little Rann is bordered by the Gulf of Kachchh in the west.

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Question 13. Where Is the Rann of Kachchh S”* located? Describe Its landform.
Answer:

Location: The Rann of Kachchh lies in the state of Gujarat in western India.

Landform: The Rann of Kachchh is a shallow, salty marshland. The northern part is known as the Great Rann and the southern part is known as the Little Rann. The Rann extends over an area of about 7500 sq km. The Luni river flows along the north of the region.

A few low hills are present in this region. E.g.—Osam, Barda, etc. The region lies between a very hot desert on one side and the Arabian Sea on the other side. Previously, this region was submerged under the sea and it appeared to be a shallow extension of the Arabian Sea.

Presently, the region lies as a salty marshland during the rainy season but remains a dry, arid, treeless region covered in a white sheet of salt and sand during the dry summer season.

Question 14. What led to the formation of the Thar desert region of India?
Answer:

The causes for the formation of the Thar desert region in India are-

1. Location of the Aravalli Range: The Aravalli range lying east of the Thar desert runs along a north-south direction, parallel to the direction of the southwest monsoon winds. Hence, it fails to obstruct the moisture-laden monsoon winds thereby failing to cause rainfall in the Desert region.

2. Absence of water vapor: The heat in the western region of India during the summer makes the southwest monsoon winds hot as well as decreases the amount of water vapor they carry. Hence, whatever little water vapor is left, fails to cause sufficient rainfall.

3. Trade winds: The Thar desert lies in the region over which trade winds blow. Trade winds become warm and lose moisture as they blow from the tropical region to the equatorial region. Thus, they cause very little or no rainfall.
All these causes lead to the origin of the Thar desert region in Rajasthan.

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Question 15. Explain the Impact that the Thar Desert has on human habitation of that region.
Answer:

The Thar desert influences human life in that region in the following ways-

1. The climate in the desert region is dry, hot, and extreme. Thus, this region is very sparsely populated with very few human settlements.

2. The desert region of Rajasthan produces fireclay, gypsum, kaolin, and mineral oil. This may lead to the development of industries in this region.

3. The bar region of Rajasthan has been irrigated by the Rajasthan canal or the Indira Gandhi canal, which has helped in the development of agriculture in this region. Now the Thar desert region of Rajasthan is producing bajra, jowar, pulses, maize, sesame, and groundnuts.

4. solar energy and wind energy are also utilized in this desert region for producing electricity.

Question 16. List the characteristics of the Gangetic plains.
Answer:

The Gangetic plains have been formed in northern India, south of the Himalayan mountains by the deposition of silt brought down by the river Ganga and its numerous tributaries.

The characteristics of this plain are-

1. Size: The plain is spread over an area of 3,57,000 sq. km.
2. Depth: The depth of the Gangetic plain is about 6000-8000m in the north. The depth of the plain is lesser in the south.
3. Soil: The Gangetic plain is made up of old alluvium in some places and new alluvium in others. The old alluvium region is known as bhangra and the new alluvium region is known as khadar. the region is made up of rocks, stones, pebbles, gravel, and silt.

The rivers which lose their way in the Babar region often emerge once again in the Terai region. Thus, wetlands have been formed in many parts of this region. The rivers of this region are flood-prone in the rainy season. The moist soil of the Terai region supports dense forests.

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4. Landform: The general landform of the region is monotonously flatland. Oxbow lakes, natural levees, flood plains, etc. dot the region.

Question 17. How did the terai region form?
Answer:

The Terai region lies at the foothills of the Himalayas, just south of the Babar region. This region. Thus, wetlands have been formed in many parts of this region. The rivers of this region are flood-prone in the rainy season. The moist soil of the Terai region supports dense forests.

Question 18. Differentiate between the peninsulas of Kachch and Kathiawar.
Answer:

The differences between the peninsulas of Kachchh and Kathiawar are—

Point of difference Kachchh peninsula Kathiawar peninsula
Location Lies north of the Gulf of Kachchh. Bounded by the Gulf of Kachchh in the north, the Gulf of Khambat in the east and southeast, and the Arabian sea in the west and south.
Formation Formed mostly of sandstone. Formed mostly of lava and igneous rocks.
Marshlands The famous Rann of Kachchh lies in this region. No such marshlands or rann are present in this region.

 

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Question 19. Differentiate between bhangra and khadar.
Answer:

The differences between bhangra and khadar are—

Point of difference  Bhangar  Khadar
Nature  Made up of old alluvium.  Made up of new alluvium.
Fertility It is old, hence fertility is less. It is new, hence fertility is more.
Flooding The bhangra region lies above the floodplain. Hence, it does not get flooded every year. The khadar region is a low-lying area next to a river. Hence, it is prone to flood every year during the monsoon season.
Soil Erosion The old alluvium soil is much eroded as the region is older in age. The new alluvium soil is renewed every year by floods.

 

Question 21. Describe the Meghalaya plateau.
Answer:

Meghalaya plateau

The Meghalaya plateau lies in Meghalaya, south of Assam. This is a very old landform that was originally a part of the Chotanagpur plateau.

Due to the earth’s movements, the land was separated from the Chotanagpur plateau millions of years ago. The lowland thus created in between was later filled up with silt and formed the Ganga delta.

The famous hills present in the Meghalaya plateau are—Mikir hills in the east, Garo hills in the west, and Khasi and Jaintia hills in the central part.

The Shillong- Cherrapunji region lying in the central part is the highest region of the plateau (average height 1500 m). The Shillong peak (1966 m) is the highest peak present here. Several limestone caves are found in this region.

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Question 22. Describe the Karnataka plateau.
Answer:

Karnataka plateau

The part of the Deccan plateau lying in Karnataka is known as the Karnataka plateau. This region is mainly composed of granite and gneiss rocks.

The average height of this region is about 600-900 m. The Karnataka plateau can be divided into two parts—

1. Malnad: Malnad means a hilly region in the Kannada language. The region lying east of the Western Ghats, stretching from the northwest to the southeast is known as the maenad. This is the highest part of the plateau. The hills present here are dome-shaped. The Bababudan hills are famous over here. The soil present here is generally reddish in color.

2. Maidan: The comparatively lower region lying east of the malnad is known as maidan. This is a gently undulating land, mostly covered with reddish soil.

Question 23. What do you mean by Deccan Trap? OR, Write a short note on the lava plateau of the Deccan region
Answer:

Deccan Trap

The north-western part of the Deccan plateau is known as the Deccan trap or the Lava plateau. ‘Trap’ means steps or staircases. The whole plateau region recedes in height step by step from the west to the east.

The Deccan trap was formed about 60-130 million years ago when molten magma came out through the fissures on the land surface and spread like a sheet over the surface layer by layer.

The lava was basic or alkaline, hence remaining hot for a longer time, which helped the molten material to spread for longer distances, rather than forming high peaks. Thus, the small hills formed in the process have flat tops. The Deccan Trap has been heavily eroded and dissected by numerous rivers flowing through the region.

Question 24. Discuss the importance of the coastal plains of India.
Answer:

The importance of the coastal plains of India

India has a long coastline and hence has a long stretch of coastal plains. Although the coastal plains are narrow, they have much importance.

1. Agriculture: The fertile soils of the coastal plains are used for growing rice, sugarcane, coconut, beetle nut, and various spices.

2. Trade: The ports of Mumbai, Chennai, Mormugao, Kochi, Vishakhapatnam, etc. all lie in the coastal regions of India. The coastal plains play an important role in trade and commerce through these ports.

3. Resouces:

  1. The northern part of the western coast is important for the production of salt from the salty waters of the sea.
  2. Mineral oil or petroleum reserves are present on the continental shelves of both the eastern and western coasts. Oil is extracted from these reserves at various points (E.g.— Bombay High).
  3. Minerals like ilmenite, monazite, etc. are mined on the Malabar coast.

4. Others:

  1. The coastal areas are densely populated due to favorable and moderate climatic conditions.
  2. Big metropolitan cities like Mumbai and Chennai have developed on the coastal plains.
  3. The flat topography has helped in the development of the transport system and other facilities in this region.

Question 25. Describe the location and topography of the highlands in Central India.
Answer:

Location: The region lying between the Aravalli range in the west, river Narmada and the Deccan plateau in the south, the eastern highlands of India in the east, and the northern plain in the north, is known as the highlands of Central India. Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, etc. comprise these highlands.

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Physical or Topographical Characteristics:

  1. The highlands are bounded by the Aravalli range in the west. The Aravallis are the oldest mountains in India and have been lowered by heavy erosion. Guru Shikhar (1722 m) and Mt. Abu (1158 m) are two important peaks of the Aravallis.
  2. The Rajasthan plateau lies to the east of the Aravalli range. This is a peneplain region, which has been formed by heavy erosion. South of this lies the rocky region of the highlands.
  3. The main mountain range of the central highlands is the Vindhya range. It is about 1200 km long and extends in an east-west direction. The average height of the range is 550 m. The highest peak of the Vindhya range is Sadbhawna Shikhar (752 m). The river Chambal rises from this range.
  4. South of the Vindhya range lies the Narmada river, which flows through a rift valley in some places and an open valley in others.
  5. North of the Vindhya range lies the Malwa plateau, and to the northeast lies the Bundelkhand uplands. These plateaus have been heavily dissected by rivers like Mahl, and Narmada, and numerous small streams to form a ‘Mesa’ landform.
  6. The eastern part of the Vindhya range is known as the Rewn plateau.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 5 India Physical Environment map- Physigraphic melhalya plaeateau

Question 26. Discuss the impact of the peninsular plateau on human life in India.
Answer:

The impact of the peninsular plateau on human life in India is as follows—

  1. The peninsular plateau region is rich in mineral resources like iron ore, coal, limestone, copper, manganese, etc. Mining of these resources leads to industrial development.
  2. The river valleys and fertile lands of the region produce various crops like rice (river valleys of Krishna, Godavari, Kaveri, and Khandesh plain), groundnuts (Maidan in Karnataka), onions, and sugarcane (plains of Maharashtra), oranges (Nagpur), grapes (Maidan of Karnataka). A huge amount of cotton is produced in the regur soil region.
  3. The mineral and agricultural resources give rise to numerous industries.
  4. The rivers of the plateau region are used for irrigation and the generation of hydroelectric power.
  5. The plateau region is rich in forest resources.
  6. The beautiful landscape and environment have led to the growth of numerous tourist spots, for e.g.—Mt. Abu in the Aravalli range, Netarhat in the Chotanagpur plateau, Panchmari in the Mahadeo hills, Ooty in Tamil Nadu, Munnar in Kerala, etc.

Question 27. Classify the coastal plains of India.
Answer:

The coastal plains of India are classified into two parts—

  1. The Eastern Coastal plains and
  2. The Western Coastal plains.

1. The Eastern Coastal Plains: This region is further sub-divided into two parts—

  1. The Northern Circars coast and
  2. Coromandel coast.

The eastern coastal plains can be classified according to the states into three parts—

  1. Odisha coastal plain,
  2. Andhra coastal plain and
  3. Tamil Nadu coastal plain.

2. The Western Coastal Plains: This is further sub-divided into four parts—

  1. Gujarat coastal plain,
  2. Konkan coastal plain,
  3. Karnataka coastal plain and
  4. Malabar coastal plain.

Question 28. Classify the coastal plains of India and describe the landforms of any one region.
Answer:

WB Class 10 Geography Chapter 5

Classification: The Indian coastal plains can be classified broadly into two parts—

  1. The Eastern coastal plains and
  2. The Western coastal plains.

The Eastern Coastal Plains:

Location: The eastern coastal plains extend from the mouth of the river Subarnarekha in the north to Kanyakumari in the south. It is about 1500 km long and 100 km wide on average.

Characteristic Features:

  1. The eastern coastal plains are wider than the western coastal plains. The deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri rivers form about one-fourth of the whole region.
  2. A number of sand dunes, lagoons, and wetlands are seen here. The dunes are generally 1-4 km long and about 60-65 m high.
  3. The formation of spits in this region leads to the formation of lagoons, which are joined with the sea by a narrow strait of water.
  4. E.g.—Chilka in Odisha, Kolleru and Pulicat in Andhra Pradesh, etc.
  5. Some highlands and low hills are also present in the eastern coastal plains.

Question 29. Discuss briefly the Islands of India.
Answer:

The Islands of India

The Islands of India are divided Into two parts according to their location—

  1. Islands of the Day of Bengal and
  2. Islands of the Arabian sea.

1. Islands of the Bay of Bengal: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are the main Islands of the Bay of Bengal. These Islands arc basically the risen parts of a submerged mountain range.

Thus some hills and peaks are seen In different parts of the islands. The average height of these hills is 400-500 m. The highest peak of the islands is Saddle peak (732 m). Mt. Harriet of South Andaman island is a famous peak.

There are two active volcanoes present here, namely, Barren and Narcondam. The Barren had erupted several times and the last eruption occurred in 2017.

Apart from the Andaman and Nicobar islands, other islands on the Bay of Bengal are Wheeler and Stork islands near the Odisha coast, Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh, and Pamban island near the Coromandel coast.

2. Islands of the Arabian sea: The islands of the Arabian sea are Amindivi, Laccadive, Minicoy, etc. They are together known as the Lakshadweep islands.

The islands have been formed by the deposition of the shells of coral polyps. Hence, they are called coral islands. The other islands of the Arabian sea are—Diu (Kathiawar coast), Salsette (Maharashtra), Vypin, and Willingdon (Kerala), etc.

Question 30. Mention the geographical importance of the islands in India.
Answer:

The geographical importance of the islands in India

The islands of India are geographically very important.

1. Timber Industry: The dense forests of the islands help in the development of the timber industry.

2. Cottage Industries: Small and cottage industries like a match sticks, plywood, conch shells, coir items, shell items, etc. develop In the Islands.

3. Fishing: Being located in the seas, fishing is a popular occupation of the island Inhabitants. The fish caught is either sold or consumed by the inhabitants themselves.

4. Tourism: The scenic beauty of the islands and the surrounding sea attract tourists from India as well as from abroad. This helps in the economic development of the islands.

5. Ports: Islands are ideal places for port activity. Several ports have been developed in the islands which favor the export and import of goods.

Question 31. Classify the plains of the Western Coast of India.
Answer:

The coastal plains of western India can be classified into four parts—

1. Gujarat Coastal Plain: This lies between the Kachchh and Kathiawar peninsulas of Gujarat in the north and the northern margins of Maharashtra in the south.

2. Konkan Coastal Plain: This is a narrow and broken coast lying between the northern margin of Maharashtra in the north and Goa in the south.

3. Karnataka Coastal Plain: This is also a narrow and broken coastal plain stretching between southern Goa in the north and the northern border of Kerala in the south.

4. Malabar Coastal Plain: This lies between the northern border of Kerala in the north and Kanyakumari in the south.
Classify the Eastern Coastal plains.

Question 32. Classify the Eastern coastal plains.
Answer:

The Eastern Coastal plains can be classified into two parts—

1. The Northern Circars coast extending from the mouth of the Subarnarekha river in the north to the delta of the Krishna river
in the south.
2. The Coromandel coast extends from the delta of the Krishna river in the north to Kanyakumari in the south.

The Eastern Coast can also be classified according to states—

  1. Odisha coastal plain,
  2. Andhra coastal plain and
  3. Tamil Nadu coastal plain.

Question 33. Describe the Konkan plain.
Answer:

Konkan plain

The Konkan Coastal plain lies in the Western Coastal plains of India. It stretches from the northern margins of Maharashtra in the north to Goa in the south.

The coastal plain is about 500 km long, only 50-80 km wide, and broken, and rocky. Some parts of the plain is sandy and composed of limestone. This coastal plain has sea cliffs, shoals, reefs, and islands in the Arabian Sea.

Question 34. Describe the plains of the Malabar coast.
Answer:

The plains of the Malabar coast

The southern part of the Western Coastal plains along the Arabian Sea in Kerala is known as the Malabar coast. It stretches between the south of Mangalore in the north and Kanyakumari in the south.

It is about 500 km long and 25 km wide. The presence of lagoons, backwaters, spits, etc. is a significant characteristic of the Malabar coast. The famous lagoons and backwaters of this coastal plain are Vembanad, Asthamudi, etc.

Question 35. Which region is known as the Northern Circars coast?
Answer:

The northern part of the Eastern Coastal plains of India lying along the Bay of Bengal is known as the Northern Circars coast.

It stretches from the mouth of the river Subarnarekha in the north to the delta of the river Krishna in the south. It includes the whole of the Odisha coast and the northern part of the Andhra coast.

The famous lagoon Chilka and Kolleru lake are located here. The deltas of the rivers Godavari and Krishna also lie here.

Question 36. Where is the Coromandel coast located?
Answer:

The southern part of the Eastern Coastal plains of India is known as the Coromandel coast. It stretches from the Krishna delta in the north to Kanyakumari in the south. This plain lying along the Bay of Bengal includes the southern part of the Andhra coastal plain and the whole of the Tamil Nadu coastal plain.

Question 37. Why is the western coast more broken as compared to the eastern coast?
Answer:

The western coastal region of India has been formed due to earth movements when the western part of the Western Ghats was raised and submerged several times.

Thus, the coast is narrow and broken. The eastern coast, on the other hand, has been formed by the deposition of materials brought down by rivers. Thus, it is continuous, gentle and gradually meets the sea.

Water Resources Class 10 Map WBBSE

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Short Answer Type Questions

 

Question 1. In how many parts can India be divided according to relief?
Answer:

India can be divided into five parts according to relief—

  1. The Northern Mountains,
  2. The Northern Plains,
  3. The Peninsular Plateau region,
  4. The Coastal Plains and
  5. The Islands.

Question 2. Name three lakes and three passes in the Himalayan range.
Answer:

Lakes:

  1. Nainital in Kumaon Himalayas,
  2. Dal and
  3. Wular in Kashmir valley.

Passes:

  1. Banihal pass in Jammu and Kashmir,
  2. Baralacha La in Himachal Pradesh and
  3. Nathu La pass in Sikkim.

Question 3. When were the Himalayas formed?
Answer:

According to the geological calendar, the formation of the Himalayas started in the Tertiary Age, i.e., about 60-70 million years ago. The Himalayas is still rising. That is why they are called the new fold mountains.

Question 4. Classify the Himalayan mountains.
Answer:

The Himalayas can be classified according to length as well as according to width.

1. Classification according to the length:

  1. Western Himalayas,
  2. Central Himalayas and
  3. Eastern Himalayas.

2. Classification according to width:

  1. Trans or Tethys Himalayas,
  2. Greater Himalayas or Himadri Himalayas,
  3. Lesser Himalayas or Himachal Himalayas and
  4. Outer Himalayas or Siwalik Himalayas.

Question 5. What do you mean by Purvanchal?
Answer:

Purvanchal:

The hilly and mountainous region in the northeastern states of India is called the Purvanchal. These hills and mountain ranges are spread over Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, etc.

The most notable ranges found here are Patkai hills, Barail range, Naga hills, Lushai hills, Mishmi hills, Garo hills, Khasi hills, Jaintia hills, etc.

Question 6. What is a doon?
Answer:

Doon

In the Western Himalayas, the asymmetrical, longitudinal synclinical valley between the Lesser or Himachal Himalayas and the Outer or Siwalik Himalayas is known as the ‘doon’. It extends over a length of 34 km and the average width is 20 km. It is an almost plain land, E.g.—Dehradun (Uttarakhand), Udhampur (Jammu and Kashmir).

Question 7. Which place is known as the ‘Paradise on Earth’?
Answer:

The Kashmir Valley is known as the ‘Paradise on Earth’ because of the magnificent natural beauty found there.

Question 8. Name the highest plateau and longest glacier in India.
Answer:

  1. Highest plateau: Ladakh plateau is the highest plateau of India.
  2. Longest glacier: Siachen glacier in the Karakoram range.

Question 9. Name the highest mountain peak and the highest waterfall in India.
Answer:

Highest mountain peak: Mt. Godwin Austen or K2 (8611m) of the Karakoram range.
Highest waterfall: Kunchikal waterfalls (455m) on the river Varahi in Karnataka.

Question 10. Name some mountain ranges and hills of the Purvanchal.
Answer:

Some of the mountain ranges of the Purvanchal are Patkai hills, Lushai hills, Garo hills, Khasi hills, Jaintia hills, Mishmi hills, Barail range, Naga hills, etc.

Water Resources Class 10 Map WBBSE

Question 11. Name an old fold mountain and a new fold mountain of India.
Answer:

  1. Old fold mountain: Aravalli range in western India.
  2. New fold mountain: Himalayan range in northern India.

Question 12. Name two passes in the Himalayan mountains.
Answer:

The two passes in the Himalayan mountains are—

  1. Nathu La pass in Sikkim in the Eastern Himalayas,
  2. Banihal passes in Jammu and Kashmir in the Western Himalayas.

Question 13. Name a mountain pass of the Himalayas and the Western Ghats.
Answer:

  1. Himalayas: Nathu La passes in Sikkim in the Eastern Himalayas.
  2. Western Ghats: Thalghat gap near Nashik in Maharashtra.

Question 14. Name two peaks that mark the eastern and western limits of the Himalayan mountain.
Answer:

  1. Eastern limit: Namcha Barwa (7782m).
  2. Western limit: Nanga Parbat (8126 m).

Question 15. What is Aksai Chin’?
Answer:

Aksai Chin

Aksai Chin is the region (area 37,244 km2) located in the north-eastern margin of Jammu and Kashmir at the border of China. This is an intermontane plateau located to the northeast of the Karakoram range.

The average height of the region is 5000 m, but some parts of it are as high as 6000m or more. Aksai Chin is now occupied by China. This is a politically disputed land.

Question 16. What are the Soda plains?
Answer:

Soda plains:

The northeastern corner of Jammu and Kashmir is known as the Soda plains. This region lies to the northeast of the Karakoram range and is a part of Aksai Chin. Physiographically, it is a highland, whose surface is a gently undulating land, lacking surface irregularities.

Question 17. Where are the Siwalik mountains located?
Answer:

The southernmost or outer ranges of the Himalayas are known as the Siwalik mountains. They run from the western part of Jammu and Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. The Siwalik mountains are the lowermost range of the Himalayas. South of the Siwalik lies the great northern plains of India.

Question 18. Name the different ranges in the Kashmir Himalayas.
Answer:

The Kashmir Himalayas can be divided into eight west-to-east trending ranges from south to north.

They are—

  1. Siwalik,
  2. Pir Panjal,
  3. Himadri Himalayas,
  4. Zanskar,
  5. Deosai,
  6. Masherbrum,
  7. Ladakh and
  8. Karakoram.

Question 19. What is the Trans-Himalayan region?
Answer:

The region lying between the northern part of the Himadri Himalayas and the Tibetan plateau is known as the Trans or Tethys Himalayan region.

Water Resources Class 10 Map WBBSE

The mountain ranges of Deosai, Masherbrum, Zanskar, Ladakh, and Karakoram, and the Ladakh plateau and the Indus Valley lie in this region.

Question 20. Name the oldest mountain and the highest peak in India.
Answer:

The oldest mountain in India is the Aravalli range. The highest peak of India is Mt. K2 (8611m) or Godwin Austen in the Karakoram range.

Question 21. What is Karewa?
Answer:

Karewa

It is an intermontane valley fill, comprising unconsolidated gravel and mud of glacial origin. Karewa is found in the form of terraces above the plain of Jhelum and its tributaries at a height of 100-200m and is locally known as ‘Karewa’ or ‘Vudr’. The river Jhelum flows through the Karewa. This soil is good for the cultivation of saffron.

Question 22. Why are the Northern plains of India known as the storehouse of food grains?
Answer:

The Northern plains are very fertile and suitable for agriculture. A large number of crops are grown in this region, for example—rice, jute, sugarcane, wheat, cotton, pulses, oilseeds, etc. Thus, it is known as the storehouse of food grains in India.

Question 23. What are durians?
Answer:

Durians

The moving or shifting sand dunes of the Thar desert are known as durians. In the desert, speedy winds force the sand dunes to move from one place to another along the direction of the wind.

Question 24. What is the Rann of Kachchh?
Answer:

Rann of Kachchh

In Gujarat, in the peninsula of Kachchh, the shallow salty marshes are known as the Rann.

The Rann of Kachchh is subdivided into two parts—

  1. The Great Rann and
  2. The Little Rann.

Question 25. Why is Marusthali called so?
Answer: The name ‘Marusthali’ comes from the words ‘Maru’ meaning dead and ‘thali’ meaning land. Thus, Marusthali means ‘land of the dead’. In Rajasthan, the western part of the Thar desert is almost treeless and lifeless and has no habitation. Thus, it is called Marusthali.

Question 26. What is khadar and bhangar?
Answer:

The plain created by the new alluvium deposited along the banks of the river Ganga and its tributaries is known as khadar. The plan was created a little away from the khadar region, composed of old alluvium known as a banger. The khadar region is more fertile than the banger region.

Question 27. What is Babar?
Answer:

Babar:

The northern part of the Gangetic plain is known as Babar. This lies at the foothills of the Himalayas. The region is made up of rocks, stones, pebbles, gravels, etc. brought down by the numerous rivers coming from the Himalayas. This region is highly porous where many small streams percolate down and lose their way.

Question 28. What is roshi?
Answer:

Roshi:

Concept: The region lying to the west of the bar region in the desert of Rajasthan is known as roti.

Formation: A number of small rivers or streams rise in the Aravalli range and flow westwards through the desert region. The streams remain dry most of the time in the year but get flooded during the rainy season. The plain thus created by the flooding of these streams is known as roti.

Water Resources Class 10 Map WBBSE

Question 29. What is agar?
Answer:

Agar:

The region lying east of the desert region of Rajasthan at the foothills of the Aravalli range is known as agar. This is a narrow region lying between the desert and the plains composed of little sand. Most of the bar region remains covered with grass. Some parts of the bag are used for agriculture.

Question 30. What is dhand?
Answer:

Dhand:

The salt lakes found in the desert region of Rajasthan between two parallel sand dunes are called hands. They are shallow and have large depositions of salt and remain dry for most of the time in the year.

Question 31. What is hamada?
Answer:

Hamada

The hamada is the rocky region lying west of the roshi region of the Thar desert. It is made up of soft rocks and sand. This region is very infertile and unsuitable for agriculture.

Question 32. What is ‘malnad’?
Answer:

Malnad:

‘Malnad’ means a hilly region in the Kannada language. The hilly region about 100km wide lying west of the Karnataka plateau adjacent to the Western Ghats is known as Malnad.

Question 33. What are backwaters?
Answer:

Backwaters:

The numerous lagoons present on the Malabar coast of Kerala are known as backwaters. They are also known as ‘Kayals’. E.g.—Vembanad, Ashtamudi, etc.

Question 34. What do you mean by the highlands of eastern India?
Answer:

Highlands of eastern India:

The highlands of eastern India comprise the Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand, the Odisha Highland and the Dandakaranya plateau of Odisha.

Question 35. Name some hills in India formed of basalt rocks.
Answer:

The hills of Anantagiri, Pavagadh, Dalma, Rajmahal, etc. are formed of basalt rocks.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 WBBSE

Question 36. Name a volcanic mountain in India.
Answer:

A volcanic mountain in India is Narcondam, found in the Andaman and Nicobar islands.

Question 37. Name a lava plateau and a coral island in India.
Answer:

A lava plateau of India is the Deccan Trap or the Maharashtra plateau. A coral island in India is Lakshadweep.

Question 38. Name two mountain passes in southern India. OR, Naim’s two mountain passes of the Western Ghats.
Answer:

Two mountain passes of southern India are—

  1. Thalghat near Nashik,
  2. Bhorghnt near Pune. Both of them lie in the Western Ghats.

Question 39. Give the location of the Eastern Ghats. Name a river flowing through this region.
Answer:

Location: The Eastern Ghats lie between the Deccan plateau in the west and the eastern coastal plains in the east, parallel to the eastern coastline of India. It stretches from the river basin of the Mahanadi in the northeast to the southernmost part of Tamil Nadu in the south.

River: The river Godavari flows through the Eastern Ghats.

Question 40. What is a Kayal?
Answer:

Kayal:

The lagoons and wetlands found on the Malabar coast of Kerala are locally known as Kayals. Since historic times, the Malabar coast has been raised and submerged several times during the earth’s movements.

This has led to the formation of depressions that have got filled up with seawater and formed lagoons or Kayals. The Kayals play an important role in the inland water transport system. Example— Vembanad, Ashtamudi.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 WBBSE

Question 41. What is a ‘Tal’T
Answer:

‘Tal’T

The word ‘Tal’ is derived from the Hindi word talaq (talaq) meaning lake. In the Kumaon range of the Himalayas, numerous depressions have been formed due to the erosional activities of glaciers. These depressions got filled with the snowmelt water of the glaciers and formed lakes or ‘tall’. E.g.—Nainital, Sattal, Bheemtal, etc.

Question 42. What is Chilka? Where is it located?
Answer:

Chilka:

Chilka is a lagoon lying on the eastern coast of India in Odisha. It Is connected to the Bay of Bengal on one side and surrounded by land on all the other sides.

Question 43. Describe the Malnad.
Answer:

Malnad

The western part of the Karnataka plateau is known as the Malnad. It lies to the east of the Western Ghats. The region slopes from the northwest to the southeast. The hills in this region are dome-shaped. The entire region is mostly made up of granite and gneiss rocks.

Question 44. Where is the Meghalaya plateau located? Name the hills found here.
Answer:

The Meghalaya plateau is situated in Meghalaya in the northeastern part of India.

The hills found here are—

  1. Garo,
  2. Khasi and
  3. Jaintia, spreading from west to east.

Question 45. What is this?
Answer:

The western coastal region of India is not covered with too many sand dunes or sandy regions. But some small sand dunes are present on the Malabar coast. These are known are terms.

Question 46. What is the importance of the islands of India?
Answer:

The importance of the islands of India are—

  1. Food crops, spices, etc. are cultivated on the islands.
  2. Tourism has developed on all the islands due to scenic beauty. This helps in economic development.
  3. The islands are the centers of the collection of various resources obtained from the sea.
  4. The islands are also the centers of fishing and related occupations on a large scale.

Question 47. Name two physiographic divisions of the Karnataka Plateau.
Answer:

The two physiographic divisions of Karnataka Plateau are—Malnad and Maidan.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 WBBSE

Chapter 5 India-Physical Environment Multiple Choice Type Questions

Write The Correct Answer From the Alternatives

Question 1. The oldest fold mountain of India is the—

  1. Aravalli
  2. Vindhya
  3. Nilgiri
  4. Himalayas

Answer: 1. Aravalli

Question 2. Which of the following is an important pass in the Eastern Himalayas?

  1. Zoji La
  2. Nathu La
  3. Khardung La
  4. Shipki La

Answer: 2. Nathu La

Question 3. Which of the following is known as ‘the Crown of the World’?

  1. Karakoram
  2. Mt. Everest
  3. Pamir Plateau
  4. Kanchenjunga

Answer: 2. Mt. Everest

Question 4. The Siachen glacier lies in the—

  1. Karakoram range
  2. Pir Panjal range
  3. Zanskar range
  4. Ladakh range

Answer: 1. Karakoram range

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 WBBSE

Question 5. Patkai range lies in—

  1. Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Nagaland
  3. Arunachal Pradesh
  4. Himachal Pradesh

Answer: 2. Nagaland

Question 6. Kula Kangri is the highest peak in the Himalayas.

  1. Darjeeling
  2. Bhutan
  3. Kumaon
  4. Kashmir

Answer: 2. Bhutan

Question 7. The second highest mountain pass in the world is—

  1. Karakoram
  2. LachulungLa
  3. Tanglang La
  4. Nathu La

Answer: 1. Karakoram

Question 8. The hot spring of Manikaran in the Himalayas lies in—

  1. Uttarakhand
  2. Sikkim
  3. Himachal Pradesh
  4. Kashmir

Answer: 3. Himachal Pradesh

Question 9. The Kashmir Valley is situated between the ranges—

  1. Zanskar and Ladakh
  2. Pir Panjal and Greater Himalayas
  3. Karakoram and Ladakh
  4. Dhuladhar and Nag Tibba

Answer: 1. Pir Panjal and Greater Himalayas

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 WBBSE

Question 10. Two famous lakes in the Kashmir Valley are—

  1. Mirik-Changu
  2. Nainital-Sattal
  3. Dal-Wular
  4. Sambhar-Dhebar

Answer: 3. Dal-Wular

Question 11. The highest peak in India is—

  1. Mt. Everest
  2. Kanchenjunga
  3. K2
  4. Nanda Devi

Answer: 3. K2

Question 12. The highest peak of the Arunachal Himalayas is—

  1. Sandakphu
  2. Gorichen
  3. Nanga Parbat
  4. Annapurna

Answer: 2. Gorichen

Question 13. The river that flows between the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges is—

  1. Ganga
  2. Subtle
  3. Beas
  4. Indus

Answer: 4. Indus

Question 14. The Garo hills of Meghalaya are—

  1. Residual hills
  2. Fold mountains
  3. Block mountains
  4. Volcanic mountains

Answer: 1. Residual hills

Question 15. The river rising from the Kumaon Himalayas is—

  1. Ganga
  2. Indus
  3. Brahmaputra
  4. Krishna

Answer: 1. Ganga

Question 16. The northern margin of India is marked by the—

  1. Zanskar
  2. Ladakh
  3. Aravalli
  4. Karakoram

Answer: 4. Karakoram

Question 17. Mt. Everest is known in Nepal.

  1. Tethys
  2. Chomolungma
  3. Sagarmatha
  4. Akash Sakha

Answer: 3. Sagarmatha

Question 18. The longest tunnel in India is—

  1. Bhutan tunnel
  2. Pir Panjal tunnel
  3. Rohtang tunnel
  4. Jawahar tunnel

Answer: 3. Jawahar tunnel

Question 19. The Valley lies between the Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar ranges.

  1. Kullu
  2. Kangra
  3. Spiti
  4. Dehradun

Answer: 1. Kullu

Question 20. The highest part of Garo hills is—

  1. Saramati
  2. Dapha Bum
  3. Nokrek
  4. Anamudi

Answer: 3. Nokrek

Question 21. ‘La’ means—

  1. River
  2. Glacier
  3. Pass
  4. Lake

Answer: 3. Pass

Question 22. The plains formed at the foothills of the Siwalik by the deposition of pebbles and small boulders are known as—

  1. Khadar
  2. Bhabar
  3. Bhangar
  4. Bet

Answer: 2. Bhabar

Question 23. The Ganga Plain formed of new alluvium is called—

  1. Bhabar
  2. Khadar
  3. Haor
  4. Bet

Answer: 2. Khadar

Question 24. The Imphal Valley is located in—

  1. Assam
  2. Manipur
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Mizoram

Answer: 2. Manipur

Question 25. The lakes surrounded by sand dunes in Rajasthan are called—

  1. Dhand
  2. Dhrian
  3. Rann
  4. Ponds

Answer: 1. Dhand

Question 26. The highest peak of the Aravalli is—

  1. Trimbak
  2. Mt. Abu
  3. Dhupgarh
  4. Guru Shikhar

Answer: 2. Guru Shikhar

Question 27. The rocky part of the desert in Rajasthan is called—

  1. Hamada
  2. Bagar
  3. Rohi
  4. Dhand

Answer: 1. Hamada

Question 28. The inland river of India, Luni flows through—

  1. Gujarat
  2. Maharashtra
  3. Haryana
  4. Rajasthan

Answer: 4. Rajasthan

Question 29. The flood plains lying west of the Aravalli is called—

  1. Rohi
  2. Bagar
  3. Hamada
  4. Dhrian

Answer: 1. Rohi

Question 30. The river flowing through Marusthali is—

  1. Sabarmati
  2. Rohi
  3. Luni
  4. Shatranj

Answer: 3. Luni

Question 31. ‘Marusthali’ means—

  1. Hot Desert
  2. Sandy region
  3. Land of the dead
  4. Desert

Answer: 3. Land of the dead

Question 32. The highest part of the Girnar range is—

  1. Gorakhnath
  2. Saddle Peak
  3. Mt. Thullier
  4. Mt. Harriet

Answer: 1. Gorakhnath

Question 33. The low plateaus lying west of river Yamuna are called the—

  1. Rajasthan highlands
  2. Chotanagpur plateau
  3. Bundelkhand upland
  4. Malwa plateau

Answer: 3. Bundelkhand upland

Question 34. The highest peak of South India is—

  1. Doddabetta
  2. Mullayanagiri
  3. Anamudi
  4. Mukurthi

Answer: 3. Anamudi

Question 35. A mountain pass in the Western ghats is—

  1. Bhorghat
  2. Niti
  3. Malnad
  4. ZojiLa

Answer: 1. Bhorghat

Question 36. is a sweet water lake.

  1. Chilka
  2. Dal
  3. Sambhar
  4. Vembanad

Answer: 2. Dal

Question 37. The highest hill of the Chotanagpur plateau is—

  1. Rajmahal
  2. Parasnath
  3. Biharinath
  4. Ayodhya

Answer: 2. Parasnath

Question 38. The pass lying south of the Nilgiri is—

  1. Palghat
  2. Bhorghat
  3. Thalghat
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Palghat

Question 39. The Satpura is a mountain.

  1. Residual
  2. Volcanic
  3. Block
  4. Fold

Answer: 3. Block

Question 40. The word ‘Malnad’ means—

  1. Plateau
  2. Hilly region
  3. Plain
  4. Mountain

Answer: 2. Hilly region

Question 41. The lagoons of the western coast of India are known as—

  1. Tals
  2. Dhands
  3. Kayaks
  4. Ponds

Answer: 3. Kayals

Question 42. The highest peak of Andaman island is—

  1. Saddle peak
  2. Mt. Harriet
  3. Mt. Thullier
  4. Mt. Diavolo

Answer: 1. Saddle peak

Question 43. The largest saltwater lagoon in India is—

  1. Chilka
  2. Vembanad
  3. Kolleru
  4. Pulicat

Answer: 1. Chilka

Question 44. Kayals or lagoons are seen on the coast.

  1. Coromandel
  2. Northern Circars
  3. Malabar
  4. Konkan

Answer: 3. Malabar

Question 45. The Maharashtra plateau is made up of—

  1. Basalt
  2. Marble
  3. Granite
  4. Sandstone

Answer: 1. Basalt

Question 46. The Thalghat pass of the Western Ghats is located near—

  1. Mahabaleshwar
  2. Nashik
  3. Mumbai
  4. Pune

Answer: 2. Nashik

Question 47. The Eastern Ghats are also known as—

  1. Sahyadri
  2. Malayadri
  3. Coromandel
  4. Guru Shikhar

Answer: 2. Malayadri

Question 48. The Bababudan hills are located in—

  1. Telangana
  2. Andhra Pradesh
  3. Karnataka
  4. Kerala

Answer: 3. Karnataka

Question 49. The Vindhya range is a mountain.

  1. Volcanic
  2. Fold
  3. Block
  4. Residual

Answer: 3. Block

Question 50. The highest plateau of India is—

  1. Chotanagpur
  2. Deccan
  3. Ladakh
  4. Meghalaya

Answer: 3. Ladakh

Question 51. The plateau is a part of the Deccan plateau.

  1. Ladakh
  2. Meghalaya
  3. Malwa
  4. Vindhya

Answer: 1. Meghalaya

Question 52. The pass lies south of the Nilgiri mountains.

  1. Bhorghat
  2. Palghat
  3. Thalghat
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Palghat

Question 53. The highest part of the Satpura range is—

  1. Guru Shikhar
  2. Dhupgarh
  3. Agastya Mala
  4. Kalsubai

Answer: 2. Dhupgarh

Question 54. The low plateau lying to the north-east of the Karnataka plateau is called—

  1. Maidan
  2. Malnad
  3. Telangana
  4. Koraput

Answer: 1. Maidan

Question 55. Telangana plateau lies in—

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Telangana
  3. Andhra Pradesh
  4. Kerala

Answer: 2. Telangana

Question 56. The pass lying near the Cardamom hills is—

  1. Palghat
  2. Thalghat
  3. Amba Ghat
  4. Bhorghat

Answer: 1. Palghat

Question 57. The sand dunes of the Malabar coast are called—

  1. Barkhan
  2. main
  3. Dhand
  4. Seif dune

Answer: 3. Dhand

Question 58. Which of the following is a broken coast?

  1. Malabar
  2. Coromandel
  3. Northern Circars
  4. Konkan

Answer: 4. Konkan

Question 59. Andaman and Nicobar islands are—

  1. Coral islands
  2. Volcanic islands
  3. Continental islands
  4. Bay islands

Answer: 4. Bay islands

Question 60. The Barren Island is a—

  1. Coral island
  2. Volcanic island
  3. Active volcano
  4. Extinct volcano

Answer: 3. Active volcano

Question 61. The word ‘Malai’ means—

  1. Mountain pass
  2. Lake
  3. River
  4. Hill

Answer: 4. Hill

Question 62. The Lakshadweep is a—

  1. Coral island
  2. Volcanic island
  3. Continental island
  4. Sub-continental island

Answer: 1. Coral island

Question 63. Ria coast has been formed near—

  1. Gujarat coast
  2. Konkan coast
  3. Karnataka coast
  4. Coromandel coast

Answer: 3. Karnataka coast

Question 64. A waterfall in the Chotanagpur plateau is—

  1. Rajrappa
  2. Seven Sisters
  3. Jog
  4. Dhuandhar

Answer: 1. Rajrappa

Question 65. The number of islands in Lakshadweep is—

  1. 10
  2. 30
  3. 36
  4. 100

Answer: 3. 36

Question 66. An island in the Rann of Kachch is known as—

  1. Paccham
  2. Pat
  3. Mesa
  4. Butte

Answer: 1. Paccham

Question 67. The plain, which is formed along the foothills of Siwalik Himalaya by the deposition of small rock fragments is called—

  1. Khadar
  2. Bhangar
  3. Bhavar
  4. Bet

Answer: 3. Bhavar

Question 68. An example of one salt lake in India is—

  1. Pangong Lake
  2. Bhimtal
  3. Dal Lake
  4. Loktak Lake

Answer: 1. Pangong Lake

 

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment If The Statement Is True, Write True And Answer If False, Write False Against The Following

 

Question 1. The Himalayas are old-fold mountains.
Answer: False

Question 2. The Himalayas have risen from the Mediterranean Sea.
Answer: False

Question 3. The highest peak of the Himalayan mountain is Godwin Austen.
Answer: False

Question 4. Verinag is a hot spring in Jammu and Kashmir.
Answer: False

Question 5. Phalut is the highest peak of the Singalila range.
Answer: True

Question 6. The Siachen glacier lies in the Karakoram range.
Answer: True

Question 7. The Greater Himalayas are the highest ranges of the Himalayas.
Answer: True

Question 8. The highest mountain range lying in India is the Great Himalayas.
Answer: True

Question 9. The Kashmir Valley lies between the Pir Panjal range in the north and the Himgiri- Zanskar ranges in the south.
Answer: False

Question 10. The rivers Ganga and Yamuna rise from the Kumaon Himalayas.
Answer: True

Question 11. The highest peak of the Patkai range is Sabarmati.
Answer: False

Question 12. The highest peak in India is Mt. Everest.
Answer: False

Question 13. The Banihal pass connects Srinagar and Jammu.
Answer: True

Question 14. The Zoji La pass connects Kashmir and Leh.
Answer: True

Question 15. The Nathu La pass of Sikkim connects the state with Chumbi Valley in Tibet.
Answer: True

Question 16. Mt. Everest is known as the ‘crown of the earth’.
Answer: True

Question 17. The Nanga Parbat lies northwest of Jammu and Kashmir.
Answer: True

Question 18. The Himalayan range is made up of igneous rocks.
Answer: False

Question 19. The Burji La, Jelep La, and Nathu La passes are located in the Himadri Himalayas.
Answer: True

Question 20. The Himalayas are international mountain ranges.
Answer: True

Question 21. The Aravalli is a residual hill.
Answer: True

Question 22. The region formed of old alluvium in the Ganga plains is known as Bhabar.
Answer: False

Question 23. The Terai region lying in the northern part of West Bengal is known as duars.
Answer: True

Question 24. The salt marshes of Rajasthan are known as Rann.
Answer: False

Question 25. The Imphal Valley lying in central Mizoram is surrounded by hills.
Answer: False

Question 26. The grasslands in the river basin of Luni in Rajasthan are known as Rohi.
Answer: False

Question 27. The depth of silt in the Ganga plains increases from south to north.
Answer: True

Question 28. The Rann of Kachchh is the extension of the Bay of Bengal.
Answer: False

Question 29. Sambhar is a sweet water lake.
Answer: False

Question 30. The old silt region of the Ganga plain is known as bhangra.
Answer: True

Question 31. The plain stretching from Rajasthan to the Bay of Bengal is called the Indo-Gangetic plain.
Answer: True

Question 32. The Meghalaya plateau is a part of the Chotanagpur plateau.
Answer: True

Question 33. The highest peak of the Eastern Ghats is Kalsubai.
Answer: False

Question 34. Chilka is a saltwater lake.
Answer: True

Question 35. Narcondam is a volcanic island in India.
Answer: True

Question 36. Ladakh is the highest plateau in India.
Answer: True

Question 37. The highest peak of the Satpura range is Mt. Abu.
Answer: False

Question 38. The highest part of the Ranchi plateau is the Rajmahal hills.
Answer: False

Question 39. Vembanad is the largest Kayal in India.
Answer: True

Question 40. Sand dunes are seen all over the Western Coast.
Answer: False

Question 41. Barren is a volcano in the Andaman Islands.
Answer: True

Question 42. The Tamil Nadu and Andhra coastal regions are together known as the Andhra coast.
Answer: False

Question 43. The western coastal region of India was formed due to severe earth movements.
Answer: True

Question 44. The eastern coastal plains are wider than the western coastal plains.
Answer: True

Question 45. The Deccan plateau is an intermontane plateau.
Answer: False

Question 46. The Vembanad Kayal is the largest lagoon on the Malabar coast.
Answer: True

Question 47. Barren is an extinct volcano.
Answer: False

Question 48. The Shillong plateau lies in a rain shadow area.
Answer: True

Question 49. Vindhya is a block mountain range.
Answer: True

Question 50. The highest peak of the Western Ghats is Vavul Mala.
Answer: False

Question 51. Amarkantak is the highest peak of the Mahadeo hills.
Answer: False

Question 52. The lagoons of the Malabar coast are known as terms.
Answer: False

Question 53. The 10° Channel lies between the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands.
Answer: False

Question 54. The main crop grown in Lakshadweep is coconut.
Answer: True

Question 55. India and Sri Lanka are separated by the Palk Strait.
Answer: True

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment in the blanks with suitable words

Question 1. The region where the Himalayas exist was previously occupied by the_______ sea.
Answer: Tethys

Question 2. The Himalayas were formed during the_______ geological age.
Answer: Tertiary

Question 3. The highest point of the Singalila range is_______
Answer: Sandakphu

Question 4. The highest peak of the Himalayan mountain is_______
Answer: Mt. Everest

Question 5. The_______ range forms the boundary between West Bengal and Nepal.
Answer: Singalila

Question 6. The highest hill of Tripura is_______
Answer: Jampui

Question 7. The southernmost range of the Himalayas is _______
Answer: Siwalik

Question 8. The _______ peak lies in the northwestern part of the Himalayas.
Answer: Nanga Parbat

Question 9. The Karakoram range is also known as the _______
Answer: Krishnagiri

Question 10. The highest point of Kohima Hill is_______
Answer: Japfu

Question 11. The valley formed between the Siwalik and the Himachal Himalayas is known as _______
Answer: Doons

Question 12. The Himalayas extend from the _______ knot.
Answer: Pamir

Question 13. The Indus flows through the _______ Himalayas.
Answer: Kashmir

Question 14. The soil called Karewa found in the Kashmir Valley is famous for _______ cultivation.
Answer: saffron

Question 15. The Kanchenjunga lies in the state of _______ in India.
Answer: Sikkim

Question 16. In the eastern Himalayas, the sharp hair-pin bends are known as_______
Answer: syntaxial bends

Question 17. The only hot desert in India is located in _______
Answer: Rajasthan

Question 18. The western part of the Indian desert is known as _______
Answer: Marusthali

Question 19. The _______ island of river Brahmaputra is the largest river bar of India.
Answer: Majuli

Question 20. The only river of Marusthali is_______
Answer: Luni

Question 21. The land formed of new alluvium in the Punjab plains is called _______
Answer: Bet

Question 22. The central part of the _______river basin is known as the Chhattisgarh plains.
Answer: Mahanadi

Question 23. The salt marshes of Gujarat are locally known as _______
Answer: Rann

Question 24. The moving dunes of the Thar desert are known as _______
Answer: Dhrians

Question 25. The coast of Tamil Nadu is known as _______
Answer: Coromandel

Question 26. The _______ peak lies at the northeastern limit of the Himalayas.
Answer: Namcha Barwa

Question 27. The highest peak of the Maikal hills in central India is _______
Answer: Amarkantak

Question28. The right is a famous pass of the _______ mountains.
Answer: Western ghats

Question 29. The_______ lagoon lies on the Coromandel coast.
Answer: Pulicat

Question 30. The greatest height of the Nilgiris is _______.
Answer: 2637 m

Question 31. The _______ mountains do not run continuously.
Answer: Eastern Ghats

Question 32. The _______range and _______ hills lie in between the Narmada and Tapti rivers.
Answer: Satpura, Mahadeo

Question 33. The Western Ghats is a_______ mountain.
Answer: Block

Question 34. The Maharashtra plateau is known as the_______
Answer: Deccan trap

Question 35. The_______ lake lies in between the deltas of the rivers Krishna and Godavari.
Answer: Kolleru

Question 36. The_______valley lies between Vindhya and Satpura ranges.
Answer: Narmada

Question 37. The Bhorghat is located in the _______ mountains.
Answer: Western ghats

Question 38. The highest part of the Meghalaya plateau is _______
Answer: Shillong

Question 39. The Meghalaya plateau is a part of the _______ plateau.
Answer: Chotanagpur

Question 40. _______ is the highest part of Meghalaya
Answer: Shillong

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Which mountain pass connects Srinagar and Jammu?
Answer: Banihal Pass.

Question 2. What is the valley between Lesser Himalayas and the Siwalik range called?
Answer: Doon.

Question 3. Name two ranges of the Lesser Himalayas.
Answer: Pir Panjal and Mussourie.

Question 4. Which is the highest part of the Himadri Himalayas?
Answer: Mt. Everest.

Question 5. Which is the highest peak of the Himalayas located in India?
Answer: Kanchenjunga.

Question 6. Which mountain pass connects Kashmir Valley with Ladakh?
Answer: Zoji La Pass.

Question 7. From where does the Yamunotri glacier flow?
Answer: Garhwal-Kumaon Himalayas.

Question 8. Which mountain peak lies at the Nepal- Sikkim border?
Answer: Kanchenjunga.

Question 9. Name the highest mountain pass in the world.
Answer: Sia La (5589m).

Question 10. Name a cold desert in India.
Answer: Ladakh.

Question 11. Which is the highest plateau of India?
Answer: Ladakh.

Question 12. Where has been the highest bridge in the world constructed?
Answer: Between the Dras River and Suru River in Ladakh.

Question 13. Name the highest peak of the Purvachal Himalayas.
Answer: Dapha Bum.

Question 14. What was there previously where the Himalayas have formed now?
Answer: Tethys Sea.

Question 15. In which Union territory is Pangong Lake situated?
Answer: Jammu and Kashmir.

Question 16. In which state of India are Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, and Badrinath located?
Answer: Uttarakhand.

Question 17. What are the lakes in Kumaon Himalayas called?
Answer: Tal.

Question 18. Where is Karewa soil found in India?
Answer: Kashmir valley.

Question 19. Name the highest lake in India.
Answer: Tso Lhamo lake in Sikkim (5330m).

Question 20. What do you mean by ‘La’?
Answer: Mountain pass.

Question 21. Name the oldest mountain range of India. Aravalli.
Answer: What are the dry lakes of Rajasthan called? Dhands.

Question 23. Name the largest lake of the Thar desert.
Answer: Sambhar lake.

Question 24. Which mineral resource is found in the desert region of India?
Answer: Mineral oil.

Question 25. Name two mountain ranges in Gujarat.
Answer: Gir and Girnar.

Question 26. What do you mean by Rann?
Answer: Salt marshes found in the Kachchh peninsula of Gujarat.

Question 27. Name the highest peak of the Meghalaya plateau.
Answer: Shillong peak (1961 m).

Question 28. Name the highest peak of the Nilgiris.
Answer: Doddabetta (2637m).

Question 29. How far does the Malabar coast stretch?
Answer: From Goa to Kanyakumari.

Question 30. How far does the Coromandel coast extend?
Answer: From the mouth of the Krishna river to Kanyakumari.

Question 31. What does the Kannada word ‘Malnad’ mean?
Answer: Hilly region.

Question 32. Name two volcanic islands of the Andaman Islands.
Answer: Barren and Narcondam.

Question 33. Name the gap between the Nilgiri mountains and the Western Ghats.
Answer: Palghat.

Question 34. What are the lagoons of the Malabar coast called?
Answer: Kayals.

Question 35. Which is the highest peak of the Western Ghats?
Answer: Anamudi (2695m).

Question 36. Which is the highest peak of the Eastern Ghats?
Answer: Jindhagada(1690m) in Andhra Pradesh.

Question37. Name the plateau lying east of the Vindhya mountains.
Answer: Rewa.

Question 38. What are the low plains lying east of the Malnad called?
Answer: Maidan.

Question 39. Where is the Ria coast seen in India?
Answer: Karnataka coast.

Chapter 5 Indian-Physical Environment Match The Column With The Right Column

1.

Left Column Right Column
1. Gangotri A. Arunachal Himalayas
2. Dhauladhar B. Sikkim Himalayas
3. Kanchenjunga C. Kumaon Himalayas
4. Namcha Barwa D. Kashmir Himalayas
5. Pir Panjal E. Himachal Himalayas

Answer: 1-C,2-E,3-B,4-A,5-D

2.

Left Column Right Column
 1.  Zoji La  A.  Between Kullu and Lahul-Spiti
2. Rohtang Pass B.  Between Uttarakhand and Tibet
3.  Nathu La C. Between Srinagar and Leh
4.  Khardung La D.  Between Leh and Nubra Valley
5. Lipu-Lekh Pass E. Between Sikkim and Tibet

Answer: 1-C,2-A,3-E,4-D,5-B

3.

Left Column Right Column
1. Malabar coast A.  Chilka
2. Utkal coast B.  Pulicat
3. Coromandel coast C. Vembanad
4. Konkan coast D.  Koller
5.  Andhra coast E.  Sindhudurg

Answer: 1-C,2-A,3-B,4-E,5-D

4.

Left Column Right Column
1.  Malnad A. Lower region of Karnataka plateau
2.  Maidan B.  Fertile plain created by small rivers
3.  Terai C.  Porous, rocky, pebbly land at the foothills of the Siwaliks
4.  Rohi D. The waterlogged wetlands are a little far away from the foothills of Siwalik
5. Bhabar E. Higher region of Karnataka plateau

Answer: 1-E,2-A,3-D,4-B,5-C

 

 

 

 

WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 Geography and Environment

WBBSE Solutions For Class 10 Geography And Environment Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Topic 1 Agriculture In India Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Briefly discuss the imporatant Characterstics of indian agriculuture?
Answer:

The important characteristics of Indian agriculture are discussed below—

1. Subsistence farming: India is a highly populated country, and most of the food grains grown here are mainly consumed by the farmers and their families. Not much agricultural produce is left for the purpose of export and sale.

2. Importance of food crops: In India, priority is given to the cultivation of food crops rather than cash crops to meet the needs of the growing population.

More than 75% of cultivated land in India is used for growing food crops. About 52% of the total income from agricultural products comes only from food crops.

Read and Learn Also WBBSE Solutions for Class 10 Geography and Environment

3. Use of animals: Indian agriculture is not yet developed to an extent that the use of modern machineries such as tractors and harvesters would be popular everywhere.

To date, in many regions, farmers are dependent on animals like bullocks and buffaloes for plowing agricultural plots.

4. Dependence on monsoon winds: Agricultural activities in most places of India are carried out once a year depending on the arrival of monsoons.

However, the advent of monsoon winds may also lead to certain natural calamities such as floods, drought, and excessive heavy rainfall which adversely affect agricultural activities.

5. Irrigation: Most agricultural plots in India have been brought under the scope of irrigation. In these plots, two to three crops are grown per year.

6. Small land holdings: Most agricultural plots in India are small and fragmented mainly due to different laws of succession.

Such small land holdings are not suitable for using modern agricultural equipment. Hence, crop yield per hectare remains low.

7. Uncontrolled use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides: Indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to increase crop production has led to soil and water pollution.

8. Lack of fodder crops: Although Indian agriculture mainly focuses on the cultivation of food crops, no importance as such has been given to the cultivation of fodder crops.

9. Variety of crops: Different types of crops are extensively cultivated in India such as food crops (rice, wheat, millets, corn), oilseeds (mustard, sunflower, groundnut), cash crops (tea, coffee, jute, rubber), pulses, spices, etc.

Question 2. Mention the problem of agriculture along with measures.
Answer:

The problem of agriculture along with measures.

There are numerous problems pertaining to agriculture in India. That problem along with their probable remedial measures are discussed below—

1. Low yield per hectare: The yield of crops per hectare is quite low in India. This is due to the lack of—use of HYV seeds; good quality chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and insecticides; proper irrigation facilities, and modern machinery.

Solution: Post-independence, many policies have been adopted in the Five-Year Plans in order to improve the agriculture sector in India. This has increased crop yield per hectare to some extent.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Question Answer

2. Low per capita land ownership: Per capita land ownership in India is only 0.3 hectares which are quite less than other developed countries (where it is 11 hectare per capita). Also, fragmented and small land holdings are not suitable for using modern farming equipment and techniques.

Solution: Small land holdings should be consolidated so that cooperative farming can be practiced to increase crop yield.

3. Soil erosion: Unscientific agricultural methods, uncontrolled grazing by animals and indiscriminately cutting down trees have led to soil erosion and loss of soil fertility.

Solution: Terrace cultivation, contour plowing, and the use of scientific methods of farming are being encouraged to minimize soil erosion.

Also, organic fertilizers and vermicompost are used to maintain soil fertility. Crop rotation is also practiced to maintain the fertility of the soil. The Indian erosion and conserving soil fertility.

4. Lack of knowledge about agriculture and poverty: Farmers do not have adequate knowledge about modern methods of farming and agricultural equipment.

Uncontrolled use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides without assessing the extent of requirement or the nature of the soil leads to both soil and water pollution.

Apart from these, the poor economic conditions of farmers prevent them from investing in agriculture. All these have led to low crop production.

Solution: Proper education regarding agricultural techniques and machinery should be imparted to the farmers. Simultaneously, cooperative farming methods need to be popularised and agricultural loans must be sanctioned as per the needs of the farmers.

5. Faulty land distribution system in India: Faulty land distribution by the government has created many marginal or landless farmers in India.

Solution: Laws have been passed to rectify the land distribution system so that the economic conditions of marginal and landless farmers can improve.

6. Investment based on moneylenders: Most farmers in India are poor and so they often have to take loans from moneylenders. In order to repay the loans, the farmers are forced to sell off their crops at very low prices.

Solution: The government has instructed several nationalized banks and rural banks to sanction agricultural loans at low interest for poor farmers.

Also, necessary arrangements have been made so that farmers can sell their produce directly at reasonable prices. In these ways, the farmers can achieve a good profit.

Question 3. Briefly describe the rice-producing regions of India. OR, Discuss the roles of the different states in India regarding the production and trade of rice.
Answer:

The rice-producing regions of India

Almost all the states in India cultivate rice, either on a small or large scale. However, about 50% of the total rice produced is cultivated in the states of West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Odisha, and Chattisgarh.

According to the Ministry of Agriculture, India produced 11.01 crore tonnes of rice (in 2016-17) in 4.32 crore hectares of land.

India occupies the second position in global rice production (immediately after China). The yield of rice per hectare in India is 2550kg (2016-17).

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Rice producing regions of india

 

State  Rice producing districts Important facts
West Bengal Paschim Bardhaman, East & West Midnapore, Murshidabad, Birbhum, Bankura, North and South 24 Parganas, Hooghly, Nadia. 1. Largest rice-producing state in India.

2. Rice is cultivated in about Sl.SOIakh hectares of land.

3. Total rice production is about 1.51 crore tonnes (2017).

4.  Per hectare yield is 2933 kg.

Uttar Pradesh Varanasi, Gorakhpur, Faizabad, Pilibhit, Lakhimpur Kheri. 1. The Second largest rice-producing state of India.

2.  Rice is cultivated on about 56.5 lakh hectares of land.

3.  Total rice production is 1.18 crore tonnes (2017).

4.  Per hectare yield is 2295kg.

State Punjab Rice-producing districts Patiala, Jalandhar. 1. The Third largest rice-producing state of India.

2. Rice is cultivated on about 27.6 lakh hectares of land.

3. Total rice production is l.lOcrore tonnes (2017).

4. Per hectare yield is 3998kg (largest in terms of per hectare yield).

Other states 1. Andhra Pradesh: East and WestGodavari, Krishna, Guntur, Nalgonda;

2. Odisha: Sambalpur, Cuttack;

3. Tamil Nadu: North and South Arcot, Thanjavur;

4. Chattisgarh: Raipur, Durg, Bastar;

5. Bihar: Gaya, Darbhanga;

6. Karnataka: Shimoga, Mandya;

7. Haryana: Jind, Hissar.

 

Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation.

Trade: Presently, India is the largest rice exporter in the world (2017). It exports Basmati rice to countries like Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Jordan, and Oman.

It also exports other varieties of rice (apart from Basmati rice) to Benin, Bangladesh, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and South Africa.

Question 5. Briefly describe the wheat-producing regions of India. OR, Discuss the roles of the different states in India regarding the production and trade of wheat.
Answer:

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Wheat Producing regions of india

 

Wheat is cultivated in India mostly during the winter season on the large fertile plains of north India and the low plateau regions of peninsular India.

About 50% of the total wheat produced in India comes from Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, India produced about 9.84 crore tonnes of wheat from 3.06 crore hectares of land in 2016-17.

India occupies the second position in global wheat production (just after China). The yield of wheat per hectare is about 3216kg (2016-17) in India.

State Wheat producing districts Important facts
Uttar Pradesh Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Moradabad, Etawah. 1. Largest wheat-producing state in India.

2. Wheat is cultivated on about 96.6 lakh hectares of land.

3. Total wheat produced is about 3.06 crore tonnes (2017).

4. Yield per hectare is 3113 kg.

Madhya Pradesh Sagar, Vidisha, Gwalior, Chhatarpur. 1. the Second largest wheat-producing state of India.

2. Wheat is cultivated on about 60.3 lakh hectares of land.

3. Total wheat produced is about 1.79 crore tonnes.

4. Yield per hectare is 2976 kg.

Punjab Firozpur, Ludhiana, Patiala, Bhatinda, Gurdaspur. 1. the Third largest wheat-producing state of India.

2. Wheat is cultivated on about 35.0 lakh hectares of land.

3. Total wheat produced is about 1.64 crore tonnes (2017).

4. Yield per hectare is 4704 kg (largest in terms of per hectare yield).

Others 1. Haryana: Kurukshetra, Karnal, Sonipat;

2. Rajasthan: Ganganagar, Bharatpur, Kota;

3. Bihar: Purnea, Munger, Champaran;

4. Gujarat: Mehsana,    Khera,    Rajkot;

5. Maharashtra: Dhule, Jalgaon, Amaravati;

6. West Bengal: Murshidabad, Nadia, Birbhum.

The yield of wheat per hectare is about 4514 kg in Haryana.

 

Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation.

Trade: Wheat is an important export commodity of India. In 2017-18, India exported about 3.24 lakh tonnes of wheat which had a value of INR 669.01 crore.

India exports wheat to countries like Bangladesh, Nepal, United Arab Emirates, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, the United Kingdom, and Jordan.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Question Answer

Question 6. Pisarcs the suitable geographical conditions needed for growing millet crops, and also mention the millet-producing states of India.
Answer:

Jowar, Bajra, and Ragi are collectively referred to as millets. These crops are grown in dry tropical climates.

 

Crop Temperature Rainfall Soil Land Millet producing slates
 Jowar  26-33’C. Below 16°C the crop cannot grow.  30-100cm annually. Prolonged drought is harmful to the crop. Clayey deep black soil and alluvial soil are highly suitable. Also dry sandy loams.  Plain land is best suited for this crop. Also can be cultivated on very gentle hill slopes.  1. Maharashtra (1st): Jalgaon, Buldhana, Akola, Amaravati.

2. Karnataka (2nd): Bijapur, Dharwad, Raichur, Bellary.

3. Tamil    Nadu    (3rd),

4. Rajasthan,

5. Andhra Pradesh,

6. Madhya Pradesh

Bajra 25-30°C. A higher temperature is needed when the crop ripens. 50-100cm annually. Light sandy soil is highly suitable for red soil and even saline soil is suitable. Plain or plateaus.lands gentle 1. Rajasthan (1st): Bikaner, Churu, Barmer

2. Uttar Pradesh (2nd)

3. Gujarat

4. Haryana

5. Madhya Pradesh

Ragi  20-30°C. 50-100cm annually. Porous loamy soil, light red loams, and sandy loams are ideal for this crop. Undulating plateau regions.  1. Karnataka (1st): Harshan, Chitradurga, Tumkur, Mysore.

2. Tamil Nadu (2nd): Nilgiri, North, and South Arcot

3. Uttarakhand:    Kumaon region.

4. Maharashtra

4. Andhra Pradesh

5. Bihar

 

Question 7. Discuss the reasons for the prosperity of agriculture in Punjab and Haryana.
Answer:

The reasons for the prosperity of agriculture in Punjab and Haryana

Punjab and Haryana Are two states in India that have flourished due to agriculture. The reasons for the agricultural prosperity of these two states are discussed below-

1. Soil:

1.The region comprises Soil: The region comprises rich alluvial soil deposited by the Indus river and its five
famous tributaries.

Although in some places the soil is a little sandy, the mineral content of the soil makes it very fertile and highly suitable for agriculture.

2. Irrigation: The largest multi-purpose river valley project, i.e. the Bhakra-Nangal project provides irrigation water to all the agricultural fields of both states. Due to such ready availability of water, three to four crops are grown every year.

3. HYV seeds: High Yielding Variety seeds were first used in this region in India during the Green Revolution. The use of such seeds in the case of rice, wheat, cotton, and other crops has increased crop yield to a large extent.

4. Use of machinery: In Punjab and Haryana, there are many large agricultural tracts. So, different modern agricultural machinery like tractors, harvesters, etc. can be easily used.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Question Answer

This helps in higher crop production. Use is used in the states of Punjab and Haryana. This results in high crop yield.

5. Use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides: In India, the maximum amount of chemical fertilizers and
insecticides are used in the states of Punjab and Haryana. This results in high crop yield.

6. Agricultural education: Education regarding different aspects of agriculture such as modern farming techniques, types of fertilizers to be used depending on the nature of soils, irrigation techniques, etc.,

Are imparted to farmers by several governmental and non-governmental organizations. Research works are conducted on regular basis in different universities for the further betterment of agriculture.

7. Others: Facilities like power supply, market, transport, godowns, etc. have helped in improving agriculture in Punjab and Haryana. Also, the government has taken initiative to fix the price of the crops so that the farmers gain profits.

Question 8. Discuss suitable geographical conditions for the cultivation of tea. OR, Discuss the physical factors favorable to the growth of tea plantations in India.
Answer:

Tea is the main beverage crop of India. India occupies the second position in global tea production

1. Physical conditions

1. Climate: Tea grows best in warm and wet, Tropical monsoon climates.

1. Temperature: An average temperature ranging from 16-30°C is suitable for tea cultivation. Although tea can tolerate moderately high and low temperatures, hailstorms in summer and snowfall in winter are harmful to tea.

2. Rainfall: An average annual rainfall of 150-250cm is favorable for tea cultivation.

3. Others: Sultry weather with low rainfall, dense fog, frost, and scorching sunlight adversely affect the growth of tea.

2. Soil: Fertile loamy soil rich in iron is suitable for tea plants. Chernozem soil found in the grassland of hill slopes is also favorable for the cultivation of tea as it is rich in humus.

3. Sloping land: Tea plants cannot tolerate water stagnation near their roots. So hill slopes and rolling plateaus are preferred for cultivating tea.

4. Elevation: High mountain slopes where the climate is cool and have no chances of snowfall are highly preferable for tea cultivation. In India, tea gardens are seen at an altitude varying from 90m in the Terai region to about 1980m in Darjeeling.

2. Economic conditions

1. Labour: Tea being a labor-intensive crop requires a huge number of skilled laborers. Especially women laborers are employed for plucking tea leaves as they are quick and nimble. They also look after the tea plants and tend to the tea gardens.

2. Others: Tea is a plantation crop. Modern machinery, fertilizers, and insecticides as well as adequate capital investment, a good transport network, and national and international demand, are some

Question 9. Discuss the suitable geographical conditions required for the cultivation of coffee.
Answer:

Coffee is the second most important beverage crop in India right after tea.

The suitable geographical conditions required for the cultivation of coffee are discussed below—

1. Physical conditions

1. Climate: Coffee grows best in hot and humid tropical climates. The especially equatorial climate is favorable for coffee cultivation,

1. Temperature: An average temperature ranging from 20-25°C is ideal for coffee,

2. Rainfall: An annual average rainfall of 150-250cm is required for growing coffee,

3. Shade trees: Coffee plants are sensitive to direct sunlight. So trees with broad canopies are planted in between coffee plants so that they can provide shade.

2. Soil: Fertile laterite soil of volcanic origin and red loamy soil is best suited for coffee cultivation.

3. Type of land: Sloping highlands, especially foothills of mountains are ideal for coffee cultivation. Large quantities of coffee are grown in the southern region of Karnataka, the mountainous region of Andhra Pradesh, the hilly regions of north Kerala, and the northern part of Tamil Nadu.

2. Economic conditions

1. Labour: Coffee being a plantation crop require abundant cheap labor for transplanting, plucking coffee berries, drying the coffee beans, etc.

2. Others: Coffee is a plantation crop. The plantations need to have proper infrastructure so that all processes involved in preparing coffee can be carried out in the plantation itself.

This includes the transplantation of seedlings processing the beans and finally packing the coffee powder. For this, adequate capital investment is necessary.

Apart from these, transportation of coffee from the coffee plantations to nearby ports (for exporting) requires a well-built transport network.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Question Answer

Question 10. List the regions where tea is grown in India. OR, Discuss the roles of the different states in India regarding the production and trade of tea.
Answer:

The regions where tea is grown in India

Tea is cultivated in the hilly regions of northeast, north, and south India. More than 3/4th of the total tea produced in India can be attributed to the states of Assam and West Bengal.

In 2017-18, India produced about 32.51 crore kg of tea. This has led India to occupy the second position (just after China) in global tea production. India’s contribution to global tea production is almost

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Tea producing regions of india

 

State Districts Important facts
Assam Darrang. Goalpara, Kamrup, lakhimpur, Dibrugarh, Nagaon, Siva sagar, Cachar, Karbi Anglong. 1. Largest tea-producing state in India.

2. Tea is cultivated on almost 3.07 lakh hectares of land.

3. Total yield was 67.63 crore kg in 2017-18.

West Bengal Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Alipurduar, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, North Dinajpur. 1. Second most important tea-producing state of India.

2. Tea is cultivated on almost 1.40 lakh hectares of land.

3. Total yield was 38.79 crore kg in 2017-18

Tamil Nadu ismcrs Kanyakumari,    Tirunelveli, Madurai, Coimbatore, Nilgiri. 1. The Third most important tea-producing state of India.

2. Tea is cultivated on almost 69.62 thousand hectares of land.

3. Total yield was 16.44 crore kg in 2017-18.

Others 1. Kerala: Wayanad, Thrissur, Idukki, Kottayam.

2. Karnataka: Kodagu.

3. Himachal Pradesh: Kangra, Mandi.

4. Uttarakhand: Dehradun, Almora, Tehri Garhwal.

5. Meghalaya

6. Tripura.

1. Tea is cultivated on almost 35.01 thousand hectares of land in Kerala.

2. Total yield was 6.39 crore kg in 2017-18.

 

Source: Tea Board of India.

Trade: India is the second largest tea-exporting country in the world (just after China). In 2018, India exported 24.91 crore kg of tea to countries like Russia, Kazakhstan, the British Isles, United Arab Emirates, Iran, and Poland.

Question 11. Discuss the suitable geographical conditions required for the cultivation of cotton.
Answer:

Cotton is the most important fiber crop in India.

The geographical conditions required for growing cotton are discussed below—

1. Physical conditions

1. Climate: Cotton is a crop native to tropical and subtropical regions.

1. Temperature: An average temperature of 20-26°C is ideal for cultivating cotton.

2. Rainfall: An average annual rainfall of 60-100cm is required for growing cotton. However, in the north-west and southern India, cotton is also cultivated in areas receiving less than 60cm of rainfall with the help of irrigation,

3. Sea winds: Saline winds from the seas are good for cotton cultivation.

2. Soil: Fertile loamy soil rich in lime is good for cotton. Chernozem soil and black soil (regur) of volcanic origin found in the Deccan Plateau region are favorable for cotton cultivation.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Question Answer

3. Type of land: Plain lands or gently rolling plains with proper drainage patterns are suitable for growing cotton as cotton cannot withstand water logging.

2. Economic conditions

1. Labour: Abundant skilled laborers are required for sowing the seeds, picking the cotton bolls, and pressing the cotton into bales which are then sent to factories for making threads.

2. Fertilisers: Cotton being a soil-exhausting crop require suitable quantities of chemical and organic fertilizers.

3. Insecticides: Cotton plants are susceptible to pests like boll weevil, pink bollworm, and spotted bollworm. Thus, large quantities of insecticides are required during the cultivation of cotton crops.

4. Others: HYV seeds, proper irrigation facilities, modern agricultural equipment, and huge capital are some factors on which cotton cultivation depends. Apart from these, market demand for cotton and well-connected transport system also influence cotton production.

Question 12. List the coffee-producing regions of India.
Answer:

The coffee-producing regions of India

In India, coffee is mainly grown in the southern states of Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. Karnataka alone accounts for about 75% of the total coffee produced in India.

In 2017-18, India produced about 3.16 lakh metric tonnes of coffee. India occupies the seventh position in global coffee production (2016-17).

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Coffee producing regions of india

 

State District Important facts
 Karnataka  Chikmagalur, Hassan, Kodagu, Mysore, Shimoga.  1. Largest coffee-producing state in India.

2. Total coffee produced in 2017-18 was 2.22 lakh metric tonnes.

Kerala Wayanad, Palakkad, Idukki, Kollam. 1. the Second largest coffee-producing state of India.

2. Total coffee produced in 2017-18 was 65735 metric tonnes.

Tamil Nadu Nilgin, Salem. Madurai. Coimbatore. Tirunelvell. 1. Third largest coffee-producing stole of India.

2.  Total col fee pi produced In 2017-18 was 17440 metric tonnes of coffee.

Others 1. Andhra Pradesh: Aiaku valley of Visas.

2. Orissa: Koraput. Rayagada. Kalahandi and Kandhamal districts,

3. Meghalaya: Ri Rhoi. fast Musi Hills and West Jalntia Hills districts.

3. Assam: Cachar district.

Andhra Piadcslt produced 9600 metric tonnes of coffee in 2017-18.

 

Question 13. List the regions where cotton is grown in India. OR, Discuss the roles of the different states in India regarding the production and trade of cotton.
Answer:

In India, cotton is mainly grown in the black soil region of the Deccan plateau. More than 50% of the total cotton produced in India comes from this region.

India produced 3.31 crore bales of cotton in 1.09 crore hectares of land in 2016-17. The yield of cotton per hectare was 519 kg (2016-17). India occupies the second position in global cotton production.

Trade: India mainly produces medium and short-staple cotton fiber. Good quality long-staple cotton fiber is imported from countries like Australia, Egypt, the United States of America, Tanzania, and Pakistan. India exports cotton to countries like China, Sri Lanka, the British Isles, Germany, Taiwan, and Bangladesh.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Cotton Producing regions of india

 

Question 14. Name the main sugarcane-producing India.
Answer:

The main sugarcane-producing regions of India are discussed below—

1. Uttar Pradesh: Uttar Pradesh is the largest sugarcane-producing state in India. Sugarcane is cultivated on about 21.6 lakh hectares of land. The main sugarcane-producing districts of this state are—Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Moradabad, Saharanpur, Deoria, Ghaziabad, Bareilly, and Sitapur.

2. Maharashtra: Maharashtra is the second-largest sugarcane-producing state in India. Sugarcane is cultivated on about 6.30 lakh hectares of land.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Question Answer

The quality of sugarcane produced in this state is better than that produced in Uttar Pradesh due to the presence of black soil and coastal climate. The main sugarcane-producing districts of Maharashtra are Ahmednagar, Kolhapur, Pune, Nasik, Sangli, Satara, and Osmanabad.

3. Karnataka: Karnataka occupies the third position in sugarcane production in India. Sugarcane is cultivated on 3.50 lakh hectares of land, mostly in the districts of Mysore, Vijayapura, Shimoga, and Chitradurga.

4. Others: Apart from these states, sugarcane is also grown in Gujarat, Haryana, Uttarakhand, and Punjab. In 2016-17, India produced 30.67 crore tonnes of sugarcane, out of which, 14.48 crore tonnes were produced by Uttar Pradesh, 5.06 crore tonnes by Maharashtra, and 2.35 crore tonnes by Karnataka.

Question 15. Discuss the suitable geographical conditions required for the cultivation of sugarcane. Write a short note on the trade of sugarcane in India.
Answer:

Sugarcane is a very important cash crop in India, as it is the main source for producing sugar.

The suitable geographical conditions required for the cultivation of sugarcane are discussed below—

1. Physical conditions

1. Climate: Sugarcane is a kharif crop and is grown in tropical regions,

1. Temperature: An average temperature of 20-27°C is suitable for growing sugarcane. Higher temperatures may damage the crop.

2. Rainfall: An average annual rainfall of 75-150 cm is required for the cultivation of sugarcane. However, it can also be grown in areas receiving low rainfall with the help of irrigation,

3. Coastal climate: This type of climate with a saline environment influence the sweetness of the sugarcane juice as well as the overall growth of the plants. So sugarcane is widely cultivated in the western region of India,

4. Fog: Sugarcane is highly susceptible to fog, smog, and frost.

2. Soil: Fertile loamy soil rich in lime and black soil is best for growing sugarcane.

3. Type of land: Gently rolling plains with proper drainage facilities are most suitable for growing sugarcane as there is less possibility of water stagnation.

2. Economic conditions

1. Labour: Abundant cheap and skilled laborers are required for sowing the seeds and harvesting the crop. So, sugarcane is usually cultivated in densely populated regions.

2. Transport: A well-connected transport system is extremely essential for sugarcane cultivation as the juice needs to be extracted within 24 hours of cutting the plants and transported to the sugar factories.

If it is not done, both the quantity and sugar content of the juice get affected. For this reason, most sugar factories are established in the vicinity of the sugarcane plantations.

3. Capital: Sugarcane is a soil-exhausting crop. Hence, a substantial amount of fertilizers is required. Also, insecticides, irrigation facilities, and labor supplies needed for cultivating the crop require a huge amount of capital.

4. Market demand: Sugarcane is a crop that cannot be stored in godowns or cold storage. It has to be processed instantly. Hence, the market demand for sugar is a great controlling factor in sugarcane cultivation. In recent times, sugarcane cultivation is expanding keeping in mind the huge population of India.

WBBSE Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Question Answer

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Short Answer Explanatory Type Questions

Question 1. Classify the crops of India according to their sowing season.
Answer:

According to their sowing season, crops of India can be classified into three categories which have been tabulated below

Crop              Sowing   Season Examples
Kharif crops Crops are sown just before the arrival of the monsoons, i.e., in the month of June, and harvested after the autumn season, i.e., in the month of November. Aman rice, jute, cotton, sugarcane, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize.
Rabi crops Crops are sown just before the arrival of the winter season, i.e., in the month of December, and harvested before the arrival of the summer season, i.e., in the month of March. Wheat, barley, oat, mustard, lentils.
Zaid crops Crops are sown before the arrival of the summer season, i.e., in the month of March, and harvested before the arrival of the monsoons, i.e., in the month of June. Watermelon, tomato, brinjal, cucumber, muskmelon.

 

Question 2. How can you classify rice?
Answer:

Rice can be classified into three categories according to the season in which it is grown. These are—

Type of rice Growing season
Asus This variety of rice is sown during the summer season (April-May) and harvested during the monsoons (August-September). The meaning of the word ‘aus’ is early. This crop matures rapidly.
Aman This variety of rice is sown during the monsoons (June) and harvested during the winter season (December-January). This crop is also known as Aghrani rice’ in West Bengal.
Boro This variety of rice is sown during the winter season (November-December) and harvested during the summer season (April-May).

 

Question 3. Classify their nature and the crops of uses. of India according to
Answer:

Crops grown in India can be broadly classified into two types according to their nature of uses—

  1. Food crops and
  2. Cash crops.

1. Food crops can be further classified into three categories—

  1. Grain crops: Rice, wheat.
  2. Beverage crops: Tea, coffee.
  3. Other food crops: Sugarcane, spices, lentils, and fruits.

2. Cash crops can be also further classified into three categories—

  1. Oilseeds: Mustard, sesame, groundnut.
  2. Fiber crops: Cotton, jute.
  3. Other crops: Rubber, indigo.

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Some important crops of india

 

Question 4. How can you classify wheat?
Answer:

Wheat can be classified into two types according to the season in which it is grown. These are—

Type of wheat Growing season
Winter wheat This type of wheat is sown in the autumn season and harvested before the onset of the summer season.
Spring wheat This type of wheat is sown during the spring season and harvested at the end of the summer season.

 

In India, mostly winter wheat is cultivated. However, spring wheat is also cultivated in some scattered regions of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.

Question 5. Briefly discuss the problems of rice cultivation in India and also state they’re possible remedial measures.
Answer:

The problems of rice cultivation in India and their possible remedial measures are discussed in the following

Problems Remedial measures
Farmers are losing interest in cultivating rice due to its low market price. Several government organizations are being formed to buy agricultural produce (in this case rice) directly from the farmers, thereby cutting out the middleman.
The yield of rice per hectare is quite low. The production was about 2550kg (2016-17). HYV seeds, insecticides, and fertilizers are being used nowadays to increase the per-hectare yield of rice.
The lack of proper storage facilities is leading to damage to crops. The Government has taken an initiative to build cold storage and warehouses for storing surplus crops.
Modern types of equipment and machinery cannot be used while cultivating crops since the land holdings are fragmented and scattered. Co-operative farming methods have been introduced for fragmented land holdings. Modern types of machinery (such as tractors, and harvesters) are being used to increase crop yield.
Lack of irrigation facilities hinders crop cultivation during the dry season as well as in regions receiving scanty rainfall. A large number of motorized deep tube wells have been installed by the government as well as by private organizations to provide water to crops throughout the year.

 

Question 6. Briefly discuss the problems of wheat cultivation in India and also state they’re possible remedial measures.
Answer:

The problems of wheat cultivation in India and their possible remedial measures are discussed in the following table—

Problems Remedial measures
The yield of wheat per hectare is quite low. The production was about 3216kg (2016-17). HYV seeds, insecticides, and fertilizers are being used nowadays to increase the per-hectare yield of wheat.
The low price of wheat is leading farmers to lose interest in cultivating crops. Food Corporation of India, a government organization has taken the initiative to directly buy agricultural produce from the farmers thereby avoiding the middleman.
Limited use of modern types of machinery or cultivating crops. Investments have been made by both government and non-government organizations to facilitate the use of modern machinery (like tractors and harvesters) to increase crop yield.
Lack of storage facilities is leading to the damage of crops every year. Warehouses and cold storage are being built by both government and non-government organizations.
Lack of irrigation facilities hinders the cultivation of crops during dry seasons as well as in regions receiving scanty rainfall. A large number of motorized deep tubewells have been installed by the government as well as by private organizations to provide water to crops throughout the year.

 

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

Question 7. Why does wheat dominate the agriculture of north India?
Answer:

The reasons behind the predominance of wheat in the agriculture of north India are discussed below—

  1. The temperature in the Punjab plains as well as in the upper and middle Gangetic plains remains around 14°-20°C during winter, which is ideal for wheat cultivation.
  2. Rainfall caused by western disturbances in the wheat-producing regions of north India during the winter season is highly favorable for wheat cultivation. Also, improved irrigation facilities provide the necessary water required for growing wheat.
  3. The fertile heavy loamy soils and clayey alluvial soils of north India are highly suitable for wheat cultivation.
  4. The gently rolling plains of north India favor wheat cultivation.
  5. The majority of the population in Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh is engaged in agriculture. This huge workforce positively helps in wheat cultivation.

Question 8. Name the important plantation crops of India and mention the regions where they are cultivated.
Answer:

Important plantation crops of India: The two most important plantation crops grown in India are—tea and coffee.

Regions of tea and coffee cultivation:

1. Tea: Approximately 80% of the total tea production in India comes from the states of Assam and West Bengal. The southern states of India namely Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka account for the remaining 20%.

The sloping plains of the Brahmaputra Valley and the Terai region in Assam which includes the districts of Darrang, Sivasagar, Lakhimpur and Cachar are well known for tea cultivation.

Apart from this, tea is also grown in the mountainous and Terai region of West Bengal which includes the districts of Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar, and North Dinajpur.

2. Coffee: Karnataka (70%), Kerala (21%), and Tamil Nadu (6%) are the leading coffee-producing states of India.
Chikmagalur, Kodagu, Hassan, Shimoga, and Mysore districts of Karnataka; Palakkad, Wayanad, Idukki, and Kollam districts of Kerala; Madurai, Salem, and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu are well known for coffee Cultivation.

Question 9. Why Is coffee cultivation predominant in south India? OR, Mention any two reasons for the growth of coffee cultivation in south India.
Answer:

The hilly regions of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala are famous for coffee cultivation in India. The reasons behind the predominance of coffee cultivation in these states of south India are as follows—

  1. The weather in this region is favorable for coffee cultivation since the average temperature ranges between 20-30°C and the annual rainfall are approximately 150-250cm.
  2. Fertile laterite soil of volcanic origin is found here which is highly suitable for coffee cultivation.
  3. The hill slopes of this region (elevation ranging from 800-1600 m) are ideal for the growth of coffee as they help in avoiding water stagnation.
  4. Since the cultivation of tea as a beverage crop has not gained popularity in south India, coffee as an alternative beverage crop has taken its place.

Question 10. What do you mean by Green Revolution?
Answer:

Green Revolution:

In post-independent India, during the late ’60s, several measures were adopted to increase agricultural productivity by implementing modern methods.

Using high-yielding variety (HYV) seeds, applying chemical fertilizers and insecticides, using modern farming equipment (such as tractors and harvesters) and implementing irrigation facilities, and improving agricultural techniques were some of the highlights of this revolution.

This led to a sharp increase in crop production. From 1968 to 1978, there was a rapid increase in wheat production mostly in the states of Punjab and Haryana which was famously called the ‘Green Revolution’.

In 1960-61, total wheat production in India was 1 crore 10 lakh tons which tripled to an amount of 3 crores 63 lakh tons in 1980-81.

Question 11. What were the advantages and disadvantages of the Green Revolution in India?
Answer:

The Green Revolution in India had its share of both advantages and disadvantages which are as follows—

1. Advantages:

  1. The sharp increase in the production of food crops.
  2. Improvement in the economic condition of farmers.
  3. Reduction in the frequency of pest attacks on crops due to better quality insecticides and pesticides.
  4.  Increase in the national income of the country.
  5. Importing food grains from other countries reduced considerably since the agricultural produce of the country was sufficient enough for the population.

2. Disadvantages:

  1. Degradation of soil quality and fertility due to indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers.
  2. Extinction of several species of insects and birds from the ecosystem due to the harmful effects of insecticides and pesticides on the environment.
  3. Contamination of groundwater due to agricultural runoff containing chemical fertilizers and other toxic chemicals.
  4. Loss of primary genes of seeds due to the production of new hybrid seeds by biotechnology thereby adversely affecting seed variety.

Question 12. Why is wheat cultivated in northwest India in spite of being a crop of the temperate region? OR, Why wheat is cultivated during winter in India?
Answer:

Wheat is the second most important food crop in India. In spite of being a crop of the temperate region, wheat is grown in large areas in north-west India during winter because of the following reasons—

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

1. Climate: As northwest India lies in subtropical and temperate zones, the climate prevalent here is ideal for wheat cultivation during the winters.

2. Temperature: An average temperature ranging between 14-20°C is favorable for wheat cultivation. Such temperature condition is found in northwest India during winter.

3. Availability of water: Generally, an average annual rainfall of 50-100cm is best suited for wheat cultivation. The northwestern parts of India receive rainfall during winter caused by western disturbances.

However, this rainfall is not sufficient enough for growing wheat. So, the need for extra water is fulfilled by improved irrigation facilities.

4. Sunny and cool weather: In the case of wheat cultivation, moist and cool climatic conditions are necessary while sowing the seeds, dry and warm climate when the panicle comes out, light rainfall when the grains mature, and sunny and cool climate while harvesting. Such kind of climatic conditions prevails in northwest India.

5. Frost-free days: Wheat cultivation requires 110 frost-free days. Although the states of northwest India experience extremely cold weather in winter, there is no occurrence of snowfall in most of these regions. This provides a condition suitable enough for wheat cultivation.

Apart from the above-mentioned reasons, the extensive plainlands and fertile alluvial soil of northwest India are highly favorable for wheat cultivation.

Question 13. Mention three important characteristics of Indian agriculture.
Answer:

Three important characteristics of Indian agriculture are as follows—

1. Subsistence farming: India is a highly populated country, and most of the food grains grown are mainly consumed by the farmers and their families. Not much agricultural produce is left for the purpose of export and sale.

2. Importance of food crops: In India, priority is given to the cultivation of food crops rather than cash crops to meet the needs of the growing population.

More than 75% of cultivated land in India is used for growing food crops. About 52% of the total income from agricultural products comes only from food crops.

3. Use of animals: Indian agriculture is not yet developed to an extent that the use of modern machinery such as tractors and harvesters would be popular everywhere.

To date, in many regions, farmers are dependent on animals like bullocks and buffaloes for plowing agricultural plots.

Question 14. Discuss any three problems of Indian agriculture.
Answer:

Three problems of Indian agriculture are discussed below—

1. Low yield per hectare: In India, the yield per hectare of crops is quite low. In the year 2016-17, the yield of rice was only about 2550 kg per hectare. The causes behind such low yield of crops per hectare are—

  1. limited irrigation facilities,
  2. less use of fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides,
  3. limited use of modern machinery and
  4. poor knowledge of farmers regarding modern and improved agricultural practices.

2. Ownership of agricultural lands: Most Indian farmers are either marginal farmers or landless farmers. This is because large tracts of land are owned by a few rich farmers. The landless peasants lose interest in cultivating crops as they earn no substantial benefit from it.

3. Dependence on monsoons: Agriculture in India is heavily dependent on the monsoons. Irregularity in the onset and retreat of monsoons along with the occurrence of floods and drought adversely affect crop production in the country.

Question 15. What are the reasons behind the low yield of crops per hectare in India?
Answer:

The different reasons behind the low yield of crops per hectare in India are as follows—

1. Small land holdings: Most of the agricultural plots in India are quite small in size. This restricts the use of modern machinery and the implementation of improved farming techniques. As a result, crop yield per hectare becomes low.

2. Limited use of HYV seeds: In India, high-yielding variety seeds of different crops are still not used extensively. Thus, the yield of crops per hectare remains low.

3. Less use of fertilizers and insecticides: Fertilisers and insecticides are less used while cultivating crops in India. This leads to low crop yield per hectare.

4. Lack of irrigation facilities: Not all agricultural plots in India are benefited from irrigation facilities. So, in that case, the cultivation of crops becomes dependent on rainfall only. This too causes a low yield of crops per hectare.

5. Subsistence farming: Most farmers in India produce crops that are sufficient for their own consumption only. There is an insufficient surplus left for sale or export. This leads to a low yield of crops per hectare.

Question 16. Why is subsistence farming more commonly practiced than commercial farming in India?
Answer:

The reasons why subsistence farming is more commonly practiced in India than commercial farming are as follows—

1. Favourable climate: Tea is a tropical plant. An average temperature of 20-30°C and annual rainfall of 200cm are favorable for tea cultivation. Such weather conditions prevail in this state. Almost every month, rainfall occurs to some extent here.

2. Sloping land: The undulating and sloping landscape of this state is ideal for tea cultivation.

3. Soil: Tea thrives well in the slightly acidic friable loamy soil found here.

4. Other reasons: Investors have invested large sums of money in the tea estates of Assam. Apart from this, Guwahati Tea Auction Centre, its proximity to the Kolkata port, and its modern infrastructure have facilitated tea cultivation in Assam.

Question 17. Discuss the problems of tea cultivation in India and mention their solutions.
Answer:

The problems of tea cultivation in India and their feasible solutions are as follows—

Problems Feasible  resolutions 
 Most tea gardens in India are quite old, (older than 100 years).

Also, there is a lack of space for extending these tea gardens.

 Unused lands near the foothills are being targeted to establish small tea gardens.
Many tea gardens have closed down due to financial crises and disputes. These tea gardens are being re-opened by initiatives taken by the government and also by introducing cooperative farming.
Tea production in India is costlier than in other countries. Maximum utilization of labor and use of solar energy are some ways of reducing the cost of tea production.
Heavy competition in the international market has reduced the sale of Indian tea. Efforts are being made to improve the quality of tea and reduce its price in the world market.

 

Question 18. Classify cotton according to the size of the fiber.
Answer:

Cotton can be classified into four types according to the size of the fiber. These are—

1. Very long-staple cotton fiber: This type of cotton fiber has a length equal to or more than 35 mm. This is the best quality cotton. It is mixed with polyester to make fine-quality cloth.

2. Long staple cotton fiber: This type of cotton fiber are smooth and is 30-35mm long. These are bright as silk and fine as wool.

3. Medium staple cotton fiber: This type of cotton fiber is 25-30 mm long.

4. Short staple cotton fiber: This type of cotton fiber has a length of less than 25 mm. It is low-quality cotton with rough and coarse fibers.

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

Question 19. Discuss the problems of cotton cultivation in India and state their remedial measures.
Answer:

The problems of cotton cultivation in India and their remedial measures are discussed below-

Problems Remedial measures
Mainly medium and short-staple cotton is cultivated in India which is not suitable for making cotton clothes. Seeds of long-staple cotton are being imported and research is being carried out so that long-staple cotton fibers can be grown in India.
The hectare yield of cotton in India is low (519kg per hectare).

The attack of the boll weevil is one of the main causes of such low yield.

Modern equipment, good quality fertilizers, and insecticides as well as better irrigation facilities are being used to increase the production of cotton.
Huge capital is required for buying good quality seeds, fertilizers, insecticides, farming equipment, and also for labor payments.

Capital loans on easy terms and conditions are difficult to arrange in India.

The government has instructed the nationalized banks to sanction loans on easy terms and low-interest rates to the farmers who are involved in cotton cultivation.

 

Question 20. Differentiate between fiber crops and plantation crops.
Answer:

The differences between fiber crops and plantation crops are as follows—

Point of difference Fiber crops Plantation crops
Use Fibers are obtained from these crops which are used to make fabrics, ropes, paper, etc. These crops are mainly consumed as fruits, beverages, and spices.
Output These crops give output only once. So new saplings have to be sown every year. Example: Jute, cotton The crops give output for many years once they have been planted. Example: Tea, coffee, rubber.
Storage of crops The crops can be stored for a long time. Most of these crops cannot be stored for a long time.

 

Question 21. Why is subsistence farming more commonly practiced than commercial farming in India?
Answer:

1. Huge population: India is a highly populated country. Thus, lands required for extending agricultural plots and implementing modern farming techniques are not readily available.

2. Small land holdings: In India, small land holdings are commonly seen which are not suitable for the purpose of commercial farming.

3. Land ownership: Most agricultural plots are properties of single owners. So, the practice of cooperative farming is not so popular.

4. Crops preferred: Most farmers prefer the cultivation of food crops rather than cash crops.

5. Lack of capital: Most farmers are either marginal farmers or landless farmers. They do not have the necessary capital they can invest.

So, the farmers cannot opt for better quality seeds, fertilizers, and types of machinery even if they want to due to a lack of capital.

Thus, due to the above-mentioned reasons, subsistence farming is more commonly practiced in India than commercial farming.

Question 22. mention the solutions for the problems of Indian agriculture.
Answer:

The solutions for the problems of Indian agriculture are as follows—

1. Use of HYV seeds: The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has taken initiative to popularise the use of high-yielding variety seeds among farmers to increase crop yield.

The National Seeds Corporation Limited (NSCL), State Farms Corporation of India Limited (SFCI), and numerous other non-governmental organizations are working to increase the use of FIYV seeds all over India.

About 500 FIYV seeds of rice and 250 FIYV seeds of wheat are being currently used in Indian agriculture.

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

2. Use of chemical fertilizers: The use of chemical fertilizers such as nitrogenous fertilizers, phosphate-based fertilizers, and potash has been encouraged to increase crop yield.

Many government organizations have set up units that manufacture different chemical fertilizers. However, the product is not sufficient enough to meet the demand for fertilizers in India.

Fluence, huge amounts of fertilizers are imported. The application of fertilizers has led to an increase in crop yield in recent times.

3. Soil conservation: Several steps have been adopted for the conservation of soil in India which includes terrace cultivation, contour farming, and different modern methods of farming.

The Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation (IISWC) has been established to look after matters pertaining to soil conservation. Apart from these, the state governments have taken initiatives to bring about soil

Question 23. What is the importance of agriculture in India?
Answer:

The importance of agriculture in India is discussed below-

1. Employment: Agriculture is one of the most important means of employment in India. A majority of the population is either directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture.

2. Source of food: Agriculture caters to the food requirement of the Indian population.

3. Source of National Income: In India, agriculture is one of the main sources of National Income.

4. Source of raw materials: Different raw materials required for agro-based industries such as tea, coffee, cotton textile, jute textile, sugar, edible oil, and food processing are provided by agriculture.

5. Source of foreign currency: Agricultural products like jute, tea, coffee, sugar, cashew nuts, tobacco, and spices are exported to foreign countries. Thus, agriculture is a chief source of foreign currency.

6. Expansion of transport and business: Agriculture has helped in the expansion of trade and commerce as well as transport and communication in India.

Agricultural products are transported to markets and agro-based raw materials are transported to industries across the country through roadways and railways.

7. Market: Different markets and trading centers have come up in different regions of India for the purpose of trading agricultural products. Thus, agriculture in India has great economic importance.

 

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What do you mean by the term ‘agriculture’?
Answer:

Agriculture:

Agriculture was the very first step towards a settled human civilization and has been a primary economic activity of man.

The word ‘agriculture’ originates from two Latin words—’ager’ meaning field or land and ‘culture’ meaning growing or cultivation.

So, agriculture literally means the cultivation of land. However, in recent times, agriculture is not only limited to growing crops but also includes animal rearing, pisciculture, planting trees, and other related activities.

These are done with the motive to sustain and enhance human life.

Geography Class 10 West Bengal Board

Question 2. Name some high-yielding variety (HYV) seeds of rice. What is the characteristic feature of these seeds?
Answer:

Some high-yielding variety (HYV) seeds of rice:

Some of the commonly used high-yielding variety seeds of rice in India are—IR-8, IR- 20, TN-1, Taichung-65, Jaya, Ratna, Vijaya, Pankaj, Bahadur, Ranjit, and Biplab.

Cultivation of HYV seeds leads to greater crop yield in less time and these seeds require adequate amounts of water, fertilizers, and insecticides.

Question 3. Name the major wheat-producing states of India.
Answer:

The major wheat-producing states of India are—Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujarat, and Maharashtra.

Question 4. Name some HYV seeds of wheat.
Answer:

Some HYV seeds of wheat commonly used in India are—Sonalika, Kalyan Sona, Sona 227, Safed Larma, and Choti Larma.

Question 5. Name the countries to which India exports tea.
Answer:

India exports tea to countries like the United Kingdom, Russia, Iran, Iraq, United Arab Emirates, and Germany.

Question 6. Name the countries to which India exports coffee.
Answer:

India exports coffee to countries like Italy, Russia, Germany, Turkey, and Belgium.

Question 7. Name the countries to which India exports cotton.
Answer:

India exports cotton to countries like China, Sri Lanka, the British Isles, Germany, Taiwan, and Bangladesh.

Question 8. Write a short note on plantation agriculture.
Answer:

Plantation agriculture:

The concept of plantation agriculture was introduced in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of Asia, Africa, and America by the different colonial powers of Europe.

In India, plantation agriculture was introduced by the British during the 19th century. Various cash crops such as rubber, tea, and coffee are grown on plantation farms across many states of India like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, and Assam.

The main objective of plantation agriculture is to grow crops meant for sale using modern machinery, fertilizers, and specialized labor. This results in a greater yield of crops. Monoculture is seen in this form of agriculture.

Question 9. Name some HYV seeds of cotton.
Answer:

Some HYV seeds of cotton commonly used are—Sujata, Bharati, MCU-4, and MCU-5.

Question 10. What do you mean by cash crops?
Answer:

Cash crops:

The crops which are cultivated by farmers for sale and to earn a profit are called cash crops. For example, sugarcane, cotton, and jute are cultivated as cash crops in India.

Question 11. What is crop rotation?
Answer:

Crop rotation:

Crop rotation is the practice of successive cultivation of different crops in a particular sequence over a definite period of time on the same agricultural tract.

For example, if wheat is grown in the first year on a piece of land, then in the next successive year potato, barley, and pulses are grown on that piece of land. In the fifth year, wheat is again grown there. In this way, crop rotation is successively carried out.

Question 12. What are the objectives of crop rotation?
Answer:

The different objectives of crop rotation are—

  1. Maintaining soil fertility,
  2. Protecting crops against pests,
  3. Surplus crop production and
  4. Preserving crop diversity.

Question 13. How can you classify cotton?
Answer:

According to the length of the fiber, cotton can be classified into four categories—

  1. Very long-staple cotton (equal to or more than 35 mm),
  2. Long staple cotton (30-35mm),
  3. Medium staple cotton (25-30mm),
  4. Short staple cotton (less than 25mm). In India, the production of medium staple cotton is more.

Question 14. Name two important coffee-producing states of India.
Answer:

Two important coffee-producing states of India are—Karnataka and Kerala.

Question 15. Name some of the leading rice-producing states of India.
Answer:

Some of the leading rice-producing states of India are—West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Odisha, Chattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Assam, and Haryana.

Question 16. Name two high-yielding variety seeds of each rice and wheat which have been developed by hybridization.
Answer:

Two HYV seeds of rice—IR-8 and Jaya. Two HYV seeds of wheat—Sonalika and Kalyan Sona.

Question 17. Name the top three tea-producing states of India.
Answer:

The top three tea-producing states of India are—Assam, West Bengal, and Tamil Nadu.

Question 18. Where are the main rice and wheat research institutes of India located?
Answer:

The main rice research institute of India is located in Cuttack and the main wheat research institute of India is located in Pusa near Delhi.

Question 19. Write a short note on fiber crops.
Answer:

Crops that are grown for their fibers are called fiber crops. The fibers are used to make paper, cloth, and rope.

Fibre crops can be of three types—

Seed fibers: These types of fibers are collected from the seeds, such as cotton.

Leaf fibers: These types of fibers are collected from the leaves, such as sisal.

Question 20. What do you mean by beverage crops? Give two examples.
Answer:

Beverage crops are those crops that yield drinks suitable for human consumption. The two most common beverage crops that are grown in India are tea and coffee.

Question 21. What are Kharif crops?
Answer:

Kharif crops

In India, crops that are sown with the onset of the southwest monsoons are called Kharif crops. These are rainfed crops and are sown in mid-June and harvested in mid-October. Aman rice, cotton, and sugarcane are some examples of Kharif crops.

Question 22. What are rabi crops?
Answer:

Rabi crops:

In India, crops that are grown during the winter season with the arrival of the northeast monsoon winds are called rabi crops. These crops are sown in October-November and are harvested in March-April. Wheat, barley, and mustard are some examples of rabi crops.

Question 23. What are zaid crops?
Answer:

Zaid crops:

In India, crops that are grown during the short cropping season between the rabi and kharif seasons are called zaid crops. These crops are sown during the spring season (March) and harvested before the arrival of monsoons (June). Watermelon, muskmelon, brinjal, cucumber, and tomato are some examples of zaid crops.

Question 24. What do you mean by winter wheat and spring wheat?
Answer:

Winter wheat and spring wheat:

Winter wheat is wheat that is grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions during the winter season under cool climatic conditions. Spring wheat is the wheat that is grown during the spring season on lands that were covered by snow in the winter season but are now moist due to the melting of the snow.

In India, winter wheat is cultivated in most places. However, in some remote areas in the Himalayas, spring wheat is also cultivated on a small scale.

Question 25. What are Aman rice and Boro rice?
Answer:

Aman rice and Boro rice:

The variety of rice which is cultivated during the monsoon season and is dependent on the amount of rainfall is called Aman rice. The variety of rice which is cultivated during the winter season and is dependent on irrigation is called Boro rice.

Question 26. Why is it better to cultivate tea on hill slopes?
Answer:

Standing water adversely affects tea cultivation as it causes the roots of the plants to rot. So hill slopes are preferable for tea cultivation as there is no chance of rainwater accumulating.

Question 27. What is a boll weevil?
Answer:

Boll weevil:

Boll weevil is a pest that feeds on cotton buds and flowers. It is a beetle that infests the cotton crop and poses a great threat to cotton cultivation. Thus, a substantial amount of insecticide is required for cotton cultivation.

Question 28. Write down the uses of tea.
Answer:

The uses of tea are—

  1. It is a popular beverage consumed by many across the world.
  2. It is used for cleaning wooden
  3. furniture and floors.
  4. Tannin obtained from tea is used in dyeing in the textile industry and is also used for tanning leather.
  5. Tea oil is used as cooking oil.

Question 29. Mention any two problems of Indian agriculture.
Answer:

Two problems of Indian agriculture are—

1. Small land holdings: The average size of agricultural plots in India is only 1.2 hectares. Such small lands are not suitable for using advanced and modern equipment for farming.

2. Outdated farming methods: In most regions of India, HYV seeds, insecticides, pesticides, and modern farming machinery are not used effectively. Instead, outdated farming methods are practiced in different parts of India leading to low crop yield.

Question 30. What do you mean by subsistence agriculture?
Answer:

Subsistence agriculture

The farming practice in which crops are grown with the sole purpose that the agricultural produce will be consumed by the farmers and their family members only is called subsistence agriculture.

This type of agriculture is seen in some parts of Africa and south-east Asia.

Question 31. State the importance of terrace cultivation.
Answer:

The importance of terrace cultivation:

The steep slope of the land in hilly regions increases the speed of soil erosion. In terrace cultivation, the slope is cut into steps or stairs (resembling a terrace).

Thus, the general slope of the land is reduced and flat stretches of land are created along the hills. This helps to reduce the speed of running water, thus reducing soil erosion.

Terrace cultivation is commonly practiced for the cultivation of rice, wheat, soybean, etc. Hence, terrace cultivation is of immense importance in reducing soil erosion and helping in soil conservation in mountainous areas.

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment MCQs

Write the correct answer From the given alternatives

Question 1. Rabi crops are cultivated in—

  1. Summer
  2. Monsoon
  3. Winter
  4. Autumn

Answer: 3. Winter

Question 2. The Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research is located in—

  1. Cuttack
  2. Lucknow
  3. Pusa
  4. Jorhat

Answer: 2. Lucknow

Question 3. Boro rice is harvested in—

  1. Winter
  2. Monsoon
  3. Summer
  4. Spring

Answer: 3. Summer

Question 4. ‘Sujata’ is a high-yielding variety seed of—

  1. Rice
  2. Wheat
  3. Cotton
  4. Sugarcane

Answer: 3. Cotton

Question 5. Which state in India occupies the leading position in coffee production?

  1. Tamil Nadu
  2. Kerala
  3. Karnataka
  4. Maharashtra

Answer: 3. Karnataka

Question 6. Which of the following is a Kharif crop?

  1. Wheat
  2. Cotton
  3. Mustard
  4. Barley

Answer: 2. Cotton

Question 7. Which of the following is a rabi crop?

  1. Rice
  2. Wheat
  3. Jute
  4. Cotton

Answer: 2. Wheat

Question 8. The minimum number of frost-free days required for the cultivation of wheat is—

  1. 50 days
  2. 60 days
  3. 100 days
  4. 110 days

Answer: 2. 60 days

Question 9. How much rainfall is required for the cultivation of rice?

  1. 50-100cm
  2. 100-200 cm
  3. 300-400 cm
  4. 400-500 cm

Answer: 2. 100-200 cm

Question 10. Which state in India is the leading producer of tea?

  1. West Bengal
  2. Assam
  3. Kerala
  4. Tamil Nadu

Answer: 2. Assam

Question 11. Which states in India have been marked as the ‘wheat growing zone’ by ICAR?

  1. Haryana-Uttar Pradesh
  2. Uttar Pradesh-Bihar
  3. Punjab-Haryana
  4. Bihar-West Bengal

Answer: 2. Uttar Pradesh-Bihar

Question 12. Which is the largest tea-producing state in India in terms of per-hectare yield?

  1. West Bengal
  2. Assam
  3. Kerala
  4. Karnataka

Answer: 4. Karnataka

Question 13. Which of the following is a plantation crop?

  1. Rice
  2. Jute
  3. Tea
  4. Sugarcane

Answer: 3. Tea

Question 14. The hilly region of Karnataka is famous for the cultivation of which crop?

  1. Coffee
  2. Wheat
  3. Tea
  4. Rice

Answer: 1. Coffee

Question 15. Find the odd one out from the following—

  1. Jowar
  2. Bajra
  3. Ragi
  4. Rice

Answer: 4. Rice

Question 16. Which state in India occupies the top position in rice production?

  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. West Bengal
  3. Uttar Pradesh
  4. Punjab

Answer: 2. West Bengal

Question 17. Which Indian state is the leading producer of rice in terms of per-hectare yield?

  1. West Bengal
  2. Bihar
  3. Punjab
  4. Haryana

Answer: 3. Punjab

Question 18. Which state in India is the largest producer of bajra?

  1. Rajasthan
  2. Uttar Pradesh
  3. Gujarat
  4. Haryana

Answer: 4. Haryana

Question 19. Which district in Karnataka is the leading producer of coffee?

  1. Mysore
  2. Mandya
  3. Kodagu
  4. Hassan

Answer: 3. Kodagu

Question 20. The soil which is best suited for cotton cultivation is—

  1. Laterite soil
  2. Red soil
  3. Black soil
  4. Sandy soil

Answer: 3. Black soil

Question 21. Wheat is a—

  1. Rabi crop
  2. Kharjf crop
  3. Zaid crop
  4. Beverage crop

Answer: Rabi crop

Question 22. The farming system in which the total agricultural production is consumed by farmers and their family members is known as—

  1. Subsistence farming
  2. Commercial farming
  3. Orchard farming
  4. Mixed farming

Answer: 1. Subsistence farming

Question 23. The state which ranks first in jowar production in India is—

  1. Maharashtra
  2. Uttar Pradesh
  3. Bihar
  4. West Bengal

Answer: 1. Maharashtra

Question 24. ‘Kalyan Sona’ is a high-yielding variety seed of—

  1. Rice
  2. Wheat
  3. Tea
  4. Cotton

Answer: 2. Wheat

Question 25. The National Seeds Corporation was established in the year—

  1. 1963
  2. 1965
  3. 1977
  4. 1980

Answer: 1. 1963

Question 26. One of the popular high-yielding variety seed of rice in India is—

  1. Sonalika
  2. Kalyan Sona
  3. IR-8
  4. Safed Larma

Answer: 3. IR-8

Question 27. Aman rice is sown in the months of—

  1. April-May
  2. August-September
  3. June-July
  4. November-December

Answer: 3. June-July

Question 28. The Tea Research Institute in India is located in—

  1. Chikmagalur, Karnataka
  2. Darjeeling, West Bengal
  3. Jorhat, Assam
  4. Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

Answer: 3. Jorhat, Assam

Question 29. The leading producer of sugarcane in India is—

  1. Uttar Pradesh
  2. Maharashtra
  3. Karnataka
  4. Punjab

Answer: 1. Uttar Pradesh

Question 30. Shifting cultivation in India is known as—

  1. Tamrai
  2. Ladang
  3. Jhum
  4. Roka

Answer: 3. Jhum

Question 31. The term ‘Green Revolution’ was first used by

  1. Dr. Norman Borlaug
  2. William Gaud
  3. Samuel Salmon
  4. Surajit Datta

Answer: 1. Dr. Norman Borlaug

Question 32. The Central Rice Research Institute of India is located in—

  1. Pusa
  2. Cuttack
  3. Chandannagar
  4. Hyderabad

Answer: 2. Cuttack

Question 33. The Green Revolution in India was most effective in the production of—

  1. Oilseeds
  2. Rice
  3. Wheat
  4. Tea

Answer: 3. Wheat

Question 34. Boll weevil feeds on—

  1. Tea
  2. Rice
  3. Wheat
  4. Cotton

Answer: 4. Cotton

Question 35. Cotton is a type of—

  1. Food crop
  2. Beverage crop
  3. Plantation crop
  4. Fibre crop

Answer: 4. Fibre crop

Question 36. An example of Zaid crop is—

  1. Watermelon
  2. Mustard
  3. Rice
  4. Wheat

Answer: 1. Watermelon

Question 37. Which of the following is a characteristic feature of Indian agriculture?

  1. The predominance of food crops
  2. Large agricultural land holdings
  3. Extensive farming methods
  4. Modern agricultural types of equipment

Answer: 1. Predominance of food crops

Question 38. An important oilseed grown in India is—

  1. Potato
  2. Wheat
  3. Mustard
  4. Coffee

Answer: 3. Mustard

Question 39. Which of the following type of soil is best for rice cultivation?

  1. Alluvial soil
  2. Sandy soil
  3. Black soil
  4. Red soil

Answer: 1. Alluvial soil

Question 40. What is the position of India in the global production of sugarcane and cotton?

  1. First
  2. Second
  3. Third
  4. Fourth

Answer: 2. Second

Question 41. The Coffee Board of India is located in—

  1. Kolkata
  2. Bengaluru
  3. Chennai
  4. Ahmedabad

Answer: 2. Bengaluru

Question 42. Wheat is a—

  1. Rabi crop
  2. Kharif crop
  3. Zaid crop
  4. Beverage crop

Answer: 1. Rabi crop

 

Chapter 6 India-Economic Environment If The Statement Is True, Write True, And If False Write False Against The Following

Question 1. The northern region of India accounts for the maximum amount of wheat production.
Answer: True

Question 2. Barley is a Kharif crop.
Answer: False

Question 3. Coffee grows best on red sandy loamy soil.
Answer: True

Question 4. Jute is a plantation crop.
Answer: False

Question 5. India is the leading producer of tea in the world.
Answer: False

Question 6. India occupies the top position in global rice production.
Answer: False

Question 7. Alluvial soil found in river valleys is ideal for the cultivation of rice.
Answer: True

Question 8. Most of the rice in India is cultivated in winter as a rabi crop.
Answer: False

Question 9. During summer, an average temperature ranging from 16°-30°C is required for the cultivation of tea.
Answer: True

Question 10. Wheat is cultivated during the summer season in India.
Answer: False

Question 11. Saline soil is most suitable for cotton cultivation.
Answer: True

Question 12. In India, the crops grown in the summer season are called Kharif crops.
Answer: False

Question 13. Standing water is good for tea cultivation.
Answer: False

Question 14. India is the leading exporter of tea in the global market.
Answer: False

Question 15. Cash crops are those which are cultivated in order to earn a profit by selling them.
Answer: True

Question 16. Shade trees are planted in coffee plantations in order to protect the crop from direct sunlight.
Answer: True

Question 17. Coffee is a food crop grown in India.
Answer: False

Question 18. Small land holdings are one of the characteristic features of Indian agriculture.
Answer: False

Question 19. Agriculture in India is labor-intensive in nature.
Answer: True

Question 20. Soil erosion and drought adversely affect the agricultural produce in India.
Answer: True

Question 21. The southwest monsoon winds mainly control agricultural activities in India.
Answer: True

Question 22. Irrigated water from the Bhakra-Nangal Project has helped in improving agricultural practices in Punjab and Haryana.
Answer: True

Question 23. India occupies the second position in coffee production in the world.
Answer: False

Question 24. Lands with proper drainage systems are required for cotton cultivation.
Answer: True

Question 25. Black soil is ideal for the cultivation of wheat.
Answer: False

 

Chapter 6 India-Economic Environment Fill In The Blanks With Suitable Words

Question 1. The main food crop of India is_______
Answer: Rice

Question 2. The main wheat research institute in India is located in_______ near Delhi.
Answer: Pusa

Question 3. Tea grows best on _______
Answer: Hill slopes

Question 4. The state which is the leading producer of cotton in India is_______
Answer: Maharastra

Question 5. The black soil region of the Deccan Trap is famous for the cultivation of _______
Answer: Cotton

Question 6. In Andhra Pradesh, a large quantity of rice is cultivated in the_______ river valley and its deltaic region.
Answer: Godavari

Question 7. West Bengal is famous for the cultivation of_______
Answer: Rice

Question 8. The most important rabi crop in India is_______
Answer: Wheat

Question 9. The leading producer of ragi in India is_______
Answer: Karnataka

Question 10._______ soil is most suitable for the cultivation of ragi.
Answer: Laterite

Question 11. In India, the_______ crops are also called ‘monsoon crops’.
Answer: Kharif

Question 12. The state of_______ ranks first in the production of wheat in India.
Answer: Uttar Pradesh

Question 13._______ is called the ‘Orange City’.
Answer: Nagpur

Question 14. A country that imports coffee from India is_______
Answer: Italy

Question 15. The second leading producer of tea in India is _______
Answer: West Bengal

Question 16. Tea is an important_______ crop.
Answer: Plantation

Question 17. Coffee grows best in_______ climatic conditions.
Answer: Hot And Humid

Question 18. _______ ranks first in the production of Jowar in India.
Answer: Maharashtra

Question 19. The Green Revolution is also called the _______ revolution by many in India.
Answer: Wheat

Question 20. _______ is an example of a beverage crop.
Answer: Tea

Question 21. The _______ soil region of Punjab and Haryana is favorable for extensive agricultural activities.
Answer: Alluvial

Question 22. In India, _______ seeds have been introduced to increase crop production.
Answer: High yielding

Question 23._______ is a millet crop that is cultivated in the sandy soils of India.
Answer: Bajra

Question 24._______ crops are grown in the short duration between kharif and rabi crop seasons.
Answer: Zaid

Question 25._______ is harmful for the cultivation of sugarcane.
Answer: Frost

 

Chapter 6 India-Economic Environment Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Name two kharif crops grown in India.
Answer: Rice and jute.

Question 2. Name two rabi crops grown in India.
Answer: Mustard and wheat.

Question 3. Mention any one method of increasing agricultural yield in India.
Answer: Using high-yielding variety (HYV) seeds.

Question 4. Name two beverage crops produced in India.
Answer: Tea and coffee.

Question 5. Which is the main fiber crop grown in India?
Answer: Cotton.

Question 6. Which is the most important beverage crop in India?
Answer: Tea.

Question 7. Which state in India is the leading producer of rice?
Answer: West Bengal.

Question 8. What is India’s position in global rice production?
Answer: Second.

Question 9. Which crops are collectively called millets?
Answer: Jowar, bajra, and ragi.

Question 10. What is India’s position in global sugarcane production?
Answer: Second.

Question 11. Name two cash crops of India.
Answer: Sugarcane and cotton.

Question 12. Which crop is attacked by the pest boll weevil?
Answer: Cotton.

Question 13. Name two HYV seeds of rice popular in India.
Answer: Ratna and Jaya.

Question 14. Name two HYV seeds of wheat commonly used in India.
Answer: Sonalika and Kalyan Sona.

Question 15. Which state of India occupies the top position in ragi production?
Answer: Karnataka.

Question 16. Which soil in India is ideal for cotton cultivation?
Answer: Black soil.

Question 17. Name two HYV seeds of cotton commonly used in India.
Answer: Sujata and Bharati.

Question 18. Which type of land is ideal for tea cultivation?
Answer: Slope land.

Question 9. Which types of crops are commonly used as fodder?
Answer: Millets (jowar, bajra, and ragi).

Question 20. Which variety of coffee is mainly grown in India?
Answer: Robusta.

Question 21. Which type of crop is Aaus rice?
Answer: Zaid crop.

Question 22. Which type of wheat is mostly grown in India?
Answer: Winter wheat.

Question 23. According to the length of fiber (staple), which variety of cotton is mostly grown in India?
Answer: Short to medium staple cotton.

Question 24. Give an example of a Zaid crop.
Answer: Pumpkin.

Question 25. Which type of crops are grown on the basis of the onset of southwest monsoon winds in India?
Answer: Kharif crops.

Question 26. Which type of soil is best suited for tea cultivation?
Answer: Iron-rich fertile alluvial soil.

Question 27. Name any one tea-producing state of south India.
Answer: Tamil Nadu.

Question 28. What is a boll weevil?
Answer: Pest of cotton.

Question 29. Where is the main rice research institute located in West Bengal?
Answer: Chinsurah.

Question 30. Write any two problems pertaining to Indian agriculture.
Answer: Low yield per hectare and small land holdings.

Question 31. Mention any two solutions for the problems associated with Indian agriculture.
Answer: Use of advanced machinery and easy availability of agricultural loans.

 

Chapter 6 India-Economic Environment Match The Left Column With The Right Column

1.

Left column  Right column
1. Uttar Pradesh A. Leading producer of cotton of India
2. Assam B. Leading Producer of wheat in India
3. West Bengal C. Leading producer of coffee in India
4. Maharashtra D. Leading Producer of tea in India
5. Karnataka E. Leading Producer of rice in India

Answer: 1-B,2-D,3-E,4-A,5-C

2.

Left column  Right column 
1. Cuttack A. Sugar cane research institute
2. Pusa B. Tea research institute
3. Jorhat C. Cofee research institute
4. Lucknow D. Wheat research institute
5. Nagpur E. Rice research institute

Answer: 1-E,2-D,3-B,4-A,5-C

 

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Topic 2 Industries In India Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the factors which influence the location of industries. OR, Which factors should be considered before choosing a location for setting up an industry?
Answer:

Industries cannot be established anywhere and everywhere on the earth.

The factors which must be considered before setting up an industry are discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The location of the industry primarily depends upon the type of raw materials that are being used in that particular industry. Raw materials are of two types—

2. Pure raw materials: The raw materials which do not lose weight during their processing into finished products are called pure raw materials.

Examples—Cotton, and jute. One tonne of cotton or jute will produce one tonne of cotton fabric or jute goods. Thus, industries dependent on pure raw materials can be established anywhere between the source of raw materials and the market as the transportation cost remains the same.

3. Impure raw materials: The raw materials which lose weight during their processing into finished products are called impure raw materials.

For example— Sugar manufactured from sugarcane has less weight than that the raw material. So to reduce transportation costs, industries dependent on impure raw materials are established in the vicinity of the source of the raw material.

2. Water: Availability of water is essential for all industries for the industrial processes as well as for the workers. So industries are usually set up near waterbodies like rivers and lakes. Example—The iron and steel plant at Durgapur has been established near the Damodar river in West Bengal.

3. Power: Power is extremely important for the proper functioning of industry, especially thermal and hydroelectric power resources.

For this reason, many industries in Europe and America have grown up centring the coalfields. In India also, there are many industries which have been built close to thermal and hydel power plants.

4. Transport: A well-connected transport system is required for sourcing the raw materials, taking the finished products to the nearby market or port (for importing and exporting purposes) and movement of labourers and other people associated with the industry.

It is best to set up an industry at a location where the cost of transportation is minimum.

5. Availability of labour: The establishment of an industry requires an abundant supply of skilled and cheap labour.

Availability of labour is such an important factor that Bangladesh has progressed in the cotton textile industry only due to the presence of abundant labour although an adequate amount of cotton is not grown in this country.

6. Market: An industry develops depending on the market demand for a certain product. Wherever there is a demand for a particular product, industries based on that product are generally set up.

Example—Although cotton is not cultivated in West Bengal, the cotton textile industry has flourished in the Hooghly region because of the large population which led to the high demand for cotton clothes.

7. Capital: Huge capital investments are essential for setting up an industry. An adequate amount of capital is required to buy the plot, set up the industry, buy equipment and raw materials, establish factory shade, pay the wages of labourers and provide a continuous power supply

For example—The cotton textile industry has flourished to a great extent in western India due to huge capital investment by Gujarati and Parsi businessmen.

Question 2. Explain in brief the factors responsible for the development of the cotton textile industry in Western India.

OR, Discuss the causes of the concentration & of cotton textile industries in the Mumbai-Ahmedabad region. OR, Justify the concentration of cotton; in the textile industry in the black soil region of Western India.

Answer:

At present, there are many cotton textile mills concentrated in the western region of India (in the black soil region of western India) mainly in Maharashtra including the districts of Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, Sholapur, Akola and Jalgaon and Gujarat including the districts of Ahmedabad, Surat, Bharuch, Vadodara and Rajkot.

The causes behind the concentration of cotton textile industries in Western India are discussed below—

1. Best cotton-producing region: The black soil region of Maharashtra and Gujarat is extremely suitable for cotton cultivation. Hence, the raw materials (i.e., cotton) for the cotton textile industry are readily available in this region.

2. Humid climate: Hot and humid climate of this region due to its proximity to the Arabian Sea is favourable for cutting the yarn.

3. Power resources: Hydroelectric power plants in Ukai, Kadana (Gujarat) and Bhivpuri, Khopoli, Koyna (Maharashtra); thermal power plants in Trombay and Nasik (Maharashtra) provide the necessary power to the cotton textile mills.

4. Nearness to ports: Three important ports of India-Mumbai, Kandla and NhavaSheva (Jawaharlal Nehru port) and other smaller ports namely Surat and Porbander are located in this region. These ports help in the export of cotton fabric and the import of raw materials and necessary equipment.

5. Well-connected transportation system: The Western, Central and Konkan railways as well as the National Highways 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 pass over this region thereby forming a well-connected transportation system. This transport network helps in acquiring f raw materials and sending the finished products to different parts of the country.

6. Capital: Wealthy Gujarati, Parsi and Bhatia businessmen have invested huge capital in the cotton textile industry. Apart from this, Mumbai being the ‘financial capital’ of India is advantageous in terms of acquiring capital for the cotton textile industry.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Cotton textile industry in western india

7. Easy availability of labour: Abundant supply of skilled and cheap labour is found in the Mumbai-Ahmedabad region as this region is densely populated.

8. Infrastructure: Suitable infrastructure required for the development of the cotton textile industry is available here which has helped the industry flourish.

9. High demand: There is a huge demand for cotton clothes in our country because of the large population. Also, the high demand for cotton fabric in foreign markets has helped this industry grow.

Question 3. Discuss the problems of the cotton textile industry in India and their remedial solutions.
Answer:

The problems of the cotton textile industry are discussed below—

1. Lack of raw materials: Long staple cotton (suitable for making the best quality cotton fabric) is not available in adequate quantities in India.

2. High cost of production: Long staple cotton is imported from different countries which have led to an increase in the production cost.

3. Old machinery: Most of the cotton textile industries have old and outdated machinery which produces low-quality fabric. This has ultimately led to a high cost of production.

4. Stiff competition in the global market: The sale of cotton fabrics from India is limited in European countries. India also faces stiff competition from other countries in selling cotton fabric to the global market.

5. Competition with synthetic fibres: Synthetic fibres such as rayon, nylon, polyester, and acrylic are popularly used nowadays to make different fabrics. This has, to some extent, decreased the demand for cotton fabric.

6. Irregular power supply: Sometimes inadequate power supply to the cotton textile mills hampers production.
The remedial solutions to the problems faced by the cotton textile industry in India are as follows—

1. Modernisation of the industry: The Government of India has set up the Textile Modernisation Fund which will help in replacing old and outdated machinery with advanced ones and implement modern technologies in the production process.

2. Cultivation of long-staple cotton: To reduce the import of long-staple cotton from other countries, it is being cultivated in the northwestern region of India with the help of irrigation.

3. Reduction in excise duty: As per the recommendation of the Joshi Committee, the government has reduced the excise duty on cotton-based commodities.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Cotton textile industry

4. Use of automated power looms: Fully automated power looms are being nowadays in order to increase the rate of production and reduce the price of the finished product.

5. Establishment of the cotton textile export promotion council: The cotton Textile export promotion council has been established in order to facilitate the export of cotton-based commodities.

6. Establishment of research institutes: Many research institutes like Ahmedabad Textile Research Association, Mumbai Textile Research Association and South India Textile Research Association have been set up to focus on the betterment of cotton fabrics.

7. Establishment of the National Textile Corporation: The National Textile Corporation (NTC) has been established to revive the sick cotton industries by introducing new machinery and advanced technology.

Question 4. Briefly discuss the causes that have influenced the development of the cotton textile industry in India.
Answer:

The cotton textile industry in India is a flourishing industry and there are at present, many cotton textile mills distributed all over the country.

Cotton textile industries in India can be divided into four categories on the basis of their location—

1. Western region,
2. Southern region,
3. Northern region and
4. Eastern region.

The causes that have influenced the development of cotton textile industries in these regions are discussed below—

1. Availability of raw materials: Adequate amount of cotton is grown in the black soil region of India which is used as the raw material in the cotton textile industry. Apart from this, the southern states of India have taken initiative to start the cultivation of long and very long staple cotton.

2. Humid climate: Hot and humid climate prevails in the states of peninsular India, especially the southern states which are highly favourable for cotton cultivation. This type of climate also helps in cutting the yarns. Nowadays, a humid atmosphere is artificially created in factories using humidifiers.

3. Easy power supply: A number of thermal power plants and hydel power plants have been established in this region in post-independent India.

These power plants supply the requisite power to the cotton and textile industries. Examples—Ukai, Koyna in western India; Hirakud, Talcher, Bandel in eastern India; Bhakra-Nangal, Rihand, Bhatinda in northern India; Mettur, Sivasamudram, Nagarjunasagar in southern India.

4. Proximity to ports: The raw materials are imported and the finished products are exported through the various ports situated close to the cotton textile mills. Example— Mumbai, Kandla (west coast of India); New Mangalore, Kochi, Chennai (south coast of India); Visakhapatnam, Kolkata, Haldia (east coast of India).

5. Well-connected transport system: Numerous railway lines, national highways and other important roads have been linked in such a way that a well-connected transport system has developed in India.

Thus, it has become easy to collect raw materials from different parts of the country and distribute the finished products all over the country.

6. Capital: Wealthy businessmen from the Parsi, Bhatia, and Gujarati communities as well as several government and non-governmental organizations have invested huge capital in the cotton textile industries of India.

7. Cheap labour: India is a highly populated country. Thus the availability of cheap and skilled labour is a favourable factor that promotes the development of cotton textile industries in India.

8. High demand: There is a huge demand for cotton fabrics in both national and international markets. This has helped in the development of the cotton textile industry in India.

Question 5. Discuss the locational advantages of any two large-scale iron and steel plants in India.
Answer:

Two large-scale iron and steel plants in India are the Indian Iron and Steel Company (Kulti-Burnpur) and Durgapur Steel Plant (Durgapur).

The locational advantages of these two large-scale iron and steel plants in India are discussed below—

1. Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO), Kulti’Burnpur

Location: This iron and steel plant is located on the banks of the river Damodar in Paschim Bardhaman district of West Bengal and is connected by the Eastern Railway. The steel plant partially lies in both Kulti and Burnpur.

Establishment: The iron and steel plant at Kulti was established in 1870 and that at Burnpur was established in 1919 under private enterprise. In 1973, these two plants were brought under the control of the government of India.

Locational advantages behind the establishment of IISCO

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw material Place
Coal Raniganj (West Bengal) and Jharia (Jharkhand).
Iron ore Gua; Noamundi (Jharkhand); Bolani, Gorumahisani, Badampahar (Odisha).
Limestone Gangpur and Birmitrapur (Odisha).
Dolomite Gangpur (Odisha).
Manganese Gangpur (Odisha).

 

2. Availability of water: The nearby rivers, Damodar and Barakar meet the demand for water required for this iron and steel plant.

3. Refractory bricks: Refractory bricks sourced from coal mines at Raniganj are used in this plant.

4. Location of power plants: Power supply from the nearby thermal power plants at Durgapur, Dishergarh and Mejia provides the necessary power to the iron and steel plant.

5. Cheap labor: Cheap and skilled labourers from the nearby densely populated regions of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal meet the demand of labourers required for this plant.

6. Well-connected transport system: National Highway 2 and the Eastern Railway help in transporting raw materials and finished products.

7. Proximity to ports: The ports at Haldia and Kolkata are within 230km of this plant. This helps in the export and import of goods necessary for this plant.

8. Demand: The rise in the demand for iron and steel in India as well as in other countries has created a good market for iron and steel-based products both in national and international markets.

2. Durgapur Steel Plant, Durgapur:

Location: This iron and steel plant is located on the eastern side of the Raniganj coal mines, beside the Eastern railway track on the banks of the Damodar river. Establishment: Established by government enterprise in 1956, but production started in 1962.

Locational advantages behind the establishment of the Durgapur Steel Plant:

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw material  Place
Coal  Raniganj (West Bengal) and Jharia (Jharkhand).
Iron ore Gua, Noamundi (Jharkhand); Gorumahisani, Badampahar (Odisha).
Limestone Gangpur and Birmitrapur (Odisha).
Manganese Gangpur (Odisha).

 

Location of power plants: Durgapur thermal power plant provides the power necessary for the functioning of the plant and provides the water required for this plant

1. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal meet the demand of labour required for this plant.

2. Well-connected transport system: National Highway 2 and the Eastern Railway help in transporting raw materials and the finished products

3. Proximity to ports: Nearness of this plant to the Kolkata port (160km away) and the Haldia port (250 km away) provides opportunities for the import and export of goods.

4. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal meet the demand of labour required for this plant.

5. Well-connected transport system: National Highway 2 and the Eastern Railway help in transporting raw materials and the finished products

6. Proximity to ports: Nearness of this plant to the Kolkata port (160km away) and the Haldia port (250 km away) provides opportunities for the import and export of goods.

7. Demand: The establishment of heavy engineering industries in the eastern region of India as well as the high demand for iron and steel all over the world have created a good market for the finished products.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment 3

Question 6. Discuss the locational advantages of two iron and steel plants in India—one under the public sector and the other under the private sector.
Answer:

Two iron and steel plants in India, one under the public sector and the other under the private sector are—Bhilai Steel Plant at Bhilai and Tata Iron and Steel Company at Jamshedpur.

1. An iron and steel plant under the public sector—Bhilai Steel Plant

Location: The Bhilai Steel Plant is the largest iron and steel plant in India and is located at Bhilai in the Durg district of Chhattisgarh.

Establishment: This iron and steel plant was a government of India initiative and had a collaboration with erstwhile Soviet Russia. It was established in the year 1956. However, the plant became fully operational in 1959.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment location of iron and steel plant at bhilai

Locational advantages behind the establishment of Bhilai Steel Plant:

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw material Place 
Coal Korba (Chhattisgarh); Jharia (Jharkhand).
Iron ore Dalli-Rajhara (Chhattisgarh).
Limestone Nandini and Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh).
Dolomite Hirri, Baradwar (Chhattisgarh).
Manganese Balaghat (Madhya Pradesh); Bhandara (Maharashtra).

 

2. Availability of water: The Tendula reservoir situated close by supplies water to this plant.

3. Power resources: Bhilai Power Plant and Korba Thermal Power Station supply power to this plant.

4. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from the nearby region are easily available. This is because the industry provides employment as there is a minimum scope of employment in the agricultural sector.

5. Well-connected transport system: The South-Eastern railway connects the steel plant to Mumbai and Kolkata whereas National Highway 6 connects the plant to other parts of the country.

6. Proximity to the port: The Visakhapatnam port is only 570km away from this plant. This facilitates the import of raw materials and the export of finished products.

7. Demand: High demand for iron and steel in central and western India, especially for the development of heavy engineering industries in western India has helped in the growth of this iron and steel plant.

2. An iron and steel plant under the private sector—Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO)

Location: The Tata Iron and Steel Company is located at Jamshedpur in the East Singbhum district of Jharkhand at the confluence of the Subarnarekha and Kharkai rivers. This is the largest of all the iron and steel plants in the private sector in India.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment location of iron and steel plant at jamshedpur

Establishment: TISCO was founded by pioneer industrialist Jamsetji Tata in the year 1907 at Jamshedpur.

Locational advantages behind the establishment of Tata Iron and Steel Company:

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw material Place 
 Coal Jharia, Bokaro (Jharkhand); Raniganj (West Bengal).
Iron ore Bolani, Barsua (Odisha); Gua, Meghahatuburu, Kiriburu (Jharkhand).
Limestone Gangpur, Birmitrapur (Odisha); Purnapani (Chhattisgarh).
Dolomite Sambalpur (Odisha); Baradwar (Chhattisgarh).
Manganese Gangpur, Kalahandi (Odisha).

 

2. Availability of water: Ample supply of water is available from the river Subarnarekha and its tributary Kharkai.

3. Power resources: This steel plant has its own thermal power station which provides the necessary power resource.

4. Cheap labor: The highly populated regions of Jharkhand and Odisha are a source of cheap and skilled labour. As agricultural practices are not prevalent here, many people look for employment in the iron and steel industry.

5. Well-connected transport system: The industry is well-connected to the rest of the country by the South-Eastern Railway, and the National Highways 2, 23, 31, 33.

6. Proximity to port: The Kolkata port which is about 280 km away from this plant helps in the import of raw materials and export of finished products.

Establishment: The Bokaro Steel Plant was a government of India initiative and had a collaboration with erstwhile Soviet Russia. The plant was established in the year 1964 but it became fully operational in 1972.

Question 7. Discuss the geographical factors that have influenced the development of the Bokaro Steel Plant.
Answer:

Location: The Bokaro Steel Plant is located near the Bokaro coal mines in the Bokaro district of Jharkhand.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment location of iron and steel plant at steel plant

Establishment: The Bokaro Steel Plant was a government of India initiative and had a collaboration with erstwhile Soviet Russia.

The plant was established in the year 1964 but it became fully operational in 1972. The geographical factors that have influenced the development of the Bokaro Steel Plant are discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw Material  Place
Coal  Bokaro, Jharia (Jharkhand).
Iron ore Chiria, Gua, Meghahatuburu, Kiriburu (Jharkhand).
Limestone Bhawanathpur, Daltonganj (Jharkhand); Birmitrapur (Odisha).
Dolomite Bilaspur (Chhattisgarh)
Manganese Ganpur (Odisha)

 

2. Availability of water: Adequate amount 3 of water is collected from the Tenughat reservoir constructed over the Damodar river.

3. Power resources: The power required for this plant is sourced from the Bokaro and Patratu thermal power stations.

4. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from Jharkhand form the majority of the workforce in this plant. As agricultural practices are not prevalent here, many people look for employment in the iron and steel industry.

5. Well-connected transport system: This iron and steel plant is connected to the rest of the country by the South-Eastern Railways and National Highways 2, 23, 31, and 33.

6. Proximity to port: The Kolkata port, located 320km away from this plant facilitates the import of raw materials and export of finished products.

7. Demand: The establishment of heavy engineering industries in Jamshedpur, Ranchi and adjacent areas has created a huge demand for the finished goods of this plant.

Question 8. Discuss the factors behind the development of iron and steel plants at Rourkela and Visakhapatnam.
Answer:

Rourkela Steel Plant

Location: The Rourkela Steel Plant is located on the banks of the Brahmani river in the Sundargarh district of Odisha, along the SouthEastern Railway track.

Establishment: The Rourkela Steel Plant was established in the year 1956. It was a government of India initiative in collaboration with the German company Krupps and Demag. The steel plant became fully functional in the year 1959.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment location of Rourkela and steel plant

The factors that have influenced the development of the iron and steel plant at Rourkela are discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw material Place
Coal Jharia, Bokaro (Jharkhand); Raniganj (West Bengal).
Iron ore Bolani, Barsua (Odisha); Gua, Meghahatuburu, Kiriburu (Jharkhand).
Limestone Gangpur, Birmitrapur (Odisha); Purnapani (Chhattisgarh).
Dolomite Sambalpur (Odisha); Baradwar (Chhattisgarh).
Manganese Gangpur, Kalahandi (Odisha).

 

2. Availability of water: Adequate amount of water for the steel plant is available from the Brahmani and Sankha rivers as well as from the reservoirs of south Koyel and Mandira.

3. Power resources: The power required for this plant is sourced from the Hirakud hydel power station.

4. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from the nearby region are easily available because there is very less scope for employment in the agricultural sector.

5. Well-connected transport system: The South-Eastern Railways; East Coast Railways and several National Highways connect this steel plant to metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and other parts of the county.

6. Proximity to port: The Paradeep port located 400 km away and the Kolkata port located 510 km away help in the import of raw materials and export of finished products.

7. Demand: The development of heavy engineering industries in eastern India has created a high demand for the iron and steel industry.

Visakhapatnam Steel Plant Location: This steel plant is located on the eastern coast of India in Visakhapatnam in the state of Andhra Pradesh.

Establishment: The Visakhapatnam Steel Plant was established in 1982 and became fully functional in 1990. This is the largest iron and steel plant in the southern region of India.

The factors that have influenced the development of the iron and steel plant at Visakhapatnam are discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw material Place
 Coal  Singareni (Telangana); Talcher (Odisha).
Iron ore Kadapa, Nellore, Kurnool (Andhra Pradesh); Bailadila (Chhattisgarh).
Limestone Jaggayyapeta (Andhra Pradesh); Badnapur, Katni (Madhya Pradesh).

 

2. Availability of water: India-Economic Environment water is available from the reservoir situated over river Yeleru in the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh.

3. Power resources: The power required for this plant is sourced from the Ramagundam thermal power station.

4. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labour is easily available from nearby areas.

5. Well-connected transport system: The East Coast Railways and different roadways connect this steel plant with the rest of the country.

6. Proximity to port: The Visakhapatnam port is situated very close to this steel plant and even the Paradeep port is just 550km away from here. This helps in the import of raw materials and the export of finished products.

7. Demand: The development of heavy engineering industries in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha has created a good market for the finished products of this industry.

Question 9. Discuss the locational advantages of the Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited (Bhadravati Iron and Steel Plant).
Answer:

Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited (Bhadravati Iron and Steel Plant)

Location: The Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant is located in Bhadravati on the banks of river Bhadra in northern Karnataka.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment location of Visvesvaraya Steel plant

Establishment: This plant was established in the year 1918, but it became fully operational in 1923. In 1962, the Government of India and the state government of Karnataka took charge (400km away) to help in the import of raw materials and export of finished products.

Locational advantages behind the establishment of Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited:

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for this iron and steel plant and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw material Place 
 Iron ore  Kemmanugundi, Bababudan hills (Karnataka).
Dolomite Bhundiguda (Karnataka).
Limestone Bhundiguda (Karnataka).
Manganese Shimoga, Chitradurga (Karnataka).

 

2. Availability of water: The river Bhadra is the main source of water for this plant.

3. Power resources: The Mahatma Gandhi and Sharavati Valley hydroelectric power plants over the Jog waterfalls supply the required power to this plant.

4. Cheap labour: Skilled and cheap labour is easily available from the nearby densely populated regions of Karnataka.

5. Proximity to port: The New Mangalore port (210km away) and the Mormugao port

6. Well-connected transport system: The Southern and South-Central Railway and well-developed roadways help this plant to connect with the rest of the country.

7. Demand: The development of heavy engineering industries in western southern India has led to high demand for the finished products of this industry.

Question 10. Question What are the geographical factors behind the development of the iron and steel industry in West Bengal?
Answer:

There are two large-scale iron and steel plants in West Bengal—Durgapur Steel Plant in Durgapur and Indian Iron and Steel Company in Kulti-Burnpur.

Apart from these, there is the Alloy Steel Plant in Durgapur which focuses on the production of special steels.

The geographical causes behind the development of the iron and steel industry in West Bengal are discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for the iron and steel industry located in West Bengal and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw material Place
 Coal  Raniganj, Andal, Mejia, Dishergarh (West Bengal); Jharia (Jharkhand).
Iron ore Gua, Noamundi (Jharkhand); Gorumahisani, Badampahar, Bolani (Odisha).
Limestone Birmitrapur (Odisha).
Dolomite Gangpur (Odisha).
Manganese Gangpur (Odisha).

 

2. Availability of water: Adequate amount of water is available from the nearby Damodar and Barakar rivers.

3. Power resources: Thermal power stations at Durgapur, Mejia and Dishergarh provide power to the iron and steel plants.

4. Well-connected transport system: The Eastern Railways, the Grand Trunk Road and the navigable canals constructed under the supervision of Damodar Valley Corporation connect the plants with the Hooghly industrial belt and the Kolkata port. This helps in importing raw materials and exporting and selling the finished products.

5. Proximity to ports: The ports at Haldia and Kolkata help in importing raw materials needed for the iron and steel industry and in exporting the finished products.

6. Cheap labour: Cheap and skilled labourers from the densely populated regions of Jharkhand and West Bengal are easily available.

Question 11. Explain the major factors responsible for the development of the Iron and Steel industry in Eastern and Central India
Answer:

There is a concentration of iron and steel plants in east and central India namely at Durgapur, Kulti-Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela and Bokaro (in the eastern region) and at Bhilai in central India).

Apart from these, approval has been granted for a few more iron and steel plants in this region.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Location of iron and steel plants of eastern and centeral india

The factors responsible for the concentration of iron and steel industry in east and central India are plants in this region discussed below—

1. Raw materials: The raw materials needed for the iron and steel plants in east and central India and the places from where they are acquired are given in the following table—

Raw materials  place 
Coal East India: Raniganj (West Bengal); Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura (Jharkhand); Talcher (Odisha)

Central India: Korba, Sonhat (Chhattisgarh), Singrauli, Umaria (Madhya Pradesh).

Iron ore East India: Gua, Noamundi, Chiria, Kiriburu (Jharkhand); Bonai; Gorumahisani, Badampahar, Sulaipat, Bolani (Odisha)

Central India: Bailadila, Dalli Rajhara (Chattisgarh).

Limestone East India: Birmitrapur, (Odisha); Bhawanathpur, Daltonganj (Jharkhand); Purnapani (Chhattisgarh)

Central India: Satna, Kuteshwar, Katni (Madhya Pradesh).

Dolomite East India: Sambalpur, Gangpur, Sundargarh (Odisha), Hirri (Chhattisgarh).

Central India: Katni (Madhya Pradesh).

Manganese East India: Gangpur, Bonai (Odisha).

 

2. Availability of water: Water required for this industry is available from the rivers Damodar, Barakar, Subarnarekha, Kharkai, Shankha and Brahmani. The Tendula water reservoir is also a major source of water.

3. Power resources: There are many large-scale coal-based thermal power plants in east and central India which supply the power necessary for the functioning of these iron and steel plants such as power stations at Durgapur, Mejia, Dishergarh, Wariya (West Bengal); Patratu, Bokaro (Jharkhand), Talcher (Odisha)

In east India and Korba (Chhattisgarh) and Vindhyachal (Madhya Pradesh) in central India. Apart from these the Hirakud and Sileru hydel power plants also provide power resources to this industry.

4. Well-connected transport system: The presence of eastern and south-eastern railways and roadways like NH-2, 6, 23, 31, and 33 have allowed the iron and steel industry in this region to have good connections with the rest of the country. Thus, the transport of goods has become easier.

5. Proximity to ports: The Kolkata, Haldia, Visakhapatnam and Paradeep ports which are quite close to the iron and steel plants, have helped in the export and import of goods.

6. Abundance of cheap labour: Abundant cheap and skilled labourers are available from the eastern states of Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Odisha as well as from the states of central India namely Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.

7. Demand: The development of heavy engineering industries in east and central India has generated a huge demand and hence, a good market for the finished products of these industries.

Questions 12. Discuss the problems faced by the iron and steel industry in India.
Answer:

The problems faced by the iron and steel industry in India are as follows—

1. Lack of high-quality coking coal: Although India has good reserves of iron ore, there is a lack of high-quality coking coal, which is one of the most important raw materials required for the iron and steel industries.

2. Lack of capital: There is a serious lack of capital investment which is required for setting up new iron and steel plants and modernising and expanding the existing ones.

3. Problem of acquiring land: There is a dearth of land required for constructing new steel plants. There are also various problems relating to the acquisition of land.

4. Lack of advanced machinery: New and improved machinery have not been implemented yet in the existing iron and steel plants. This has led to an increase in the cost of production.

5. Lack of skilled labourers: Although cheap labourers are available, skilled labourers are not abundantly available. So the production rate per labourer is quite low

6. Problems of transportation: Lack of roads at par with international standards have posed problems in transporting raw materials and finished products.

7. Reduced demand in the national market: Demand for iron and steel is not always high in the national market. Hence, the iron and steel industries have to depend on the international market.

8. Dumping of iron and steel products: Many foreign countries dump iron and steel goods manufactured by them in India at cheap rates. Thus, companies in India are forced to sell their products at low rates, thereby incurring severe losses. This ultimately creates a financial loss.

9. Lack of refractory bricks: Availability of refractory bricks is not so easy and this has led to problems in establishing and maintaining furnaces and walls of the production units.

Question 13. Give a short account of the petrochemical industry in India.
Answer:

A short account of the petrochemical industry in India

The petrochemical industry nowadays is popularly called the ‘giant industry of the modern world’. Each and every product and by-product produced in this industry is useful for mankind either directly or indirectly.

Many allied industries have grown up centring the petrochemical industry which is known as ‘downstream industries’.

Commencement: The petrochemical industry in India was initially started by Union Carbide (India) Limited in the year 1966 in Trombay.

In 1977 a petrochemical industry was established at Hazira in Surat, Gujarat and in 2001 the Haldia petrochemical industry (at Haldia, West Bengal) first started its commercial production.

Raw materials: The by-products obtained while refining crude oil and natural gas are primarily the raw materials of the petrochemical industry, i.e., naphtha, methane, ethane, propane, butane, hexane, benzol, butadiene, ethanol, propylene, etc.

Finished products:

  1. Chemicals— benzene, ethylene, propylene, carbon black etc.;
  2. Different kinds of solvents;
  3. Synthetic fibres— acrylic fibre, nylon filament yarn, polyester filament yarn etc.;
  4. Polymers-Polyethylene, Polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride etc.;
  5. Plastic; fibre intermediates—acrylonitrile, mono ethylene glycol etc.;
  6. Synthetic rubber.

Question 14. Discuss the factors that favour the growth of the petrochemical industry at a particular location.
Answer:

The factors that favour the growth of the petrochemical industry at a particular location

The petrochemical industry nowadays is known as the ‘giant industry of the modern world’. It produces numerous products that are used as raw materials in other industries.

Thus, it helps in the development of the subsidiary industries. Petrochemical industries are largely concentrated in the western and eastern regions of India.

The finished products manufactured by this industry are—synthetic rubber, synthetic fibres, plastic, polythene, paints, life-saving drugs, pesticides, fertilisers, cosmetics and many more.

The factors favouring the growth of petrochemical industries at a particular location are discussed below—

1. Location of oil refineries: Petrochemical industries acquire their raw materials from the by-products obtained while refining crude oil and natural gas.

Thus, the petrochemical industries develop in the vicinity of the oil refineries. The chief raw material of this industry is naphtha, based on which the downstream industries grow close to the oil refineries.

2. Availability of power resources: Easy availability of power facilitates the growth of the petrochemical industry.

3. Capital: A huge capital is required for the growth of the petrochemical industry. So huge capital investments are being made by the state and central governments as well as by rich industrial groups.

4. Advanced technology and technical skills: Advanced technology and proper technical skills help in the development o the petrochemical industry and increase the product output.

5. Demand: High demand for petrochemical products in the internal as well as international markets have boosted the development of this industry.

6. Skilled labourers: Skilled labour is essential for this industry for executing the production process.

7. Efficient transport system: Close proximity to the ports, well-developed roadways and railways help in the development of the petrochemical industry as import, export and distribution of goods become easier.

For all the above-mentioned reasons, the petrochemical industry has developed to a great extent in the western region (Trombay, Koyali and Vadodara) as well as in the eastern region (Haldia) of India.

Question 15. Briefly discuss the regional distribution of the petrochemical industry in India.
Answer:

The petrochemical industry in India is concentrated in four regions surrounding the oil The regional distribution of the petrochemical industry in India is discussed below—

Region      Place     Important facts
 Western Nagothana (Maharashtra); Vadodara, Koyali, Hazira in Surat, Dahej, Jamnagar (Gujarat). Crude oil from the Cambay and Ankleshwar region, Mumbai High region and imported from the countries of the Middle East are sent to the refineries.

These refineries, in turn, supply the requisite raw materials to the petrochemical industries.

Eastern Bongaigaon (Assam); Haldia (West Bengal). Naphtha obtained from the oil refineries in Bangaigaon, Noonmati, Digboi and Numaligarh in Assam is used as raw material in the petrochemical industry at Bongaigan.

Naphtha from the Haldia oil refinery is used as a raw material in the petrochemical industry at Haldia. Naphtha is also imported from other countries as well.

The petrochemical industry in Haldia has developed due to the joint initiatives taken by the government and private enterprises.

Southern Tuticorin, Manali (Tamil Nadu); Mangalore (Karnataka). The petrochemical industry in Manali was established in 1986. It mainly manufactures and exports propylene glycol and polyols.

The petrochemical industry at Mangalore was established in 1988.

Northern Payal, Panipath (Haryana); Auraiya (Uttar Pradesh). These petrochemical industries have been established separately over about 5000 acres of land with the assistance of the India Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL).

 

Question 16. Discuss the problems and prospects of the automobile industry in India.
Answer:

The problems of the automobile industry in India are discussed below—

1. High production cost: The production cost of automobiles are quite high due to the use of old technologies and outdated machinery.

2. Increase in the cost of fuel: The poor quality of the roads in India as well as not-so-advanced automobile engines had led to an increase in fuel costs. This poses a major problem for the automobile industry. Apart from this, recent diesel and petrol price hike has led to a decrease in the demand for automobiles.

3. Changing government policies: The frequent changes in the different policies implemented by the government cause a major hindrance in the production process and expansion of the automobile industries.

4. Labour disputes: Production is often disrupted due to labour disputes and lockouts of the factories.

The prospects of the automobile industry in India are discussed below-

1. Open economy and license system: The introduction of an open economy in 1991, abolition of the Industrial Licensing, and the scope of 100% investment by foreign investors have facilitated the growth and development of the automobile industry.

2. Economic benefits: According to the Automotive Mission Plan (AMP) implemented by the government of India, tax is exempted for investments which are more than 225000 dollars. Rapid approval and processing of investment procedures and other economic benefits have positively impacted the growth of the automobile industry.

3. Low production cost: Investment by different foreign investors has facilitated the use of advanced and modern technologies in the production process. This has considerably reduced production costs which have led to a decrease in the price of automobiles. Different models of automobiles are being also manufactured.

4. Increase in the purchasing power of the people: The income levels of people in India (especially in urban areas) have considerably increased over the past few years. Thus, it is predicted that people will now invest their money in buying automobiles as their purchasing power has increased.

5. Development of industries manufacturing spare parts of automobiles: The development of ancillary industries manufacturing spare parts of automobiles like engines, suspensions, clutch etc., has helped in the development and expansion of the automobile industry.

Question 17. List the automobile and rail coach manufacturing units of India.
Answer:

The different automobile manufacturing units of India are listed in the following table—

 

Company  Manufacturing
Tata Motors Limited  units Sanand (Gujarat); Jamshedpur (Jharkhand); Pantnagar (Uttarakhand); Pune (Maharashtra); Dharwad (Karnataka); Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh).
Mahindra and Mahindra India Limited Nasik, Kandivali [near Mumbai] (Maharashtra); Haridwar (Uttarakhand); Bengaluru (Karnataka); Zaheerabad (Telangana).
Maruti Suzuki India Limited Manesar, Gurgaon (Haryana).
Ford India Private Limited Maraimalai Nagar near Chennai (Tamil Nadu).
Bajaj Auto Limited Chakan near Pune, Waluj (Maharashtra); Pantnagar (Uttarakhand).
Ashok Leyland Ennore, Hosur (Tamil Nadu); Pantnagar (Uttarakhand); Alwar (Rajasthan).

 

  1. The difference rail coach manufacturing units of inia are
  2. Perambur near Chennai, Tamil Nadu(Integral coach factory);
  3. Mangalore in Karnataka ( Bharat Earth Movers limited);
  4. Dumdum near Kolkata, West Bengal ( Jessop and company limited) and
  5. Kapurthala, Punjab (Integral coach factory).

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Auto mobile manufacturing units of india

 

Question 18. Account for the concentration of engineering industries in the Hooghly industrial belt?
Answer:

The causes for the concentration of engineering industries in the Hooghly industrial belt are discussed below—

1. Initiative was taken by the British: During British rule, Kolkata was the capital of India till the year 1911. Hence, the British were concerned with the industrial growth in and around Kolkata for their own interests. Thus, different engineering industries started developing in the Hooghly industrial belt due to the introduction of modern technology from the west.

2. Capital: Kolkata emerged as a prominent banking and trading centre in eastern India. Thus, the requisite capital could be easily acquired from different financial organisations which led to the development of the engineering industry.

3. Cheap labour: Cheap labour is easily available from the densely populated regions along the banks of river Hooghly.

4. Availability of raw materials: The chief raw materials required for engineering industries are iron, steel and coal. These raw materials are acquired from the following locations—

 

Raw materials Location of the industry
 Iron and steel  Iron and steel plants in Kulti-Burnpur and Durgapur (West Bengal) and in Jamshedpur (Jharkhand).
Coal Raniganj, Asansol (West Bengal).

 

5. Availability of water: The river Hooghly provides an adequate amount of water required for the engineering industries.

6. Availability of power: Sufficient power is supplied from power stations at Cossipore, Budgebudge, and Titagarh which are under the Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation Limited.

7. Efficient transport system: The Eastern and South-Eastern Railway and National Highways 2, 6, 34, and 35 connect this industrial belt to the rest of the country. The Hooghly river also is a major waterway in this region.

8. Proximity to the port: This industrial belt has developed quite close to the Kolkata port which has helped in importing raw materials and exporting finished goods.

Question 19. What are the causes behind the development of the information and technology (IT) industry In India?
Answer:

The causes behind the development of the information and technology (IT) industry In India

The industry which is involved in the collection, recovery, modification, improvement, analysis and storage of data for commercial purposes with the help of computer and telecommunication services is called the information and technology or the IT industry.

Gradual advancement of the IT industry commenced in the 1970s and continued till the middle of the 1980s. However, the rate of advancement in this industry picked up speed in the 1990s in India.

The causes behind the development of the IT industry in India are as follows—

1. Skilled and talented workers: Indians are quite advanced where science and technology are concerned. There are several institutes for imparting technical education in India including computer training centres. Students from these institutions are easily hired by IT companies.

2. Global market: Countries in Europe and the United States of America outsource people from IT. Apart from this, information technology is nowadays widely used in the spheres of banking, railway and air ticket booking, telecommunication and many other sectors. Thus, the demand for the IT industry is increasing by leaps and bounds all over the world.

3. No land problem: Like other industries, ’ it industry does not need large plots of land to develop. A number of IT companies can operate from different storeys of the same building.

4. Infrastructure: The IT industry is an urban industry. The efficient transport system, ample supply of electricity, availability of internet and WiFi services and other facilities help in the rapid development of the industry in metropolitan cities like Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata.

5. Government initiative: The state governments of India have provided extensive support to the IT industry by helping in setting up IT complexes, Special Economic Zones (SEZs) offering tax subsidies and providing financial benefits.

6. Capital investments: Multinational companies like TCS, INFOSYS, IBM, and WIPRO, have made huge investments in the development of the IT industry in India.

Question 20. Why no heavy engineering industries have developed in the Himalayan region?
Answer:

The reasons for why no heavy engineering industries have developed in the Himalayan region are discussed below—

1. Topography: The rugged and hilly terrain of the Himalayan region is not suitable for the construction of factory sheds. Hence, the development of the heavy engineering industry is difficult.

2. Lack of raw materials: Heavy engineering industries require huge amounts of coal and mineral-based raw materials. The lack of mineral resources in the Himalayan region hinders the growth of such industries.

3. Lack of water and power resources: The Himalayan region lacks a sufficient amount of water and power resources required for the development of heavy engineering industries.

4. Lack of skilled labourers: The Himalayan region is sparsely populated and most of the people in this region do not have adequate technical knowledge. Hence, there is a lack of skilled and technically sound labourers.

5. Inefficient transport system: The rugged terrain prevents the development of roadways and railways in the Himalayan region. Frequent occurrences of landslides often block the roads and isolate this region from the rest of the country.

6. Less demand: As the Himalayan region is sparsely populated, there is less demand for the finished goods of this type of industry in this region.

7. Lack of capital: The geographical conditions are not favourable for the development of industries in this region. Hence, entrepreneurs show little interest in investing in industries of this region.

8. Political disturbances and terrorism: Political disturbances in the hilly regions of north-east India and terrorist activities in Jammu and Kashmir have created a politically unstable environment unfavourable for setting up industries.

Question 21. Discuss the locational advantages behind the development of the petrochemical industry at Haldia.
Answer:

The petrochemical industry at Haldia is one of the most important petrochemical complexes in West Bengal as well as in eastern India. It is located in the East Midnapore district of West Bengal at the confluence of the Hooghly and Haldi rivers.

The locational advantages behind the development of the petrochemical industry at Haldia are discussed below—

1. Close proximity to the oil refinery: The petrochemical complex at Haldia acquires its raw materials from the nearby Haldia oil refinery.

2. Nearness to the Haldia port: The Haldia port plays a vital role in importing raw materials, crude oil and machinery and exporting the finished products.

3. Capital investment: The petrochemical industry at a particular location favours the development of ancillary industries in its surrounding region. Thus, capital is easily available from government and non-government organisations.

4. Cheap labour: The densely populated regions of West Bengal and its neighbouring states supply abundant cheap labour required in this industry.

5. Advanced technology: Highly advanced and modern technologies have been implemented in the production process. This has led to the production of high-quality goods which are in high demand in the market.

6. Other factors: Availability of land at cheap rates, adequate power supply, high demand for the finished products and a huge market both within the country and in foreign countries have helped in the development of the petrochemical industry at Haldia.

Question 22. Discuss the problems and prospects of the petrochemical industry in India.
Answer:

The problems of the petrochemical industry in India are discussed below—

1. The initial cost of setting up this industry is quite high for which large capital investments are essential. This hinders the growth and expansion of the petrochemical industry.

2. The industry requires continuous implementation of advanced and modern technologies. In most cases, these technologies are bought from other countries which are quite expensive.

3. The customs duty on petrochemical products is higher in India compared to other countries.

4. Sharp rise in the price of crude oil in the global market has increased the cost of production of petrochemical products.

5. petrochemical products are not biodegradable. Hence, wastes generated by this industry are causing environmental pollution.

The prospects of the petrochemical industry in India are discussed below—

1. About 600 different products are manufactured in the petrochemical industry, which is of high commercial value in the Indian market. Thus, there is a huge scope for selling these products.

2. The, problem of huge capital is being solved by collaborating with NRI investors and foreign organisations.

3. The petrochemical industry leads to the growth of many ancillary industries, which in turn, have created job opportunities for a large section of the Indian population.

 

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Short Answer Explanatory Type Questions

Question 1. Classify industries according to the sources of raw materials used.
Answer:

According to the source of raw materials used, industries can be classified into four categories which are as follows—

1. Agro-based industries: These industries use agricultural products as raw materials. Example—A cotton textile industry uses cotton as the raw material, the jute textile industry uses jute as the raw material and the sugar industry uses sugarcane as the raw material.

2. Animal-based industries: These industries use animal products as raw materials. Examples are—Dairy industry, leather industry, meat and fish processing industries and fur industry.

3. Forest-based industries: These industries use products obtained from forests as raw materials. Examples are—Paper industry, furniture industry and silk industry.

4. Mineral-based industries: These industries use minerals as raw materials. Examples—are the iron and steel industry, the cement industry, aluminium industry.

Question 2. Mention briefly three problems associated with the cotton textile industry of India.
Answer:

The three problems associated with the cotton textile industry of India are as discussed below—

1. Lack of long-staple cotton: India does not grow an adequate amount of long-staple cotton, which is required for making the best quality cotton cloth. Hence, long-staple cotton is imported from other countries, which increases the overall cost of production.

2. Old and outdated machinery: The machinery used in most cotton textile industries in India are old and outdated. Thus, both the quality and quantity of fabric manufactured are low, which in turn, increases the cost of production.

3. Faulty management and labour disputes: Faulty management rules and labour disputes often lead to lockouts and strikes in the cotton textile mills. This hampers the process of production.

Question 3. What are the prospects for the cotton textile Industry in India?
Answer:

The cotton textile industry has a very bright prospect in India. The prospects are as follows—

1. India is a highly populated country located in a hot tropical region. So the demand for cotton clothes will always be high.

2. The neighbouring countries of India do not excel in the cotton textile industry. Thus, they import cotton from India.

3. The use of modern machinery and improved technology will help in producing better quality cotton fibre in a short span of time. This may ultimately help in reducing the cost of production and finally the price of the finished goods.

Question 4. Why is Mumbai called the ‘Cottonopolis of India’?
Answer:

The cotton textile industry was initiated in India in the year 1851, by the establishment of the Bombay Spinning and Weaving Company Limited.

Raw cotton cultivated in the black soil of the Deccan trap region, export-import of cotton through the Mumbai port, the Mumbai-Thane railway line providing a good transport network, high global demand for cotton, and cheap skilled labourers are some important factors which have facilitated the growth of cotton textile mills in and around Mumbai.

About 92 cotton textile mills were established by 1914. Presently, there are 57 running cotton textile mills in Mumbai. 30% of the total handlooms and 20% of the total spindles of the country are found here. So for all the above-mentioned reasons, Mumbai is called the ‘Cottonopolis of India’.

Question 5. Why Is the iron and steel industry Important for India’s economy?
Answer:

The iron and steel industry is known as the ‘backbone of all industries’. It is important for India’s economy due to the following reasons—

1. India is a highly populated country, there is a great demand for iron and steel for the construction of houses, railway tracks, bridges, motor vehicles, agricultural equipment, household goods and machinery for other industries. This huge demand for iron and steel makes it very important for India’s economy.

2. Being a large-scale industry, the iron and steel industry provides direct as well as indirect employment to a huge section of the population.

3. The finished products of the iron and steel industry help in earning a substantial amount of foreign currency which in turn, is beneficial for the country’s economy.

Question 6. Name the important iron and steel plants in India.
Answer:

The iron and steel plants of India are mainly controlled by four organisations namely—the Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL), Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited (RINL), Tata Steel Limited and Jindal Power and Steel Limited. The main iron and steel plants under these organisations are enlisted below

 

Question 7. Mention the favourable conditions required for the development of the iron and steel industry.
Answer:

The favourable conditions required for the development of the iron and steel industry are as follows—

  1. Availability of raw materials like iron ore, coal and minerals such as limestone, dolomite, manganese etc. So iron and steel plants usually grow in the vicinity of mineral mines.
  2. Availability of huge amounts of water. A site located near a water body which is also close to a mine is ideal for an iron and steel plant.
  3. A continuous supply of power from a nearby power station is favourable for iron and steel plants.
  4. Availability of abundant cheap and skilled labourers from local regions is also required.
  5. A well-built transport system for the easy import and export of goods also help in the development of the iron and steel industry.

Question 8. Why is Durgapur called the ‘Ruhr of India’?
Answer:

Ruhr is a small tributary of the famous Rhine river in Germany. The Ruhr river valley has a huge coal reserve which led to the development of large-scale iron and steel industries, heavy engineering industries and chemical industries in this region. This region is called the Ruhr industrial region.

Similarly, in India, the Damodar river valley has huge deposits of coal which has led to the development of iron and steel industries, heavy engineering industries, and chemical fertilizer industries centring around the coal mines in Durgapur, Raniganj and Andal. Thus, Durgapur is called the ‘Ruhr of India’.

Question 9. Name three automobile manufacturing centres one each from three states of India.
Answer:

Three automobile manufacturing centres one each from three states of India are given below—

 

Question 10. What are the factors responsible for the growth of heavy engineering industries?
Answer:

The factors responsible for the growth of heavy engineering industries are as follows—

  1. iron and steel are an important raw materials required for most heavy engineering industries. Thus, these industries grow near the iron and steel plants.
  2. Heavy engineering industries can also grow in regions with cheap and efficient transport systems. This facilitates the acquisition of raw materials and distribution of the finished products to different parts of the country.
  3. These types of industries grow in regions where power resources are easily available
  4. The heavy engineering industries also grow in regions where advanced technologies can be easily implemented.
  5. The growth of heavy engineering industries also depends on the presence of a suitable market for finished goods.

Question 11. What do you mean by the petrochemical industry?
Answer:

Petrochemical industry

The type of industry which uses the by-products obtained during refining crude petroleum and natural gas to manufacture different compounds is called the petrochemical industry.

The important raw materials of this industry are—naphtha, propane, butane, ethane, methane, hexane, pentane, benzol, butadiene, ethanol, propylene etc. The finished products of this industry are—synthetic fibres (polyester, nylon), plastics, paints, synthetic rubber, pesticides, gums, medicines, perfumes etc.

Several subsidiary or downstream industries have developed depending on the products and by-products of the petrochemical industry. Thus, the petrochemical industry nowadays is also called the ‘giant industry of the modern world’.

Question 12. Explain briefly three reasons for the development of the petrochemical industry in western India
Answer:

Three reasons behind the development of petrochemical industries in India are as follows—

1. Availability of raw materials: Crude oil is extracted from oilfields at Mumbai High in Maharashtra and the Cambay-Ahmedabad region in Gujarat. This crude oil is then sent to the refineries located at Trombay, Koyali and Jamnagar.

The primary and secondary by-products obtained during the refining process form the major raw materials of the petrochemical industry.

2. Proximity to ports: The presence of large ports with modern amenities (like Mumbai port, Kandla port, and Jawaharlal Nehru Port) in this region help in importing raw materials and machinery required for this industry and also exporting the finished products.

3. High demand: Many ancillary industries have sprung up in this region which has led to high demand for the finished goods of the petrochemical industry.

Question 13. Briefly discuss the role of transport in the development of an industry.
Answer:

The role of transport in the development of an industry

Transport is an important factor behind the development of an industry. A cheap and efficient transport system is essential for bringing in raw materials, types of machinery, instruments, power resources and labourers.

Well-connected transport is also needed for the distribution and sale of finished products throughout the country.

A well-developed transport system helps industries to grow at locations that result in minimum cost of production such as near the source of raw materials, near the market or at a location intermediate between the source of raw materials and market

Question 14. List the regions where railway locomotive manufacturing units have grown in India.
Answer:

The regions where railway locomotives manufacturing units have grown in India are given in the following table—

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment 18

Region  Place and important facts 
Eastern 1.  Chittaranjan Locomotive Works [CLW] (Chittaranjan, West Bengal): Diesel and electric locomotives;

2. Jessop and Company (Dumdum, West Bengal): Manufacturer of Electric Multiple Units (EMU);

3.  Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (Jamshedpur, Jharkhand): Manufacturer of meter gauge electric locomotives.

Northern 1.  Diesel Locomotive Works [DLW] (Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh): Manufacturer of diesel rail engines;

2. Diesel Loco Modernisation Works (Patiala, Punjab): Modernisation of diesel-electric locomotives;

3. Rail coach factory (Kapurthala, Punjab): Manufacturer of rail coach, DMU, EMU.

Central 1.  Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited [BHEL] (Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh): Manufacturer of high-capacity electric and battery-operated locomotives;

2. Rail Spring Factory (Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh): Manufacturer of different types of springs.

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What do you mean by industry?
Answer:

Industry:

‘Industry’ is the collective term for the activities involved in the conversion of forest-based agro-based and mineral-based raw materials into consumable commodities. For example—The cotton textile industry manufactures cotton fabric from raw cotton, iron and steel industry produces iron and steel goods from iron ore.

Question 2. What are pure raw materials?
Answer:

Pure raw materials

The raw materials which do not lose weight during their processing into finished products are called pure raw materials.

Example—1 metric tonne of raw cotton produces 1 metric tonne of cotton thread, which in turn, produces 1 metric tonne of fabric.

Question 3. What are impure raw materials?
Answer:

Impure raw materials

The raw materials which lose weight during their processing into finished products are called impure raw materials.

Iron ore, bauxite, copper ore, and sugarcane are some examples of impure raw materials. Example—In order to produce 1 tonne of pig iron, the number of materials required are, 1.7 tonnes of iron ore, 1 tonne of coal, 0.5 tonnes of limestone and dolomite and other materials totalling an amount of 5 tonnes of raw materials.

Question 4. What do you mean by basic industry?
Answer:

Basic industry

The industries on which the development of other industries depends or those industries whose output is used by other industries are called basic industries.

Example—Finished products from the iron and steel industries are used in engineering industries. So the iron and steel industry is an example of a basic industry.

Question 5. What are ancillary industries?
Answer:

Ancillary industries

When the finished product of one industry is used as a raw material for some other industries, the first one is known as the basic industry and the industries dependent on the basic industry are called ancillary industries.

Example—The petrochemical industry at Haldia is a basic industry and the industries which are dependent on this petrochemical industry for the raw materials are the ancillary industries.

Question 6. Why is the cotton textile industry known as a ‘footloose industry’?
Answer:

The main raw material of the cotton textile industry is raw cotton which is a pure raw material. It means that an equal amount of (1 tonne) raw cotton produces an equal amount of (1 tonne) cotton thread which in turn, produces an equal amount of (1 tonne) cotton fabric.

Thus, cotton textile industries can be established either close to the source of the raw material, near to the market or in any intermediate region.

It means that cotton textile industries do not show any particular affinity for growing up in a certain location. Thus, the cotton textile industry is called a ‘footloose industry’.

Question 7. State any two cotton textile industrial centres of West Bengal.
Answer:

Two cotton textile industrial centres of West Bengal are—

  1. Serampore and
  2. Shyamnagar.

Question 8. Name two agro-based and two mineral-based industries of India.
Answer:

  1. Agro-based industries: Sugar industry and cotton textile industry.
  2. Mineral-based industries: Iron-steel industry and cement industry.

Question 9. Name the raw materials which are required in the iron and steel industry.
Answer:

The important raw materials required in the iron and steel industry are iron ore, scrap iron, sponge iron, coal, oxygen and limestone.

Apart from these, dolomite, manganese, chromium, nickel, tungsten and vanadium are also needed along with an ample supply of clean water.

Question 10. Why is manganese required as a raw material in the iron and steel industry?
Answer:

Manganese is required as a raw material in the iron and steel industry to produce better quality steel called ferromanganese.

This type of steel is very hard, durable and resistant towards rusting and corrosion. Ferro-manganese steel can also withstand very high temperatures.

Question 11. Name two large-scale iron and steel plants in India.
Answer:

Two large-scale iron and steel plants in India are—

  1. Bhilai Steel Plant in Chhattisgarh and
  2. Bokaro Steel Plant, Jharkhand.

Question 12. In which places of India did iron and steel plants develop under the Five-Year Plan?
Answer:

The iron and steel plants which have grown in India under the Five-Year Plan are—

  1. Durgapur, West Bengal;
  2. Rourkela, Odisha;
  3. Bhilai, Chhattisgarh;
  4. Bokaro, Jharkhand;
  5. Vijaynagar, Karnataka;
  6. Salem, Tamil Nadu;
  7. Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.

Question 13. Name four important iron and steel plants of India.
Answer:

The four important iron and steel plants of India are—

  1. Bhilai, Chhattisgarh,
  2. Bokaro, Jharkhand,
  3. Durgapur, West Bengal and
  4. Jamshedpur, Jharkhand.

Question 14. Write a short note on TISCO.
Answer:

TISCO

TISCO stands for Tata Iron and Steel Company. It was founded by eminent industrialist Jamsetji Tata in the year 1907.

This iron and steel plant is located in the Singhbhum district of Jharkhand at the confluence of two rivers—Subarnarekha and Kharkai. This is the largest private iron and steel plant in India.

Question 15. Why is the iron and steel industry called the ‘backbone of all industries’?
Answer:

Almost all industries are either directly or indirectly dependent on iron and steel plants. Iron and steel are required to manufacture instruments, equipment and machinery which are used in other industries.

It is also required to set up the basic framework of different industries. So progress in the iron and steel industry will have a positive impact on other industries as well. Thus, the iron and steel industry is called the ‘backbone of all industries’.

Question 16. Name two iron and steel plants, one of which has developed centring a coal mine and the other near a seaport.
Answer:

An iron and steel plant which has developed centring around a coal mine is the Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO), Burnpur. An iron and steel industry which has developed near a seaport is Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited or Vizag Steel, Visakhapatnam.

Question 17. Write a short note on the alloy steel industry.
Answer:

Alloy steel industry

The industry which is involved in the manufacture of different types of steel by forming iron alloys using one or more than one kind of metal is called the alloy steel industry.

Steel produced in such a way is strong, hard, durable, resistant towards rust and corrosion and can withstand high temperatures and pressure. There are three large-scale alloy steel plants in India —

  1. Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant, Karnataka.
  2. Durgapur Alloy Steel Plant, West Bengal,
  3. Salem Iron and Steel Plant, Tamil Nadu.

Question 18. Name two iron and steel industrial centres of India—one under the public sector and one under the private sector.
Answer:

An iron and steel industrial centre of India under the public sector is the Bhilai Steel Plant in Bhilai, Chhattisgarh under the Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL).

An iron and steel industrial centre of India under the private sector is Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) at Jamshedpur, Jharkhand.

Question 19. What is SAIL?
Answer:

SAIL:

SAIL stands for Steel Authority of India Limited. It is a government enterprise that coordinates and controls the different iron and steel plants established by the initiative of the Indian government.

The large-scale iron and steel plants under this organisation are—Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur-Kulti, Rourkela and Bokaro. The alloy steel plants under this organisation are—Durgapur, Bhadravati and Salem. The headquarters of SAIL is in New Delhi.

Question 20. What do you mean by an industrial region?
Answer:

Industrial region

An industrial region is such a geographical region where several industries have developed simultaneously due to favourable physical, economic and cultural factors.

Availability of raw materials, market, demand, and cheap labour supply are some factors due to which there is an aggregation of industries in a particular location. Agricultural activities are seldom observed in such regions. Example— Hooghly industrial region in West Bengal.

Question 21. What do you mean by mini steel plants?
Answer:

Mini steel plants

Steel plants are usually of two types— integrated steel plants and mini steel plants. The steel plants that have a manufacturing capacity of less than 10 lakh tonnes annually and manufacture steel from scrap and sponge iron with the help of electric furnaces are known as mini steel plants. Presently, there are about 650 mini steel plants in India. Some of them are—

  1. National Iron and Steel Company, West Bengal;
  2. Andhra Steel Corporation Limited, Andhra Pradesh and
  3. Mukand Limited, Maharashtra.

Question 22. Name two railway engines and one automobile manufacturing industry in India.
Answer:

The railway engine manufacturing industry in India is at Chittaranjan in West Bengal and Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh.
The automobile manufacturing industry in India is at Gurgaon in Haryana. fibres (such as polyester, and nylon), plastic, artificial rubber, gum, paints, pesticides and perfumes.

Question 24. Name one petrochemical industry in eastern and western India.
Answer:

One petrochemical industry in eastern India is at Haldia, West Bengal (Haldia Petrochemicals Limited) and one in western India is at Vadodara, Gujarat (Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited).

Question 25. Write a short note on the light engineering industry.
Answer:

Light engineering industry

The engineering industries which manufacture small machine parts for other industries and also manufacture small electronic devices are called light engineering industries. Cameras, radio, television, watch, typewriter, calculator, fans are the finished products of this type of industry.

Question 26. Name one petrochemical industry in northern and southern India.
Answer:

One petrochemical industry in northern India is at Panipat, Haryana (Panipat Petrochemical Plant) and one in southern India is at Mangalore, Karnataka (Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited).

Question 27. Name one automobile industry in northern and southern India.
Answer:

One automobile industry in northern India is at Gurgaon, Haryana (Maruti Suzuki India Limited) and one in southern India is at Chennai, Tamil Nadu (Ford India Private Limited).

Question 28. Write a short note on the petrochemical industrial complex.
Answer:

During the process of refining petroleum, a number of by-products are obtained such as propane, butane, ethane, methane, benzol, ethanol, propylene, butadiene etc.

Many industries, therefore, grow in the vicinity of the petroleum refinery which uses these by-products as their raw materials. Thus this conglomerate of industries collectively forms the petrochemical industrial complex.

Question 29. Why is the petrochemical industry regarded as the ‘giant industry of the modern world’?
Answer:

A number of by-products are obtained when crude petroleum is refined. This has led to the development of many ancillary industries near these refineries that are dependent on the by-products.

These ancillary industries use these by-products as raw materials. So the petrochemical industry is responsible for the functioning of many other allied industries. Thus, it is regarded as the ‘giant industry of the modern world’.

Question 30. What do you mean by the information and technology industry?
Answer:

Information and technology industry

The industry which is involved in the collection, recovery, modification, improvement, analysis and storage of data for commercial purposes with the help of computer and telecommunication services is called the information and technology industry.

This industry deals with the exchange of data digitally through electronic media. Proper infrastructure and production units are required for this type of industry such as computer hardware, software, semiconductor, internet, telecommunication devices, e-commerce etc.

Question 31. Write a short note on the heavy engineering industry.
Answer:

Heavy engineering industry

The industries which manufacture heavy types of machinery, bulky instruments and types of equipment needed for agriculture, mining, dredging, lifting etc. and automobiles, locomotive coaches and such other large appliances are called heavy engineering industries. Example- Chittaranjan Locomotive Works, West Bengal.

Question 32. Why do most of the petrochemical industrial centres grow in proximity to ports in India?
Answer:

India is not fully capable of extracting crude oil in such a quantity that it meets the demand of the huge population of India. Every year, about 83% of the total amount of petroleum required is imported from other countries.

The petrochemical industrial centres including the refineries have grown in proximity to the ports in order to save the cost in transporting crude petroleum to the refineries (from oil tankers that bring petroleum to our country from foreign lands) and sending the finished products to the port for export.

Question 33. What is meant by the engineering industry?
Answer:

Engineering industry

The industries which mainly use different metals as raw materials, especially iron and steel to manufacture various instruments, machinery and appliances are called engineering industries.

Engineering industries can be of two types—

  1. Heavy engineering industries (like the automobile industry) and
  2. Light engineering industries (like wrist watch industry).

Question 34. Why is the petrochemical industry known as the ‘sunrise industry’?
Answer:

The importance of the petrochemical industry is growing day by day as both refined petroleum (the major finished product) and other by-products of this industry have immense use in our lives.

The by-products are extensively used as raw materials in other industries. So, the petrochemical industry helps in the development of several other industries and is emerging as a fast-progressing industry.

 

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment MCQs

Write The Correct Answer The Given Alternatives

Question 1. The largest cotton textile industry in south India is located in—

  1. Madurai
  2. Chennai
  3. Coimbatore
  4. Bengaluru

Answer: 3. Coimbatore

Question 2. Which of the following cities is famous for its cotton textile industries?

  1. Jamshedpur
  2. Visakhapatnam
  3. Ahmedabad
  4. Kolkata

Answer: 3. Ahmedabad

Question 3. The first cotton mill in India was

  1. Maharastra
  2. West Bengal
  3. Gujarat
  4. Tamil Nadu

Answer: 2. West Bengal

Question 4. The first cotton mill in West Bengal was established at—

  1. Serampore
  2. Dumdum
  3. Ghusuri
  4. Chandannagar

Answer: 3. Ghusuri

Question5. In which region of India do we find the maximum number of cotton textile industries?

  1. Northern region
  2. Southern region
  3. Eastern Region
  4. Western Region

Answer: 4. Western region

Question 6. Which of the following cities in India is known as the ‘Manchester of India’?

  1. Mumbai
  2. Bhavnagar
  3. Ahmedabad
  4. Pune

Answer: 3. Ahmedabad

Question 7. The city which is known as the ‘Manchester of South India’ is—

  1. Chennai
  2. Bengaluru
  3. Coimbatore
  4. Kochi

Answer: 3. Coimbatore

Question 8. Which of the following is an alloy?

  1. Iron
  2. Manganese
  3. Steel
  4. Aluminium

Answer: 3. Steel

Question 9. A large-scale iron and steel plant is located at

  1. Ranchi
  2. Bhilai
  3. Bastar
  4. Mysore

Answer: 2. Bhilai

Question 10. An important raw material of the iron and steel industry is—

  1. Hematite
  2. Limonite
  3. Bauxite
  4. Chalcopyrite

Answer: 1. Hematite

Question 11. Which steel plant was established after India attained independence?

  1. Durgapur
  2. Jamshedpur
  3. Bhadravati
  4. Burnpur

Answer: 1. Durgapur

Question 12. The iron and steel plant of Jamshedpur was established in the year—

  1. 1905
  2. 1907
  3. 1912
  4. 1915

Answer: 2. 1912

Question 13. The government-sponsored sponge iron plant is located at—

  1. Kothagudem, Telangana
  2. Durgapur, West Bengal
  3. Bokaro, Jharkhand
  4. Daitari, Odisha

Answer: 1. Kothagudem, Telangana

Question 14. TISCO is located at—

  1. Bhilai
  2. Rourkela
  3. Burnpur
  4. Jamshedpur

Answer: 4. Jamshedpur

Question 15. In which of the following places has the iron and steel plant developed near a coal mine?

  1. Rourkela
  2. Bhilai
  3. Durgapur
  4. Bhadravati

Answer: 3. Durgapur

Question 16. In India, the maximum amount of iron and steel is manufactured in —

  1. Jamshedpur
  2. Bhilai
  3. Rourkela
  4. Visakhapatnam

Answer: 2. Bhilai

Question 17. Which of the following is called the ‘Ruhr of India’?

  1. Durgapur
  2. Jamshedpur
  3. Raniganj
  4. Bokaro

Answer: 1. Durgapur

Question 18. SAIL is important—

  1. Coal mine
  2. Petroleum refinery
  3. Iron and steel plant
  4. Cotton textile mill

Answer: 3. Iron and steel plant

Question 19. Asia’s third-largest steel plant is located at—

  1. Jamshedpur
  2. Durgapur
  3. Bhilai
  4. Rourkela

Answer: 3. Bhilai

Question 20. The first iron and steel plant which was founded in the coastal region of India is located at—

  1. Paradeep
  2. Visakhapatnam
  3. Chennai
  4. Kochi

Answer: 2. Visakhapatnam

Question 21. The largest steel plant in India is located at—

  1. Salem
  2. Jamshedpur
  3. Durgapur
  4. Bhilai

Answer: 1. Salem

Question 22. The diesel rail engine factory of Uttar Pradesh is located in—

  1. Kanpur
  2. Allahabad
  3. Varanasi
  4. Lucknow

Answer: 3. Varanasi

Question 23. A petrochemical industry situated in northeastern India is—

  1. Bongaigaon
  2. Digboi
  3. Naharkatiya
  4. Haldia

Answer: 1. Bongaigaon

Question 24. The petrochemical industry has developed at—

  1. Tarapur
  2. Thane
  3. Trombay

Answer: 3. Trombay

Question 25. Which of the following is famous for its petrochemical industry?

  1. Kolkata
  2. Haldia
  3. Durgapur
  4. Siliguri

Answer: 2. Haldia

Question 26. Which of the following industry is called a ‘sunrise industry’?

  1. Information and technology
  2. Petrochemical
  3. Jute
  4. Iron and steel

Answer: 2. Petrochemical

Question 27. Which of the following industry is considered the ‘giant industry of the modern world’?

  1. Information and technology
  2. Cotton textile
  3. Iron and steel
  4. Petrochemical

Answer: 4. Petrochemical

Question 28. The first petrochemical industry in India was established at—

  1. Koyali
  2. Vadodara
  3. Trombay
  4. Haldia

Answer: 3. Trombay

Question 29. The only shipyard located in West Bengal is—

  1. Hindustan Shipyard
  2. Kolkata Shipyard
  3. Garden Reach Shipbuilders
  4. BCC Shipbuilders

Answer: 3. Garden Reach Shipbuilders

Question 30. The National Instruments Limited is located at—

  1. Burdwan
  2. Kolkata
  3. Krishnanagar
  4. Serampore

Answer: 2. Kolkata

Question 31. The largest automobile manufacturing company in India is—

  1. Ashok Leyland, Chennai
  2. Maruti Suzuki India Limited, Gurgaon
  3. Hindustan Motors, Kolkata
  4. Tata Motors, Jamshedpur

Answer: 2. Maruti Suzuki India Limited, Gurgaon

Question 32. The chief raw material required for the information and technology industry is

  1. Iron and steel
  2. Coal
  3. Man’s intellect
  4. Power resources

Answer: 3. Man’s intellect

Question 33. Which of the following cities is called the ‘Silicon Valley of India’?

  1. Kolkata
  2. Bengaluru
  3. Pune
  4. Chennai

Answer: 2. Bengaluru

Question 34. Which city is known as the ‘Detroit of

  1. Jamshedpur
  2. Chennai
  3. Mumbai
  4. Gurgaon

Answer: 2. Mumbai

Question 35. Railway coaches are manufactured in —

  1. Varanasi
  2. Kolkata
  3. Perambur
  4. Bengaluru

Answer: 3. Perambur

 

Chapter 6 India-Economic Environment If The Statement Is True, Write True, And If False Write False Against The Following

Question 1. Cotton textile is an important industry in Gujarat.
Answer: True

Question 2. The cotton textile industry is a type of agro-based industry.
Answer: True

Question 3. Tamil Nadu contains the maximum number of cotton textile mills.
Answer: True

Question 4. Bengaluru is known as the ‘Manchester of South India’.
Answer: False

Question 5. There are many cotton textile mills along both the banks of river Hooghly.
Answer: False

Question 6. In India, the cotton textile industry is known as the ‘Backbone of all Industries’.
Answer: False

Question 7. The iron and steel plant at Jamshedpur lies on the banks of the Damodar river.
Answer: False

Question 8. Weber’s theory regarding the location of industries and the effect of transportation cost is very important.
Answer: True

Question 9. The Durgapur Steel Plant is located along the banks of river Subarnarekha.
Answer: False

Question 10. The iron and steel plant at Jamshedpur has been built in collaboration with the government.
Answer: False

Question 11. The iron and steel plants at the Burnpur-Kulti region are dependent on the water of the Damodar river.
Answer: True

Question 12. Bhilai is known as the ‘Ruhr of India’.
Answer: False

Question 13. The only steel plant in India is in Salem.
Answer: False

Question 14. The chief raw material of the petrochemical industry is naphtha.
Answer: False

Question 15. Rail engines are manufactured in West Bengal at Chittaranjan in the Burdwan district.
Answer: True

Question 16. Diesel rail engines are manufactured in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
Answer: True

Question 17. The automobile manufacturing industry is an example of an ancillary industry.
Answer: True

Question 18. A petrochemical plant has been set up in Assam at Digboi.
Answer: True

 

Chapter 6 India-Economic Environment Fill In The Blanks With Suitable Words

Question 1. Cotton is best cultivated in________ climate.
Answer: Humid

Question 2. ________ is a leading state in the case of the cotton textile industry in India.
Answer: Gujarat

Question 3. ________ is known as the ‘Manchester of North India’.
Answer: Kanpur

Question 4. ________ is an example of pure raw material.
Answer: Cotton

Question 5. Dairy industry is________ an industry.
Answer: Animal-based

Question 6. The paper industry and furniture industry are________ examples of industries.
Answer: Forest-based

Question 7. A steel plant is located at________ in Tamil Nadu.
Answer: Salem

Question 8. Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant is located at ________
Answer: Bhadravathi

Question 9. An iron and steel plant in Odisha is located at ________
Answer: Rourkela

Question 10. ________ is used to make steel harder.
Answer: Manganese

Question 11. Dolomite for the iron and steel plants in the Burnpur-Kulti region is sourced from ________
Answer: Gangpur

Question 12. The iron and steel plant of Jamshedpur is ________ located at the confluence of the rivers Subarnarekha and ________
Answer: Kharkai

Question 13. The largest concentration of iron and steel plants is seen in the ________ region of India.
Answer: Eastern

Question 14. The steel plant in Rourkela lies on the________ banks of the river
Answer: Brahmani

Question 15. The iron and steel plant at ________ was built in collaboration with erstwhile Soviet Russia.
Answer: Bokaro

Question 16. An important raw material of the petrochemical industry is________
Answer: Naphtha

Question 17. Maruti Suzuki India is an automobile manufacturing company located at in ________India.
Answer: Gurgaon

 

Chapter 6 India-Economic Environment Answer In One Or Two Words

Question 1. Give an example of pure raw material.
Answer: Cotton.

Question 2. Write the names of some important cotton textile mills of India.
Answer: Ahmedabad, Surat (Gujarat); Mumbai, Nagpur (Maharashtra).

Question 3. From which reservoir does the steel plant at Bhilai draw its water?
Answer: Tandula.

Question 4. Which industry is known as the ‘backbone of all industries’?
Answer: Iron and steel industry.

Question 5. What is the full form of SEZ?
Answer: Special Economic Zone.

Question 6. From where is the iron ore sourced for the iron and steel plant at Bhadravati?
Answer: Bababudan Hills in Karnataka.

Question 7. Where is the headquarters of SAIL located?
Answer: New Delhi.

Question 8. Name the oldest iron and steel plant in India.
Answer: Kulti in Burdwan, West Bengal.

Question 9. Give an example of an impure raw material.
Answer: Iron ore

Question 10. Name some of the raw materials of the petrochemical industry.
Answer: Naphtha, propane, ethane.

Question 11. Name a petrochemical plant located in
Answer: Vadodara.

Question 12. Where has the petrochemical industry grown in Haryana?
Answer: Panipat.

Question 13. Where is the real Silicon Valley located?
Answer: Santa Clara Valley in the United States of America.

Question 14. Name two cities in India where the information and technology industry has thrived.
Answer: Bengaluru and Chennai.

Question 15. Name some heavy engineering industries of India.
Answer: Automobiles, railway engines, large machinery, and generators.

Question 16. Name some light engineering industries of India.
Answer: Wristwatch, sewing machine, home appliances manufacturing industry.

Question 17. Name some important raw materials of the automobile manufacturing industry.
Answer: Steel, glass, paints, plastic.

Question 18. Name some electrical engineering industries.
Answer: Refrigerator fan, air conditioner.

Question 19. Where has the major IT industrial park been set up in West Bengal?
Answer: Bidhan Nagar (Salt Lake) in Kolkata.

 

Chapter 6 India-Economic Environment Match The Left Column With The Right Column

1.

Left column  Right column 
1. Jamnagar A. 1964
2. Bhadravathi B. 1956
3. Bhilai C. 1982
4. Bokaro D. 1918
5. Visakhapatnam E. 1907

Answer: 1-E,2-D,3-B,4-A,5-C

2.

Left column  Right column 
1. Shipbuilding industry A. Jamnagar
2. Cotton Textile Industry B. Vijayanagar
3. Petrochemical Industry C. Gurgaon
4. Auto Nobile Manufacturing D. Ahmedabad
5. iron and steel industry 5. Visakhapatnam

Answer: 1-E,2-D,3-A,4-C,5-B

 

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Topic 3 Population of India Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Why distribution of population density not equal all over India? OR, Discuss the reasons for the uneven distribution of the population of different regions in India. OR, Discuss the geographical causes of unequal distribution of population density in India.

Answer: The distribution of population density is not equal throughout India. In some regions, there is a very high concentration of people while in some regions it is sparse. The main causes of this uneven distribution of population density in India are—

1. Physical causes

1. Topography: The mountainous regions of India in the north, northeast and southern states have very rugged and rough topography.

These areas have less population. On the other hand, the Northern Plains and the Coastal Plains have gentle topography that supports agriculture, industrial development, and other economic activities. These areas have a high density of population.

2. Climate: India broadly enjoys a tropical monsoon climate. Climatic conditions over the Northern Plains, coastal regions and the Peninsular Plateau is moderate and suitable for living.

These areas have high population densities. On the other hand, the dry and harsh climate in the Kutch region of Gujarat, the desert region of Rajasthan and the severe cold climate in the Himalayan mountainous region repel population concentration.

3. Rivers: High concentrations of population are found in the river valleys of the Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra in the north and the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, etc., in the south.

This is because the rivers provide water for drinking, irrigation, navigation, pisciculture, hydroelectric power generation, etc. They also help to spread fertile alluvial soil for agriculture.

4. Soil: The regions having rich fertile soils densely populated than the infertile regions. E.g. Alluvial soil of the river valleys and the rich black soil of the Deccan plateau region attract huge concentrations of the population for agriculture.

5. Forests: The presence of dense forests in the foothills of the Himalayas and the western slope of the Western Ghats lead to a low density of population in these regions.

6. Mineral resources: The presence of mineral resources lead to the development of industries and provides employment to a huge population. Hence, the presence of huge reserves of mineral resources in the Chota Nagpur region and other adjoining regions have a huge density of population.

2. Economic causes

1. Transport and communication: The plains of northern India are suitable for the construction of roadways, railways and other means of transport. Thus, these regions are highly populated. The transport system has a remarkable impact on population movement and distribution.

2. Industries: The development of industries provides employment to a huge number of people. Hence, industrial areas like Durgapur, Asansol, Jamshedpur, etc., are densely populated.

3. Others: Population may concentrate in some regions for certain special reasons. E.g.

  1. Tourism: Darjeeling, Srinagar
  2. Medical treatment: Vellore, Chennai
  3. Historical places: Lucknow, Agra, Delhi, Mahabalipuram
  4. Education: Shantiniketan, Nalanda, Aligarh
  5. Religious centres: Ajmer, Varanasi, Puri
  6. Military bases: Gwalior
  7. Administrative centres: Delhi, Kolkata
  8. Temporary Migration: Kolkata, Delhi, Joshimath
  9. Communication centres: Nagpur

Question 2. Classify the different states and Union Territories of India according to their density of population.
Answer:

The states and Union Territories of India have different densities of populations depending on their geographical and economic conditions. They can be classified as follows—

Type of region Population density  States and Union Territories Causes
Very densely populated region more than 800 people per sq. km West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh. U.T—Delhi, Chandigarh, Puducherry, Lakshadweep, Daman and Diu. Industrial and commercial development, business centres, administrative centres, transport, education, etc.
High densely populated region 401-800 people per sq. km Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Jharkhand. U.T—Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Agricultural prosperity, industrial development, trade 8t business, transport development, etc.
Medium densely populated region 201-400 people per sq. km Odisha, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tripura, Assam, Goa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan. Agricultural and industrial development, mineral resources, job opportunities, etc.
Less densely populated region 101-200 people per sq. km Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya, Chattisgarh, Jammu and Kashmir. Hilly and rugged terrain, less fertile soil, harsh climate, lack of agricultural lands, inadequate transport and communication facilities.
Very less densely populated region with less than 100 people per sq. km. Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh. U.T—Andaman and Nicobar island. Rugged terrain, harsh climate, lack of economic activities.

 

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Different states and union territories

Question 3. Describe the different regions of India according to the distribution of population.
Answer:

The distribution of population in India is influenced by the topography, rivers, soil, climate, etc. of the different parts of the country. According to the distribution of population, India can be classified into four regions—

1. The riverine plains of north India: The Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra plains of north India are the most populated region of India. The causes of high concentrations of population in this region are—gentle topography, rich fertile alluvial soil, perennial rivers, sufficient rainfall, moderate temperature, etc.

These help in the development of agriculture, and industries, and cause urbanisation. The states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal lie in this region.

2. The eastern and western coastal plains: The coastal plains along the eastern and western margins of the Indian peninsula are the second most highly populated region of India.

This is due to the presence of fertile soil, agricultural and industrial development, trade and commerce, development of transport facilities, etc. The Eastern Coastal Plains are gentler and wider than the Western Coastal Plains.

The density of the population is higher in the Eastern Coastal Plains than in the Western Coastal Plains. Many ports like Mumbai, Chennai, Visakhapatnam and Kochi have been built in this region.

3. Deccan plateau region: This region is mainly rich in mineral resources. But some ports are highly suitable for agriculture as well due to the presence of fertile black soil.

Medium density of population is found in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh.

4. Mountainous, desert and forest regions: The Himalayan mountainous region, the eastern mountainous region, the Meghalaya plateau, the Marusthali of Rajasthan, and forest regions of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Odisha have very less density of populations.

Rugged terrain, infertile soil, very less rainfall, the presence of forest, and the absence of vegetation in these regions make them less densely populated.

Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and the states of northeast India fall under this category.

Question 4. Discuss the various favourable conditions that lead to the gradual development of towns and cities. Or, Discuss the causes of Urbanisation in India.
Answer:

The favourable conditions that gradually lead to the formation of towns and cities are—

1. Administrative centres: If a place is found suitable for administrative works, several educational, business and trade and other service centres develop around it.

This leads to the development of roads, buildings and the concentration of the population. Thus a town is formed, which may grow into a big city. E.g. Chandigarh, Bhopal, Gandhinagar, etc.

2. Mineral resources: The availability of mineral resources in certain regions attract the population due to the provision of employment in the mines and industries and related sectors.

These centres gradually grow into large towns and cities. E.g. Asansol, Dhanbad, etc.

3. Industrial centres: The regions where industries have developed, attract population due to the availability of employment. E.g. Jamshedpur, Bhilai, etc.

4. Business centres: The places where consumer goods are accumulated for business and trade, develop as business centres.

The buyers and sellers gather in the same place leading to a huge concentration of the population. E.g. Hisar in Haryana, Hapur in Uttar Pradesh, etc.

5. Communication centres: The places where the different modes of transport and communication are available, which help to develop big towns and cities as there is a large accumulation of population. E.g. Siliguri, Kharagpur, etc.

6. Pilgrimage centres: Pilgrimage centres like Haridwar, Varanasi, Gaya, Mathura and Brindavan have gradually developed into large towns and cities.

7. Educational and cultural centres: Places like Shantiniketan, Aligarh, and Varanasi have emerged as educational and cultural centres and have grown into big cities.

8. Historical places: The concentration of high population in the historical places lead to the development of towns and cities in those regions. E.g. Agra, Murshidabad, etc.

9. Tourist spots: The scenic beauty and marvellous landscapes of some regions lead them to develop into attractive tourist spots. Thus they grow into towns and cities. E.g. Darjeeling, Digha, etc.

10. Military centres: Some military centres have grown into towns and cities. E.g. Meerut, Barrackpore, etc.

11. Ports: Towns and cities have developed around important ports. E.g. Paradweep, Haldia, etc.

12. Junction of mountainous and plain lands: Places like Haridwar has developed as a town due to their physical location at the junction of the mountainous and plain lands.

In a nutshell, it can be said that in the long run, a combination of numerous factors leads to the formation of a town or a city.

Question 5. What are the problems of urbanisation in India?
Answer:

Urbanisation in India

Urbanisation is the process of conversion of rural regions into urban regions like towns and cities. The various problems of urbanisation in India are—

1. Unplanned urbanisation: The rapid increase in the population of India has led to rapid and unplanned urbanisation.

Agricultural fields, forest lands and fallow lands have been quickly converted into urban regions. Unplanned growth of towns leads to the construction of narrow streets, poor drainage systems, scarcity of drinking water and unhealthy conditions of living.

2. Preference of people to move from rural to urban centres: The smooth and luxurious lifestyle of towns and cities attracts a huge population from rural areas to come and settle in urban areas.

A huge number of rural people flow towards urban centres due to the attraction of employment, high standards of living and a fascinating lifestyle. Thus towns and cities develop.

3. Lack of space: The inflow of population in urban centres results in a lack of space for proper accommodation. Thus slums develop adjacent to railway lines, canal sides and along busy roads. E.g. Problems of slums are predominant in cities like Mumbai and Kolkata.

4. Traffic problems: Unplanned growth of towns leads to the formation of narrow streets and a shortage of footpaths. This leads to traffic congestion and frequent jams on the roads of towns and cities.

5. Degradation of the environment: The development of towns and cities leads to industrialisation and excessive use of motor vehicles. This leads to high levels of pollution and the spread of diseases due to the disposal of wastes in canals, fields and in street corners.

6. Lack of proper education medical and other facilities: Due to urbanisation there is overcrowding occurring in the educational institution and hospitals, which affects the quality of education and health together.

7. Power supply: Unplanned development of towns lead to unplanned use of power resources, which leads to a disbalance between production and demand for power supply in a town or city.

8. Drainage problems: Unplanned urbanisation leads to drainage problems in towns and cities. Disposal of wastes and plastics in drainage canals leads to blockages and water logging in towns and cities even after a little rain. Also, the rapid growth of insects and pests in the drainage lines results in the occurrence of diseases and health hazards.

WBBSE Solutions Class 10 geography and environment chapter Chapter 6 India Economic Environment Expansion of slums

Question 6. Why the density of the population is so high in West Bengal?
Answer:

The population density in West Bengal is 1029 persons per sq. km according to the census 2011. The causes of the such density of the population in West Bengal are as follows—

1. Plain lands: A large portion of West Bengal came under the lower Ganga plains and the Gangetic delta regions. This area supports agriculture, industrial growth and development of transport and communication, and thus attract
population.

2. Climate: West Bengal lies under the influence of a tropical monsoon climate. This is suitable for agricultural prosperity, and thus attracts people.

3. Soil: Most of the land in West Bengal is covered with fertile alluvial soil brought down by the river Ganga and its numerous tributaries. This soil is highly suitable for agriculture and hence attracts the population.

4. Transport system: The gentle slope of West Bengal supports the development of transport and communication system, which in turn supports population concentration.

5. Ports: Kolkata and Haldia ports help in the economic development of the region, and hence attract the population.

6. Mineral resources: The availability of coal in Raniganj, China clay in Bankura, and Limestone in Jhalda, make West Bengal attractive for people to come and settle down.

7. Power resources: West Bengal is quite rich in power resources. The thermal power centres at Durgapur, Bandel and Kolaghat, and the Hydel power stations at Jaldhaka help in the development of industries and the betterment of livelihood. Recently, solar cells have been installed in the Sundarban region to generate electricity.

8. Industrialisation: The gentle terrain, the developed transport system, availability of mineral and power resources help in the process of industrialisation in West Bengal.

9. Migration: In-migration from the neighbouring country Bangladesh and other neighbouring states caused a great increase in the density of the population of West Bengal.

Rank State and Union Territory Population The density of the population (per sq. km) Sex ratio
1 Uttar Pradesh 199581477 828 908
2 Maharashtra 112372972 365 925
B. Bihar 103804637 1102 916
4 West Bengal 91.347.736 1029 947
5 Andhra Pradesh 84665533 308 992
6 Madhya Pradesh 72597565 236 930
7 Tamil Nadu 72138958 555 995
8 Rajasthan 68621012 201 926
9 Karnataka 61130704 319 968
10 Gujarat 60383628 308 918
11 Odisha 41947358 269 978
12 Kerala 33387677 859 1084
13 Jharkhand 32966238 414 947
14 Assam 31169272 397 954
15 Punjab 27704236 550 893
16 Haryana 25353081 573 877
17 Chhattisgarh 25540196 189 991
18 Jammu and Kashmir 12548926 124 883
19 Uttarakhand 10116752 189 963
20 Himachal Pradesh 6856509 123 974
21 Tripura 3671032 350 961
22 Meghalaya 2964007 132 986
23 Manipur 2721756 122 987
24 Nagaland 1980602 119 931
25 Goa 1457723 394 968
26 Arunachal Pradesh 1382611 17 920
27 Mizoram 1091014 52 975
28 Sikkim 607688 86 889
UT1 Delhi 16753235 11297 866
UT2 Puducherry 1244464 2598 1038
UT3 Chandigarh 1054686 9252 818
UT4 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 3,79,944 46 878
UT5 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 3,42,853 698 775
UT6 Daman and Diu 242911 2169 618
UT7 Lakshwadeep 64429 2013 946
Total India 1,210,193,422 382 940

 

Chapter 6 India- Economic Environment Short Answer Explanatory Type Questions

Question 1. What are the causes of the increase in the population of India? OR, Discuss the causes leading to the rapid increase of population in India.
Answer:

The population of India has increased rapidly over the last few decades.

The causes for this increase in population are—

1. High birth rate: The birth rate in India is very high. In 2011, the birth rate in India was 21.8 people per 1000 persons. Lack of education and consciousness, poverty, superstitions, religious beliefs, child marriage, etc., are responsible for this.

2. Low death rate: In the last few decades, death rates have minimised considerably due to major development in medical facilities and the general health of people.

Also, the development of transport and communication systems played a crucial role in this context. These facilitate in reaching the places affected by flood, drought or natural disasters as well as help in providing relief and rescuing the casualties. In 2011, the death rate in India was only 7.1 persons per 1000 persons.

3. Immigration: The rapid migration of refugees from neighbouring countries, especially after the partition of the country, has increased the total population of India rapidly all of a sudden.

4. Economic development: The increase in the production of agricultural and industrial goods over the last few decades helped to improve the economic conditions of the people. Thus total population has increased considerably.

5. Science and technology: Advancement in science and technology has made an overall improvement in the conditions of living. Moreover, forecast disasters and climatic hazards beforehand have made it possible to become alert and take necessary steps to save life and property. These also contribute to increasing the total population.

Question 2. Why does Himachal Pradesh lie in the category of a low population density zone?
Answer:

Himachal Pradesh is a state in India with a low population density. According to the 2011 Census, the total population of the state was only 68,56,509 people and the population density was only 123 persons per sq. km. The causes for the low density of the population in this state are listed below—

1. Rugged topography: The topography or landform of Himachal Pradesh is mostly rugged and hilly. This indicates a lack of availability of agricultural land and also a difficulty for people to build houses in the region.

2. Infertile soil: The land is rugged and hilly, and the soil is immature and not so fertile. This soil is not suitable for good agriculture.

3. Climate: The climate of Himachal Pradesh is generally cold, with chilling and harsh winters. This is not a suitable climate for the settlement of a large population.

4. Lack of raw materials for industries: Lack of mineral resources as raw materials for industries has left the place with very low growth of industries.

5. Lack of power resources: Lack of power resources has hindered the growth of mineral as well as agro-based industries.

6. Poor transport and communication system: Poor transport and communicat